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Dec 18, 2017 Sylvia plath essay,
calculus bc homework AP Calculus BC Summer Homework (worth 200 points, approximately two full test grades) AP Calculus can help you earn university credit for Calculus 1 and, possibly, Calculus 2. Essay? Success requires a solid understanding of precalculus. This summer homework will ensure that you are well prepared to succeed, as well as facilitate a pace that will allow for plenty of time to practice for essay, the AP exam near the sylvia plath end of the how to punctuate a book in an school year. This assignment is due on essay the first day of letter from the trenches, school . Sylvia Essay? Do not view this as extra work. English Exam Questions? Rather, by sylvia plath essay, doing the summer homework you will be lightening your load during the school year and in an, improving your chances to earn free university credit. Do not procrastinate. Start off the school year with an A! Warning: If you don’t show clear work, or if it’s too messy to plath essay read, it will be returned to you to be redone. Please don’t make me struggle to s process read it or follow your reasoning. Concerns, questions, or discovery of errors/typos in plath, this document? Contact Beuschlein at [email protected] . Google Classroom: Sign up now to columbia essays on conflict and development receive information updates, assignments during the sylvia school year, etc. Use this code: uaf2f6.
Matrices: The required matrix problems below are part of a longer (but optional) matrix supplement that I’ve made. If you’re interested in doing the how to a book rest of the full supplement for sylvia plath essay, optional credit, here’s the link . Letter From Essay? (The supplement doesn’t have to be done before the end of the plath essay summer.) Theoretically, the matrix problems are review. Essays On Conflict? Here is a link to plath essay a matrix presentation I made. S Process? It addresses more linear algebra topics than you’re required to essay know, but feel free to use it as a reference. Nucleosynthesis? If you need a refresher on the basics of row ops, etc., there is no shortage of plath, resources online. Letter The Trenches Essay? Solve each system by sylvia, hand in three different ways: (i) using row ops on an augmented matrix, (ii) using an inverse matrix and letter essay, matrix multiplication, and (iii) Cramer’s rule. Show all work (as always). a. 2x + 7y = -3 and -4x + 5y = 1. b. Plath Essay? 3x + 4y -z = 0, x + 2y +3z = 18, and -2x + 2z = 12. Sorry, I realize that part (b) is a pain in the hindquarters. I’m not trying to give you busy work. You’ll have to american spirituality essay trust me that these procedures and operations are crucial to plath understand, even though in practice you could solve the essays on conflict and development system in a jiffy with technology. (When you take linear algebra in college, or use matrices in your engineering or science courses, you’ll see why a good foundation is sylvia plath essay, so important.) In part (b) you may use technology to find the inverse of the coefficient matrix, but in part (a) use the shortcut to get the method paper inverse by sylvia essay, hand.
Write this system as a single matrix equation in a book title, the form A v = b . The bold letters are vectors (matrices with a single column ). v has variable components of x, y, and sylvia essay, z; b is essay, comprised of three constants. Sylvia Plath Essay? A is essay on wild animals, called the coefficient matrix. Solve this system with a graphing calculator in the same three ways as above. Plath Essay? Write down the syntax you use as well as some intermediate results (such as determinants). Just so you know, the essays fastest way to do this with a calculator is with the rref function. Sylvia Plath? Faster still would be to copy and scientific paper format, paste the plath system into Wolfram Alpha and hit enter. a. f(g(?/8)) b. Essay Writing On Wild? g(f(x)) c. f(g(x)) d. g(x) = -3/sqrt(2) e. Sylvia Plath? g(x)/cos x = 1 (use double angle) f. g(x) = 5?/2 g. g(x) sec 2x / cot 2x. A Book? h. f(x + 1) i. f(2x - 1) j. f(x + h) k. [ f(x + h) - f(x) ] / h. a. Plath Essay? Find y as a function of letter the trenches essay, x. Sylvia? b. What sort of trajectory does the essays and development particle follow? c. Where is the particle at sylvia plath essay, t = 3? d. Where is on conflict and development, it when its x-coordinate is 2? a. x = 5 cos t, y = 5 sin t b. x = 2 cos t, y = 3 sin t c. x = 2 sec t, y = 5 tan t. d. x = 3 csc t, y = 4 cot t e. x = 3 cos t, y = 2 sin t. Sylvia Plath? b. Where they exist, locate the foci in research paper, each graph, and find the equations of any asymptotes. a. sine of a sum b. cosine of a sum c. tangent of sylvia essay, a sum. Columbia Peace And Development? d. Sylvia Plath Essay? double angle for sine e. Native American Spirituality Essay? double angle for cosine f. double angle for tangent. g. Sylvia Plath Essay? power reduction for final exam essay, cosine h. power reduction for sine i. Plath Essay? circumference of letter from, a circle. j. Sylvia Essay? area of writing on wild animals, a circle k. total surface area of sylvia plath essay, a cylinder l. S Process? volume of plath essay, a cylinder. m. volume of a cone n. volume of a sphere o. surface area of a sphere. Punctuate Essay? a. the surface area S of a cube in terms of its volume V. Sylvia Essay? b. the geoecology essays volume of a cone V in terms of its radius R, given that its height is three times it radius. Sylvia Plath Essay? c. the area of final essay, a walkway of width x surrounding a 50 ft ? 25 ft rectangular pool, in terms of x. d. the sylvia total surface area of american essay, a cylinder of height H whose diameter is also H, in terms of H. a. a line with slope -3 through (2, 9) in plath, slope-intercept form. American? b. a line that goes through (-4, -1) and (-2, 0) in point-slope form.
c. a line that makes a 45 ° angle relative to the x-axis with a x-intercept of -1 in standard form. Plath? a circle with center (-2, 1) and radius 6. Essays On Conflict Peace? f. a parabola with vertex at (3, 2) and focus at (3, 5). g. an essay ellipse inscribed in english final essay questions, a box with vertices (-2, 1), (-2, 5), (6, 1), and sylvia essay, (6, 5). h. a circle that has endpoints of a diameter of (9,2) and on conflict, (3, -8). i. a vertically-oriented hyperbola with asymptotes y - 2 = ±? (x - 3) and 10 units between its vertices. b. Plath Essay? Confirm your answer to part (a) using synthetic division on and looking at the remainder. m. where i is the punctuate a book in an essay imaginary unit (use Pascal). n. a. Plath? possible 5-card poker hands. b. the coefficient of x 3 y 7 in (x + y) 10. Questions? c. Plath? possible ways to arrange the letters of MISSISSIPPI (it’s not 11! because of the repeat letters) d. 5 reds balls and 6 white balls are mixed in a sack. Five balls are chosen at random. What is the probability that at least three of a book essay, them are red?
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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and sylvia plath essay presented his concept in essay writing animals ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. Essay! He used the native spirituality essay term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services. However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'.
Hulme (1923) studied the literature and sylvia plath essay called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by english exam essay, Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by sylvia, Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and the nature and course of on wild animals development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and plath periodicals to nucleosynthesis, demonstrate historical movements and to plath essay, determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. Letter From The Trenches Essay! This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in sylvia plath essay preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is s process fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and plath essay other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of essay writing on wild animals a body of sylvia plath literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the columbia peace relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of plath all forms of written communication and their authorship'.
Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is s process 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to plath, him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and s process statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in sylvia plath the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science.
According to nucleosynthesis, Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of sylvia essay all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in essays on conflict which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is sylvia also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and english final essay technological literature (Bellis 2009).
The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws. According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is sylvia considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to final essay, authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and essay semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and native american with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages.
Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of sylvia essay messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of native spirituality essay variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the plath frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in columbia on conflict peace articles and books'. Sylvia Plath Essay! Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. English Questions! Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is sylvia plath a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in s process many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the plath essay impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of english questions academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations.
Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for sylvia plath Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item. Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from how to title in an essay citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in sylvia plath essay his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and punctuate title schools of sylvia plath essay thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in columbia essays on conflict peace evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of sylvia citation data. From The Trenches Essay! They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is essay expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in native any subject areas and in LIS it is sylvia essay useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc.
3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in a book essay bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the plath essay basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of letter from published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words.
Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to sylvia, citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out essay animals, that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of plath articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to native spirituality essay, the subject and several groups and zones containing the sylvia plath essay same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on punctuate a book title, the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the sylvia essay same number of s process nucleosynthesis articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the sylvia same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the columbia on conflict and development relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field.
He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to essay, produce the next third, and animals 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is plath essay still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an essay intellectual work that denotes an entry in essay the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the final questions works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to plath, allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:-
Reference is derived from final exam questions Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of plath origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to nucleosynthesis, the contexts in which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and plath abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the questions scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an essay original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the american spirituality essay reference from some observers, as in essay cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the s process list of references indicating towards prior publications.
Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the plath acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to native essay, cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of sylvia essay bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers.
2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.) 3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Columbia On Conflict Peace! Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the plath essay work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work.
10. Providing leads to title in an essay, poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14. Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15.
Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to sylvia plath, be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in english exam questions the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for essay the use of information by the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the s process nucleosynthesis whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the sylvia essay bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established. Citation analysis uses citations in english final essay scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries.
Citations both from sylvia and to a book in an, a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the essay impact of a single author on a given field by spirituality essay, counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. Plath! One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the letter essay single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to sylvia essay, establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and a book in an essay B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to sylvia essay, be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other.
If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. Letter! The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is.
3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. Sylvia Essay! indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in essay case of automated system, comparative assessment of the sylvia essay secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and essays on conflict peace and development evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to essay, map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the essay on wild animals structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is essay needed for planning the collection.
Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and letter from essay information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on essay, the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of exam essay literature are used for this purpose. Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature.
- Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and essay growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections.
3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. English Exam Essay! The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value. ' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the essay published record, and how to punctuate a book title essay can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and sylvia cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications.
3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is s process used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of sylvia plath essay journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the how to punctuate title in an essay articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the plath order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of columbia and development items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns.
' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of plath journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and how to punctuate a book in an essay then of essay journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and from the trenches essay citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries'
From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and essay the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries.
5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from essay writing various countries. 6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on sylvia plath essay, the frequency distribution of from the trenches authorship productivity. 8. Plath! Track the on wild development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of plath publication during the period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of columbia essays peace pages. 10. Sylvia! Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of native american spirituality essay country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject.
12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:-
The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is plath essay a measure reflecting the from the trenches average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of plath journals with higher impact factors deemed to essays on conflict and development, be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per sylvia plath, paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and essay writing animals 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits.
New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an plath impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the a book essay citations to the year prior to plath, Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and on wild animals other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. Essay! The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of essay writing on wild journals by impact factor, by plath essay, discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers:
The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for s process nucleosynthesis determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Plath Essay! Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and essay writing on wild the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the sylvia essay I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of nucleosynthesis their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate.
In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the plath essay production, dissemination and how to punctuate title in an essay use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to plath, include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of s process nucleosynthesis recorded information.
Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of sylvia plath essay science and scientific research.
Emphasis is placed on investigations in nucleosynthesis which the development and mechanism of science are studied by sylvia plath, statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and english final preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and sylvia book reviews on scientometrics. Due to s process, its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Sylvia Essay! Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and native spirituality science in general, respectively. Plath! In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in columbia essays on conflict publications. Sylvia Plath! This data can show quite a bit about english questions, networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time.
Bibliometrics are also one of the plath key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications. If an article is punctuate a book title in an essay published in essay a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the s process author. The number of citations to that article over sylvia plath essay, time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to american spirituality, cite the sylvia plath material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the columbia essays on conflict original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics.
The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of information and sylvia plath through webometrics study one can get the information about native, web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of plath essay webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and punctuate title essay technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of plath webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to s process, help and publicize appropriate methods outside the sylvia plath essay information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science.
Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the how to a book title institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is plath a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the essay efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and plath essay assesses the english essay impact of cyber age on sylvia plath, society. Citations in scholarly works are used to english final exam questions, establish links to other works. Sylvia Essay! It is how to a book title in an one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to sylvia, and from documents Gooden (2001). Title! The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is plath essay reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection.
Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and american usage of various information sources. It can highlight the plath familiarity, awareness and columbia on conflict peace and development usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the plath essay objective set for letter the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417.
ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the sylvia essay literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in exam questions the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Sylvia Plath! Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution.
British standards of english documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and plath essay Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9.
' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000). A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. Essay! A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343.
' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for essay bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of letter from the trenches Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and sylvia plath Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). How To Punctuate Title Essay! Citation Indexing - Its Theory and plath Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on a book title essay, 12.04.2011.
' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on plath, line British metric studies.
Journal of native spirituality essay American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and sylvia essay Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and english final exam questions http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden.
Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and sylvia essay Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525.
' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in how to a book essay Indexing, Library trends, Vol. 16, p. Sylvia! 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol.
16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in columbia on conflict the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337.
' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the sylvia plath Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). How To Essay! Literature and plath Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. English Final Essay Questions! Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461.
' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and sylvia plath Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.
ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and how to a book title essay Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. Sylvia Plath! (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and s process libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256.
' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of sylvia plath bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and exam questions monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages. 4.1 Introduction 104.
4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in plath essay India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and columbia essays peace and development Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115.
4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119.
4.21 Research Trend in sylvia essay Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of letter essay system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by sylvia, universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Nucleosynthesis! Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education.
Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and sylvia essay as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused.
Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of columbia essays on conflict and development LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to plath essay, syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in from essay Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from essay 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of columbia and development core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to plath, deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. American Essay! As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc.
4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Plath! Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Writing! Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. Plath Essay! The progress from questions certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and sylvia infrastructure to how to a book essay, educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in plath essay 1947. The new India started its development program to spirituality, achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level.
Such developments at these institutions contributed to sylvia plath, the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an native spirituality important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. Plath Essay! This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently. In order to feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to how to a book, meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and plath promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of s process professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. Sylvia Plath! LIS education aims at essay writing on wild animals, providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and sylvia plath essay range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in India is essay writing animals not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in sylvia plath the form of a trial and error method.
It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of how to punctuate a book in an essay library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of sylvia essay laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research. S Process! This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by essay, a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the spirituality essay library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of sylvia essay Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and punctuate title in an essay even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for plath his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr.
S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and how to a book title in an training were required so that proper order could be brought to sylvia essay, the collections that had been growing in native american spirituality essay all libraries. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. Sylvia Essay! The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of essays on conflict peace and development Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr.
W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Essay! Melvil Dewey, who established the punctuate a book essay first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. Sylvia! In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the how to a book title in an essay then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Sylvia Plath! Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the nucleosynthesis first systematic programme in library education was started under the sylvia plath essay auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University.
This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in punctuate a book in an 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in sylvia essay India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and essays and development started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the sylvia essay diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and english final exam essay questions Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in plath essay and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of how to punctuate a book title socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of sylvia essay these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in letter essay the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in sylvia essay 1956 and the Vikram University in essay 1957.
4.5 Present scenario of sylvia plath essay LIS Education in essay on wild animals India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and sylvia essay developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at essay writing, bachelors, masters and plath research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in native american different levels. The list is shown in appendix.
Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in plath essay Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. Columbia On Conflict! With the plath realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is essay on wild not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and essay the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and native spirituality information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:-
The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in sylvia different types of libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in final essay questions a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and information science education because on sylvia plath, this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and writing animals help to know the sylvia plath essay latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of the trenches essay various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:-
Out of the plath 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in how to in an Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. Sylvia Essay! These programme further leads to columbia on conflict peace, M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib.
Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of sylvia library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. Exam Essay Questions! This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is sylvia essay a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of final exam questions libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the sylvia plath essay early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners.
But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the essay writing animals work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by sylvia, Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of writing on wild Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in essay 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course.
This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and on wild teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and essay Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of questions ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in sylvia LIS.
The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by english exam essay, the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of plath essay Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.
The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to essay, meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in sylvia plath a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and letter essay Training courses):-
In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the sylvia plath training programme was opened to the staff of columbia essays peace other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and plath other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of nucleosynthesis Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. Sylvia Essay! In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started.
These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of nucleosynthesis three month duration in library science in the year 1915. Sylvia! This happens to be the first university course in India.
Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for spirituality the library workers' at Vijayawada in plath essay 1920. The classes covered a module on how to a book title essay, running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:-
In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and sylvia plath essay lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in essays peace 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929.
Then in sylvia plath essay 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on native, a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata).
It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to plath essay, start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in letter from the trenches essay 1942.
University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in plath 1943. Essays Peace! A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. Sylvia Plath Essay! This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib.
Science Course for the first time in the country. University of in an Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in sylvia 1948. In 1949, the how to punctuate a book in an structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of plath essay Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course.
By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of letter essay Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on sylvia essay, moved to how to essay, two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. Essay! In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to how to punctuate title in an, 'Associateship in Documentation and plath Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.
On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and columbia essays on conflict peace was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes.
In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in plath essay library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of native spirituality essay these, M. Lib. I. Sc. Essay! course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the from learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the essay contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS).
The others provide BLISc and english exam questions MLISc courses. Essay! In most of the essay animals universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from sylvia plath essay any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of on wild Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in sylvia medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship.
In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to how to punctuate a book in an essay, work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and sylvia Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is final free to frame its own course of plath essay studies, and final exam essay questions syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of sylvia plath documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:-
Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. Essays Peace! This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners.
But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for sylvia essay admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is the trenches essay a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses.
The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the sylvia plath essay general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in american spirituality essay India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and sylvia plath essay scholarly standard. Research in essay writing this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of essay subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the essay writing on wild fundamental and sylvia plath essay theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades.
His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over nucleosynthesis, the world. The library and academic community of sylvia plath those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to s process nucleosynthesis, introduce M. Phil programme in plath Library and Information Science in 1980.
Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in english essay questions India goes to Dr. Sylvia Plath! S. R. Essays And Development! Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):-
In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on sylvia essay, documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of on conflict peace and development library association of India towards research activities is sylvia plath negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and on conflict peace and development Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:-
In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to sylvia essay, Dr. B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in english final exam library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to sylvia, analyse the trends in LIS research at a book, global scenario and sylvia record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and essay on wild animals retrieval (87) 2. Sylvia! Library and information services (77)
3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities.
Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the english final exam major research areas, were more considered but library and essay information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. Writing On Wild Animals! also reflected European trends in sylvia plath LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics.
It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for how to punctuate essay conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to sylvia, three areas based in traditional practices and american since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and plath book industries.
2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain.
They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in punctuate essay LIS. Sylvia Essay! The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and how to punctuate a book title in an international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out sylvia plath, that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications.
Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at on wild animals, work places worked of different services in essay 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and letter from essay services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the essay prominent areas in letter from the trenches LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the plath essay study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from american LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the sylvia research trends.
Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and a book future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to plath, conduct LIS research. The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Native Spirituality Essay! Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Plath! Collection development. 10.
Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Nucleosynthesis! Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in sylvia plath essay developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to american essay, its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to sylvia, users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of essay research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to sylvia, find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and nucleosynthesis analysis as well as the gaps in research.
Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Sylvia Plath Essay! Identify trends.
3. On Conflict Peace! New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and plath Prythech (1996), studied and essay writing animals analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and sylvia plath essay benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of essay animals research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval.
2. Information skill. 4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in sylvia plath developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001.
Further while indicating future research development themes for the trenches research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Business information.
Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources. 5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary.
7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in sylvia plath essay which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and s process nucleosynthesis next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the sylvia essay status of doctoral research in LIS in columbia on conflict peace Pakistan and sylvia essay appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in from the trenches LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for sylvia plath essay research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'.
In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and essays standardization of sylvia essay Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in punctuate title in an essay 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of sylvia Sindh archives Karachi'. English Exam Essay Questions! The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971.
First degree awarded in plath essay 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in letter the trenches essay library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in plath essay 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of letter the trenches Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of sylvia Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage.
It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. S Process Nucleosynthesis! as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on plath essay, LIS education to maintain quality. The Trenches Essay! The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession. Plath Essay! From the s process nucleosynthesis review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and sylvia plath essay technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities:
The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world. Animals! In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and essay research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr. S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi.
The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in english final questions library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. Sylvia Plath! In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the trenches essay, the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. Plath! S. American Spirituality Essay! Sharma (1924'1993), the plath essay then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in title essay 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and essay enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010).
Chandrashekara (2009) collected the columbia peace and development data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to sylvia essay, the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per how to a book, annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities.
The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the sylvia plath essay top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of english final exam essay documents and so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of sylvia plath some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in american spirituality the field of Library and sylvia Information Science in the world and essay India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science.
Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. Sylvia Plath Essay! It ranges from certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. Letter Essay! This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. 27(2) March, p.5-11.
' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India. Plath! Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of from the trenches essay Library and essay Information Studies. Writing! Vol.
57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. Plath! 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari.
1993. S Process! The evolution of sylvia library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and how to punctuate a book title in an essay information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of sylvia library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). On Wild! The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at sylvia, http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012.
' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. Native Essay! (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. Sylvia! 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in columbia Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to sylvia, north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175.
' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and punctuate a book title in an information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. Sylvia Plath Essay! 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by columbia essays on conflict peace, Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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Essay UK, Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/science/bibliometrics-citation-citation-analysis.php [06-10-17]. If you are the original author of plath essay this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.
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Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. symbols which can be understood and on conflict peace, manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to sylvia, focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the the trenches, significance of being literate in plath essay, this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its.
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Through various characters, the author conveys specific attributes of women in different levels of sylvia society. Daisy Buchanan who shows a woman’s obsession. Arnold Rothstein , F. Native Essay? Scott Fitzgerald , Ginevra King 798 Words | 3 Pages. missing a class, but can be affected if you miss an activity. Consider the films that we watch in class “texts” or assigned readings that are required for . the course; if you miss a day, you must find a way to view the assigned film. 20% Midterm Essay (3-4 pages) All students will receive the same prompt in sylvia plath, writing the midterm.
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Explain the benefit of raising its existing prices. BONIA products are inelastic. Inelastic is an economic term used to describe the situation in which the supply and from, demand for good are. Consumer theory , Goods , Inverse demand function 915 Words | 4 Pages. Mr.
Stenger AP History 3 June 2012 DBQ Essay The world’s prior to 1492 and after 1648 were very different places. Columbus discoveries . forced the worlds prior to 1492 and plath, after 1648 to change. By the end of the Thirty Years’ War, European nations were beginning to impose themselves upon the rest of the settled world with grand repercussions. And while a couple people except experts and some government officials knew of the essays, sources and reasons for sylvia plath essay, the changes, nevertheless from 1492 onwards. Americas , Asia , Christopher Columbus 786 Words | 3 Pages. Cheyenne Steel Carter English 9 15/14 Comparison Essay Animal Farm and The Palestinian Arab-Israeli Conflict of 1946 In . writing Animal Farm, the author Orwell illustrates disillusionment with socialist revolution. Essay Writing? Although the novel has often been linked with the Russian Revolution of 1916, it still has contemporary relevance. The Palestinian Arab-Israeli Conflict parallels Animal Farm in three different ways, rallying flag, despotism, and sylvia essay, equality.
When joining in to sing. 1948 Palestinian exodus , Animal Farm , Arab citizens of essay writing on wild Israel 872 Words | 3 Pages. communication skills by understanding the importance of tailoring my style depending on sylvia essay the customer I am working with. This has given me a good reputation . in essays, my company on several occasions for meeting an excellent service. * Experienced with report and sylvia, essays and giving presentations having completed my BSc. and my MSc. which I just rounded up in September this year. Team work and Leadership * I have also been able to benefit a lot from working as a team in columbia on conflict and development, my place of work which in several occasions.
Amazon Web Services , Computer , Database management system 745 Words | 4 Pages. Brandi Voyles BIO-220 March 3, 2012 Professor Corona Global Warming Essay What is global warming, and how does human activities create . an impact on global warming? Many people do not understand the sylvia plath essay, full concept of global warming. We also do not understand or recognize that our everyday activities and habits contribute a significant amount to global warming. What is global warming? Global warming ( noun) is an increase in the earth’s atmospheric and letter from, oceanic temperatures widely predicted. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Earth 836 Words | 3 Pages. use of plagiarism detecting tools. These are programs that have been built with the main objective being to detect plagiarized work. These programs can be . easily accessed online such as; Gramarly, Turnitin which is produced by iParadigms and also Essay Verification Engine. (Gilmore 53) Paraphrasing and use of quotations Plagiarism can also be avoided by plath proper paraphrasing.
Paraphrasing refers to use of your own words while at the same time retaining the intended meaning of words and columbia and development, ideas as the. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Andrew Dickson White 744 Words | 3 Pages. reinforced throughout the sylvia essay, novel, that Crake has a solid perspective on nucleosynthesis what the world and humankind has become. Your friend is intellectually honourable . . . . Sylvia Essay? He doesn't lie to essay writing, himself. Jimmy's mother says.
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Yolen has intertwined the facts of the Holocaust with the sylvia, story of Briar Rose, a traditional fairy tale, in how to title, order to sylvia plath, speak about the Holocaust without having to go into columbia peace the historical detail of the experience. Yolen whose. Fairy tale , Family , Fiction 952 Words | 3 Pages. 12 percent said it was good, while 41 percent said it “doesn’t make much difference.” How to interpret that? Growing acceptance? Technically. But 43 percent . is plath a lot of dirty looks when you are one of those gay and lesbian couples, no? A recent essay by Patty Onderko in the current issue of Parenting magazine explores that question, and concludes that yes, the essay, world feels more embracing to at least one lesbian mother lately.
She writes: And here is the moment I hate: the Explaining of the Situation. Family , Homosexuality , Lesbian 848 Words | 3 Pages. Short Essay Four: The Fall of the Roman Empire The question of what led to the decline of the sylvia, Roman Empire is a complex . subject which historians have debated for centuries. The Trenches? Edward Gibbon suggested in the late 1700’s that the moral fabric of the Roman citizenry was inferior to that of the victorious barbarian invaders. Joseph A. Tainter attributes the downfall of Rome to the inherent difficulties any society will encounter when expanding beyond its means. This idea seems especially. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Christianity 1566 Words | 3 Pages.
such as organizing Blood Donation Camp and awaking people to come forward for it, going to . government schools under Career Development Program, taking out sylvia plath essay, rally for green environment etc. Also won a number of s process awards in sylvia plath essay, different extempore, debate and essay writing competitions organized by NSS. • Active Member of Hindi Lit n Deb club, official club of punctuate a book title in an NIT Kurukshetra. Under it won many competitions ranging from debates, extempore, antakshri and ad hash in plath essay, National . Hindustan Petroleum , Management , Mechanical engineering 837 Words | 6 Pages. to the american spirituality essay, book were sold in 21 countries. Plath Essay? Context Arundhati Roy is an Indian[-8] novelist. She won the title in an, Booker Prize[-9] in sylvia plath, 1997 for her novel, The God of . Small Things[-10], and has also written two screenplays[-11] and english final essay questions, several collections of sylvia essays . Her writings on various social, environmental and writing on wild animals, political issues have been a subject of major controversy in India. The main themes in the book are Love, class relations, history and politics, cultural tension and social discrimination. Extract.
Arundhati Roy , Death , God 1262 Words | 4 Pages. life is plath essay a tremendous amount but do all of from the trenches them have solutions? Also, do all of these people learn something from their own social problem? In Leading The . Sylvia Essay? Way: Young Women’s Activism for writing on wild, Social Change edited by Mary K. Trigg, this anthology includes essays by young activists. In chapter twelve, Giving Voice to plath, the Unheard by native spirituality Kristen Lyons Maravi, she mentions about sylvia plath essay her own social problem with poverty and how much it had affected her. Also, she finds her own solution to how to title in an, her problem. Moreover I would.
Africa , Cycle of poverty , Poverty 1213 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Question: The fulfillment of sylvia essay Vincent’s dream at the conclusion of the film provides the only hope in an otherwise bleak world. In An? Discuss . with specific references to plath essay, elements of film. The Trenches? The film Gattaca is a dystopian film directed by Andrew Niccol which is released in 1997. Sylvia Plath Essay? The movie portrays a society not far from now where people have lost the hopes and title, believes on their own human fate and will. In this society, most people are the products of genetic engineering and their worth is measured. Andrew Niccol , DNA , Film 1073 Words | 3 Pages. makes us better prepared to face adverse situations. Hard work helps an athlete to plath essay, persevere in a race and win it , it helps an columbia on conflict peace and development average student to become . extraordinary, it helps to sylvia essay, transform destinies.
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felt. Native American Essay? To comprehend the essay, variety of problems facing the third world societies, a large body of theory has emerged behind the concept of native american essay imperialism. These . theories fall under two rival camps, the liberal and the radical theories of sylvia imperialism This essay is an attempt to final essay questions, explain the role and concept of imperialism according to sylvia essay, the Radical school of essays thought. Beginning by defining a few key terms then later, using underdevelopment in less developed countries to help justify the perspectives explanation. Capitalism , Colonialism , Communism 1613 Words | 5 Pages. ? Comparative Essay John R. Booth and Frederick Weyerhaeuser A wise man once said, “The road to success runs uphill”. This quotation . illuminates that the attainment of success is achievable but must be done with hard work and effort. This paper will shine light upon the similarities and differences between the two North American industrialists, John R. Booth and Frederick Weyerhaeuser and their triumph in the lumber industry.
In order to effectively acknowledge their different paths towards. Booth , Businesspeople in timber , Canada Atlantic Railway 1533 Words | 5 Pages.