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Future Research Directions in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Published in Am J Respir Crit Care Med Vol 165. pp 838 -844, 2002 Internet address: www.atsjournals.org. THOMAS L. CROXTON, GAIL G. WEINMANN, ROBERT M. SENIOR, and JOHN R. HOIDAL. Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Pulmonary and the essay Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri; and Department of Medicine, University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah. Between 3 and descriptive outline person 7 million Americans are currently diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the essay of distance learning the true prevalence is how to a college analysis, probably greater than 16 million (1). Many of these individuals suffer years of progressive discomfort and disability. With the the essay number of writing students deaths per year attributed to this disease at of distance learning approximately 100,000 and dissertation for construction increasing, COPD is now the fourth leading cause of death in this country (2) and of distance learning is expected to be third by the year 2020. Cigarette smoking is firmly established as the major cause of COPD, but approximately one-quarter of Americans continue to smoke, despite aggressive smoking prevention and cessation efforts.

Better means are clearly needed for the prevention and treatment of does COPD, and more scientific research is needed to enable improvements in its clinical management. Unfortunately, research progress in this field has been slow. Most basic scientific research over the past 35 years has focused on the essay of distance learning, the pathogenetic roles of essay outline person cigarette smoke, inflammation, and protease/antiprotease balance, based on the association of COPD with cigarette smoking and the early discovery that a subgroup of of distance learning patients with emphysema is genetically deficient in termites eat paper, an inhibitor of a neutrophil protease (3). Although the of distance cigarette-inflammation-protease theory captures key features of COPD epidemiology and pathology, this approach has not yet led to a reduction in COPD prevalence or morbidity, to the development of any therapy proven to modify the disease process itself, or to an adequate understanding of how risk factors other than cigarette smoking may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. However, there are encouraging indications for future COPD research. Data that support several novel concepts have been presented, there have been unanticipated discoveries, and new experimental approaches and techniques that are aptly suited to research paper, COPD research have been developed. Furthermore, elucidation of cellular pathways that are critically involved in COPD pathogenesis may lead rapidly to clinical trials of potential therapeutics, given the improving capabilities of the pharmaceutical industry for development of mechanism-specific drugs.

Because of the enormous public health burden imposed by COPD and the urgent need for research progress in this area, the the essay National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI, Bethesda, MD) convened a Working Group to discuss potential directions for future investigations. This group was charged with evaluating the current state of knowledge, identifying critical gaps in our knowledge, and understanding, recognizing the most promising opportunities, and help with science homework developing specific recommendations to be used by the NHLBI in the essay learning, planning its promotion of future COPD research. How To Write A College Analysis. This article is a summary of that Working Group meeting. Specific recommendations for future research directions in COPD follow a discussion of several intriguing clinical and epidemiological characteristics of COPD that must be accounted for in a more complete theory of learning disease pathogenesis and a review of research advances that may foreshadow important new areas of investigation. COPD is a collection of conditions, including emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis, which are characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is not substantially reversed by bronchodilators.

COPD is most commonly seen in long-term smokers and is usually associated with progressive decline in pulmonary function, more rapid than that associated with normal aging. A variety of injurious stimuli, including cigarette smoke, pancreatic elastase, bacterial lipopolysaccharides, cadmium, chloramine-T, oxidants, silica, and severe starvation, can induce changes in animal lungs that model aspects of human COPD (4). Because many seemingly unrelated pathways can cause emphysema or bronchitis, the relevance of any one model to human disease is uncertain. Conversely, no single theory of COPD is yet capable of encompassing the known correlates of the human disease. Hence, it is instructive to consider certain features of COPD that may not be consistent with a simple cigarette neutrophil protease theory. Airway inflammation and parenchymal inflammation are consistent findings in COPD, and the airways of smokers with airflow limitation contain greater numbers of inflammatory cells than do the airways of writing students smokers with normal FEV1 (5). Nonetheless, several observations suggest that the the essay of distance learning connection between COPD and airways inflammation is complex.

First, inflammation is observed in science, the lungs of smokers who do not meet clinical criteria for diagnosis of COPD. Of Distance. Second, inflammation persists long after smoking cessation (6). Women Research Paper. Third, there is the essay learning, overlap in the profiles of inflammatory cells and mediators expressed in COPD and in asthma (7). Paper. Fourth, inhaled corticosteroids do not prevent the progressive loss of lung function in subjects with COPD (8). Fifth, the increased numbers of infiltrating macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the essay of distance learning, the lungs of individuals with COPD are less than those observed in other inflammatory lung conditions that are not associated with the development of COPD. Furthermore, the geographical distribution of inflammatory cells is a college, not always concordant with the sites of lung tissue destruction. In many patients, the of distance expression of COPD is help with science homework, dominated by signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis with a common complaint of productive cough. The relationships between mucous hyper-secretion and pathogenetic mechanisms of emphysema and airways obstruction are poorly understood. Although early epidemiological studies of occupational cohorts failed to associate mucous hypersecretion with rapid progression of COPD, some more recent population-based studies have reported an association of learning chronic mucous hypersecretion with accelerated decline in FEV1 (9). Termites Eat Paper. The question of whether mucous metaplasia and mucous hypersecretion cause annoying but innocuous symptoms or are instead etiologically related to long-term worsening of COPD remains unanswered.

Acute Exacerbations and Bacterial Infections. The slow progression of COPD is typically punctuated by acute exacerbations characterized by increased dyspnea, cough, and mucous production often with a change in mucus color. Airway infections are involved in at the essay of distance learning least some cases but the cause of most exacerbations is not known. The possible role of martin essay contest pathogens or of the acute exacerbations themselves in progression of COPD remains uncertain. One suggestion is that cigarette smoking predisposes to bacterial colonization and that bacterial products then contribute to inflammation, activation of proteases, and alteration in the essay learning, subsequent host responses to inhaled toxicants (10). Despite striking differences between COPD and asthma, several facts demand continued consideration of the with science relationship between these diseases. Of Distance Learning. First, some patients with COPD show considerable, albeit partial, reversal of science homework airflow limitation with bronchodilators. Second, methacholine reactivity, a hallmark characteristic of the essay of distance asthma, is strongly associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 in individuals with COPD (11). Third, inflammatory cells and cytokines typical of allergic disease are increased in the airways of writing students patients with COPD and are associated with more severe disease (7, 12). Fourth, transgenic mice overexpressing mediators associated with asthma and the essay of distance learning allergic disease have shown characteristics of COPD such as airway neutrophilia and emphysema (13, 14). These observations suggest that certain pathogenetic processes may be common to asthma and COPD.

A basic question regarding pulmonary function in COPD remains unanswered: Why is a simple measure of airflow limitation such a useful index of severity and in islam paper prognosis across the full range of disease manifestations? Although it is well established that individuals with low FEV1 are more likely to show rapid decline in learning, pulmonary function and are more likely to for construction students, die from COPD (15, 16), the connection between specific disease mechanisms and impairment in pulmonary function remains unclear. In fact, neither CT quantification of emphysema nor pathological measures of airway structural abnormalities correlated well with FEV1 (17). The meaning of the essay of distance learning pulmonary function deficits in COPD is further obscured by does the fact that FEV1 (% predicted) is of distance learning, significantly associated with lung cancer mortality and cardiovascular mortality, as well as COPD mortality (16). Finally, although FEV1 is an essential measure in COPD research, its usefulness is limited by its inability to reveal regional variations in disease within the martin luther lungs or to distinguish between a wide range of pathophysiological processes, including smooth muscle hypertrophy, fibrosis, mucous metaplasia, inflammation, and loss of bronchiolar tethering with alveolar destruction. Variation in learning, Susceptibility to COPD and Disease Progression. Cigarette smoking is by far the most important causative factor for COPD; and in population studies the amount of smoking correlates with loss of lung function. Nonetheless, only help with science homework, a minority of smokers, widely quoted as 15%, ever develop symptomatic COPD (18). Several genetic and the essay learning environmental associations have been identified, but the greatest portion of writing individual variation in susceptibility cannot be attributed to of distance learning, known factors. Understanding why only certain smokers develop COPD is important not only for understanding the true mechanisms of disease development, but also because such knowledge might allow targeting of with intensive smoking interventions to individuals at highest risk and might enhance the effectiveness of those interventions.

Even among those with COPD, the rate of decline in of distance learning, FEV1 can vary from apparently normal values to greater than 150 ml/year, despite similar smoking histories and levels of initial FEV1 (19). Such striking variation in the rate of decline in FEV1 among individuals suggests that as yet unknown intrinsic or environmental factors may be important determinants of disease course. These factors may or may not be the women in islam research paper same as those determining susceptibility to disease. There is the essay, also remarkable unexplained variation in the manifestations of COPD with regard to the severity of bronchitic symptoms, the extent of emphysema, and the distribution of emphysematous changes in the lung (centrilobular vs. panlobular patterns). Other Lung Diseases Associated with Cigarette Smoking. Several interstitial lung disorders may be relevant to descriptive outline person, COPD pathogenesis because they typically occur in of distance learning, current or former smokers: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (including both usual interstitial pneumonitis and desquamative interstitial pneumonitis), respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary histiocytosis X (20). Although all of these conditions involve some form of lung inflammation, each presents a distinctive pattern of pathological findings, reversibility, responsiveness to corticosteroids, and prognosis. In Islam. A more complete understanding of cigarette smoke effects in the lungs should explain these varied diseases as well as COPD. NEW RESULTS, CONCEPTS, AND OPPORTUNITIES IN COPD RESEARCH. COPD researchers have presented a number of unexpected results, novel ideas, and promising approaches for further research. This section briefly describes some innovative concepts identified by the Working Group that may prove important in COPD pathogenesis and some more recent methodological advances that will likely be of the essay of distance learning value to research in this field.

Diversity of Protease Functions. In addition to degradation of dissertation for construction students elastic fibers and the essay of distance learning other components of the extracellular matrix, it is now appreciated that proteases have many other pathophysiological actions that may be relevant to luther king contest, COPD pathogenesis (21). Proteases act to the essay learning, facilitate antigen presentation, inactivate host-defensive surfactant protein A, stimulate serous and mucous secretions, liberate chemotaxins from the extracellular matrix, inhibit removal of apoptotic cells, induce and inactivate interleukin 8, and activate tumor necrosis factor and martin luther essay contest interleukin 1 beta. The Essay Of Distance Learning. Rational therapeutic agents may possibly be developed by clarification of which alpha protease actions are of importance in COPD, identification of which of the many proteases elaborated by dissertation students inflammatory and lung septal (endothelial, epithelial, smooth muscle, and the essay fibroblast) cells perform those actions, and design of small molecules with an appropriate spectrum of protease inhibitory activity. Cigarette smoking imposes severe oxidative stress on the lungs both directly, via reactive species in the smoke, and indirectly through activation of inflammatory cells. Oxidative stress may contribute to help with homework, COPD through many biological actions, including cellular injury, oxidation and of distance learning nitration of proteins, changes in gene expression, stimulation of mucous secretion, inactivation of antiproteases, expression of proinflammatory mediators, remodeling of blood vessels, and enhancement of apoptosis (22). How To A College. Markers of oxidative stress (e.g., hydrogen peroxide, 8-isoprostane, and lipid peroxides) are elevated in of distance, the breath or serum of subjects with COPD, and epidemiological studies have demonstrated negative associations of dietary antioxidant intake with pulmonary function and with obstructive airway disease (23). A plausible risk factor for women in islam research, the development of learning COPD is the eat paper presence of latent viral infection in the lung.

In a study of surgical specimens, a segment of the adenoviral genome was found in greater copy numbers in tissues from patients with airflow limitation than in tissues from control subjects. In a guinea pig model, latent adenoviral infection potentiated the inflammatory effects of cigarette smoke, and transfection of cells in vitro with adenoviral DNA was shown to activate nuclear factor B and potentiate corticosteroid-resistant production of interleukin 8 (24, 25). Chronic bronchitis is associated with hyperplasia of the essay of distance both epithelial goblet cells and submucosal glands in the airways. Mucous hypersecretion may also be induced by inflammation in does, the absence of substantial gland enlargement (26). Progress is being made in identifying the cellular pathways by which diverse stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, increase epithelial mucin secretion. The protein tyrosine kinase c-Src and the mitogenactivated protein kinase Erk 1/2 appear to be important in transducing signals initiated by components of cigarette smoke (27). Less is known about the regulation of submucosal glands, despite the the essay of distance learning fact that these are the source for most of the mucus in the airways (28). Emphysematous human lungs showed increased numbers of apoptotic alveolar endothelial and epithelial cells in comparison with control lungs (29). Although the dissertation for construction students cause and significance of this finding remain uncertain, there are several possible links between programmed cell death and mechanisms of COPD pathogenesis. First, excess protease activity could cause cellular apoptosis through loss of cell matrix attachments.

Second, the apoptotic rate regulates the lifetimes of various inflammatory cells; and learning cigarette smoke extracts induced apoptosis of alveolar macrophages in vitro (30). Third, neutrophil elastase can inactivate a phosphatidylserine receptor involved in cellular uptake and removal of apoptotic cells (31), possibly enhancing inflammation through diminished release of transforming growth factor beta or through the release of students inflammatory mediators from neutrophils that are not properly removed. Role of the essay Blood Vessels. Treatment of rats with a blocker of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) type 2 receptor caused emphysema that was associated with endothelial cell apoptosis and with markers of oxidant stress but was not accompanied by inflammation (32). The relevance of this process to martin king essay contest, COPD is supported by observations that oxidant stress decreases VEGF levels and that expression of both VEGF and of distance its receptor are decreased in emphysema (29). Emphysema might result from failure of a lung cellular and molecular maintenance program due to a vicious cycle of oxidant stress and homework protease activation. The Essay Of Distance. Little is known regarding chronic regulation of alveolar septal endothelial cells, but studies of larger pulmonary vessels indicate that endothelial injury can lead to increased elastase activity and degradation of extracellular matrix (33).

An attractive therapeutic goal would be reversal of emphysema by increasing the number of alveoli. One model for this process is the a college analysis septation of alveoli that occurs during late fetal and of distance postnatal development. Although it has generally been assumed that adult lungs lack a capability for alveolar plasticity, the emphysema caused by lung instillation of elastase in adult rats was reversed by treatment with all- trans retinoic acid (34). A feasibility study of in islam paper retinoic acid is underway in the essay of distance learning, subjects with COPD. There has been encouraging progress in descriptive essay person, the identification of chemical markers of COPD.

Subjects with stable COPD were shown to of distance, have elevated markers of descriptive outline oxidant stress in the essay of distance, exhaled air (35), of inflammation in serum and sputum (36, 37), and of elastin degradation in urine (38). These results suggest that multifaceted characterization of COPD patients may be possible by noninvasive means. Pulmonary function is influenced by write heredity (39, 40). The Essay. There is also familial aggregation of COPD, indicating probable heritability of risk factors for the disease (41). Precisely how genetic factors contribute to the risks of writing for construction students development and progression of COPD remains unknown, but there has been progress toward identification of relevant genes. Case control studies suggested associations between COPD and polymorphisms of the alpha1-antitrypsin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and surfactant protein B genes (19, 42, 43).

A genome-wide screen of families having a proband with severe, early-onset COPD identified interesting regions on several chromosomes that may yield linkages with phenotypes of airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis (44). Only modest progress has been made in characterizing the lung inflammation associated with COPD, particularly in comparison with the extensive profiling that has been performed in individuals with asthma. There are increased numbers of the essay learning CD8 + T cells in the airways and lung parenchyma of smoking subjects with COPD, and there is write a college analysis, a negative correlation between FEV1 (% predicted) and CD8+ T cell number (45). The large airways of smokers with severe COPD show increased numbers of neutrophils, macrophages, and of distance natural killer lymphocytes in comparison with smokers without clinically defined COPD; and in islam research each of these cell types is the essay of distance, negatively associated with FEV1 (5). Neutrophils tend to localize with the airway epithelium, but nodules of B lymphocytes are found in in islam, the submucosa and adventitia (46). Substantial progress in immunological research should provide a basis for detailed characterization of the inflammatory process in the essay of distance learning, COPD.

Airspace enlargement has been seen in numerous genetic mouse models, including both inbred strains (e.g., tight skin, pallid, and blotchy mice) and mice designed with constitutive overexpression of particular genes (e.g., collagenase or platelet-derived growth factor B). More recently, mouse models with inducible, lung-specific expression of particular cytokines have been shown to manifest lung abnormalities that are clearly not attributable to aberrant development of the lung. Overexpression of interleukin 11 in adult mice produced peribronchiolar lymphoid nodules similar to those observed in human COPD but did not cause emphysema (47). Overexpression in adult mice of either interferon, a major product of CD8+ lymphocytes, or interleukin 13, a mediator associated with CD4+ T cells and asthma, produced emphysema-like changes (14, 48). These models showed distinguishable profiles of increased protease expression and only interleukin 13 caused mucous metaplasia. Finally, a gene-targeting approach (loss of function) has proven useful for testing the termites contributions of various matrix metalloproteinases in the development of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in the essay, the mouse (4).

Developments in three techniques for lung imaging may allow more sensitive detection and better quantification of lung injury in smokers and patients with COPD. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) now provides images of airways as small as 2 mm and indices of parenchymal density that correlate well with diffusing capacity (49). How To Write Analysis Paper. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tracer gases in the lungs can demonstrate ventilation in real time (50) and may provide a measure of alveolar size (51). Positron emission tomography (PET) can potentially be used to quantify inflammatory cell activity in the lungs (52). These methods may prove to be of great value for characterization of the lung in COPD with respect to localization of disease (e.g., pattern of learning emphysema by CT), physiological sequelae (e.g., air trapping by MRI), and in vivo biochemical and cellular analyses (by PET).

Molecular Characterization of Diseased Tissues and Cells. The identification of most human genes paves the way for women research, characterization of diseased tissues at an unprecedented level of molecular detail. The expression levels of a multitude of genes in a tissue can be assayed with microarrays of gene-specific probes, whereas reverse transcription in histological sections can be used to show the distribution of expression of a particular gene at high spatial resolution. Development of antibody-based microarrays may allow characterization of the expression of multiple genes at the protein level. Of particular interest to COPD research, given the multiplicity of cell types in the lung, are methods such as laser capture microdissection for isolation of RNA from single cells (53) and techniques for reverse transcription and cDNA amplification in situ . Coupled with sensitive assays, these developing methods may allow gene expression profiling at the single-cell level (54). Immunoblot analysis of the essay a protein from a single cell may also be possible by help homework amplification of a double-stranded DNA label on the secondary antibody (55). Classes of pharmaceuticals of learning potential usefulness in COPD that are either available now or are anticipated in the near future include long-acting M3-selective muscarinic antagonists, leukotriene B4 inhibitors, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, thromboxane antagonists, endothelin antagonists, adenosine A2a agonists, antioxidants, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitors, adhesion molecule antagonists, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, interleukin 8 antagonists, tumor necrosis factor antagonists, neutrophil elastase inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, tachykinin antagonists, mucolytics, antiapoptotic compounds, and enhancers of mucociliary clearance. In Islam. Even when proof of principle is established, the the essay of distance ability of any of luther essay 2013 these agents to alter outcomes in COPD remains speculative because the the essay critical pathogenetic pathways for this disease have not yet been determined. An important limiting factor in development of martin luther essay contest drug treatments for COPD is the lack of of distance learning efficient and descriptive outline person economical means to identify which drugs are most likely to be of value and to test their clinical efficacy.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. There was consensus among members of the Working Group that the following objectives are important to COPD research and are feasible within approximately five years. It was noted that the accomplishment of learning these goals will require a substantial increase in termites, COPD research activity, with training and recruitment of additional researchers and enhanced cooperation between universities and the pharmaceutical industry. In many cases, the need has long been recognized, but the opportunity to accomplish the research has come about as a result of the development of learning new experimental tools and techniques. Description of the Disease Process. Characterization of human lung tissues by advanced molecular, biochemical, microbiological, and histopathological methods. Research progress in COPD is hampered by a lack of fundamental knowledge regarding the pathology of this disease, particularly with regard to small airways.

Changes with COPD in the structure, cellular composition, inflammatory status, and chemical milieu of the lung are poorly defined, as are the relationships of martin luther king essay contest these changes to clinical manifestations of the disease. There is a need for systematic comparison of lung structural, inflammatory, and biochemical characteristics with clinical history, status, and course. The Essay Of Distance. Characterization of lung tissues can now be performed with exquisite detail, using advanced methods of immunology, viral and microbial detection, molecular histopathology, microarray profiling of gene expression, and proteomic analysis. An appropriate source of tissues for women in islam research paper, such studies may be surgical specimens from individuals with suspected lung cancer, a population that is at substantial risk for COPD. An appropriate mechanism might be a cooperative research program that combines the efforts of academic and industrial researchers in characterization of a large number of subjects and in the establishment of a repository for DNA, tissues, other biological specimens, and clinical data. Biomarkers and intermediate end points. One limitation in the essay learning, COPD research is the research lack of readily measurable markers that correlate with disease severity or outcome. Long-term monitoring of declines in FEV1 has been used to identify risk factors and the essay of distance learning gauge the efficacy of putative therapies, but that approach is slow and how to write a college paper expensive. The Essay Learning. Biomarkers of COPD would be of how to write a college paper value for investigations of the natural history and epidemiology of of distance learning COPD, for women research paper, phenotyping in genetic studies, and for clarifying the the essay learning relationships of animal models to luther contest 2013, human disease.

Validated surrogate markers of COPD might also serve as intermediate end points for evaluations of efficacy and appropriate dosage of the essay of distance potential therapeutic agents in relatively short-term studies. Markers involving noninvasive methods would be of particular value. Writing For Construction Students. A wide range of possible approaches exists, including ( 1 ) chemicals in breath, sputum, blood, or urine that reflect lung inflammation or injury; ( 2 ) improved noninvasive mechanical tests of lung function; ( 3 ) proteomic and gene expression profiling; and ( 4 ) lung imaging by CT, MRI, or PET. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of well characterized smokers with and without COPD are needed to evaluate the correlation of a broad array of putative markers with COPD susceptibility, severity, exacerbation, and progression. Inflammation. Despite the failure of the essay inhaled corticosteroids to slow the decline of FEV1 in COPD (8), other anti-inflammatory agents might be highly effective.

Studies are needed to better characterize the writing for construction students inflammation of COPD, to define what is appropriate immune function in the lung, and to discover pharmacological means for ensuring beneficial, rather than injurious, contributions of lung inflammatory cells. Three lines of investigation may be involved. First, extensive characterization of the inflammatory status of smokers with and without COPD is needed to define the subtypes of learning inflammatory cells present, the movement and fate of immune cells recruited to martin luther king contest 2013, the lung, and the particular cytokines involved. Second, genetic factors governing immune responsiveness should be identified and tested as possible determinants of susceptibility to lung injury. Third, in vitro systems and animal models should be utilized to the essay of distance learning, investigate the effects of tobacco smoke components on inflammatory cells and to study inflammatory cell trafficking and mechanisms of luther essay contest 2013 sustained inflammation.

Genetic risk factors. A knowledge of genetic determinants of of distance COPD could lead to recognition of biochemical pathways that contribute to writing students, the disease and allow targeting of public health interventions to individuals at greatest risk. Of Distance Learning. A program for identification of genes related to COPD should consider several issues: First, simultaneous characterization of multiple phenotypes will be necessary because different genes may be related to different aspects of the disease (e.g., susceptibility, severity, propensity to exacerbation, rate of outline progression, and chronic bronchitis vs. emphysema). Second, family-based studies involving genome-wide screening by learning linkage analysis of affected sibling pairs or extended pedigrees should be used because there is a high probability that unsuspected genes are involved. Families in isolated populations, rather than outbred populations like the general U.S. population, may be studied more efficiently. Third, animal models are an essential component of a human genetics program because they can be used to identify candidate genes and to write a college analysis paper, study the pathophysiological ramifications of a defined genotype.

Fourth, case-control association studies of particular candidate genes will eventually be needed to test the relevance of results obtained in particular families to of distance, the disease in the general population. Selection criteria for candidate genes should include probable biological relevance to known pathophysiology, evidence of involvement with disease in women paper, animal models, and data from human studies for gene linkage with COPD. Fifth, although not ideal for of distance learning, genetic studies, clinical trials involving large numbers of well-characterized subjects with COPD should obtain and archive DNA samples whenever possible to allow for later analysis of termites eat paper candidate genes. Causes and consequences of of distance learning exacerbations. Although disease exacerbations are a major concern of both patients with COPD and their physicians, an understanding of the origins and luther 2013 development of the essay learning these episodes is lacking. There is a need for research directed toward identifying the bases of COPD exacerbations and clarifying the pathophysiological processes that contribute to worsening of symptoms.

Of particular interest are the roles of infectious agents, other environmental insults, and immune responsiveness in exacerbations and the relationships between exacerbations and the underlying disease process. Mucous metaplasia and excess mucous secretion. Writing Students. Mucous production is troublesome to many patients with COPD, yet little is known regarding the mechanisms of mucous hypersecretion, the learning benefits and risks associated with increased mucous production, or the does termites means whereby mucin secretion, mucus composition, and mucociliary clearance might be therapeutically regulated. Research is needed to expand our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of mucous metaplasia and excess mucous production. Studies of the submucosal glands of small airways are especially needed because these glands are probably of of distance learning most importance in COPD and have attracted relatively little research interest. Animal models. Eat Paper. The development of new animal models of COPD is important for hypothesis testing regarding pathogenetic mechanisms of COPD. Topics of special interest include the biochemical basis of lung growth, damage, and learning repair; the necessity and sufficiency of specific inflammatory and mucous pathways for the development of small airways disease; and the reversibility of lung damage.

Efforts should be made to termites eat paper, correlate pulmonary physiological abnormalities, radiographic images, proteomic profiles, and small airway pathology in these animal models. Lung development and alveolar regeneration. Stimulation of alveolar regeneration is an exciting possibility for disease-modifying therapy of of distance COPD. With Science Homework. Fundamental advances in this area are likely to derive from animal studies of alveolar development in the late fetal and the essay postnatal periods. Such research might include gene expression and how to a college paper proteomic analyses of the developing lung, studies of the regulation of of distance expression of relevant genes, studies of the coordination of vascularization and lung development and repair, use of transgenic mice to women in islam, evaluate the role of specific growth factors in the lung, and investigations of the learning mechanisms whereby toxins (e.g., in utero nicotine) impair lung growth. In addition, studies of alveolar regeneration in adults of luther essay 2013 multiple species are needed to deter-mine the capacity of mature lungs for alveolar regrowth and the conditions under which alveolar regeneration can occur. Clinical studies.

Although not extensively discussed, Working Group participants recommended controlled studies to learning, validate or revise current clinical practices. Potential areas for such research include, but are not limited to, indications for long-term oxygen therapy, management of sleep disturbance in termites, COPD, alleviation of nocturnal hypoxemia, prevention and the essay of distance treatment of does termites exacerbations, and better tools for the essay, disease monitoring. Acknowledgment : Participants: Chair John R. Hoidal, M.D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Session Chairs David M. Center, M.D. (Boston, MA), Donald J. Massaro, M.D. (Washington, DC), Robert M. Senior, M.D. Martin Luther King Essay 2013. (St. The Essay Of Distance Learning. Louis, MO), Steven D. Shapiro, M.D. (St. Louis, MO), and Edwin K. Silverman, M.D. (Boston, MA); and Carol B. With Homework. Basbaum, Ph.D. (San Francisco, CA), Linda B. The Essay Learning. Clerch, Ph.D. (Washington, DC), Thomas L. Croxton, Ph.D., M.D. (Bethesda, MD), Francis M. Cuss, M.D. Descriptive Essay Outline Person. (Kenilworth, NJ), James Eberwine, Ph.D. (Philadelphia, PA), Dorothy B. The Essay Of Distance. Gail, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Jack A. Elias, M.D. (New Haven, CT), Michael D. Goldman, M.D., Sc.D. Help With Science. (Los Angeles, CA), Douglas Hay, Ph.D. (King of Prussia, PA), Peter M. Henson, Ph.D. Learning. (Denver, CO), Jonathan Jaffe, M.D. (Kenilworth, NJ), James P. Kiley, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Talmadge E. King, M.D. (San Francisco, CA), Barbara Knorr, M.D. Martin Essay Contest 2013. (Rahway, NJ), Claude Lenfant, M.D. Learning. (Bethesda, MD), Gloria D. Does Termites. Massaro, M.D. (Washington, DC), George T. O'Connor, M.D. (Boston, MA), Marlene Rabinovitch, M.D. (Toronto, Canada), Sri Ram, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Garth Rapaport, M.B.Bch., MRCP, FFPM (Greenford, Middlesex, UK), Anuradha Ray, Ph.D. (New Haven, CT), Stephen I. Rennard, M.D. (Omaha, NE), James R. The Essay. Snapper, M.D. (Research Triangle Park, NC), Rubin M. Tuder, M.D. (Baltimore, MD), Norbert F. Voelkel, M.D. (Denver, CO), Gail G. Write A College Analysis. Weinmann, M.D. (Bethesda, MD), Scott T. Weiss, M.D., M.S. The Essay Learning. (Boston, MA), Robert A. Wise, M.D. (Baltimore, MD), Theodore J. Witek, Jr., Dr.P.H. (Ridgefield, CT). 1. Stang P, Lydick E, Silberman C, Kempel A, Keating ET.

The prevalence of COPD: using smoking rates to estimate disease frequency in the general population. Martin Luther Essay 2013. Chest 2000;117:354S -359S. 2. Murphy SL. Deaths: Final data for 1998. In: National vital statistics reports. Volume 48, no. The Essay Of Distance. 11. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics; 2000. 3. Eriksson S. A 30-year perspective on with homework, alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Chest 1996;110:237S -242S.

4. Shapiro SD. Animal models for COPD. Chest 2000;117:223S -227S. 5. Di Stefano A, Capelli A, Lusuardi M, Balbo P, Vecchio C, Maestrelli P, Mapp CE, Fabbri LM, Donner CF, Saetta M. Of Distance. Severity of airflow limitation is associated with severity of airway inflammation in smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:1277 -1285. 6. For Construction Students. Rutgers SR, Postma DS, ten Hacken NHT, Kauffman HF, van der Mark TW, Koeter GH, Timens W. The Essay Learning. Ongoing airway inflammation in patients with COPD who do not currently smoke. Thorax 2000;55:12 -18. 7. Jeffery PK. Lymphocytes, chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In: Chadwick D and in islam paper Goode JA, editors.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: pathogenesis to treatment. Novartis Foundation symposium 234. New York: John Wiley Sons; 2001, p. 149 -161. 8. Lung Health Study Research Group. Effect of inhaled triamcinolone on the decline in pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Of Distance. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1902 -1909. 9. Vestbo J, Prescott E, Lange P. Association of chronic mucus hypersecretion with FEV1 decline and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morbidity. Copenhagen City Heart Study Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:1530 -1535.

10. Sethi S. Bacterial infection and the pathogenesis of COPD. Chest 2000;117:286S -291S. 11. Research Paper. Tashkin DP, Altose MD, Connett JE, Kanner RE, Lee WW, Wise RA. Of Distance Learning. Methacholine reactivity predicts changes in lung function over time in smokers with early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Does Termites. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:1802 -1811. 12. Balzano G, Stefanelli F, Iorio C, de Felice A, Melillo EM, Martucci M, Melillo G. Eosinophilic inflammation in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:1486 -1492. 13.

Pan Z-Z, Parkyn L, Ray A, Ray P. Inducible lung-specific expression of RANTES: preferential recruitment of neutrophils. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2000;279:L658 -L666. 14. Zheng T, Zhu Z, Wang Z, Homer RJ, Ma B, Riese RJ Jr, Chapman HA Jr, Shapiro SD, Elias JA. Inducible targeting of IL-13 to the adult lung causes matrix metalloproteinase- and cathepsin-dependent emphysema. J Clin Invest 2000;106:1081 -1093.

15. Scanlon PD, Connett JE, Waller LA, Altose MD, Bailey WC, Buist AS, Tashkin DP. Smoking cessation and lung function in mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:381 -390. 16. Hole DJ, Watt GCM, Davey-Smith G, Hart CL, Gillis CR, Hawthorne VM. Impaired lung function and mortality risk in men and women: findings from the Renfrew and Paisley prospective population study. Br Med J 1996;313:711 -715.

17. Gelb AF, Hogg JC, Muller NL, Schein MJ, Kuei J, Tashkin DP, Epstein JD, Kollin J, Green RH, Zamel N, et al. Contribution of emphysema and small airways to COPD. Chest 1996;109:353 -359. 18. Fletcher C, Peto R, Tinker C, Speizer FE. The natural history of the essay of distance chronic bronchitis and emphysema: an eight-year study of early chronic obstructive lung disease in for construction, working men in London. The Essay Of Distance Learning. New York: Oxford University Press; 1976.

19. Sandford AJ, Chagani T, Weir TD, Connett JE, Anthonisen NR, Pare PD. Susceptibility genes for rapid decline of lung function in the Lung Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:469 -473. 20. Nagai S, Hoshino Y, Hayashi M, Ito I. Martin King Essay Contest 2013. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. Of Distance Learning. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2000;6:415 -419. 21. Chapman HA, Shi G-P. Does Termites Eat Paper. Protease injury in the development of COPD. Chest 2000;117:295S -298S.

22. Of Distance. MacNee W. Oxidant/antioxidants and COPD. Chest 2000;117:303S -317S. 23. Martin King Essay. Sargeant LA, Jaeckel A, Wareham NJ. The Essay Learning. Interaction of vitamin C with the relation between smoking and obstructive airways disease in EPIC Norfolk, European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition.

Eur Respir J 2000;16:397 -403. 24. Termites. Retamales I, Elliot WM, Meshi B, Coxson HO, Pare PD, Sciurba FC, Rogers RM, Hayashi S, Hogg JC. Amplification of inflammation in emphysema and its association with latent adenoviral infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:469 -473. 25. Yamada K, Elliot WM, Hayashi S, Brattsand R, Roberts C, Vitalis TZ, Hogg JC.

Latent adenoviral infection modifies the steroid response in learning, allergic lung inflammation. Help Science Homework. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:844 -851. 26. Saetta M, Turato G, Facchini FM, Corbino L, Lucchini RE, Casoni G, Maestrelli P, Mapp CE, Ciaccia A, Fabbri LM. The Essay Of Distance Learning. Inflammatory cells in the bronchial glands of smokers with chronic bronchitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;157:1633 -1639. 27. Basbaum C, Lemjabbar H, Longphre M, Li D, Gensch E, McNamara N. Control of mucin transcription by diverse injury-induced signaling pathways. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:S44 -S48. 28. Reid L. Measurement of the write paper bronchial mucous gland layer: a diagnostic yardstick in chronic bronchitis.

Thorax 1960;15:132 -141. 29. Kasahara Y, Tuder RM, Cool CD, Lynch DA, Flores SC, Voelkel NF. Endothelial cell death and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in emphysema. The Essay Of Distance Learning. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:737 -744. 30. Aoshiba K, Yasui S, Nagai A. Apoptosis of alveolar macrophages by writing students cigarette smoke. Of Distance Learning. Chest 2000;117:320S. 31.

Fadok VA, Bratton DL, Rose DM, Pearson A, Ezekewitz RAB, Hen-son PM. A receptor for phosphatidylserine-specific clearance of apoptotic cells. Nature 2000;405:85 -90. 32. Kasahara Y, Tuder RM, Taraseviciene-Stewart L, Le Cras TD, Abman S, Hirth PK, Waltenberger J, Voelkel NF. Inhibition of VEGF receptors causes lung cell apoptosis and emphysema. J Clin Invest 2000; 106:1311 -1319. 33. Zaidi SHE, You X-M, Ciura S, O'Blenes S, Husain M, Rabinovitch M. Suppressed smooth muscle proliferation and inflammatory cell invasion after arterial injury in elafin-overexpressing mice. J Clin Invest 2000;105:1687 -1695. 34.

Massaro GD, Massaro D. Retinoic acid treatment abrogates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in descriptive essay outline, rats. The Essay Of Distance Learning. Nat Med 1997;3:675 -677. 35. Montuschi P, Collins JV, Ciabattoni G, Lazzeru N, Corradi M, Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ. Exhaled 8-isoprostane as an in vivo biomarker of lung oxidative stress in patients with COPD and healthy smokers. In Islam Research. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:1175 -1177.

36. Of Distance. Fiorini G, Crespi S, Rinaldi M, Oberti E, Vigorelli R, Palmieri G. Serum ECP and MPO are increased during exacerbations of chronic bronchitis with airway obstruction. Biomed Pharmacother 2000;54:274 -278. 37. Keatings VM, Barnes PJ. Granulocyte activation markers in induced sputum: comparison between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and normal subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:449 -453. 38. Viglio S, Iadarola P, Lupi A, Trisolini R, Tinelli C, Balbi B, Grassi V, Worlitzsch D, Doring G, Meloni F, et al. MEKC of desmosine and isodesmosine in urine of with science homework chronic destructive lung disease patients.

Eur Respir J 2000;15:1039 -1045. 39. Redline S, Tishler PV, Rosner B, Lewitter FI, Vandenburgh M, Weiss ST, Speizer FE. The Essay Learning. Genotypic and does termites phenotypic similarities in pulmonary function among family members of adult monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Am J Epidemiol 1989;129:827 -836. 40. Givelber RJ, Couropmitree NN, Gottlieb DJ, Evans JC, Levy D, Myers RH, O'Connor GT. Segregation analysis of the essay of distance learning pulmonary function among families in help with homework, the Framingham Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:1445 -1451.

41. Silverman EK, Chapman HA, Drazen JM, Weiss ST, Rosner B, Campbell EJ, O'Donnell WJ, Reilly JJ, Ginns S, Mentzer S, et al. Genetic epidemiology of severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:1770 -1778. 42. Keatings VM, Cave SJ, Henry MJ, Morgan K, O'Connor CM, FitzGerald MX, Kalsheker N. A polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region may predispose to a poor prognosis in COPD. Chest 2000;118:971 -975. 43. Guo X, Lin H-M, Lin Z, Montano M, Sansores R, Wang G, DiAngelo S, Pardo A, Selman M, Floros J. Polymorphisms of surfactant protein gene A, B, D, and of SP-B-linked microsatellite markers in COPD of a Mexican population.

Chest 2000;117:249S -250S. 44. Silverman EK, Mosley JD, Chapman HA, Drazen JM, Speizer FE, Campbell EJ, Reilly JJ, Ginns LC, Weiss ST. Genome screen linkage analysis of severe, early-onset COPD. Learning. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:A909. 45. Saetta M, Baraldo S, Corbino L, Turato G, Braccioni F, Rea F, Cavallesco G, Tropeano G, Mapp CE, Maestrelli P, et al. CD8+ve cells in the lungs of smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:711 -717. 46. Bosken CH, Hards J, Gatter K, Hogg JC. Characterization of the inflammatory reaction in the peripheral airways of cigarette smokers using immunocytochemistry. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145:911 -917.

47. Kuhn C III, Homer RJ, Zhu Z, Ward N, Flavell RA, Geba GP, Elias JA. Airway hyperresponsiveness and airway obstruction in trans-genic mice: morphologic correlates in mice overexpressing interleukin (IL)-11 and IL-6 in the lung. How To Write A College Paper. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2000; 22:289 -295. 48. Wang Z, Zheng T, Zhu Z, Homer RJ, Riese RJ, Chapman HA Jr, Shapiro SD, Elias JA. Interferon gamma induction of pulmonary emphysema in the essay, the adult murine lung. J Exp Med 2000;192:1587 -1599. 49.

Nakano Y, Muro S, Sakai H, Hirai T, Chin K, Tsukino M, Nishimura K, Itoh H, Pare PD, Hogg JC, Mishima M. Computed tomographic measurements of airway dimensions and help emphysema in smokers: correlation with lung function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:1102 -1108. 50. de Lange EE, Mugler JP III, Brookeman JR, Knight-Scott J, Truwit JD, Teates CD, Daniel TM, Bogorad PL, Cates GD. Lung air spaces: MR imaging evaluation with hyperpolarized 3 He gas. Radiology 1999;210:851. 51. Chen XJ, Hedlund LW, Moller HE, Chawla MS, Maronpot RR, Johnson GA.

Detection of of distance emphysema in rat lungs by using magnetic resonance measurements of 3 He diffusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97:11478 -11481. 52. Jones HA, Shakur BH, Morrell NW. In vivo measurement of inflammatory cell activity in the lungs of science patients with COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:A436.

53. Betsuyaku T, Griffin GL, Watson MA, Senior RM. Laser capture micro-dissection and real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction of bronchiolar epithelium after bleomycin. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2001;25:278 -284. 54. The Essay Learning. Ginsberg SD, Hemby SE, Lee VM, Eberwine JH, Trojanowski JQ. Women In Islam Research Paper. Expression profile of transcripts in Alzheimer's disease tangle-bearing CA1 neurons. Ann Neurol 2000;48:77 -87. 55. Zhang H-T, Kacharmina JA, Miyashiro K, Greene MI, Eberwine J. The Essay. Protein quantification from descriptive person, complex protein mixtures using a proteomics methodology with single-cell resolution. The Essay Of Distance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:497 -502.

( Received in original form August 8, 2001; accepted in final form November 26, 2001 ) Sponsored by termites the Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on March 5-6, 2001 in the essay, Bethesda, Maryland.

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act essay scale This action will open a new window. Do you want to the essay learning, proceed? Welcome to our new website! Let us know what you think! Feedback. How To? Taking the ACT with writing will provide you and of distance the schools to which you have ACT report scores with additional scores. You will receive a total of five scores for this test: a single subject-level writing score reported on a range of 2-12, and four domain scores, also 2-12, that are based on luther king an analytic scoring rubric. The subject-level score will be the rounded average of the four domain scores. The four domain scores are: Ideas and Analysis, Development and Support, Organization, and Language Use and Conventions . An image of your essay will be available to your high school and the colleges to which you have ACT report your scores from that test date. The Essay Of Distance? Taking the writing test does not affect your subject area scores or your Composite score.

However, without a writing test score, no English Language Arts (ELA) score will be reported. Your essay will be evaluated based on the evidence that it provides of your ability to: clearly state your own perspective on in islam research the issue and analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Two trained readers will score your essay on a scale of 1-6 in each of the four writing domains. Each domain score represents the sum of the two readers' scores. If the readers' ratings disagree by the essay of distance, more than one point, a third reader will evaluate the essay and resolve the martin 2013, discrepancy. You might be a little unsure of learning what to expect from a writing prompt and descriptive essay outline person what kinds of responses score the highest. We took the guesswork out of it and created one sample prompt and six possible responses, ranging from weak to of distance learning, strong, that give you an idea of how to achieve your best score.

Remember that your scores for the four individual domains - ideas and analysis, development and support, organization, and language use and descriptive essay person conventions - will be communicated on learning a scale of help with 212. These domain scores are derived by adding together the individual scores, on a 16 scale, from each of two readers. Scoring your writing test. This analytic scoring rubric presents the standards by which your essay will be evaluated. The following rubric overview will help you to better understand the dimensions of writing that this assessment evaluates. This task asks you to generate an essay that establishes your own perspective on a given issue and analyzes the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective. In evaluating your response, trained readers will use an analytic rubric that breaks the central elements of written argument into four domains: Ideas and Analysis, Development and Support, Organization, and learning Language Use and Conventions.

As you review these domains, think about the help with homework, role each plays in a written argument that accomplishes its purpose. Ideas and Analysis Scores in the essay of distance, this domain reflect the ability to generate productive ideas and women research engage critically with multiple perspectives on the given issue. Competent writers understand the issue they are invited to address, the purpose for writing, and of distance learning the audience. They generate ideas that are relevant to the situation. Development and Support Scores in this domain reflect the paper, ability to discuss ideas, offer rationale, and bolster an argument. Competent writers explain and explore their ideas, discuss implications, and illustrate through examples. They help the learning, reader understand their thinking about the issue. Organization Scores in this domain reflect the ability to organize ideas with clarity and purpose. Organizational choices are integral to how to write a college analysis, effective writing. Competent writers arrange their essay in a way that clearly shows the relationship between ideas, and they guide the reader through their discussion.

Language Use and Conventions Scores in this domain reflect the ability to use written language to convey arguments with clarity. Competent writers make use of the conventions of grammar, syntax, word usage, and mechanics. They are also aware of their audience and adjust the style and tone of their writing to communicate effectively. Learn more about how the learning, writing test is scored. Compare ACT writing scores from 2015-2016 and 2016-2017. Scoring Rubric Prior to September 2015: Overview. These are the descriptions of scoring criteria that the trained readers will follow to determine the score (16) for your essay. Papers at each level exhibit all or most of the characteristics described at each score point. Essays within this score range demonstrate effective skill in responding to the task. The essay shows a clear understanding of the task.

The essay takes a position on the issue and how to analysis may offer a critical context for discussion. The essay addresses complexity by examining different perspectives on the issue, or by learning, evaluating the implications and/or complications of the issue, or by fully responding to counterarguments to the writer's position. Development of ideas is ample, specific, and logical. Most ideas are fully elaborated. A clear focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained. The organization of the essay is clear: the organization may be somewhat predictable or it may grow from the writer's purpose.

Ideas are logically sequenced. Most transitions reflect the writer's logic and write are usually integrated into the essay. The introduction and conclusion are effective, clear, and well developed. The essay shows a good command of language. Sentences are varied and the essay learning word choice is varied and precise. There are few, if any, errors to distract the reader. Essays within this score range demonstrate competent skill in responding to does termites, the task.

The essay shows a clear understanding of the task. The essay takes a position on the issue and may offer a broad context for discussion. The essay shows recognition of of distance learning complexity by partially evaluating the implications and/or complications of the issue, or by responding to research paper, counterarguments to the writer's position. Of Distance Learning? Development of ideas is specific and logical. Most ideas are elaborated, with clear movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Focus on how to write a college the specific issue in the prompt is maintained.

The organization of the essay is the essay of distance, clear, although it may be predictable. Descriptive Essay Person? Ideas are logically sequenced, although simple and obvious transitions may be used. The introduction and conclusion are clear and generally well developed. Language is competent. Sentences are somewhat varied and word choice is sometimes varied and precise. The Essay Learning? There may be a few errors, but they are rarely distracting. Essays within this score range demonstrate adequate skill in responding to the task. The essay shows an understanding of the task. How To Write A College Paper? The essay takes a position on the issue and may offer some context for the essay of distance learning, discussion. The essay may show some recognition of complexity by providing some response to counterarguments to the writer's position.

Development of ideas is adequate, with some movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained throughout most of the essay. Help With Science Homework? The organization of the essay is apparent but predictable. Some evidence of logical sequencing of ideas is learning, apparent, although most transitions are simple and obvious. Eat Paper? The introduction and conclusion are clear and somewhat developed. Language is adequate, with some sentence variety and appropriate word choice. There may be some distracting errors, but they do not impede understanding.

Essays within this score range demonstrate some developing skill in responding to the task. The essay shows some understanding of the task. The essay takes a position on the issue but does not offer a context for the essay of distance, discussion. Does Termites Eat Paper? The essay may acknowledge a counterargument to of distance learning, the writer's position, but its development is brief or unclear. Development of ideas is martin luther essay, limited and may be repetitious, with little, if any, movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Focus on of distance the general topic is maintained, but focus on essay outline the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained.

The organization of the essay is simple. Ideas are logically grouped within parts of the essay, but there is the essay of distance learning, little or no evidence of logical sequencing of ideas. Transitions, if used, are simple and obvious. An introduction and person conclusion are clearly discernible but underdeveloped. Language shows a basic control.

Sentences show a little variety and word choice is appropriate. Errors may be distracting and may occasionally impede understanding. Essays within this score range demonstrate inconsistent or weak skill in responding to the task. The essay shows a weak understanding of the task. The essay may not take a position on the issue, or the essay may take a position but fail to convey reasons to support that position, or the essay may take a position but fail to maintain a stance. There is the essay of distance learning, little or no recognition of a counterargument to the writer's position. The essay is thinly developed. If examples are given, they are general and outline may not be clearly relevant.

The essay may include extensive repetition of the writer's ideas or of of distance learning ideas in the prompt. Focus on the general topic is maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. Does? There is some indication of an organizational structure, and some logical grouping of ideas within parts of the essay is apparent. The Essay Of Distance Learning? Transitions, if used, are simple and obvious, and they may be inappropriate or misleading. An introduction and conclusion are discernible but minimal. How To Analysis Paper? Sentence structure and word choice are usually simple. Errors may be frequently distracting and the essay of distance may sometimes impede understanding. Essays within this score range show little or no skill in responding to the task. The essay shows little or no understanding of the task.

If the essay takes a position, it fails to king contest, convey reasons to support that position. The essay is minimally developed. The essay may include excessive repetition of the writer's ideas or of learning ideas in the prompt. Focus on the general topic is usually maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. There is little or no evidence of an organizational structure or of the logical grouping of essay outline ideas.

Transitions are rarely used. If present, an introduction and conclusion are minimal. Sentence structure and word choice are simple. The Essay Learning? Errors may be frequently distracting and may significantly impede understanding. Blank, Off-Topic, Illegible, Not in English, or Void.

Calculating Your Combined English/Writing Score Prior to women, September 2015. Complete these steps to calculate your Combined English/Writing score: Find your scale score for the English Test down the far-left column. Find your Writing subscore across the top row of the table. Follow the English Test score row across and the Writing subscore column down until the row and column meet. The Combined English/Writing score is found where the row and column meet. For example, if an English Test score is 19 and a Writing subscore is 8, the Combined English/Writing scale score is 20. The Essay Of Distance Learning? Enhancements to the ACT Writing Test. In September 2015, ACT introduced a number of enhancements to essay outline person, the ACT writing test. Key differences between the former and current designs are outlined below.

Many elements of the writing prompts remain the same. For example, the test is still an exercise in argumentative writing, and it continues to measure core competencies that are linked to college and career success. Modifications to the writing prompt will build on the former design in a few important ways: (Through the June 2015 Test Event) (September 2015 Test Events and after) Scoring and reporting for the ACT writing test have also been updated. Instead of the essay one holistic score, students now receive four domain scores, each reflecting a key dimension of writing competency. They also receive a subject-level Writing Score. Descriptive Outline? (Through the the essay learning, June 2015 Test Event) (September 2015 Test Events and after) *Students who took the writing test between September 2015 and with science June 2016 received a subject-level Writing score reported on a 1-36 scale.

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Multikulturelisme, identitet, integration og migration. Multikulturelisme, identitet, integration og migration. kulturpluralisme , samfundsvidenskabeligt begreb, der udtrykker det forhold, at nationalstater ofte bestar af flere folkeslag eller etniske grupper. Problem statement: The purpose of the the essay of distance learning project is to descriptive essay person, get the the essay of distance learning deeper meaning on the immigration conditions in the past and today. Descriptive Outline? Furthermore it is to of distance, find out which conflicts there can occur in does termites multicultural societies. Approach: To approach the problem I firstly searched information online and in relevant literature to get some different aspects of the of distance learning subject. Essay Person? I searched for of distance learning, literature and eat paper, theories, which is related to the essay, the subject. Essay Outline Person? Secondly, I analyzed and interpreted the the essay of distance literature by using the different theories and methods. Furthermore, I analyzed and interpreted the essay person essay A Ride on the New York Subway by the essay of distance Vivian Gornick which deals with integration, identity migration, etc. To set things into perspective, I relate it to martin luther essay contest, some current issues. Results: Many of the the essay learning different theories match well into outline person the essay “A Ride on of distance learning, the New York Subway”.

Vivian Gornick has a past in descriptive outline person which she was a Jew and of distance, therefore she writes about writing dissertation Jews, immigration problems and learning, so on. The essay deals with a lot of in islam paper themes like: identity, multiculturalism, integration, immigration, etc. Conclusion: I conclude that to be a migrant is hard. The Essay? Some times you have all the essay outline person odds against you. Especially if the the essay of distance society you are coming to, is martin, not ready for you. Of Distance Learning? It can be hard and difficult and for termites, those who have troubles with migration, they often become very badly integrated. Der onskes en redegorelse for de sociale og personlige konflikter, der kan opsta i et multikulturelt samfund. Herunder skal der redegores for the essay, bade de sociale konflikter mellem de forskellige etniske grupper og for de identitetskonflikter, som individet kan gennemga. Der onskes en analyse og fortolkning af Vivian Gornicks “A Ride on martin luther essay contest 2013, the New York Subway” med fokus pa, hvordan teksten behandler temaerne immigration, integration og identitet. I analysen og fortolkningen skal relevante samfundsfaglige teorier inddrages. Endvidere onskes der en kort perspektivering af tekstens problemstillinger til den aktuelle debat om etniske minoriteter i USA og/eller Danmark.

Multikulturalisme skal ses som en del af den globaliserede verden. Jo nemmere mennesker kan bev?ge sig rundt i verden, jo flere mennesker v?lger at of distance, sla sig ned i andre samfund end deres oprindelige. I multikulturelle samfund kan der opsta bade meget innovation, men ogsa mange problemer. Students? Der lever mennesker med deres forskellige tilhorsforhold til religion, traditioner, normer, sprog m.m. Der kan komme problemer med fattige overfor arbejderklassen og arbejderklassen overfor overklassen. Of Distance? Forskellige nationaliteter skal ogsa dele samfundet. Alle har hver deres baggrund, hver deres historie, det betyder, at de agerer forskelligt i et samfund. Eat Paper? Alle kulturelle f?llesskaber er forskellige. The Essay Of Distance Learning? Forskellighed skaber konflikt. Luther King Essay? Konflikterne kan v?re store og sma, de kan v?re socialt relaterede og/eller personlige, de kan bade skabe udvikling og ubehagelige konfrontationer. The Essay Learning? Hvis man kigger n?rmere pa et multikulturelt samfund, som New York (NY), vil man opdage forskellige identiteter, baggrunde og livshistorier.

I opgaven vil jeg ga i dybden med de konflikter der kan opsta i et multikulturelt samfund, bl.a. Luther? i mellem de forskellige etniske grupper og de identitetskonflikter der opstar hos den enkelte. Jeg vil inddrage samfunds- samt engelskfaglige teorier og tekster. De forskellige etniske og sociale gruppers adf?rd i et multikulturelt samfund vil blive analyseret, og ud fra det vil jeg danne et billede af de forhold og konflikter der kan v?re i byer, som NY. Ligeledes vil der v?re en dybere analyse af essayet “A Ride on the New York Subway” af Vivian Gornicks. Det stilles op overfor andet engelsk faglige litteratur, for at udvide forstaelsen af problemstillingen. The Essay Learning? Afslutningsvis vil der v?re en perspektivering, efterfulgt af en konklusion ud fra den ovenstaende analyse. Kort sagt, ud fra opgaven vil jeg prove at writing dissertation for construction, konkludere pa hvordan sammenspillet mellem de forskellige kulturer fungere, ud fra de forskellige konflikter der nu er i multikulturelle samfund. Learning? Forekommer der en integration og/eller assimilation, sa alle kan leve sammen og samfundet kan udvikle sig dynamisk?

Jeg har vedlagt en liste over luther essay contest, definitioner samt et metode-afsnit som bilag 1 og 2. 2. Redegorelse for of distance, de sociale og personlige konflikter der kan opsta i et multikulturelt samfund: 2.1 Immigranters forskellige baggrund for writing dissertation, migration. Der er en v?sentlig forskel pa indvandrere og flygtninge. Indvandrere er folk som rejser fra deres hjemland, for at of distance, se verden, blive klogere pa andre kulturer eller for at fa flere muligheder i form af job eller livsstil. Science? Det som er karakteristisk er dog, at the essay, de ikke er dissideret tvunget til at luther king contest, flytte fra deres hjemland.

Man taler om pull-faktorer, onsket om et bedre liv, der motiverer til migration. Flygtninge er personer, som rejser fra deres land, fx af den arsag at learning, der er krig eller pa grund af politisk, racem?ssig eller religions forfolgelse. Termites Eat Paper? En flygtning er en person som ikke onsker at forlade sit land, men bliver nod til det. The Essay? De soger derfor ly for students, deres konflikter i andre lande, hvor der er sikkert og trykt. The Essay Learning? Her er tale om push-faktorer, onsket om at a college paper, komme v?k dominerer. Denne forskel pa indvandrere og flygtninge er v?sentlig at v?re opm?rksom pa, da motivationen for of distance learning, integration er en af de faktorer, der spille en rolle. 2.2 Det oprindelige samfunds onske om modtagelse af immigranter. Et andet v?sentligt parameter for termites eat paper, et en vellykket integration mellem kulturer er majoritetskulturens onske om at of distance, integrere personer med et andet kulturelt stasted. Nar man ser pa store samfundsgruppers lyst og evne til at help with homework, integrere personer og grupper, skal det ses i et bade historisk og okonomisk perspektiv. USA er fx et land, hvis befolkning hovedsaglig bestar at the essay learning, immigranter – bade frivillige og ufrivillige.

Den store immigration i 17-og 18-hundredtallet af slaver der blev hentet til landet og europ?ere der frivilligt indrejste, betyder at does eat paper, alle har rodder langt tilbage i andre kulturer, for ikke at of distance, snakke om alle de engl?ndere og franskm?nd, som migrerede, det var bare frivilligt[2]. Denne kulturpluralisme betyder at martin luther king essay 2013, der er stor abenhed overfor anderledes kulturer. Learning? I mods?tning hertil, er flere europ?iske lande ikke sa abne, da befolkningerne ikke er sa historisk sammensat af forskellige immigrantgrupper. 2.3 Den personlige proces ved immigration. Der opstar ofte problemer nar kulturer og religioner modes.

Bare den proces som forgar, nar mennesker immigrerer til en ny kultur. Eat Paper? Det er en proces hvor mennesker er pr?get af meget ustabilitet og utryghed, da de kommer til et nyt land, hvor de ikke har noget stotte eller nogle kendte steder at ga. Of Distance? Nar man emigrerer sa mister – i betydningen forlader – man alle sine kendte ting og kendte omgivelser fra dagligdagen, som fx kirken, hjemmet, ofte ogsa social status og i nogle tilf?lde kan man ogsa miste familie og venner. Does Eat Paper? Alle disse faktorer er afgorende for vores identitets stabilitet.[3] Nar mennesker pludselig mister disse ting, der engang var en del af hverdagen, sa bliver man utryg og ustabil og far endnu sv?re ved at integrere i det nye samfund. Den franske sociolog Pierre Bourdieu har skrevet nogle samfundsteorier der omhandler emnerne, familie, venner, arbejde, osv. Of Distance? Alle disse emner kalder han for martin luther 2013, social kapital. Det er noget alle mennesker har, i en eller anden grad. Learning? Samtidig skriver han om okonomisk kapital og kulturel kapital. Essay 2013? Disse kapitaler, er nogle v?rdis?t mennesker har.

Kulturel kapital er vores normer, v?rdier, uddannelse osv. Of Distance Learning? endvidere beskriver han en okonomisk kapital som bl.a. Paper? omhandler menneskets adgang til penge og den okonomiske formaen. The Essay? Disse kapitaler er med til at danne vores identitet.[4] Nar et menneske migrerer enten som flygtning eller indvandrer udfordres alle ens kapitaler. Det skaber utryghed og giver grobund for konflikter. I USA er man en smugle mere abne overfor flygtninge/indvandrere. Det betyder, at man hurtigere bliver integreret i samfundet. I NY er der dog en v?sentlig barrierer for write a college paper, integrationen og det er den tendens der er til dannelse af ghettoer.

I NY er der ghettoer som Harlem, China-town og Little Italy. Of Distance? Det er ”sma byer” i NY, hvor bestemte befolkningsgrupper bor, og hvor hovedparten af indbyggerne har samme f?lles etnisk og kulturel baggrund. Writing Students? Disse personer, vil formentlig aldrig blive assimilerede i NY, da de lever i bydele, hvor de er tilpas og i trygge rammer og hvor v?rdif?llesskabet deles af de fleste – der er f?lles kapitaler. The Essay? Beamers citat om kultur beskriver hvordan ghettolivet bliver trygt for individet, men det kan give en samfundsm?ssig udfordring: Culture is help with science, like … of the essay what those experiences mean” (Beamer).[5] Born er sma individer, der er ekstra sarbare overfor den proces, som forgar ved et kulturskift. Deres identitet er ikke s?rlig udviklet endnu, og de er meget pavirkelige.

Sma born er i en periode hvor de er afh?ngige af trygge, kendte rammer fx i skolen, venner og familie som alle skal s?tte deres pr?g pa det barns opdragelse. Descriptive Essay Outline Person? Anne Mertz beskriver i sin bog denne proces som folgende: Born, der skrifter kultur midt i denne udvikling, er meget sarbare, og hvis de samtidig pavirkes af meget utrygge for?ldre, far de en utryg opv?kst med mange konflikter mellem den oprindelige og nye kultur. Learning? [6] Hvis en familie ikke forsoger at dissertation for construction, lade sig integrere – altsa prove at give slip pa sine normer og traditioner og optage nye normer og v?rdier – sa kan de fa et meget begr?nset liv. Det kan ga hen og fa dem til at the essay, fole samfundet som en trussel. Det pavirker bornene meget og de vil fole sig splittet. Writing Dissertation Students? Dette kan ogsa fore til at of distance, ghettoer opstar. Det gor at help with science homework, individerne ikke bliver integreret, men fors?tter med at leve deres liv som en blanding af den identitet de havde i deres hjemland samt en ny identitet der indretter sig efter ghettoens normer og traditioner. Den ovenstaende identitet kaldes for of distance, bindestegs identitet, som den norske antropolog Thomas Hylland Eriksen beskriver[7].

Den gar ud pa, at dissertation for construction students, bygge bro mellem to adskilte identiteter, som har klare gr?nser. Man lever fx efter tyrkiske normer og traditioner der hjemme, mens man lever efter de danske nar man er ude. The Essay Learning? Den rene identitet, som han ogsa beskriver, er en identitet, hvor personen er 100 % afklaret om ”hvem jeg er”. A College? Personen har klare v?rdier og moral, gr?nser og definerede regler for the essay of distance learning, adf?rd. Dvs. at women research paper, der ikke er nogle ambivalente forhold. Hvis man er afklaret om at man vil folge danske normer og traditioner med en ren identitet, sa er man blevet assimileret. Og for at the essay of distance, afslutte det omkring identitets typer, sa hedder den sidste identitet, den kreolske identitet. Denne identitet mikser de forskellige identiteter og kulturer. Does Eat Paper? Man prover at l?gge skjul de sider som man ikke onsker og dette kan skabe konflikt.

Et eks. er muslimer som siger, at of distance, de ikke spiser svinekod og drikker alkohol, men nar for?ldrene eller andre ikke kigger, som de ikke onsker at analysis paper, tabe ansigt overfor, sa spiser de og drikker. Learning? Disse ting kan som sagt skabe konflikt, da man s?tter sig op mod ens og ens families normer og traditioner. De ovenstaende problematikker om de personlige og kulturelle forhold ved integration skaber nogle problemer for luther king contest 2013, samfundet med fastlaste grupperinger, og det kan resultere i social ulighed. Nar immigranter ikke bliver ordentligt integreret i samfundet, soger de sammen i grupper. Man risikerer, at disse grupperinger udvikler sig negativt og at der opsta bander, som kan resultere i kriminalitet. Disse bander bestar oftest af de immigranter, som ikke er godt integreret.

Det virker som et forsog pa at ”bek?mpe majoriteten”, et opgor med andre grupperinger eller maske hele samfundet. De foler sig sma og undertrykte i samfundet, og vil derfor gerne gore opm?rksomme pa sig selv og bevise, at the essay of distance learning, de kan sta pa egne ben. Martin Luther? Det virker som et hablost forsog, pa at the essay of distance, blive integreret. Analysis? De onsker at of distance, gore opm?rksom pa sig selv, men kriminalitet resultere selvfolgelig i at help science homework, man ryger ud i en darlig lobe bane med f?ngsel og omgang med personer vil kun forv?rre situationen. Udover kriminalitet, kommer de darligt integreret ofte ud i et stofmisbrug, som ogsa er en sv?r ting at learning, arbejde med, hvis man skal integreres i et samfund.

Hvis man antager at ”blacks” og ”hispanics” er de socialt darligt stillede immigranter i USA og ”whites” er de mere velstillede narrative, sa bliver man ikke overrasket, nar man ser nedenstaende figur 1: Figuren viser antal af kriminelle gerninger baseret pa race i arene 1973 til 2007. De faktorer der er bem?rkelsesv?rdige er, at write analysis, de sorte fylder mere i f?ngslerne end de hvide. Of Distance Learning? En arsag kan v?re, at der er en storre del af de sorte som har v?ret migranter og derfor er de blevet integreret darligere med heraf folgende darligere kapitaler. Man skal dog huske at writing students, hvide amerikanere ogsa er migranter, som bare er kommet af fri vilje og for of distance learning, de sorte. Pa figuren ser man, at antallet af f?ngslede falder, det har dog ikke sa meget med race debatten, men stadig er det en positiv oplysning. Martin Luther Contest 2013? Hvis nu tallet af hvide havde forsat uden nogen aftagning, mens antallet af sorte ville falde, kunne det tyde pa at the essay of distance, USA var blevet bedre til at write, integrere deres immigranter. Det er ikke sa vanskeligt at the essay of distance, integrere sig i USA og NY, nar man forst har faet opholdstilladelse.

Det amerikanske samfund bygger pa v?rdier, som de kalder ”The American Dream”. Troen pa, at alle mennesker kan opna hvad de vil i livet, med hardt arbejde og viljestyrke. USA vil give alle en chance for at opna deres mal, men det kr?ver altsa hardt arbejde. Et eksempel pa The American Dream ses tydeligt i filmen American Psycho, hvor at hovedpersonen Patrick Bateman gar stille og roligt pa en gade, hvor han moder en hjemlos. Writing Dissertation For Construction Students? Bateman sporger ham: “ Why don’t you get a job?”. Of Distance? Han svare, at science, har mistet sit job.

Bateman: ” Get a god dame job! You have a negative attitude!” [8] . Bateman tror pa The American Dream. The American Dream er en positiv tilskyndelse for alle immigranter i USA, mens andre har sv?rt ved at fa drommen til at the essay of distance, ga i opfyldelse. Write A College Analysis Paper? Hvis ikke immigranterne har den personlighed og styrke der skal til at the essay of distance, gore den rigtige indsats, sa bliver det meget sv?rt at blive ordentlig integreret. 3 Analyse og fortolkning af A Ride on martin luther essay contest, the New York Subway. A Ride on of distance, the New York Subway (1972) er et socialrealistisk essay af Vivian Gornick. Women In Islam? I den moder man en fort?ller der bev?ger sig ned i den dystre undergrund i NY for at the essay of distance learning, tage subwayen til en bekendt. In Islam Paper? I essayet far vi beskrevet livet i subwayen som arbejderklassen lever i, samtidig med at the essay of distance learning, vi oplever hvordan fort?lleren virkelig far ojnene op for writing dissertation, det miljo – engang har hun v?ret en del af. Vivian Gornick er en amerikansk anmelder og essayist fodt i 1935[9]. The Essay Of Distance Learning? Hun skriver omkring joder og hvordan de agerer i samfundet.

Tresa Grauer , som har skrevet en biografi af Vivian Gornick pa hjemmesiden Jewish Women’s Archive (jwa.org), fort?ller folgende: “For Vivian Gornick, self-narrative is a form of descriptive cultural criticism: The personal is decidedly political.” [10] Hun skriver tekster om dagligdags ting, fx subwayen, der er et emne, hvor hun selv har personlige relationer, men samtidig et udtryk for hendes politiske holdning. Hun forholder sig meget subjektiv i sin tekst, da hun gar ind og dommer subwayen som en hul og hun beskriver alle de negative ting ved den, som fx misbrugeren og subwayens der udseende. Inde pa Jewish Women’s Archive kan man finde rigtig mange elementer, som gar igen i essayet af Vivian Gornick, fx et portr?t af forfatteren og kort om hende baggrund: Vivian Gornick was born on the essay of distance, June 14 … a bookkeeper and office clerk. [11] I A Ride on the New York Subway horer vi om hendes opv?kst I Bronx og omkring hendes social kapital: “Although I grew up in science homework the Bronx, working and…” [12]

Senere I essayet horer vi omkring hendes far: “Twenty-five years ago … a dress factory on West Thirdyty-eighth Street.” Begge disse citater er identiske med citatet fra Jewish Women’s Archive’s hjemmeside. Ud fra dette ses det, at the essay of distance learning, teksten forstiller et billede af hendes egen verden. Vi har altsa at dissertation, gore med en socialrealistisk tekst. The Essay Of Distance Learning? Det er tydeligt, at hendes sociale kapital har haft en stor indflydelse pa hendes liv. Hun har dog valgt andre veje end den traditionelle arbejderklasse-vej, eftersom hun ikke har taget subwayen i lang tid, der repr?senterer arbejder-klassen. Man far fortalt at write a college, hun gik pa college, og ud fra de 2 informationer, ma man antage, at hun har en uddannelse og et job – det har gjort hende til monsterbryder i sin familie. I essayet moder vi forskellige personer som, pa hver deres made, bidrager til helhedsindtrykket af subwayen: Vivian Gornick er altsa fort?lleren i fort?llingen.

Hun skrev denne historie var hun selv 35 ar og en karriere kvinde. Learning? Som barn havde hun en kulturelkapital der indeholdt jodiske v?rdier og normer, hvilket gor at hun har noget at sammenligne den situation hun star i, med. Vivian er gaet fra at termites eat paper, v?re jodisk immigrant med en ren identitet og til at have en bindestregsidentitet, da hun gik pa college. Der levede hun efter amerikanske v?rdier og normer, mens hun fulgte de jodiske traditioner hjemme. Learning? I dag, hvor hun har boet i USA i mange ar, har en ren identitet, da hun er blevet assimileret. Han er sort stofmisbruger, som skaber en utryg stemning i subwayen. How To Write Analysis? I hendes verdensbillede tilhorer han en utilpasset, fattig, sort underklasse der ligger fjernt fra hendes kultur. Of Distance Learning? Vivian fort?ller at han er ” a eerie creature, sinister and unrecognizable to me”. Hun foler sig utryg, da han virker ustyrlig i hans kropsbev?gelser. 3.2.3 ”The black man in the red t-shirt and the porkpie” Han er en sort mand Vivian moder i subwayen.

Det der kendetegner ham, er at han skiller sig ud fra m?ngden, da han er meget i modekommende overfor Vivian. Da Vivian foler at stofmisbrugeren bliver n?rgaende, sa tr?der han i aktion. Descriptive Person? Han sorger for at the essay of distance learning, fa hende i sikkerhed i toget, hvorefter at descriptive essay outline person, Vivian indser at the essay of distance learning, han ”er pa hendes side”. Martin Luther Essay 2013? Pa side 93 (7) fort?ller hun: “..I felt safe, back among my own people, back among people who saw danger where I saw it…” Hun er nu I sikkerhed for subwayens farlige sektor. I slutningen af essayet, nikker han til hende og forlader ellers toget. The Essay? Det er ikke noget normalt syn i NY’s subway, da folk normalt ikke socialiserer med andre.

Hun har endelig fundet en, hun er pa bolgel?ngde med, selvom han er sort og anderledes end hende. 3.2.4 Den puertoricanske kvinde: Den unge puertoricanske kvinde, er en Vivian fornemmer, hun deler sine tanker med. Hun kan spejle sig i hende. Hun fort?ller, at hun kan se pa hende, hvad hun t?nker, hvem den puertoricanske kvinde er. Termites? Hun kan se sig selv sta, som en ikke integreret immigrant i subwayen tidligere i sit liv. ”Andre personer” er som sadan ikke en person, de har dog alle det til f?lles, at de bidrager til stemningen ved at the essay, v?re massende, isolerede, patr?ngende, indadvendte mv. Descriptive Essay Outline Person? Det pr?ger stemningen pa fort?llingen i en skummel retning. Vivian Gornick er kendt for hendes essays, hvori hun ofte, som i A Ride on the New York Subway, berorer temaerne middelklasse vs. arbejderklasse, identitet, immigration m.v. Middelklasse vs. Of Distance Learning? arbejderklasse er et meget tydeligt tema.

Det ses ved, at homework, de darligt socialt stillede i samfundet, bev?ger sig rundt i subwayen. The Essay Learning? Temaerne, identitet, immigration og integration ses ogsa tydeligt i disse eksempler, hvis ikke tydeligere. Vivian Gornick var engang en af dem, da hun og hendes far tilhorte arbejderklassen. Does? Efter hendes fars dod blev hun f?rdig pa college, fik uddannelse og job hvilket medforte at the essay of distance learning, hun fik mere okonomisk kapital. Det er v?sentlige parametre, at hun blev bedre integreret i samfundet og derfor har hun forladt undergrunden til fordel for research paper, andre transportmidler. Of Distance Learning? Det skal dog ogsa forstas i mere bred betydning, at help with science homework, hun ved at the essay learning, forlade undergrunden er hun blevet en integreret del af middalklassesamfundet. How To Analysis Paper? Underklassen har altsa ”sogt under jorden”. Hendes identitet og kapitaler har altsa ?ndret sig efter at the essay learning, hun er blevet integreret i samfundet. Det gar for help science homework, forste gang op for the essay of distance, hende da hun er tilbage i subwayen. Vivian beskriver, da hun ”steg ned” i subwayen, at martin king contest, hun syntes den var ul?kker, skummel og dunkel. Hun sa den som et hul, for the essay learning, darligt stillede personer.

Toget bliver beskrevet som: ”..the doors then lock shut, and the iron creature goes roaring off down the pitch-black tunnel with its cargo of human prisoner sullen penitents all:…” Hun ser det bestemt ikke som noget hyggeligt sted. Essay Person? Det er langt fra noget hun kan relatere sig selv til. Senere i teksten, begynder hun at komme t?t pa de personer der er omkring hende, sa begynder subwayen at learning, minde hende om dengang, hvor hun selv var en del af det liv der leves af subwayens besogende. Help With? Igennem historien har hun ojenkontakt med den puertoricanske kvinde, hun tror at of distance learning, hun deler opfattelse med (se linje 7-25, side 5(91)). Hun ser pa hende, og fornemmer at descriptive, de identificerer sig med hinanden. Learning? Men som skrevet tidligere, sa er det selvfolgelig ikke sikkert at descriptive person, der t?nkes det samme den anden vej. The Essay Of Distance Learning? Vivian forestiller sig at hun t?nker: ”We are ”those people” to write analysis, you, aren’t we?” Som beskrevet oven for, er der et ”us” og ”them” forhold, hvor ”us” er Vivian og de integrerede og ”them” er de ikke er integreret.

Da Vivian kommer ned i subwayen er hun ikke klar over, at hun er blevet en integreret del af middelklassesamfundet. The Essay Learning? Da hun ser alle de mennesker fra arbejderklassen, og kan identificere sig med dem, gar det op for in islam research, hende at the essay learning, hun er blevet en del af en anden samfundsklasse. Women In Islam? Tidligere var det den jodiske arbejderklasse, som befandt sig i den dystre subway, hvor at joderne var ”them” som andre betragtede. 3.4 Immigranter og emigranter.. og hvad sa? Vivian Gornick er kendt for at the essay of distance learning, skrive sine socialrealistiske tekster og denne er selvfolgelig ikke en undtagelse. Essay Outline? Hun skriver meget om ting hvor hun prover at afspejle skjulte sider af samfundet, fx her i A Ride on the essay learning, the New York Subway. Jeg tror hun har valgt at skrive dette essay for at s?tte mere fokus pa, at women in islam research, man sagtens kan ga fra at v?re en del af arbejderklassen samt ikke v?re en ordentlig integreret del af samfundet, til at the essay of distance, blive assimileret. Hun er selv gaet igennem denne proces og er nu blevet assimileret.

Hun onsker ogsa at termites eat paper, vise de gode sider af immigranterne. Learning? Normalt horer man, at descriptive person, de laver meget kriminalitet m.m. The Essay Of Distance Learning? men hun viser at write a college paper, folk i subwayen, kan v?re flinke og hj?lpsomme. Of Distance? Fx manden i den rode T-shirt. I en artikel beskriver hun ogsa hvordan hun voksede op og hvordan hun blev til den person, som hun er i dag[13]. Martin King Essay? Hun beskriver det at ga fra at the essay of distance, v?re jodisk medlem af arbejderklassen til at paper, blive stor essayist. Hun beskriver samtidig de forf?rdelige forhold joderne havde. Det fort?ller, at hun bekymrer sig om andre, ikke mindst fordi hun selv var i deres sko engang. Hun ved, at det kan v?re hardt, at blive pushet ud i at the essay of distance, matte immigrere. A Ride on write analysis paper, the New York Subway kan s?ttes i perspektiv, sa til den aktuelle danske indvandre debat. I Danmark er partiet Dansk Folkeparti (DF), fork?mper for at fa sa lidt immigration som overhoved muligt.

De arbejder hen mod et lukket Danmark, hvor immigration ikke er tilladt. DF gor det sv?rt at learning, v?re en emigrant som gerne vil have en chance i Danmark. Mange emigranter v?lger dog at essay outline, tage til Sverige, hvor det er lettere at komme ind. The Essay Learning? De enkelte som dog kommer ind i Danmark, moder en massiv modstand, hvilket ikke gor det lettere at writing for construction students, integrere sig. Man kan l?se i A Ride on learning, the New York subway, at in islam, det godt kan v?re sv?rt at learning, v?re immigrant, og det passer godt sammen med den situation der er i Danmark. At migrere er hardt og at for construction, integrere sig i et nyt samfund er endnu hardere. Of Distance? At forlade sin familie og kultur til fordel for en ny og fremmed ryster det menneskelige og kulturelle fundament. Research? At skulle bos?tte sig i en ny kultur og i et nyt samfund er ikke let, og specielt ikke hvis samfundet ikke er klar til det – derfor kan samspillet mellem de forskellige kulturer skabe konflikter. Det g?lder om at the essay of distance learning, v?re sat op til at ville gore en positiv forskel for writing for construction students, samfundet for learning, immigranterne, og v?ret aben for in islam research paper, nye impulser fra anderledes kulturer fra modtagersamfundets side. De darligt integrerede soger ofte sammen i grupper, hvor i der er trygt, men hvor der ogsa kan opsta uhensigtsm?ssigheder i forhold til det ovrige samfund fx bander. Of Distance? Det kan i nogle tilf?lde fore til kriminalitet og pa den made blive en belastning for samfundet.

Nar man emigrerer til et andet land, sa tilpasser immigranterne sig i mange forskellige grader. Hovedparten soger sammen med andre immigranter og blive derfor ikke assimileret i den nye kultur, men som arene gar i t?t samspil med det nye samfund integrerer fleste immigranter sig i meget hoj grad. Det kr?ver personligt hardt arbejde bade at integrerer sig og assimilerer i et nyt samfund i en ny kultur. Undervejs i opgaven vil jeg anvende en del begreber, som jeg her definerer: Identitet er det ene ord som bruges til dagligt om de tr?k ved en person, der tilsammen kendetegner eller afgr?nser personer som forskellig fra andre.[14] Geert Hofstede definerer kultur saledes: “Culture is the descriptive collective programming of the human mind that distinguishes the members of the essay one human group from those of termites another. Culture in this sense is learning, a system of martin luther king collectively held values” [15] . At integrerer sig i et samfund, betydet at the essay of distance learning, tilpasse sig samfundets normer, v?rdier og traditioner.[16]

At assimilere sig betyder at man 100 % optager et samfunds normer, v?rdier og traditioner og opgiver de gamle.[17] At immigrere, betyder at termites eat paper, flytte ind i et andet land. The Essay Of Distance? Dette kan v?re frivilligt og ufrivilligt. Does? [18] At emigrerer, betyder at forlade et land. Dette kan v?re frivilligt og ufrivilligt.[19] At migrerer, er det at the essay learning, ”flytte sig”. [20] Samfundsvidenskabeligt begreb, der udtrykker det forhold, at nationalstater ofte bestar af flere folkeslag eller etniske grupper.[21] I denne opgave vil jeg benytte mig af den samfundsvidenskabelige metode samt den engelskfaglige metode (som ogsa bliver benyttet i fag som spansk, fransk og dansk):

Den samfundsvidenskabelige metode: I den samfundsvidenskabelige metode anvender man samfundsvidenskabelige begreber til at understotte sin analyse, hvilket kendes som den hypotetiske-deduktive metode. Man arbejder med statistikker, her under: den kvantitative metode, den kvalitative metode, den komparative metode samt den hermeneutiske metode. I min opgave vil jeg arbejde med bl.a. Write A College Analysis Paper? kvantitative statistikker, samt den hypotetiske-deduktive metode, som omhandler bevidsthed om teori og empiri i faget. Den engelskfaglige metode:

I den engelskfaglige metode arbejder man analyse og fortolkning af litter?re tekster. Man fordyber sig i specifikke tekster for at the essay, fa en dybere forstaelse, der hj?lper en med at help homework, konkludere noget ud fra teksten. Learning? Man laver en dybere analyse hvor man arbejder med forskellige begreber som tema, personkarakteristik, budskab og andre retoriske begreber for at for fa en dybere forstaelse af teksten.

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