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Laws Of Life Essays Essays and Research Papers. four main sources of law in England, legislation or Statute Law , common law , European Union law and . the European Convention on Human Rights the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK) consists of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Some law applies throughout the aristotle prime essay whole of the a scholarship UK this essay will discuss the mover operation of Precedent, the role played by the Court hierarchical and law reporting Question 1 the different sources of law in burgess model England There. Common law , Council of Europe , European Convention on aristotle prime mover essay, Human Rights 1439 Words | 5 Pages. UNIVERSIDAD AUTONOMA DE NUEVO LEON FACULTAD DE CONTADURIA PUBLICA Y ADMINISTRACION LICENCIADO EN NEGOCIOS INTERNACIONALES LAW V Abraham . Garcia Final Project “The Associated Press vs. Fairey” Priscila Casanova Villalpando ID# 1444411 Juan Carlos Marx Gomez ID#1536312 A ciudad universitaria, Nuevo leon. 20 de mayo 2013 The Associated Press vs. Fairey A PHOTO FINISH? COPYRIGHT AND SHEPARD FAIREY’S USE OF A NEWS PHOTO IMAGE OFTHE PRESIDENT Shelly Rosenfeld “Most importantly, I am. Associated Press , Barack Obama , Copyright 863 Words | 3 Pages. believe that my thesis statement is very effective. * 3.Have I included enough details so the reader can visualize my experience? * The details . included in my essay should give the reader a clear view on my experience. * 4.Are the events presented in summer programs school a logical sequence? * The events included in my essay are presented in a logical sequence. Aristotle Prime! * 5.Have I used transitions to help the and peace sequence of events flow smoothly? * I have used transitions to help t sequence of.
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If another. Aristotle Onassis , Inheritance , Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis 2439 Words | 7 Pages. Family Law Assessment Part 2: Essay ‘Evaluate the programs high school effectiveness of the law in achieving justice for parties . involved in relationship breakdowns.’ Society’s changing social values towards the prime mover essay notion of ‘family’ has resulted in the legal system attempting to reform the law to reflect these changes. On Communal Riots In India! Due to aristotle prime essay, the range of care planning family types that exist today, relationship breakdowns have become complex. The legal system aims to provide a fair and equitable outcome for parties; however, this is a challenge due.
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a reference and that makes it easier to proceed to the next sentence. Prime Mover! In addition to that, I write down the important events and highlight the words and . Short On Good Habits! characters. I also proofread my paper to ensure it is error free. In order to write a good essay or paper, it is necessary to be in a peaceful environment to avoid distractions. Aristotle Prime Mover Essay! Next, I just scribble down whatever comes to my mind that is related to the topic. After a while, I would read what I’ve written and choose the ideas that would have good. English-language films , Essay , Linguistics 1140 Words | 3 Pages.
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Differences between Common Law And Civil Law This paper is aimed analysing the differences between common . law and civil law in the UK and other European countries. It will also explore the theory behind the development of these laws and the segments of short on good habits for kids society that they cater to. Prime! Collin put forth a viewpoint that the increased collision between public law and essay on war contractual practices has led to a disintegration of the former, resulting in the need to aristotle prime, revise the private. Civil law , Common law , Judge 1960 Words | 6 Pages. Part D: Essay Laura Mannella Mr. On Communal In India! Oreskovich CLN4Ua March 7 2011 Political Corruption A French philosopher of the name Jean-Jacques . Rousseau once said “Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. how did this change come about?” In February 2011, several North African nations over threw their leading figure demanding a change in government. The leader Muammar al-Gaddafi, was involved in aristotle essay high political corruption which was finally ended by the citizens of Libya. According to Rousseau. Africa , Human rights , Jean-Jacques Rousseau 897 Words | 3 Pages. systems have both been effective in responding to the need for law reform in modern society. Short On Good Habits! There are four key conditions that have been . Aristotle Prime Essay! identified as influencing the need for change to law . Both the parliament through statute law and the courts through common law have important roles to play in bringing about effective change.
One important condition that gives rise to law reform is the changing of social values. Short Essay On Good! This means reforming laws to mover, suit the changes in society. Short Essay! Social values are standards. Civil law , Common law , Criminal justice 927 Words | 3 Pages. ? Law is necessary for the effective operation of a society as it ensures the aristotle prime essay protection of a population and certifies that justice is fair. On Good Habits For Kids! . The law is essential as if it was non-existent, society would descend to aristotle prime, anarchy. The law is in place to protect the essay on war and peace whole of society, especially weaker individuals or groups within a community.
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Computer , Computer program , Database management system 1132 Words | 4 Pages. _____________________________________ Date ________________________________ Period ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed . Aristotle Prime! final drafts are due on _______________________ at the beginning of the period. Your graded final draft will be placed in your portfolio. Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. Summer Programs High School! Use one of the “hooks” from the six choices on mover, side 2. Don’t forget to let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family, friends, relationships, house, and. Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages. Consider the view that there is a close relationship between law and morality. Examine the debate as to whether the law should . reflect moral values, and discuss issues, which show the continuing importance of that debate. Short On Good Habits For Kids! (30marks + 5 for AO3) A definition of prime law adapted from LB Curzon, Dictionary of Law states “ the law is programs, a set of rules which are binding among the people of aristotle essay a community or a state, so that they will be imposed upon and enforced among those persons by appropriate sanctions”.
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The Bill of Rights is instilled into our constitution to aristotle prime mover, protect the citizens of the United States from summer programs high school unfair and unjust. Crime , Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourth Amendment to aristotle mover essay, the United States Constitution 1585 Words | 7 Pages. constitutional framework is that it is considered a constitutional monarchy. Discuss what is meant by “constitutional monarchy” before going on to provide a . detailed evaluation of the powers of the royal prerogative in the twenty-first century. This essay will look at what is meant by care process, “constitutional monarchy”, before going on prime mover, to look at and evaluate the powers of the short essay habits for kids royal prerogative in the twenty-first century. Constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form of constitutional. Absolute monarchy , Constitution , Constitutional monarchy 1952 Words | 6 Pages.
? Essay Questions 2011 ‘Our parliamentary democracy is based on the rule of law . One of the twin principles upon mover which the . rule of law depends is the supremacy of Parliament in essay on good for kids its legislative capacity. The other principle is that the courts are the final arbiters as to the interpretation and application of the mover essay law . As both Parliament and the courts derive their authority from the summer programs school rule of aristotle essay law so both are subject to it and can not act in a manner which involves its repudiation.’ (Lord Woolf. Common law , Judicial review , Law 2046 Words | 6 Pages. ?Legal Essay – Consumer Law “Discuss whether the current law adequately protects consumers.” A consumer can be . And Peace! defined as someone who buys the prime goods or services purchased for geography, private use or consumption. The effectiveness of the law in protecting consumers has been effective but also non-effective because an assessment of its effectiveness can only be reached by a realisation of the development of consumer law in Australia. The legislation applies legal measures like laws such as the mover essay Trade Practices. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission , Consumer , Consumer protection 1257 Words | 4 Pages. Assess the view that changes in the law are the main cause of rising divorce rates (16 Marks) Over the on good habits years people’s opinions of aristotle prime mover essay divorce . have changed rapidly. School! The divorce rate has increased since 1940. Many argue the divorce rate has increased because of the change in society or the rising expectations of aristotle mover marriage.
Whereas others disagree and model coursework argue that it is because of the changes in law that divorce rates have increased. Divorce has become more socially accepted and there is less social disapproval. Alimony , Annulment , Divorce 1316 Words | 4 Pages. “In three words I can sum up everything I've learned about life : it goes on.” There have been many instances where this quote has . definitely been applicable in my life . Feeling like the whole world was crashing down on me, depressed over a certain obstacle that I, try as I might, could never seem to overcome; or on a more frequent note - having essay assignments practically ruining my otherwise carefree mood for the day. But I believe that no matter how difficult the situation is, there.
2006 albums , A Better Tomorrow , Academic term 619 Words | 2 Pages. ?General Intro to Law Essay Outline Summary of the Case: -The Roffey brothers agreed to mover, a contract with Shepherds Bush . Housing Association stating they were going to planning essay, renovate 27 flats in Twynholm Mansions in prime mover London. Help With Essay! -The Roffey brothers subcontracted the carpentry to Lester Williams for ?20,000 which included a payment plan. Prime! -Part of the job was done. Care Planning Process! ?16,200 was paid. -Lester Williams ran into financial difficulty. The price was too low. -Now the aristotle essay Roffey Brothers were in trouble because. Appeal , Consideration , Contract 846 Words | 3 Pages. Law of Life “Live as if you were to on communal riots, die tomorrow, learn as if you were to live forever” (Gandhi). Although this one sentence . may not have a very big impact in your mind, it does for me. No, it is not because it was said by aristotle prime mover essay, Gandhi, but because it has a certain meaning to it that cannot be expressed in words. It is process essay, that one meaning that we all strive to find in aristotle mover our own separate laws of life . Many do actually find their interpretation, however what one approves as one’s interpretation of a quote. Phrase , Poverty , Sentence 644 Words | 2 Pages. Online Environment and the Law Essay.
Online Environment and riots in india the Law Essay Jay Baldwin Jennifer Riedthaler BUS 225 December 8, 2009 . I have read and understand the plagiarism policy as outlined in the syllabus and the sections in the Student Bulletin relating to the IWU Honesty/Cheating Policy. Mover Essay! By affixing this statement to the title page of my paper, I certify that I have not cheated or plagiarized in the process of completing this assignment. If it is found that cheating and/or plagiarism. Broker , Cartel , Competition 1118 Words | 4 Pages. 24 Weeks In 1973 when the abortion law was changed with the landmark case, Roe v. Wade, many states scrambled to change their pre-existing . laws regarding abortion in order to comply with new Federal regulations. With haste often come mistakes and oversights. Michigan law fails to clearly identify the point of gestation in which an elective abortion is no longer legal; it simply states abortions are illegal past the point of viability. Abortion clinics in on war and peace Michigan offer abortions up to 24 weeks. Abortion , Abortion in the United States , Abortion law 1045 Words | 3 Pages. laws and policies affect family life. ? “Examine the ways in which laws and social policies affect family life ” To start with a social policy is an initiative or plan . that the government would put in place to try and fix a problem or to make a positive change in society.
Various political and social groups have different opinions on social policies, for prime, example in the UK conservatives are very right wing and as of the moment Mr Osborne is proposing to save ?10billion by making cuts across the model board in aristotle prime its welfare fund. Short Essay On Good! The Labour party. Conservatism , Family , Feminism 1063 Words | 3 Pages. bdfbdsfhglkshadlkg skfg dfhdskfhkdfh sdkgnhnsdg;hl hdsglhsdlgnhlsdghlAnti Essays Search JOIN LOGIN HELP CONTACT How To Be Happy In . Aristotle! Life Essay Below is a free essay on essay and peace, How To Be Happy In Life from aristotle prime Anti Essays , your source for free research papers, essays , and term paper examples. ESL 112-03 October 04, 2010 How to Be Happy in essay and peace Life Happiness is a state of mind or feeling characterized by. Citation , Essay , Essays 584 Words | 4 Pages.
cessation of all vital functions in a living creature; it is the end of life . Monism is the belief that the body and soul are one entity. . Aristotle, for essay, example, spoke of the body and soul being a harmony. Summer Programs School! For Aristotle, the soul is aristotle, form: it is a non-physical aspect of programs humans, which allows the body to achieve its potential, and without the body, the soul would be of aristotle essay no use as it would be unrecognisable. It is possible to base a theory of life after death on a monistic position. John Hick refers to humans. Death , Heaven , Life 1670 Words | 5 Pages.
Life support laws for pregnant women. efforts of the medical staff, it is confirmed that your partner will never regain consciousness. She is legally declared ‘brain-dead’. She is on communal in india, 14 weeks . pregnant, making your choice about life support all the more difficult. Ultimately, taking into aristotle prime mover, account previous discussions with your partner, you decide to suspend life -sustaining treatment, which is your right as next of kin. But the Government tells you that you are no longer entitled the essays on communal in india right to decide what’s best for your wife and unborn. Abortion , Death , Family 1017 Words | 3 Pages. The Essay “Luka and the Fire of Life ” is a nove written by prime essay, Salman Rushdie. The novel is about a twelve year old boy named . Luka Khalifa, and his father, Rushid Khalifa.
His father had fallen into a very deep coma, hearing nothing and no one. Luka met a holographic version of his father, named Nobodaddy. Nobodaddy knows the only method to retrieve Luka’s father back to life , or awaken him. He has to steal the fire of life from the world of magic. Luka, Nobodaddy, his pet bear and dog set forth. Curse , Father , God 1009 Words | 3 Pages. The scenario of this case a very complex matter in terms of the law , on the one hand you have the high school breach of gun/firearms laws and aristotle mover . criminal negligence and on the other hand you have involuntary harm to another person. Essay On Good Habits! In order to hold the correct person liable, we must first examine the core facts and issues of this case which will enable the application of the prime essay law to these facts, allowing the DPP to be advised in the most suitable and accurate manner. The first and foremost issue to be noted in.
Criminal law , Criminal negligence , Manslaughter 1217 Words | 3 Pages. ?Adam Simon May 8, 2014 Baldwin Period 7 Honors Biology Human Life Extension There are many different pros and programs school cons of genetically engineering . the mover human lifespan. Some argue that if the average lifespan were to be increased, it would lead to the overpopulation of the world, resulting in risen poverty levels and damage to the environment. With the on communal riots effect of living long, some people could be in prime mover essay terrible health conditions for many years without dying, in which they would no longer want to live. This. Aging , Death , Gerontology 1032 Words | 4 Pages. ENG4U-01 April 13th, 2013 Life of Pi: Quest or Enlightenment Over the course of this unit, I have read the so called “ life . Riots! changing” novel “The Life of Pi” by Yann Martel.
This work of art happens to be a national best seller and has collected many literature awards. Piscine Molitor Patel, the young Indian protagonist is faced with a traumatic set of aristotle mover essay events which developed into a marvelous story of planning essay a castaway’s voyage, in the heart of the Pacific Ocean. This essay will discuss the aristotle mover essay essential factors. Canada Reads , Canongate Books , Life of Pi 1685 Words | 4 Pages. organisations to undertake action in attempt to burgess geography coursework, achieve justice and equality throughout the aristotle prime essay world, ensuring the safety of all people. Although, it is burgess coursework, clear . that there are many so-called “grey areas” in the legal issues surrounding this event, this essay will seek to clarify any misconceptions that were misconstrued by aristotle mover essay, media-related sources, in terms of how justice WAS achieved post September 11.
After the world as we knew it took a dramatic change on the 11th of September 2001, many feared for. Al-Qaeda , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Osama bin Laden 1602 Words | 5 Pages. Karen Ramirez Pre-IB English/ Mr. Ratner 3/1/10 6th period Word count: 862 Life of Pi Essay Many people that are religious . look to God for guidance and comfort. Especially in disastrous situations. In Yann Martel’s novel, Life of planning process Pi, the theme of will to aristotle prime essay, survive is presented and demonstrated as having faith, letting animal instincts take over, and determination.
Pi keeping his faith shows how strong his faith in essay and peace God is. He discusses some Hindu symbolism to aristotle mover, describe how insignificant he feels. Atheism , God , Instinct 891 Words | 3 Pages. ? Life factors and events essay I been looking at the case study of Vera Bisset life , I have noticed that Vera has . Model Geography! had many factors that have potentially affected her development. These factors would have affected her Emotional, Social, Physical, intellectual and language. Some on the factors I will be talking about aristotle prime mover are Genetic, Biological, Environmental, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle. So in this essay I will be pointing at short on good habits for kids out the aristotle mover essay factors that have affected her development and short habits will be telling you. Affect , Child development , Developmental psychology 1915 Words | 5 Pages. ?PAGE ? MEANING OF LIFE ESSAY What is the meaning of prime mover essay life ? Many agree that the answer depends on the person . asking the question.
When Albert Camus and Richard Taylor decide to answer this question, they must take an in-depth look into the real and mythological worlds to arrive at a concise answer to this question that has baffled so many. Both have similar views with subtle differences - however Taylor's view is the more accurate of the two. When looking into the biological world, Taylor clearly. Absurdism , Albert Camus , Existentialism 1783 Words | 5 Pages. ? Laws Affect My Life If someone were to ask me, What has the government done for you today?
I would most likely say nothing, . but as I researched I have looked back on summer high school, my past and aristotle prime mover essay my present. I have realized realized that through the years I have really noticed that laws do hold a foundation on my everyday life as well as others. Laws are principles and regulations that are established under the authority of the state and/or the nation. They help to form the foundation for a country that protects. Fair Labor Standards Act , Income tax , Income tax in the United States 1660 Words | 5 Pages. English Essay Topic 2: Which characters in programs school the book Secret Life contributes most to aristotle, the healing of Lily’s wounds? Who? * . The Boatwright sisters * Zach * T-ray Wounds? * Killing her mother by short habits for kids, accidents when she was 4 years old * Never having the mother figure in her life * Having a father who doesn’t care about prime mover her, hurting her * Feeling like she can’t be loved * Not being told about her mother The Boatwright sisters: * Helped fill in the gap as the mother. Abuse , Family , Love 1320 Words | 4 Pages.
Labour law also known as employment law deals with the burgess coursework body of laws , administrative rulings and precedents which . Aristotle Mover Essay! addresses the legal rights of and restrictions on working people and essays on communal riots their organizations1. The direct function of mover essay labour law is that it deals with the summer high school rules governing employment relationship. Labour law functions through the role accorded by common law , legislation and is helped also by the extra legal sources such as the customs and collective bargaining. Aristotle Prime Mover! Labour law is divided in to help with, two. Employment , Employment Appeal Tribunal , Employment compensation 2823 Words | 7 Pages. Life of Pi Final Essay Now zoos have come a long way from what they used to . be. No more do we see too many animals crammed into one small cage.
Their habitats are made to prime, mimic the animals natural habitats, they are often very large, with watering holes, small rock formations and much more. So my answer is no. Zoos are not abusive towards animals and are very important in our modern era. They are very important for the conservation. Canada Reads , Habitat , Life of Pi 793 Words | 5 Pages.
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MICROSOFT'S C# PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE. The C# language is an object-oriented language that is aimed at enabling programmers to prime mover essay, quickly build a wide range of applications for process the Microsoft .NET platform. The goal of mover essay, C# and the .NET platform is to shorten development time by freeing the developer from worrying about several low level plumbing issues such as memory management, type safety issues, building low level libraries, array boundschecking , etc. thus allowing developers to actually spend their time and energy working on essay on war, their application and business logic instead. As a Java developer the previous sentence could be described as a short description of the Java language and platform if the words C# and the .NET platform were replaced with words Java and the Java platform. What follows is an overview of similarities and differences between the language features and libraries of the C# and Java programming languages based on my experience using both languages. All code snippets below were tested on aristotle essay, Microsoft's .NET Framework version 2.0 for C# snippets and Java#8482; Platform, Standard Edition version 6 for the Java snippets. Just like Java, C# has a single rooted class hierarchy where all classes in C# are subclasses of System.Object the same way all Java classes are subclasses of java.lang.Object . Essay? The methods of the two languages' Object classes share some similarities (e.g.
System.Object's ToString() to java.lang.Object's toString()) and differences ( System.Object does not have analogs to wait(), notify() or notifyAll() in java.lang.Object ). There are a large number of aristotle, syntactic similarities between Java and short habits for kids, C#, similarly almost every Java keyword has a C# equivalent except for a few like transient, throws and strictfp. Below is a table of Java and C# keywords with the Java keywords in red while the equivalent C# keywords are in blue. NOTE: Although goto and const are Java language keywords they are unused in the Java language. NOTE: The [NonSerialized] attribute in C# is equivalent to the transient keyword in Java. Just like Java is mover typically compiled to Java byte code which then runs in managed execution environment (the Java Virtual Machine or JVM) so also is C# code compiled to an Intermediate Language (IL) which then runs in the Common Language Runtime (CLR). Both platforms support native compilation via Just In Time compilers. In Java objects are created on the heap using the new keyword.
Most classes in C# are created on the heap by using the essay new keyword. Also just as the JVM manages the destruction of objects so also does the CLR via a Mark and Compact garbage collection algorithm. In languages like C and C++, each subarray of a multidimensional array must have the same dimensions. In Java and C# arrays do not have to be uniform because jagged arrays can be created as one-dimensional arrays of arrays. In a jagged array the contents of the array are arrays which may hold instances of a type or references to other arrays.
For this reason the rows and columns in a jagged array need not have uniform length as can be seen from the following code snippet: The above code snippet is valid for both C# and Java. Just like Java and unlike C++, methods in C# have to be part of a class either as member or static methods. C#, like Java, supports the concept of an interface which is akin to a pure abstract class. Similarly C# and Java both allow only aristotle prime, single inheritance of and peace, classes but multiple inheritance (or implementation) of interfaces. C# has a System.String class which is analogous to aristotle, the java.lang.String class. Essays On Communal In India? Both classes are immutable meaning that the values of the strings cannot be changed once the strings have been created. In both instances methods that appear to modify the actual content of a string actually create a new string to return, leaving the original string unchanged. Thus the aristotle prime essay following C# and Java code does not modify the string in essays riots in india either case. To create a string-like object that allows modification in C# it is advisable to use the System.Text.StringBuilder class whereas in Java one would use the java.lang.StringBuffer class. Both Java and C# provide mechanisms to specify that a class should be the last one in an inheritance hierarchy and cannot be used as a base class.
In Java this is done by preceding the class declaration with the mover essay final keyword while in C# this is done by preceding the class declaration with the sealed keyword. Below are examples of classes that cannot be extended in either language. NOTE: Although exceptions in both languages support methods for getting a stack trace, only Java exceptions have methods that allow one to alter the stack trace. Instance and static variables can be initialized at their point of definition in both C# and Java. If the essays on communal member variable is an instance variable, then initialization occurs just before the constructor is called. Static members are initialized sometime before the first usage of the member and before the first creation of an instance of the class. Aristotle Prime Mover? It is also possible to specify a block of code that should run before the care process essay class is used either via creation of an instance variable or invocation of a static method. These code blocks are called are called static constructors in C# and static initialization blocks in Java. Static constructors are invoked before the first invocation of a static method in aristotle the class and before the first time an instance of the class is created. In situations where value types need to be treated as objects, the .NET and Java runtimes automatically converts value types to objects by wrapping them within a heap-allocated reference type in a process called boxing . The process of automatically convert an object to its corresponding value type such as converting an instance of java.lang.Integer to an int is known as unboxing . Below are examples of various situations where boxing occurs in both runtimes. It is essays on communal riots typically recommended that one creates a main method for each class in an application to test the aristotle functionality of that class besides whatever main method actually drives the on war application.
For instance it is possible to have two classes, A and B, which both contain main methods. Prime Essay? In Java, since a class is the unit of burgess coursework, compilation then all one has to do is invoke the specific class one wants run via the command line to run its main method. In C# one can get the same effect by aristotle prime mover essay compiling the application with the /main switch to specify which main should be used as the starting point of the application when the a scholarship executable is aristotle prime created. Using test mains in combination with conditional compilation via preprocessor directives is on communal a powerful testing technique. So in Java's favor, one doesn't have to recompile to change which main is used by the application while a recompile is needed in a C# application. However, On the aristotle other hand, Java doesn't support conditional compilation, so the main method will be part of even your released classes.
C# uses C++ syntax for inheritance, both for class inheritance and interface implementation as opposed to the extends and implements keywords. Since C# is aimed at transitioning C++ developers the above syntax is understandable although Java developers may pine for help with essay the Java syntax especially since it is aristotle mover essay clear from looking at the class declaration in the Java version whether the summer class is subclassing a class or simply implementing an interface while it isn't in the C# version without intimate knowledge of all the classes involved. Although it should be noted that in .NET naming conventions, interface names have an upper-case I prepended to their names (as in IClonable), so this isn't an issue for programs that conform to mover essay, standard naming conventions. A C# namespace is a way to group a collection of classes and is used in a manner similar to Java's package construct. Users of care essay, C++ will notice the similarities between the C# namespace syntax and that in C++.
In Java, the prime mover essay package names dictate the directory structure of source files in an application whereas in C# namespaces do not dictate the school physical layout of source files in directories only their logical structure. Examples below: C# namespace syntax also allows one to nest namespaces in the following way. The syntax and semantics for constructors in C# is prime essay identical to essay on good habits, that in aristotle essay Java. C# also has the concept of destructors which use syntax similar to C++ destructor syntax but have the mostly the summer programs same semantics as Java finalizers. Although finalizers exist doing work within them is not encouraged for a number of reasons including the fact that there is no way to control the order of finalization which can lead to interesting problems if objects that hold references to each other are finalized out of order. Finalization also causes more overhead because objects with finalizers aren't removed after the garbage collection thread runs but instead are eliminated after the finalization thread runs which means they have to be maintained in prime the system longer than objects without finalizers.
Below are equivalent examples in C# and summer programs high, Java. NOTE: In C#, destructors(finalizers) automatically call the base class finalizer after executing which is not the case in Java. Both C# and Java support the concept of synchronized methods. Prime Essay? Whenever a synchronized method is called, the thread that called the method locks the object that contains the method. Care Essay? Thus other threads cannot call a synchronized method on the same object until the object is unlocked by the first thread when it finishes executing the synchronized method.
Synchronized methods are marked in Java by using the synchronized keyword while in prime C# it is done by annotating the method with the [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.Synchronized)] attribute. Examples of synchronized methods are shown below. Below is a table mapping C# access modifiers to Java's. C++ fans who were disappointed when Sun changed the semantics of the burgess geography protected keyword in Java 2 will be happy to note that the C# protected keyword has the same semantics as the C++ version. Aristotle Prime Essay? This means that a protected member can only be accessed by member methods in that class or member methods in summer programs school derived classes but is inaccessible to any other classes. The internal modifier means that the member can be accessed from aristotle essay, other classes in the same assembly as the class. The internal protected modifier means that a member can be accessed from classes that are in the same assembly or from derived classes. NOTE: The default accessibility of a C# field or method when no access modifier is specified is private while in Java it is care planning process essay protected (except that derived classes from outside the package cannot inherit the field). One might notice from the above code samples that there is slightly more granularity in the C# Reflection API than the Java Reflection API as can be seen by aristotle mover essay the fact that C# has a ParameterInfo class which contains metadata about the programs school parameters of a Method while Java uses Class objects for that which lose some information such as the prime mover essay name of the parameter.
Sometimes there is help a scholarship a need to obtain the metadata of a specific class encapsulated as an object. This object is the java.lang.Class object in Java and the System.Type object in aristotle C#. High School? To retrieve this metadata class from an instance of the target class, the getClass() method is used in Java while the GetType() method is used in C#. If the name of the class is known at compile time then one can avoid creating an instance of the class just to obtain the metadata class by doing the following. To declare constants in Java the final keyword is used. Final variables can be set either at compile time or run time. Mover? In Java, when the final is used on a primitive it makes the value of the primitive immutable while when used on object references it makes the school reference constant meaning that the reference can only point to only one object during its lifetime. Final members can be left uninitialized when declared but then must be defined in the constructor. To declare constants in C# the const keyword is used for compile time constants while the readonly keyword is used for runtime constants. The semantics of constant primitives and object references in C# is the same as in Java. Unlike C++, it is not possible to specify an immutable class via language constructs in either C# or Java.
Neither is it possible to create a reference through which it's impossible to modify a mutable object. NOTE: The Java language also supports having final parameters to a method. This functionality is non-existent in C#. C# and Java automatically call base class constructors, and both provide a way to call the constructor of the base class with specific parameters. Similarly both languages enforce that the call to the base class constructor occurs before any initializations in the derived constructor which prevents the derived constructor from using members that are yet to aristotle essay, be initialized. The C# syntax for calling the base class constructor is essay on war and peace reminiscent of the C++ initializer list syntax. Both languages also provide a way to aristotle mover essay, call a constructor from another which allows one to reduce the amount of code duplication that can occur in constructors. This practice is typically called constructor chaining.
In C and on war, C++ it is possible to specify that a function takes a variable number of arguments. This functionality is used extensively in the printf and scanf family of functions. Both C# and Java allow one to define a parameter that indicates that a variable number of arguments are accepted by a method. In C#, the mechanism for specifying that a method accepts a variable number of arguments is by prime essay using the burgess model geography coursework params keyword as a qualifier to aristotle mover essay, the last argument to the method which should be an array. In Java, the same effect is achieved by appending the string . to the typename of the last argument to short essay on good, the method. Both C# and Java provide a mechanism for creating strongly typed data structures without knowing the specific types at compile time. Prior to aristotle, the existence of the Generics feature set, this capability was achieved by specifying the type of the objects within the data structure as Object then casting to specific types at runtime.
This technique had several drawbacks including lack of type safety, poor performance and code bloat. The following code sample shows how one would calculate the sum of all the integers in a collection using generics and using a collection of Objects so that both approaches can be compared. Although similar in care process essay concept to templates in C++, the Generics feature in C# and Java is not implemented similarly. In Java, the generic functionality is aristotle prime mover implemented using type erasure . Specifically the generic type information is present only at compile time, after which it is erased by the compiler and all the type declarations are replaced with Object . Help A Scholarship? The compiler then automatically inserts casts in the right places. The reason for this approach is that it provides total interoperability between generic code and legacy code that doesn't support generics. The main problem with type erasure is that the generic type information is not available at run time via reflection or run time type identification. Aristotle Mover? Another consequence of this approach is that generic data structures types must always be declared using objects and not primitive types. Thus one must create StackInteger instead of Stackint when working integers.
In C#, there is burgess model geography explicit support for generics in the .NET runtime's instruction language (IL). Mover? When the generic type is essay compiled, the generated IL contains place holders for specific types. At runtime, when an initial reference is made to aristotle prime, a generic type (e.g. Listint ) the system looks to see if anyone already asked for the type or not. On Communal? If the type has been previously requested, then the previously generated specific type is returned. If not, the JIT compiler instantiates a new type by replacing the generic type parameters in the IL with the specific type (e.g. replacing ListT with Listint ). It should be noted that if the requested type is a reference type as opposed to a value type then the generic type parameter is replaced with Object . Aristotle? However there is no casting done internally by the .NET runtime when accessing the type. In certain cases, one may need create a method that can operate on essay, data structures containing any type as opposed to those that contain a specific type (e.g. a method to print all the objects in aristotle a data structure) while still taking advantage of the programs benefits of strong typing in generics. Aristotle Prime Mover Essay? The mechanism for habits specifying this in C# is via a feature called generic type inferencing while in aristotle Java this is done using wildcard types . The following code samples show how both approaches lead to the same result. Both C# and essay, Java provide mechanisms for specifying constraints on generic types. In C# there are three types of constraints that can be applied to generic types A derivation constraint indicates to the compiler that the generic type parameter derives from a base type such an interface or a particular base class A default constructor constraint indicates to the compiler that the generic type parameter exposes a public default constructor A reference/value type constraint constrains the generic type parameter to be a reference or a value type.
In Java, only the derivation constraint is supported. The following code sample shows how constraints are used in practice. C# also includes the default operator which returns the default value for a type. The default value for reference types is null , and the default value for aristotle mover value types (such as integers, enum, and structures) is summer programs high a zero whitewash (filling the structure with zeros). This operator is very useful when combined with generics. Aristotle? The following code sample excercises the functionality of this operator. The for-each loop is an iteration construct that is popular in a number of scripting languages (e.g. Perl, PHP, Tcl/Tk), build tools (GNU Make) and essay habits for kids, function libraries (e.g. Aristotle Essay? for_each in algorithm in with essay C++).
The for-each loop is a less verbose way to iterate through arrays or classes that implement the the System.Collections.IEnumerable interface in C# or the java.lang.Iterable interface in Java. In C#, the keywords foreach and in are used when creating the for-each loop while in Java the keyword for and the operator : are used. Metadata annotations provide a powerful way to extend the capabilities of a programming language and the language runtime. These annotations can be directives that request the runtime to perform certain additional tasks, provide extra information about an item or extend the abilities of a type. Metadata annotations are common in a number of programming environments including Microsoft's COM and the Linux kernel. Aristotle Prime? C# attributes provide a way to add annotations (i.e. metadata) to a module, type, method, parameter or member variable. Below are descriptions of a few attributes that are intrinsic to on communal in india, .NET and how they are used to extend the essay capabilities of the C#. [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.Synchronized)] : is programs school used to specify that a access to aristotle prime, a method by burgess multiple threads is protected by a lock to prevent concurrent access to the method and is similar to aristotle prime mover essay, the synchronized in Java. It is possible to short on good, access the attributes of a module, class, method or field via reflection. This is particularly useful for seeing if a class supports certain behavior at runtime or for extracting metadata about a class for usage by aristotle prime mover essay others.
Developers can create their own custom attributes by subclassing the System.Attribute class. What follows is an example of using an attribute to provide information about the author of a class then using reflection to access that information. Java annotations provide a way to add annotations (i.e. metadata) to an package, type, method, parameter, member or local variable. Essay On War? There are only three built-in annotations provided in the Java language which are listed below. @Override : is used to specify that a method is intended to override a method in a base class. If the prime annotated method does not override a method in the base class then an error is issued during compilation. As in C# it is possible to access the annotations on a module, class, method or field via reflection. However a key difference between C# attributes and essay, Java annotations is aristotle mover that one can create meta-annotations (i.e. Essays Riots? annotations on annotations) in Java but can not do the same in C#. Developers can create their own custom annotations by creating an annotation type which is mover essay similar to an interface except that the keyword @interface is used to define it.
What follows is an burgess geography coursework, example of using an prime mover, attribute to provide information about the author of essay and peace, a class then using reflection to mover, access that information. Enums are used to create and short essay on good for kids, group together a list of user defined named constants. Although on the surface the enumerated types in C# and Java seem quite similar there are some significant differences in aristotle mover essay the implementation of enumerated types in both languages. In Java, enumerated types are a full fledged class which means they are typesafe and can be extended by adding methods, fields or even implementing interfaces. Whereas in C#, an enumerated type is simply syntactic sugar around an integral type (typically an short on good habits, int ) meaning they cannot be extended and are not typesafe. Aristotle Prime Mover? The following code sample highlights the short essay on good for kids differences between enums in aristotle both languages. In Java and C# it is possible to nest class declarations within each other. In Java there are two kinds of nested classes; non-static nested classes also known as inner classes and static nested classes. A Java inner class can be considered as a one-to-one relationship between the inner class and its enclosing class where for each instance of the enclosing class there exists a corresponding instance of the inner class that has access to the enclosing class's instance variables and contains no static methods. Summer School? On the other hand a Java static nested class is a similar to prime, nesting a class decaration within another where the help with a scholarship nested class has access to the static members and methods of the enclosing class. C# has the equivalent of Java's static nested classes but has nothing analogous to Java's inner classes.
The following nested class declarations below are equivalent. NOTE: In Java a nested class can be declared in aristotle any block of code including methods, this is not the case in C#. The ability to create nested classes in care planning process essay methods in Java may seem unnecessary but combined with anonymous inner classes can provide a means of aristotle prime essay, creating powerful design patterns. A thread is a sequential flow of control within a program. A program or process can have multiple threads running concurrently all of which may share data or run independently while performing tasks. A Scholarship? Threads are powerful in that they allow a developer to perform multiple tasks at once in a single program or process. Advantages of aristotle prime mover essay, threads include exploiting parallelism in multiprocessor architectures, reducing execution time by being able to perform tasks while waiting on a blocking system calls (such as printing or other I/O), and avoiding freezing in GUI applications. Java threads are created by subclassing the process java.lang.Thread class and overriding its run() method or by implementing the aristotle prime mover java.lang.Runnable interface and implementing the run() method.
Whereas in C#, one creates a thread by model geography creating a new System.Threading.Thread object and passing it a System.Threading.ThreadStart delegate which is initialized with the method that is to be run as a thread. Thus, in Java a method that shall run in a multithreaded context is designed up front specifically with that in mind. On the other hand, in C# any method can be passed to a ThreadStart object and run in a multithreaded scenario. In Java, every class inherits the wait(), notify() and notifyAll() from aristotle, java.lang.Object which are used for thread operations. The equivalent methods in C# are the Wait(), Pulse() and essay, PulseAll() methods in the System.Threading.Monitor class. The example below shows a scenario where worker threads are dispatched in a specific order and must be processed in the same order upon return. Due to the non-deterministic nature of prime essay, threads, on some runs the threads finish working in summer high school the order they were dispatched in and in other runs they appear out of order and prime essay, thus each thread must wait until its turn comes up. Essay On War And Peace? In many situations one cannot guarantee that the order of execution of a program will be the same as that in aristotle the source code. Reasons for the unexpected ordering of program execution include compiler optimizations that reorder statements or mulitiprocessor systems that fail to store variables in global memory amongst others. To work around this, both C# and Java have the concept of the volatile keyword which is used to tell the essays on communal language runtime that reordering instructions related to accessing such fields is prohibited.
There are major differences in the semantics of volatile in Java and C# which are illustrated in the example below taken from The Double-Checked Locking is Broken Declaration. Although the prime above code snippets seem identical save for the substitution of the synchronized keyword with the lock keyword, the Java version is not guaranteed to work on all JVMs. Currently the process Java Memory Model does not prevent reordering of writes to mover, volatile variables with writes to other variables so it is possible that the habits new object is constructed before the helper reference is made to point at the newly created object meaning that two objects are created. Also it is possible that the helper reference is made to point at a block of memory while the aristotle object is still being created meaning that a reference to an incomplete object will be returned. In C#, the semantics of volatile prevent such problems from model geography, occurring because reads and writes cannot be moved backward or forward across a volatile write. Aristotle? Also in C#, being marked as volatile also prevents the Just In Time compiler from placing the variable in a register and also ensures that the variable is stored in process global memory on multiprocessor systems.
For more information on aristotle essay, the problems with the Java Memory Model and Double-Checked Locking, see the Double-checked locking: Clever, but broken article on Javaworld. Operator overloading allows standard operators in a language to be given new semantics when applied in short essay on good habits the context of a particular class or type. Aristotle Prime? Operator overloading can be used to programs high school, simplify the syntax of certain operations especially when they are performed very often, such as string concatenation in Java or interactions with iterators and collections in the C++ Standard Template Library. Operator overloading is a point of contention for many developers due to the fact that it provides a lot of flexibility and power which makes it prone to aristotle essay, abuse. There is programs high school a tendency for developers to use it poorly by doings like overloading operators in an unintuitive manner (e.g. overloading ++ and -- to connect and disconnect from the network) , overloading operators in a manner inconsistent with their typical use (e.g. overloading [ ] to return a copy of an object at a particular index in a collection instead of a reference to the actual object) or overloading some operators and not others (e.g. overloading but not ). Overloading operators tends to be most useful when the class lends itself intuitively to using that operator. Aristotle Mover Essay? Examples of situations that intuitively suggest that operator overloading would be beneficial are overloading [ ] for use with collections, overloading + and * for use with matrices, overloading mathematical operators for use with complex numbers, and overloading the == and != operators for classes that have some means to measure equality. Below is an example that shows how operator overloading works in C#. NOTE: Unlike C++, C# does not allow the overloading of the following operators; new , ( ) , || , , = , or any variations of compound assignments such as += , -= , etc.
However, compound assignment operators will call overloaded operators, for on war and peace instance, += would call overloaded +. C# assemblies share a lot in common with Java JAR files. An assembly is the fundamental unit of aristotle prime, code packaging in care the .NET environment. Assemblies are self contained and typically contain the intermediate code from compiling classes, metadata about the classes, and any other files needed by aristotle prime the packaged code to perform its task. Since assemblies are the fundamental unit of code packaging, several actions related to essay, interacting with types must be done at the assembly level. For instance, granting of security permissions, code deployment, and versioning are done at the assembly level. Java JAR files perform a similar task in Java with most differences being in the implementation. Assemblies are usually stored as EXEs or DLLs while JAR files are stored in the ZIP file format. A number of popular programming languages contain a collections framework which typically consists of a number of data structures for holding multiple objects as well as algorithms for manipulating the objects within the aforementioned data structures. The primary advantage of a collections framework is that it frees developers from having to write data structures and sort algorithms every time one is needed and instead frees them up to work on the actual application logic. A secondary benefit is that collections frameworks lead to consistency across projects which means the learning curve for new developers using applications that use a collections framework is less steep when compared to a situation where one was not used. The C# collections framework consists of the classes in the System.Collections and prime mover, the System.Collections.Generic namespaces . Summer Programs High? The Systems.Collections namespace contains interfaces and aristotle prime mover, abstract classes that represent abstract data types such as IList, IEnumerable, IDictionary, ICollection, and CollectionBase which enable developers to manipulate data structures independently of summer high, how they are actually implemented as long as the data structures inherit from the abstract data types.
The System.Collections namespace also contains some concrete implementations of data structures such as ArrayList, Stack, Queue, HashTable and SortedList. All four of the concrete data structure implementations enable one to obtain synchronized wrappers to the collection which allows for aristotle essay access in a thread-safe manner. The System.Collections.Generic namespace has generic implementations of the key data structures in the System.Collections namespace including generic ListT, StackT,QueueT, DictionaryK,T and SortedDictionaryK,T classes . The Java collections framework consists of a large number of the help a scholarship classes and interfaces in the java.util package. Instead of having a separate namespace for aristotle prime mover generic collections, the collections in the java.util package have been retrofitted to support generics. The Java collection framework is similar to that in C# except for summer programs high the fact that it can be considered a superset of the C# collection framework since it contains a number of extra features. The Java collection framework contains data structures that are missing from those in C# such as sets and linked lists. Also the Java collections framework not only has methods that enable one to access unsafe collections in a thread safe manner but contains thread-safe versions of most of the data structures as well.
Finally, the Java collections framework has a number of algorithms for manipulating the essay elements within the data structures including algorithms that can do the following; find the largest element based on some Comparator, find the smallest element, find sublists within a list, reverse the contents of a list, shuffle the programs school contents of a list, creates immutable versions of a colection, performs sorts, and binary searches. At the current time, the Java collections framework is more sophisticated than that available in .NET via C#. Unlike Java, C# contains the goto statement which can be used to jump directly from a point in the code to a label. Although much derided, gotos can be used in certain situations to reduce code duplication while enhancing readability. A secondary usage of the goto statement is the aristotle prime mover essay ability to mimic resumeable exceptions like those in Smalltalk, as long as the exception thrown does not cross method boundaries.
NOTE: In C#, one cannot jump into a statement block using the summer programs high goto statement; One of the tenets of object oriented programming is polymorphism. Aristotle Mover Essay? Polymorphism enables one to interact with members of a type hierarchy as generic types instead of dealing with specific types. The means of summer programs high school, implementing polymorphism typically involves having methods in a base class that may be overidden by derived classes. Prime Mover? These methods can be invoked even though the essay on good client has a reference to aristotle mover essay, a base class type which points to an object of the derived class. Such methods are bound at runtime instead of being bound during compilation and are typically called virtual methods. In Java all methods are virtual methods while in burgess geography coursework C#, as in C++, one must explicitly state which methods one wants to be virtual since by default they are not. To mark a method as virtual in C#, one uses the virtual keyword. Aristotle Prime Essay? Also, implementers of a child class can decide to either explicitly override the on war virtual method by using the override keyword or explicitly choose not to by using the new keyword instead. By default, in C#, the behavior of methods in a derived class that have the same signature as those in the base class is as if they were declared with the new keyword.
It is possible to prime mover essay, mark methods as final in Java which means that the method cannot be overridden by derived classes. In C# this can be done by not marking the method as virtual . The major difference is that in C#, the class can still define the method but the with a scholarship essay base class version is the one that will be called if the object is used via a base class reference. Java disallows the derived class from containing a method that has the same signature as the final base class method. Below are examples that show the differences in virtual methods in both languages. The C# example can be made to produce the same output as the Java example by marking the DoStuff(string) method in aristotle prime essay the Parent class as virtual and marking the DoStuff(string) method in the Child class with the with a scholarship essay override keyword. The above example can be made to produce the original results by altering the signature of the DoStuff(string) method in the Child class to. public new void DoStuff(string str) which states that although the DoStuff method is aristotle prime essay virtual in the base class, the riots child class would like to treat it as a non-virtual method. Both languages support performing I/O via Stream classes. Aristotle Prime Essay? The examples below copy the contents of programs school, a file named input.txt to another called output.txt.
Object Persistence also known as Serialization is the ability to aristotle mover essay, read and write objects via a stream such as a file or network socket. Object Persistence is useful in situations where the state of an object must be retained across invocations of a program. Usually in essays in india such cases simply storing data in a flat file is insufficient yet using a Database Management System (DBMS) is overkill. Serialization is also useful as a means of transferring the representation of a class in an automatic and fairly seamless manner. Serializable objects in C# are annotated with the mover [Serializable] attribute. The [NonSerialized] attribute is used to on good, annote members of a C# class that should not be serialized by aristotle essay the runtime. Such fields are usually calculated or temporary values that have no meaning when saved. C# provides two formats for serializing classes; either as XML or in a binary format, the summer school former is more readable by humans and applications while the latter is prime mover more efficient. One can also define custom ways an object is serialized if the standard ways are insufficient by implementing the ISerializable interface.
In Java, serializable objects are those that implement the Serializable interface while the on war and peace transient keyword is used to mark members of essay, a Java class as ones not to essays on communal, be serialized. By default Java supports serializing objects to a binary format but does provide a way of overriding the standard serialization process. Objects that plan to override default serializations can implement methods with the following signatures. Since the above methods are private there is no interface that can be implemented to indicate that a Java class supports custom serialization using readObject and writeObject. For classes that need publicly accessible methods for custom serialization there exists the java.io.Externalizable interface which specifies the readExternal() and writeExternal() for use in customizing how an object is prime read and written to essays riots in india, a stream. Both C# and Java provide a mechanism for extracting specially formatted comments from source code and placing them in an alternate document. These comments are typically API specifications and are very useful way to provide API documentation to the users of a library. The generated documentation is also useful to share the specifications for prime an API between designers, developers and QA.
Javadoc is the tool used to extract API documentation from source code. Javadoc generates HTML documentation from the source code comment, an example of which is the Java#8482; Platform, Standard Edition API Documentation which was all generated using Javadoc. Javadoc can be used to describe information at the package, class, member and method level. Descriptions of classes and member variables can be provided with the option to essays on communal in india, add references to other classes, class members and methods. Javadoc allows one to document the following metadata about a method: Description of the method.
Exceptions thrown by the method. Parameters the method accepts Return type of the method. Associated methods and members. Indication as to aristotle mover, whether the API has been deprecated or not. Version of the API the planning process essay method was first added. Aristotle Prime Mover? The deprecated information is also used by summer school the compiler which issues a warning if a call to a method marked with the deprecated tag is aristotle prime essay encountered during compilation. Javadoc also provides the following information automatically: Inherited API List of care, derived classes List of implementing classes for interfaces Serialized form of the class Alphabetical class listing. Package hierarchy in a tree format. Since Javadoc generates HTML documentation, it is valid to use HTML in Javadoc comments. There is mover essay support for linking the generated documentation with other generated documentation available over help with essay, the web.
Such linking is useful when one wants readers of the documentation to be able to essay, read the API documentation from the related sources. An example of this is the following generated documentation which contains links to programs school, the Java 2 API documentation. If no such linking is specified then the generated documentation contains no links to other API documentation. Below is an example of prime, how Javadoc comments are used. C# uses XML as the format for summer programs high school the documentation.
The generated documentation is an XML file that contains the metadata specified by the user with very little additional information generated automatically. Aristotle Prime Essay? All the C# XML documentation tags have an analogous Javadoc construct while the same cannot be said for the Javadoc tags having C# XML documentation analogs. For instance, the default C# XML documentation does not have analogs to Javadoc's @author , @version , or @deprecated tags although such metadata can be generated by reflecting on the assembly, as Microsoft's documentation build process does. Care Process? One could also create custom tags that are analogous to the Javadoc tags and more but they would be ignored by standard tools used for handling C# XML documentation including Visual Studio.NET. Also of aristotle, note is that C#'s XML documentation when generated does not contain metadata about the class such as listings of inherited API, derived classes or implementing interfaces. Here is an example of an XML file generated from C# source code. The primary benefit of an essay, XML format is that the documentation specification can now be used in many different ways. XSLT stylesheets can then be used to convert the generated documentation to ASCII text, HTML, or Postscript files. Also of aristotle prime essay, note is that the generated documentation can be fed to tools that use it for spec verification or other similar tasks.
It should be noted that C# currently does not have a tool analogous to on war and peace, Javadoc for converting the XML documentation into HTML. Microsoft is in the process of developing such a tool which is essay currently codenamed SandCastle. Below is an example of how C# XML documentation is used. Multiple classes can be defined in a single file in both languages with some significant differences. High? In Java, there can only aristotle prime essay, be one class per source file that has public access and it must have the same name as the source file minus the file extension.
C# does not have a restriction on the number of in india, public classes that can exist in a source file and neither is there a requirement for the name of any of the classes in the file to match that of the source file. Using libraries in an application is a two-step process. Prime? First the needed libraries must be referenced somewhere in the source file which is done via the using keyword in C# and the import keyword in Java. Secondly, there must be a way to tell the compiler where to find the location of the needed library. Specifying the location of libraries that will be used by a Java program is done using the CLASSPATH environment variable or the -classpath compiler option. Assembly locations are specified with the /r compiler switch in C#. Event-driven programming is a programming model where objects can register themselves to be notified of a specific occurrence or state change in another object. Event-driven programming is also referred to as the publish-subscribe model or the observer design pattern and is very popular in on good graphical user interface (GUI) programming. Java and C# both have mechanisms that support events but there are significant differences.
The typical publish-subscribe model has a one to many relationship between an object (publisher) and its event handlers (subscribers). A subscriber is registered by invoking a method on the publisher which then adds the subscriber to an internal collection of interested objects. When the state change that a registered subscriber is interested in occurs, a method is invoked in essay the publisher that cycles through the collection of subscribers and invokes a callback method on each one. There is no general mechanism for event handling in essay on good for kids Java. Instead there are design patterns that are used by the GUI classes which developers can take their cue from. An event is aristotle prime mover typically a subclass of the java.util.EventObject class, which has methods that enable setting or getting of the riots object that was the aristotle prime essay source of the event. A subscriber in burgess model geography coursework the Java model usually implements an prime mover essay, interface that ends with the word Listener (e.g. MouseListener, ActionListener, KeyListener, etc) which should contain a callback method that would be called by the publisher on the occurrence of the event.
The publisher typically has a method that begins with add and ends with Listener (e.g. addMouseListener, addActionListener, addKeyListener, etc) which is burgess model coursework used to register subscribers. The publisher also has remove methods for unregistering the subscribers. The aforementioned components are the primary entities in an event-driven Java program. C# uses delegates to aristotle, provide an explicit mechanism for in india creating a publish-subscribe model. An event is typically a subclass of the System.EventArgs class. Prime Mover? Like all data classes, the event class should have a constructor that allows complete initialization without calling any other methods so that you can pass new YourEventArgs(inits) to the subscriber delegate. On War? The publisher has a protected method preceded with the word On (e.g. OnClick, OnClose, OnInit, etc) which is prime essay invoked when a specified event occurs, this method would then invoke the delegate passing it the source and summer school, an instance of the EventArgs object. Making the method protected allows derived classes to call it directly without the need to register a delegate. The subscriber is a method that accepts the same argument and returns the same type as the event delegate.
The event delegate usually returns void and accepts two parameters; an Object which should be the source of the prime event and the EventArgs subclass which should represent the essays in india event that occured. In C#, the event is used to automatically specify that a field within a subscriber is aristotle prime mover a delegate that will be used as a callback during an event-driven situation. During compilation the compiler adds overloaded versions of the += and -= operators that are analogous to the add and remove methods that are used in Java to register and unregister a subscriber. The example below shows a class that generates 20 random numbers and fires an care process essay, event whenever one of the mover essay numbers is even. Cross language interoperability is the ability to access constructs written in one programming language from another. There are a number of ways cross language interoperability works in Java. Help? First of all, there is the Java Native Interface (JNI) which is a mechanism that allows Java programs call native methods written in mover essay C, C++ or assembly language. The C, C++ or assembly methods methods must be specifically written to be called from a scholarship essay, Java. Native methods can use JNI to access Java features such as calling Java language methods, instantiating and modifying Java classes, throwing and catching exceptions, performing runtime type checking, and loading Java classes dynamically. To create a JNI program one performs the following steps: Create a Java program that contains the declaration of the prime mover essay native method(s) marked with the native keyword. Write a main method that loads the library created in step 6 and uses the native method(s).
Compile the class containing the declaration of the native method(s) and the main with the javac compiler. Use the javah compiler with the -jni compiler option to generate a header file for the native method(s). Help Essay? Write the native method in your language of choice (currently C, C++ or assembly). Compile the prime essay header file and native source file into a shared library (i.e. a .dll on Windows or a .so file on UNIX). Java also has the ability to interact with distributed objects that use the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) via Java IDL.
CORBA is a technology that allows developers to make procedure calls on objects in a location and language agnostic manner. A CORBA application usually consists of an object request broker (ORB), a client and a server. An ORB is responsible for matching a requesting client to the server that will perform the request, using an object reference to essays on communal in india, locate the target object. When the ORB examines the mover object reference and checks if the target object is planning essay remote or not. If the target of the call is aristotle mover local then the ORB performs an inter-process communication (IPC) call.
On calls to essay, remote objects the ORB marshals the arguments and routes the invocation out over the network to essay, the remote object's ORB. The remote ORB then invokes the method locally and summer programs high school, sends the results back to the client via the network. CORBA has a language-agnostic interface definition language (IDL) which for which languages that support CORBA have various mappings. Java IDL supports the mappings from Java objects to CORBA IDL objects. Various ORBs support CORBA language bindings for a number of languages including C, C++, Java, Python, Lisp, Perl, and prime mover, Scheme. The most seamless way to do cross language interop in Java is summer programs school when the language is compiled directly to aristotle prime, Java byte code. This means that objects in that language are available to Java programs and Java objects are available to programs written in the target language.
A good example of this is the Jython scripting language which is a version of the Python programming language that is integrated with the Java platform. Below is an example of an essay, interactive session with Jython shows how a user could create an instance of the Java random number class (found in java.util.Random) and then interact with that instance which was taken from the mover Jython Documentation. There are a number of projects in various degrees of completion that are aimed at essay providing a similar degree of aristotle essay, cross language interoperability within the summer school confines of the Java Virtual Machine. A list of languages retargetted for the Java Virtual Machine is available on the webpage of Dr. Robert Tolksdorf. Currently, Sun Microsystems (creators of the Java language and platform) seems to be uninterested in this level of cross language interoperability and has decided to leave this to aristotle prime mover, independent developers and essay and peace, researchers. With seamless cross langauge interoperability, objects can inherit implementation from other types, instantiate and invoke methods defined on prime, other types, and otherwise interact with objects regardless of the language the essay on war types are originally implemented in. Also tools such as class browsers, debuggers, and profilers only need to aristotle essay, understand one format (be it Java byte codes or .NET instruction language) but can support a multitude of languages as long as they target the appropriate runtime. Also error handling across languages via exceptions is care process essay possible. C# and the .NET runtime were created with seamless cross-language interoperability as a design goal. A language targeting the .NET common language runtime (CLR) is able to interact with other languages that conform to the common type system and when compiled include certain metadata.
The common type system defines how types are declared, used, and managed in the .NET runtime thus creating a framework that allows for type safety and prime mover essay, ensures that objects written in various languages can share type information. Metadata is binary information describing the short essay habits for kids assemblies, types and attributes defined in the application that are stored either in a CLR portable executable (PE) or in memory if the assembly has been loaded. Langauges that are currently being developed to target the .NET runtime include APL, C#, C++, COBOL, Component Pascal, Eiffel, Haskel#/Mondrian, Java, Mercury, Oberon, Perl, Python, Scheme, Smalltalk, Standard ML, and Visual Basic. Since it is very possible that certain features in one language have no analog in another, the .NET Framework provides the Common Language Specification (CLS), which describes a fundamental set of language features and defines rules for how those features are used. The CLS rules are a subset of the aristotle prime essay common type system that is aimed at ensuring cross-language interoperability by defining a set of programs, features that are most common in programming languages. The C# compiler is a CLS compliant compiler meaning that it can be used to generate code that complies with the CLS. The C# compiler can check for CLS compliance and aristotle, issues an error when a program code uses functionality that is not supported by the CLS.
To get the short essay on good C# compiler to check for the CLS compliance of a piece of code, mark it with the [CLSCompliantAttribute(true)] attribute. Another aspect of cross language interoperability supported by aristotle prime essay C# is interaction with COM based objects. There are mechanisms that allow developers to a scholarship, use COM objects from C# code and vice versa. C# objects can utilize COM objects if a wrapper class is mover essay first created that defines the essays on communal in india functions available in the COM object as well as some additional information. The wrapper class can then be used as if it were a regular C# object while the .NET runtime handles the complexities of marshalling arguments and the like. Creating the wrapper class can be done automatically using the tlbimp utility. If the utility is unable to create a type library then one must be written by hand with foreknowledge of the coclasses and interfaces being defined as well as the aristotle prime mover essay type library-to-assembly conversion rules.
For a COM object to utilize a C# object, a typelib must be created that describes the process essay C# object to COM aware applications. The tlbexp can be used to create a typelib that describes the C# object's interface in a COM-like manner. Also the regasm utility can be used to register an assembly so it is available to COM. When COM objects interact with the aristotle mover C# object, the runtime handles whatever marshalling of data that needs to occur between COM and .NET automatically. Care Planning? C# programs can also call almost any function in any DLL using a combination of the extern keyword and the DllImport attribute on the method declaration. A major advantage of this is that the method being called does not have to be specifically written to be called from C#, nor is any wrapper necessary-so calling existing code in DLLs is relatively simple.
To provide total control of releasing resources used by classes, C# provides the System.IDisposable interface which contains the Dispose() method that can be called by users of the class to aristotle mover, release resources on completion of whatever task is at hand. Classes that manage resources such as database or file handles benefit from being disposable. Being diposable provides a deterministic way to release these resources when the class is no longer in use, which is not the case with finalizers in Java or C#. It is typical to call the SupressFinalize method of the GC class in summer the implementation of the Dispose method since it is likely that finalization by the runtime won't be needed since it will be provided explicitly via the Dispose method. C# also has some syntactic sugar via the using keyword that makes releasing the resources used by classes occur in a more deterministic manner via the Dispose method. Prime? If a class is disposable, it is best to help with a scholarship essay, make usage of the mover essay Dispose() method idempotent (i.e. multiple calls to Dispose() have no ill effects) which can be done by providing a flag that is checked within the Dispose() method to see if the class has already been disposed or not. The example below shows a program where a class keeps a file open up until the on war and peace Dispose() method is called which indicates that the mover file no longer needs to be open. The above idiom is practically the help with a scholarship essay same as having C++ style destructors without the worry of having to deal with memory allocation woes, making it the best of both worlds. The non-deterministic nature of finalization has long been bemoaned by Java developers, it is a welcome change to see that this will not be the case when using C#.
Delegates are a mechanism for prime providing callback functions. Delegates are akin to function pointers in C or functors in C++ and on war and peace, are useful in aristotle the same kinds of situation. One use of delegates is essays on communal riots in india passing operations to a generic algorithm based on the types being used in the algorithm. The C function qsort() is an example of this as are a variety of the C++ functions in algorithm like replace_if() and transform(). Another use of prime, delegates is as a means to help with essay, register handlers for a particular event (i.e. the publish-subscribe model). To get the same functionality as C# delegates in Java, once can create interfaces that specify the signature of the prime mover essay callback method such as is done with the Comparable interface although this has the drawback of forcing the help method to be an instance method when it most likely should be static.
To use delegates, one first declares a delegate that has the return type and accepts the same number of parameters as the methods one will want to invoke as callback functions. Secondly one needs to define a method that accepts an aristotle, instance of the delegate as a parameter. Once this is done, a method that has the same signature as the delegate (i.e. accepts same parameters and returns the same type) or has covariant return types and contravariant parameter types (i.e return type is derived from the summer programs high school return type of the delegate and mover, the parameter types are ancestors of the corresponding parameters) can be created and used to initialize an instance of the delegate which can then be passed to the method that accepts that delegate as a parameter. Note that the same delegate can refer to static and instance methods, even at the same time, since delegates are multicast. The example below shows the short essay habits for kids process of creating and using instance delegates. A delegate can be passed as a parameter to a method in the same way that a function pointer is passed in languages like C and C++. The following code sample shows how this is done. In both Java and C#, items on prime, the heap have to be garbage collected to reclaim the memory allocated to them when they are no longer in use while stack based objects are automatically reclaimed by the system. Memory on the stack is help a scholarship essay typically faster to allocate than heap based memory.
In Java, all classes are created on the heap while primitives are created on the stack. This can lead to situations where objects that are used similarly to primitives in aristotle mover essay a program tend to geography coursework, hang around and wait for garbage collection thus adding overhead to prime mover, the program. This can be bothersome, especially if the objects were used briefly and in a single location. With Essay? To avoid the problem of allocating heap space for such classes and then having to garbage collect them, C# has a mechanism that allows one to specify that objects of a certain class should be stack based (In fact, C#'s built-in types such as int are actually implemented as structs in the runtime library). Unlike classes, value types are always passed by value and are not garbage collected. And arrays of value types contain the actual value type objects, not references to dynamically-allocated objects-a savings of both memory and time.
To specify stack based classes, one declares them using the keyword struct instead of class . To create C# structs (also known as value types) one uses the new keyword to create it as is done with classes. If the struct is instantiated with the default constructor syntax then a struct with its fields zeroed out is created. However, it is not possible to define a default constructor for a struct and override this behavior. The C# as operator is completely analogous to C++'s dynamic_cast construct. The semantics of the as operator are that it attempts to prime essay, perform an explict cast to a type and returns null if the operation was unsuccessful. NOTE: The as operator cannot be used to convert to or from value types. Properties are a way to geography, abstract away from directly accessing the members of prime, a class, similar to how accessors (getters) and high, modifiers (setters) are used in the Java world. A property is accessed by users of a class as if it was a field or member variable but in actuality is a method call. Accessing a member via a property allows for side effects when setting values or calculations when generating values while being transparent to aristotle mover, the user of the class. Properties thus provide an explicit way to decouple the implementation of the member access from how it is burgess geography coursework actually used.
It is possible to create, read-only, write-only or read-write properties depending on if the aristotle getter and setter are implemented or not. In addition, it is possible to create a property whose getter and short on good, setter have different visibility (e.g. a public getter but a private setter). The example below shows different kinds of properties. The use of properties as an abstraction away from whether a member access is aristotle prime mover a method call or not may fall apart if the property throws an exception. When this occurs users of the object must then treat operations that look like member accesses as if they were method calls which can lead to unintuitive looking code. The example below shows code that sets the essays on communal riots in india values for the fields of a Clock class that where the setters throw an exception if the value is invalid. To avoid situations like the one in the above example it is best that one avoids throwing exceptions in properties and handle the exceptions that are thrown by methods used in the property. If throwing an exception is avoidable in some situations then the documentation for the property must adequately describe the exceptions that can be thrown and the circumstances that lead to them being thrown. C# makes the distinction between multidimensional and jagged arrays.
A multidimensional array is akin to a multidimensional array in C or C++ that is a contiguous block containing members of the prime same type. A jagged array is akin to an array in short on good habits for kids Java which is an array of arrays, meaning that it contains references to other arrays which may contain members of the aristotle prime same type or other arrays depending on how many levels the array has. The code snippets below highlight the differences between multidimensional and jagged arrays. The lack of true multidimensional arrays in Java has made it problematic to use Java in certain aspects of on communal in india, technical computing which has lead to various efforts to improve this position including research efforts by IBM which involved writing their own Array class to get around the shortcomings in aristotle essay Java arrays. The following code snippet emphasizes the differences between using multidimensional arrays and jagged arrays in C#. An indexer is a special syntax for overloading the  operator for on war and peace a class. An indexer is useful when a class is aristotle prime mover essay a container for another kind of object. Indexers are flexible in that they support any type, such as integers or strings, as indexes.
It is also possible to create indexers that allow multidimensional array syntax where one can mix and match different types as indexes. Finally, indexers can be overloaded. C# includes a preprocessor that has a limited subset of the functionality of the on communal C/C++ preprocessor. The C# preprocessor lacks the ability to #include files or perform textual substitutions using #define . The primary functionality that remains is the ability to #define and #undef identifiers and also the ability to select which sections of code to prime mover, compile based on the validity of certain expressions via #if , #elif , and #else . The #error and #warning directives cause the summer programs school errors or warnings messages following these directives to be printed on compilation. Mover? The #pragma directive is used to supress compiler warning messages. Finally, there is the #line directive that can be used to on war, specify the source file and line number reported when the aristotle mover compiler detects errors. The using keyword can be used to alias the fully qualified name for essay and peace a type similar to the way typedef is used in C and C++. Aristotle Mover? This is useful in creating readable code where the fully qualified name of a class is needed to resolve namespace conflicts. On War And Peace? The Reflection.Emit namespace contains classes that can be used to generate .NET instruction language (IL) and use it to build classes in memory at runtime or even write portable executable (PE) files to disk.
This is analagous to a Java library that would allow one to create Java classes at runtime by generating Java byte codes which could then be written to disks or loaded and used within the program. It is expected that the aristotle prime primary users of the care essay Reflection.Emit namespace will be authors of compilers and script engines. For instance, the regular expression classes in System.Text.RegularExpressions use the Reflection.Emit library to generate a custom matching engine for each regular expression compiled. Although core C# is like Java in that there is no access to a pointer type that is analogous to pointer types in aristotle prime mover essay C and C++, it is habits possible to have pointer types if the C# code is executing in an unsafe context. When C# code is executing in an unsafe context, a lot of runtime checking is disabled which means that the prime mover essay program must have full trust on the machine it is running on. Certain situations call for the use of unsafe code such as when interfacing with the underlying operating system, during interactions with COM objects that take structures that contain pointers, when accessing a memory-mapped device or in situations where performance is critical. The syntax and semantics for essay on war writing unsafe code is similar to the syntax and semantics for using pointers in C and C++. Aristotle Mover? To write unsafe code, the unsafe keyword must be used to specify the code block as unsafe and the program must be compiled with the /unsafe compiler switch.
Since garbage collection may relocate managed (i.e. safe) variables during the essays riots execution of a program, the aristotle essay fixed keyword is help with a scholarship provided so that the address of a managed variable is aristotle prime mover essay pinned during the execution of the parts of the short essay on good for kids program within the fixed block. Without the fixed keyword there would be little purpose in being able to assign a pointer to the address of a managed variable since the aristotle essay runtime may move the essays riots variable from that address as part of the mark compact garbage collection process. In Java the arguments to a method are passed by value meaning that a method operates on aristotle mover essay, copies of the items passed to it instead of on care process, the actual items. In C#, as in C++ and in a sense C, it is possible to specify that the arguments to aristotle, a method actually be references to on good for kids, the items being passed to the method instead of essay, copies. This feature is particularly useful when one wants to create a method that returns more than one object. In Java trying to return multiple values from a method is not supported and leads to interesting anomalies like the fact that a method that swaps two numbers which has been the hallmark of freshman computer science classes for years is impossible to essay on good habits for kids, do in Java without resorting to mover, coding tricks. Help Essay? The C# keywords used to specify that a parameter is being passed by reference are ref and out . The difference between the prime keywords is on good habits that parameters passed using ref must be initialized to some value while those passed using out aristotle prime mover do not have to be. A more detailed explanation of Java's lack of Pass By Reference semantics is available in the Javaworld article, Does Java pass by reference or pass by value? Why can't you swap in Java? by essay Tony Sintes. C# provides the ability to aristotle prime, avoid the usage of escape sequences within string constants and instead declare strings literally.
Thus backslashes, tabs, quotes and newlines can be part of a string without using escape sequences. The only caveat is that double quotes that appear within verbatim strings should be doubled. Verbatim strings are specified by prepending the @ symbol to string declarations. C# provides the option to explicitly detect or ignore overflow conditions in expressions and essay and peace, type conversions. Aristotle Essay? Overflow conditions detected in code throw a System.OverFlowException . On War And Peace? Since overflow detection causes a performance hit it can be explicitly enabled by using the /checked+ compiler option. One can also mandate code that must always be checked for overflow conditions by placing it in a checked block or that must always be ignored with regards to overflow detection by placing it in aristotle mover an unchecked block. Sometimes when a class implements an interface it is possible for there to be namespace collisions with regards to method names. For instance, a FileRepresentation class which has a graphical user interface may implement an IWindow and an IFileHandler interface. Both of these classes may have a Close method where in the case of IWindow it means to programs high, close the GUI window while in the case of IFileHandler it means to close the prime mover file. In Java, there is no solution to high school, this problem besides writing one Close method that does the same thing when invoked via an IWindow handle or an IFileHandler handle. C# gets around this problem by mover essay allowing one to bind method implementations to specific intefaces.
Thus in the aformentioned example, the FileRepresentation class would have different Close methods that would be invoked depending on whether the class was being treated as an IWindow or an geography, IFileHandler. NOTE: Explicit interface methods are private and can only be accessed if the object is cast to the required type before invoking the method. The friend assembly feature allows an internal type or internal member of an assembly to be accessed from another assembly. To give one assembly access to another assembly's internal types and members, the aristotle [InternalsVisibleToAttribute] attribute is school used. The following code sample shows 2 source files which are compiled into friend_assembly_test.dll and mover essay, friend_assembly_test_2.exe which utilize the friend's assembly feature. The larger a project gets, the more likely it is that namespace collisions will occur. C# has the :: operator which is short on good used for specifying at what scope a namespace should be resolved.
The left operand indicates the scope at prime mover essay which to resolve the name while the right operand is the name to resolve. Summer School? The left operand can either be the keyword global which refers to the global scope or a namespace alias as shown below. NOTE: The extern alias statement can be used to aristotle mover essay, attach an alias to an assembly which can then be used as the left operand of the :: operator. Essay Habits? When this is aristotle done the short essay on good for kids scope used for name resolution is the top level namespace(s) within the assembly. For a data structure to support being a target of the foreach loop it must implement or return an instance of System.Collections.IEnumerable . However writing an Enumerator can be somewhat cumbersome which is where the yield keyword comes in. Essay? The yield keyword enables one to convert any method or property into an iterator. In an iterator, one simply traverses the data structure and summer programs school, returns its contents one by one using the yield return statement and indicates the end of the aristotle prime sequence of values with the yield break statement.
The method or property must return one of IEnumerable, IEnumerableT, IEnumerator or IEnumeratorT. A partial class is essay on war and peace specified by prefixing the keyword partial to the class declaration. The following code sample shows a partial class that is defined across two source files. Note how methods and aristotle essay, properties from one source file can reference members defined in another. It should be noted that all of the class attributes are merged across all definitions of a class. This means that contradictory attributes (e.g. Care Planning Process? class declared as private in aristotle prime mover one file and on communal in india, public in another) are disallowed. A static class is a class that has no instance members, no instance constructors and aristotle mover, cannot be used as a base class. A static class should be used to define types for which instances don't make sense such as the System.Environment and System.Math classes. A static class is specified by prefixing the class declaration with the keyword static . A nullable types is an instance of the System.Nullable type. A nullable type can represent the normal range of values for riots an underlying value type as well as the null value.
For example, the type Nullablebool can represent the values true , false and null . A nullable type can be declared by appending the operator '?' to the name of a value type when declaring the variable. This means that bool? is equivalent to Nullablebool . Each nullable type has a boolean HasValue property which indicates whether it represents a valid value type or the value null . The actual value of the nullable type is stored in its Value property. There is also the GetValueOrDefault() method which either returns the value of the nullable type or the default value of the prime mover underlying value type if it is null . Nullable types are particularly useful when mapping C# objects to relational database schemas since null is a valid value for process essay all data types in SQL databases. The ?? operator is called the null coalescing operator and is used for testing the value of a nullable type and returning its value or an alternate if its value is null. Thus x ?? y is equivalent to x == (null ? y : x) . Anonymous methods are a companion feature to delegates.
An anonymous method is a code block that can be used where a delegate method is expected. This simplifies code that uses delegates by not requiring a separate method to implement the delegate's functionality. The following code sample compares the anonymous method approach to using a named delegate. There are a number of restrictions to anonymous methods that must be kept in mind. For one, jump statements like break , goto and continue cannot be used o jump into an anonymous method from aristotle prime, outside the code block or vice versa. Burgess Model? Also anonymous methods cannot refer to ref or out aristotle mover essay parameters that are defined outside the scope of the care planning method. Before the aristotle mover advent of exceptions, most error handling was done via return codes. Essay On War? There are many advantages of prime, exceptions over programs, return codes that are typically touted including the fact that exceptions. provide a consistent means to handle errors and other exceptional conditions. enable an error to propagate up the prime call stack if not handled in the current context. allow developers to seperate error handling code from general application logic. Java creates an additional wrinkle by possessing both checked and unchecked exceptions.
Checked exceptions are exceptions that the calling method must handle either by with catching the exception or declaring that the exception should be handled by aristotle essay its calling method via the throws clause. On the other hand, unchecked exceptions (also called runtime exceptions) do not have to be caught or declared in the throws clause. Care Process Essay? In a sense unchecked exceptions are similar to return codes in that they can be ignored without warnings or errors being issued by the compiler. Although if an exception is ignored at aristotle prime essay runtime, your program will terminate. Checked exceptions are typically used to indicate to a calling method that the callee failed in essay its task as well as pass information as to how and prime mover essay, why it failed. One must either catch a checked exception or declare it in the throws clause of the method or the Java compiler will issue an essay on war, error. The reasoning behind the fact that the exception must be declared in the throws clause is that handling whatever errors that can occur when the method is aristotle mover used is planning just as important as knowing what parameters it accepts and the kind of type it returns. Unchecked exceptions are typically exceptions that can occur in prime mover most parts of the program and planning process essay, thus the overhead of prime essay, explicitly checking for them outweighs their usefulness due to the massive code bloat that would ensue. Examples of situations that throw unchecked exceptions are accessing a null object reference, trying to access an out of bounds index of an array or a division by zero.
In all of the aforementioned cases it would be cumbersome to put try. catch blocks around every the code (for instance a try. catch block around every object access or every array access) and coursework, they are better off as unchecked exceptions. Aristotle Prime? In C#, all exceptions are unchecked and there is no analog to the throws clause. One major side effect of this is and peace that unless the prime mover creator of the API explicitly documents the exceptions thrown then it is not possible for the users of the API to know what exceptions to catch in their code leading to unrobust applications that can fail unexpectedly. Thus users of C# are reliant on the documentation skill of programmers as their primary error handling mechanism which is model geography coursework a less than optimal situation. For instance in aristotle essay the following code snippet, the only way to know what exceptions can be thrown by the method below is to either have the source code for all the methods called within it or if the summer high developer of the essay method documents all the exceptions thrown by all the care methods called within it (meaning that the developers of those methods must have done the same ad infinitum). Aristotle Prime Mover? The above code snippet is from the .NET Framework Beta 2 documentation for the Socket class. Note how there no exceptions caught in the code. If this was a method in a real application as opposed to a sample, it would be impossible for the users of this method to know what exceptions to catch without access to the source code or without the author of the method painstakingly checking what exceptions are thrown by every single method called and then documenting them.
Below is the list of exceptions that could be thrown within the method according to their entries in essays on communal the Microsoft .NET framework Beta 2 documentation. If the author of the method does not have time to document the exceptions that may be thrown from this method or happens to leave out an important one, such as the SocketException in this case, then the users of the method could have their applications fail unexpectedly without an elegant means of recovery in place. In the above case, the main exception of interest to users would probably be the SocketException since the others are all related to the internal workings of the method and don't really have anything to do with the caller and in fact would probably be unchecked exceptions if they existed in aristotle prime essay Java. Essays On Communal Riots? In practice the GetMessageFromServer method would check the validity of mover, its string parameter and throw ArgumentNException or one of its subclasses depending the help essay results of the check. The rationale for excluding checked exceptions from C# has never been fully explained by Microsoft but this message from Eric Gunnerson of the C# team sheds some light on prime mover essay, the reasoning behind this decision. The primary reason for this choice according to Gunnerson is that examination of small programs led to on communal riots, the conclusion that using checked exceptions could both enhance developer productivity and enhance code quality. On the other hand experience with large software projects suggested that using checked exceptions decreased productivity with little or no increase in code quality. The lack of aristotle prime essay, checked exceptions in C# will be very unsettling for Java developers and may lead to program designs which are flawed. One only has to remember the burgess geography anecdote about how originally a considerable amount of the exceptions in the Java API were unchecked but upon aristotle essay changing them to checked exceptions a number of bugs and design flaws were found in habits the API. Aristotle Prime Mover? Hopefully this will be remedied in later versions of C# or a third party could develop a static source code analysis tool such as lint. Essay On Good For Kids? Meanwhile C# developers must take care to mover, document all exceptions thrown from their methods that callers should be aware of as a matter of consideration.
This is not to say that documentation should not typically exist but since it is the only means to ensure exception safe C# code then its importance is now a much greater. A major selling point of Java#8482; technologies is that applications written in Java are portable across a number of operating systems and platforms. Sun officially supports Linux, Windows and Solaris but other vendors have implemented Java on a large range of platforms including OS/2, AIX and MacOS. Binary compatibility across platforms using similar Java versions is the norm except for situations involving bugs in various VM implementations. At the time of this writing C# is help with a scholarship essay only available on Windows. Efforts are currently in place to port it to other platforms, including Linux and FreeBSD. Linux porting is being done as part of the Mono project developed by Ximian while the FreeBSD implementation is prime a Microsoft project codenamed rotor. The Java extension mechanism enables developers to model coursework, extend the abilities of the core Java platform. Developers can create classes and prime, packages which are treated by the Java runtime as if they are core Java classes and packages like java.lang, java.util, java.net, etc.
This means that extensions do not have to be placed on the class path since they are treated as if they are part of the essay core libraries such as those in aristotle mover essay the Java runtime library, rt.jar . Essay Habits For Kids? Extensions are contained within JAR files and prime, once installed are available to essays on communal in india, all applications running on the target platform. A C# parallel would be the ability to create assemblies that are treated as if they are part of the System namespace contained in the System.dll assembly. In the above example the value printed by calling halfOfSquareFP() will be Infinity regardless of what JVM the application is run on. This is prime mover because Java enforces left-to-right evaluation of arguments and 6.6e+307 multiplied by essay and peace 4.0 exceeds the maximum value for a double thus leading to all subsequent operations yielding Infinity. Prime Essay? On the other hand the value printed on calling halfOfSquareNFP() may not be the same on different JVMs depending on short on good for kids, whether the target platform and JVM implementation support storing intermediate values in an extended format that has a larger range than that of doubles.
Thus on some platforms the value 1.32E308 is printed as the value returned by halfOfSquareNFP() while on others Infinity is printed. Section 4.1.5 of the C# specification covers floating point numbers and states that due to the excessive performance costs of enforcing that certain architectures perform operations with less precision than is prime possible, there is no way to essay and peace, enforce FP-strictness in C#. The ability to aristotle prime mover, dynamically load classes at runtime in Java is a very powerful feature especially when combined with a remote procedure call mechanism. Dynamic class loading enables Java applications to download the class files (i.e. byte codes) of classes that do not exist on the target machine. An object type that only model geography, exists on one machine can be transferred to other machines in a seamless and transparent manner. Mover? Thus new types can be introduced on a remote machine which allows the behavior of remote applications to summer programs, be significantly extended at runtime. The following example shows an example of a remote application that accepts types that implement a certain interface, IStockTicker. The obtainName() remote method in the above class accepts types that implement the aristotle IStockTicker interface. It is essay possible for this method to be invoked from a remote client which then passes a type that implements IStockTicker, for example NASDAQStock, that does not exist on the server where the MyRMIServer class lives.
In this case the entire code needed for prime mover NASDAQStock class is short essay for kids transmitted from the client to the remote server automatically. C# and the .NET Remoting mechanism also enable remotely downloading classes from one machine to the other but the client has to publish the assembly and the server can then load it via a URL. For information on Java Remote Method Invokation (RMI) read the Java tutorial on RMI. Information on aristotle, .NET Remoting with C# is explained in this introduction to .NET remoting and this technical overview on MSDN. Short Essay On Good For Kids? In Java it is possible for constants to be declared in interfaces which are then available to implementing classes while in C# this is not allowed. This may not be a big issue in C# since the essay primary usage of constants declared in interfaces is as a poor emulation of enumerations. An anonymous inner class is a class declaration that occurs at the same point where an instance of that class is programs created. Anonymous inner classes are typically used where only one instance of a type will exist in aristotle prime mover the application. The most popular usage of anonymous inner classes is for specifying callbacks especially in the Java GUI libraries but there are other situations where anonymous inner classes are beneficial as well.
Below is an example of on good habits, using anonymous inner classes to implement the State Design Pattern. The static import feature makes it possible to access static members of a class without having specify the class name. This feature is essay intended to reduce the verbosity of code that frequently access the static members of a particular class (e.g. constants defined in a particular helper class). A static import similar to a regular import statement except that the keyword static is used and instead of importing a package, a specific class is imported. Most developers, especially those with a background in habits for kids C or C++, would probably agree that features like operator overloading, pointers, preprocessor directives, delegates and deterministic object cleanup make C# more expressive than Java in a number of aristotle essay, cases. Similarly, Java developers who learn C# will be pleasantly surprised at features that are missing in Java that will seem glaring in their absence once one uses them in C#, such as boxing, enumerations and summer programs high school, pass by reference. On the other hand the lack of checked exceptions, inner classes, cross platform portability or the fact that a class is not the smallest unit of distribution of code makes the choice of aristotle mover, C# over Java not a clearcut case of choosing more language features without having to make any compromises.
It is riots in india my opinion that both languages are similar enough that they could be made to mirror each other without significant effort if so required by either user base. In this case, C# would have it easier than Java in that C# has less to aristotle prime mover essay, borrow from Java than Java would have to borrow from C#. However, the on communal riots in india true worth of a programming language that is intended for use outside of academia is prime essay how quickly the language evolves to summer programs high school, adapt to the changing technological landscape and what kind of community surrounds the prime mover essay language. Essay? Some programming languages are akin to the French language under the Les Immortels of the Acad¨¦mie Française in France. Les immortels are charged with dictating what constitutes the official French language but they have been slow to adapt to the information age thus their edicts on what constitutes the prime essay proper French versions of new words, especially those related to technology, are usually ignored especially since they either conflict with what the general French public would rather call them and show up long after the unsanctioned words have already entered the lexicon. C++ is an help with, example of a language that has undergone a process of balkanization closely resembling the French language under the Les Immortels of the Acad¨¦mie Française while Java under Sun Microsystems can be considered to be a language that has evolved with the essay times similar to how the English language has done. Thus the question really becomes, which of these languages looks like it will evolve with the times and geography, be easiest to adapt to new situations as they arise? So far, Sun has done a great job with Java although a lack of aristotle, versioning support and the non-existence of process essay, a framework that enables extensibility of the language built into the platform makes drastic evolution difficult.
C# with its support for versioning via the .NET framework and the existence of attributes which can be used to extend the aristotle prime essay features of the language looks like it would in the long run be the more adaptable language. Only time will tell however if this prediction is accurate. As predicted in the original conclusion to this paper, a number of features have become common across both C# and Java since 2001. Summer Programs High School? These features include generics, foreach loops, enumerations, boxing, variable length parameter lists and metadata annotations. However after years of convergence it seems that C# and aristotle prime mover, Java are about to go in radically different directions. On War And Peace? The current plans for C# 3.0 are highlighted in the Language Integrated Query (LINQ) Project which encompasses integrating a number of data oriented features including query, set operations, transformations and type inferencing directly into the C# language. In combination with some of C#'s existing features like anonymous methods and nullable types, the differences between C# and prime, Java will become more stark over the next few years in contrast to the feature convergence that has been happening over the past few years. Eckel, Bruce. Thinking In Java. Prentice Hall, 2000.
The following people helped in programs high reviewing and proofreading this article: Paul Johns, David Dagon, Dr. Aristotle Prime Mover? Yannis Smaragdakis , Dmitri Alperovitch, Dennis Lu and Sanjay Bhatia.
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Dec 19, 2017 Aristotle prime mover essay,
essay on dowries The present day dowry system symbolizes the disinheritance of women and the resulting desperation of parents to push their daughters out of their homes after marrying them off. Madhu Purnima Kishwar points to inherent flaws in the anti-dowry legislation, and argues that equal inheritance is the prime essay way forward. Even though MANUSHI played a leading role in bringing national attention to domestic violence and the role dowry has come to play in making women's lives vulnerable, after nearly 28 years of experience with these issues, I have come to the firm conclusion that the terms 'dowry death' and 'dowry violence' are misleading. They contribute towards making domestic violence in India appear as a unique, exotic phenomenon by riots in india, giving the impression that Indian men are the only ones in the world to use violence based on astute and rational calculations. Essay? By this logic, it would appear that men in all other parts of the world are truly stupid because they beat and kill their wives without any benefit accruing to them, whereas Indian men attack their spouses in the expectation of extorting financial rewards from burgess model geography, their in-laws. Domestic violence is about using brute force to mover essay establish power relations in the family whereby women are taught and model conditioned to aristotle prime accept a subservient status. Domestic violence is a way of short essay habits, trying to get women to aristotle mover believe that they can only live at men's mercy. It is a scholarship essay often committed by men with low self-esteem who destroy a woman's sense of self worth because they feel inadequate to cope with a woman who thinks and acts as a free human being with a mind of her own.
Like rape, wife battering points to the common predicament of women across nations, castes, classes, religions and regions. What a man states as his reason for beating his wife should not be assumed to be the actual reason or 'the cause' of that violence. For example, if a violent incident is triggered off in a home in Germany by a man flying into a rage and battering a woman to death saying, 'you are a lousy cook' or 'you are fat and aristotle prime mover essay ugly', we don't call such crimes 'Lousy Cooking Murders' or 'Ugly Woman Murders'. We recognize that the ostensible reasons given by men for their violent rages are mere excuses to and peace destroy a woman's sense of self worth. They are not the real cause. The same logic applies to dowry related violence. I have not come across a single case where a man battered a woman solely because of additional dowry demands and aristotle prime mover essay would begin to treat his wife well if his in-laws met with all his demands. By contrast, I have come across numerous situations, where a woman suffers a lot of taunts and care even violence because her husband's family feel she might start considering herself high and mighty for bringing in a huge dowry.
Director Vijay Anand's film Kora Kagaz produced in 1970s provided a very sensitive and insightful portrayal of an otherwise happy 'love marriage' suffering a break-up because the bride's mother insists on aristotle prime mover showering her daughter and son-in-law with gifts to make up for the modest income of the latter, leading to short essay on good for kids a sense of inadequacy and humiliation in the son-in-law. Even though I maintain that dowry per se is not the aristotle mover essay cause of domestic violence, there is no denying that dowry demands and help sharp escalation in the amounts of money being spent by families in putting together dowries has contributed to viewing daughters as a burden and consequent devaluation of prime, women's lives. (See article To Ensure Happiness or to Disinherit Her?, Issue 34, MANUSHI, 1986.) The culture of dowry-giving is spreading even to communities, which had no such tradition a generation or two ago. This despite the fact that in the last two decades the anti dowry laws have been made very stringent and draconian. Many interpret the failure of these laws to short essay on good for kids lessen dowry giving as a sign of their poor implementation. However, these laws have so many inherent flaws that their honest implementation is well nigh impossible. In fact, these laws have created more problems than they have solved. You cannot combat a 'crime' which is as ill defined as the anti dowry laws of aristotle prime mover essay, India. Definition of dowry: As per the Dowry Prohibition Act (originally passed in 1961 and amended twice in the 1980s), dowry is defined as 'any property or valuable security given or agreed to be given either directly or indirectly by one party to a marriage to the other party to the marriage or by the parents of either party to a marriage or by any other person, to either party to the marriage or to any other person at or before [or any other time after the marriage] in connection with the care process essay marriage of the said parties'.
As per this definition, gifts of jewelry, clothes and cash traditionally given by the groom's family would also be covered by prime mover essay, the anti-dowry law and hence declared illegal. Cognizable offence: Two amendments enacted in 1984 and 1986 made dowry giving and receiving a cognizable offence. This means, a court can initiate proceedings upon help a scholarship its own knowledge or on the basis of a police report, even if the aggrieved person has lodged no such complaint. Gifts allowed : As per this law 'dowry' is forbidden but 'gifts' are allowed. The anti-dowry law cannot be invoked against the giving of presents at the time of marriage to aristotle prime essay the bride without any demand having been made 'provided that such presents are entered in a list maintained in accordance with the on communal rules' as defined under the Anti- Dowry Act.
The theory that growing greed is the cause of dowry increase would make sense only if our country had two distinct sets of families - those who only produced sons and those who produced only daughters. Presents to the groom allowed: Presents given to the groom are also exempted, provided no demand has been made and they are entered in a list and provided that 'such presents are of a customary nature and the value thereof is not excessive' in relation to the 'financial status of the aristotle person by whom, or on whose behalf, such presents are given.' Prescribed punishment: A person found guilty of taking or abetting the giving or taking of summer school, dowry, invites imprisonment for a term not less than five years and with a fine which shall not be less than Rs 15000 or the aristotle prime mover amount of the value of such dowry, whichever is more. Legalising the illegal: After declaring that giving or taking of dowry is riots in india illegal, the Act adds a curious rider that 'where any dowry is received by any person other than the woman in connection with whose marriage it is aristotle mover given, that person will transfer the dowry to the woman within three months after the date of marriage or within three months after the date of help, receipt. Aristotle Prime? Failure to transfer a woman's dowry invites imprisonment for not less than six months and a fine of Rs.10,000. If the dowry was received when the woman was a minor, it should be transferred to programs high school her within three months after she has attained the aristotle prime essay age of 18 years. In most other crimes, including murder, Indian jurisprudence puts the burden of proof on the complainant and the accused is considered innocent till proven guilty. However, in the case of dowry related offences, a husband and his family have to prove that they did not make dowry demands and model what was given by aristotle prime mover, the bride's parents were voluntary gifts. Dowry return : Section 406 prescribes imprisonment of up to three years for criminal breach of trust for not returning a woman's dowry, if a woman demands it after her marriage breaks down.
Section 406 is one of the few clauses in on good for kids the law that has proven useful for mover, women with a genuine case because it helps in and peace the retrieval of dowry where the husband or in-laws are unwilling to return the goods that came as dowry. If a person fails to comply with the court's direction to transfer a woman's dowry within the specified period, an amount equal to the value of the property may be recovered from essay, him. Draconian anti-cruelty law: In 1983, Section 498A of the IPC defined a new cognizable offence, namely, 'cruelty by husband or relatives of husband'. This means that once such a complaint is with essay registered by the victim or any of her relatives, the police have no option but to take action. Prime Mover? It prescribes imprisonment for a term, which may extend to three years, and also includes a fine. The definition of cruelty is not just confined to causing grave injury, bodily harm, or danger to life, limb or physical health, but also includes harming mental health by harassment and emotional torture through verbal abuse. This law takes particular cognizance of harassment, where it occurs with a view to help with a scholarship coercing the essay wife, or any person related to essay her, to meet any unlawful demand regarding any property or valuable security, or occurs on account of failure by her, or any person related to her, to meet such a demand. Punishment for 'dowry death': Women's organizations also pushed to get a new category of crime included on the statute book via an amendment to the Indian Penal Code.
This crime - named 'dowry murder' or 'dowry death' is covered by aristotle essay, Section 304B. This section states that if the death of a woman is caused by burns or bodily injury, or occurs under abnormal circumstances, within seven years of her marriage and it is shown that just prior to death she was subject to cruelty by her husband or his relatives, in connection with demands for dowry, such a death would be called 'dowry death' and the husband or relative would be deemed to have caused her death. The person held guilty of a 'dowry death' shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than seven years but which may extend to imprisonment for life. Assumption of guilt: By inserting a new section 113B in the Indian Evidence Act, the lawmakers stipulated that in cases that are registered by the police as those of coursework, 'dowry death', the court shall presume that the accused is mover essay guilty unless he can prove otherwise. Bail provisions for 'dowry crimes': Under section 304B, in the case of a 'dowry death', where allegations of demand of dowry or non-return of dowry are made, the accused are frequently denied anticipatory, or even regular bail. This is understandable in cases of death because the unnatural demise of a woman is in itself likely evidence that something was seriously wrong in the marriage. But it has also meant that in all cases of a married woman's death, lawyers tend to advise the woman's family that they must build a case of dowry demands even if the murder or suicide was due to other reasons. Basic Flaws in the Laws.
Many problems arise from this fuzzy definition of crime combined with draconian provisions for punishment: Who decides what is a 'voluntary gift' and what is given under pressure of a demand? The very same family that often declares, at the time of marriage, that they only gave 'voluntary gifts' to the groom's family, does not hesitate to attribute all their 'gift-giving' to extortionist demands, once the short essay on good habits for kids marriage turns sour and is headed for a breakdown. Thus, even when marital troubles may not be connected to aristotle mover essay tussles over dowry, and a scholarship the marital strain is mover due to mutual incompatibility rather than the husband's violence or abuse, many women's families tend to on good seek an advantage in aristotle prime essay registering cases using the short habits draconian provisions of the anti-dowry law when the marriage heads towards a breakdown. How do you decide what is prime 'excessive' in relation to essays in india income by way of gifts when in India no more than 2-3 percent people declare their incomes and those too are grossly under reported? How do you judge the paying status of a family if most of their wealth is in 'black' money and property holdings held in bogus names to escape taxes? Burden of aristotle essay, proof on essay on war the accused : What makes this law especially draconian is that the burden of proof has been shifted onto prime mover, the accused.
The bride's parents rarely want to declare the true value of essays riots, gifts given because the essay big dowry givers also put together their daughter's dowry from summer high school, black money and, therefore, don't want it listed. When dowry giving is a crime, why would a groom or bride's family put their signature on the list of mover essay, gifts being given? Since a good part of burgess coursework, modern dowries consist of expensive jewelry, household goods and prime mover essay high priced clothes, how do you prove whether or not these things were transferred to the bride's name within three months of marriage? For example, if a family has spent Rs.3-4 lakh on providing new furniture for their daughter's home, does it mean that all that furniture must be kept in rooms meant for essay, the exclusive use of the daughter? As per the law, even dowry giving is an offence, but there is hardly ever an mover, instance of the bride's family being prosecuted for model coursework, giving dowry. The assumption is that only 'takers' are guilty while 'givers' are hapless creatures yielding to the greed and callous demands of the groom's family. Difference between modern day dowry and stridhan is as profound as that between a horse carriage and a motorized truck.
Though both move on wheels, the power that propels the two kinds of wheels is altogether different. The campaigners against dowry make it appear as if escalating dowries are solely due to the greed of the groom's family. Mover Essay? However, as I have argued in several articles, the theory that growing greed is the cause of dowry increase would make sense only if our country had two distinct sets of planning process, families - those who only produced sons and those who produced only daughters. The 'son-blessed' families would thus be permanent gainers as dowry receivers while 'daughter-cursed' families would be permanent victims of greed and be always at the mercy of extortionist demands. This is clearly not the case because a family, which gives on its daughter's wedding, becomes a recipient when its sons get married. This law does not take into account the rapidly changing forms of marriage transactions and mixes up the tradition of stridhan with modern day marriage transactions. Even the anti-dowry campaigners attribute the problems of the modern day dowry system to the tradition of stridhan , both of which are projected as a hangover of 'traditional' patriarchal norms.
The present day custom of dowry giving may retain some ingredients of the tradition of giving stridhan (a woman's own inalienable property) to daughters but the difference between modern day dowry and stridhan is as profound as that between a horse carriage and a motorized truck. Aristotle Prime Mover Essay? Though both move on wheels the power that propels the two kinds of wheels is altogether different. Stridhan , as per in india, Hindu customary practice, is that portion of wealth, which is the aristotle prime mover essay exclusive property of women and essay for kids passes from mother to daughter. It includes gifts of money, property, jewelry or a share in aristotle essay a family business given to a woman as a daughter, sister, wife or daughter-inlaw. It also covers wealth generated through her own enterprise or any other wealth accruing to her due to her own effort or by and peace, inheritance. It includes, but is mover not limited to, gifts or wealth given to a daughter at the time of her marriage.
It also includes gifts given to help with a scholarship her by her in-laws. A key-defining characteristic of stridhan is that no one in the family can touch it, except if the woman concerned voluntarily gifts a portion to someone. In the essay natural course, stridhan passes from on war and peace, mother to daughter and if in a contingency a male member uses a part of a woman's stridhan, he is expected to return it with interest. The traditional stridhan given at the time of a daughter's marriage was determined by predictable norms within each community and was more in the nature of aristotle mover, pre-mortem inheritance for the daughter that usually included items such as gold, cows or even a piece of land, along with a few clothes and utensils. Up to my grandmothers' generation, community norms decided the gifts given to a daughter. By my mother's generation dowry had started emerging as a problem because marriage alliances began to be made on the basis of summer high, a groom's potential income and status in the 'modern' economy rather than traditional notions of stridhan. Traditional stridhan gives women stronger and inalienable rights to a portion of mover essay, wealth in both parental and marital families. By contrast, dowry is a device for geography, disinheriting daughters from aristotle mover essay, parental property, as discussed in my articles, To Ensure Her Happiness or to Disinherit Her? and programs high Dowry Calculations. ( See MANUSHI No. 34, 1986 and No.
78, 1993. This theme is also dealt in my film: Dahej : Zaroorat ya Majboori? Available on CD from MANUSHI.). Modern inheritance laws also fall short of mover essay, stridhan because they allow daughters and wives to be disinherited at will. As I have previously discussed, the provision of essay and peace, 'free will' was included in the Hindu Succession Act of 1956 specifically with a view to giving the power to fathers to disinherit their daughter. (For a detailed analysis see, 'Myth Vs Reality: The Hindu Code Bill', Economic Political Weekly, Vol. XXIX, No. 33, August 13, 1994). Therefore, misplaced hostility to prime mover traditional cultural norms, including those like stridhan that gave women strong rights, results in ill-conceived campaigns that cause further harm to women.
Punishment for burgess geography coursework, such a poorly defined and prime mover essay conceptualized law is heavy and draconian; the anti dowry law is being widely misused by unscrupulous families, policemen and lawyers. From Dowry to Groom Price. Unlike stridhan , which was the exclusive property of the burgess coursework woman, the present day dowry includes gifts and wealth given at a daughter's wedding, not just to her but to her husband, in-laws and his relatives as well as household goods required for setting up the house. These vary from simple gifts of clothing and small items of mover, jewelry for the woman, to exorbitant sums in model geography coursework cash or expensive pieces of property to the groom and his parents. The amount of aristotle mover, dowry commanded by a groom has more to essay habits for kids do with his social status, income potential and social-familial connections than with the perceived share of a daughter in her parental property. Thus that part of aristotle mover essay, wealth, which is given to essay the groom and his family, has acquired the form of aristotle prime mover essay, groom price because it is an offering for seeking an alliance with a family with lucrative potential. Not surprisingly, men in those government jobs such as the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Police Service (IPS), which command the high highest bribes and unlimited avenues for looting the public as well as robbing from the public exchequer and appropriating resources such as land allotments and business contracts command the mover essay highest dowries.
If in a family one son is an IAS officer, his dowry will be substantially higher than that of his brother who may have managed to care essay get nothing more than a schoolteacher's job. Contemporary dowry is more like an investment by the bride's family in the hope of plugging into powerful connections and money-making opportunities. Marrying a daughter to such a man may mean upward mobility for her entire natal family, especially brothers, because they may secure huge benefits through this connection. The component of dowry that still retains some resemblance to aristotle prime mover essay the traditional stridhan involves the programs high school bride's trousseau, gold jewelry, household goods and any property that her parents might put in her name. But even this does not always remain in her control, leading to bitter tussles. It is not uncommon for a groom's family to aristotle prime mover essay keep a part of this dowry for their own daughter's wedding or treat the household goods as offerings made to the family, rather than being reserved for the bride. Recompense for Disinheritance. Denial of high, inheritance rights to daughters is aristotle mover essay justified on the ground that they inherit in their marital homes.
However, the share women acquire in essay on war and peace their marital family's property is aristotle essay not made in their own right, but comes to them through their husbands. Women inherit more often as widows than as daughters or wives. Because as widows they become claimants to their husband's share of summer high, property, dowry given at the time of a daughter's wedding has come to be seen as an offering to her in-laws, rather than her exclusive personal property. Since in prime most cases only sons inherit parental property and family businesses, and it is care only in the form of dahej that daughters get a share - albeit an unequal one - in parental property, most women consider dowry as their legitimate due. After marriage, even the parental home comes to be their brothers' and bhabhis' home. Most women feel that a dowry-less wedding does not work in their interest because it only means their brothers end up with an even bigger share of family resources.
How People Justify Dowry. Some of the commonly expressed justifications for dowry run as follows: When a young woman enters a new family, she feels diffident to mover essay ask for basic things she needs for her daily use. If she goes to her marital home without anything to call her own, her dependence on her in-laws and husband increases, unless she has a reasonable income of her own, which most women do not. Therefore, all the household goods and clothes parents provide their daughters are supposed to help them feel that they have something to call their own in their new home. Since daughters in most cases are disinherited by their parents after marriage, their main security lies in strengthening their economic rights in their husband's family. However, if they go 'empty-handed' to their husband's home, how can they expect that they will be treated as equal partners? The dowry is, therefore, in part an 'investment' made by parents to secure a share for their daughter in her husband's family property. When women go as new brides, their in-laws are also expected to essay on good habits provide them with expensive new clothes and jewelry.
How can gift giving be one-way? Why should women's parents not give gifts to their husband's relatives as a goodwill gesture when the bride is expected to aristotle become a claimant in the husband's income and property? When one raises the issue of marital violence and abuse due to dowry demands many have responded with the counter question: Are you suggesting that women get beaten, abused and murdered only in India, and on communal that too only among communities that give dowry? Don't women in America, Europe, Australia, the Philippines, and aristotle prime Africa also get beaten and killed, even though in these countries dowry giving is not an issue? Most women are in favour of essays on communal riots in india, a reasonable amount of dowry being given provided the groom's family does not put undue pressure on her natal family with additional extortionate demands.
Reasons for Dowry Increase Those who make a case for a stringent anti-dowry law on the ground that dowry amounts are rising exponentially forget that among many families in the dowry practicing groups, standards of living have also risen dramatically. Aristotle Mover? Up to my grandmother's time, dowry consisted of clothes for the bride, gold or silver jewelry, several sets of bedding, cows, buffaloes and help a scholarship bedsteads, cots or peedhas and aristotle prime essay perhaps a wooden closet. Some communities also gifted a portion of burgess coursework, land - a tradition still common in regions like Andhra. By the time of prime mover, my mother's wedding, sofa sets and dressing tables had become mandatory and dinner sets and tea sets were included along with kitchen utensils. Watches, wall clocks and high radio sets also became common because by then all these items had become customary parts of middle class life. Today, refrigerators, air conditioners, automobiles and a whole range of gadgetry are an integral part of upper class and upper middle class dowries because these families use many of these conveniences in aristotle mover their daily lives. However, there is no escaping the fact that ugly tussles are becoming commonplace over dowry payments.
An important reason for growing cash demands and on war expensive gifts for prime mover essay, the groom's family is that parents see this as their main, if not the only chance, to be compensated for with a scholarship, the big bonanza they are offering the bride in the form of an earning son. They feel they should be recompensed for their investment in his education and upbringing since after marriage his wife may influence him not to support his own parents. As long as joint families were the norm and most parents could count on their sons to support them in old age and treat their income as belonging to a common pool, dowry demands were not as much of an aristotle prime essay, issue. However, with increasing breakdown of care process essay, joint families and reluctance of many women to stay with in-laws, the insecurity of parents in many families takes the aristotle prime form of trying to extract what they can from the bride's family at the time of their son's marriage. The rapid upward mobility made possible due to opening of new opportunities for urban educated middle and upper class men, whose earning potential has increased exponentially, has meant that such grooms are avidly sought after. For most women upward mobility comes through the man they marry rather than their own employment. Most families try getting higher status grooms in the belief that their daughters will find it easier to adjust in such families than if they were to marry below their status, apart from the benefits accruing in the long run to the girl's family by forging an alliance with a well-connected kinship network; the burgess model demand for prime mover essay, such upwardly mobile men is far in excess of supply.
An important reason for the increase in domestic conflicts, rising dowry demands and the transformation of a scholarship essay, dowry from stridhan to aristotle essay groom price is that our legal enactments, administrative interventions and state policies are forcing the nuclearisation of families without due attention to the fact that the only or main old age security for the vast majority of people in India are their children, especially their sons. Parents invest all they can in their son's education and career building in the hope and expectation that sons will get jobs or other forms of earning opportunities bringing about programs upward mobility for the whole family. Sons are expected to contribute to the education and aristotle prime marriage costs of younger siblings as well as take care of parents in their old age. In societies where there is near total absence of on good for kids, any other form of social or old age security, this is an understandable expectation. However, too many parents find this expectation belied after their sons get married, especially if their sons take up well paying jobs or succeed in an independent enterprise separate from the joint family economy. Not just in metropolitan cities, but even in small towns and villages of prime, India, young wives are increasingly prone to insist on moving away from the help essay joint family and set up their own independent establishment, even when the aristotle prime mover essay in-laws are not abusive. A man continuing to financially support his parents or younger siblings even after nuclearization of the family often finds stiff resistance from his wife. Many even stop doing so. Burgess Model? Sometimes parents themselves withdraw from receiving such support in order to avoid friction in the marital life of their sons. Without doubt, in some cases daughters-in-law willingly endorse their husbands' efforts to support their natal families. But the over all trend is more in the direction of moving away from taking responsibility for the in-laws.
Insecurity of Groom's Family. In recent years I have heard any number of parents tell me that marriage no more means 'kanya daan' (gift of a daughter) but 'putr samarpan' (handing over of son to the daughterin- law). They say that they have to aristotle prime mover be prepared for burgess coursework, the eventuality that even occasional visits to the son's house may be resented and blocked by his wife, if she succeeds in winning him over to prime essay her side. That is why one finds many parents try to marry off their daughters before they arrange their sons' marriages because of the fear that they may not be allowed to contribute to the expenses after their sons get married. This is also the reason why dowry is increasingly taking the help with essay form of 'groom price', with parents expecting that a certain sum of money will be given to them almost as 'recompense' for their handing over the income and assets of their son to the woman who becomes his wife. This increasing insecurity and aristotle prime essay uncertainty is at the heart of family tussles between the bride, her natal family and her-in-laws. While some gracefully resign themselves to this fate and even encourage sons to model geography coursework set up a separate house after marriage, many fight a grim battle to keep their sons under their influence, which often means using even vicious methods to prevent the couple from enjoying a close conjugal relationship.
The young bride has a formidable weapon in her armory - her youth and sex. The old parents exploit the aristotle mover emotional appeal of blood bonds. This bond is easier to sever where the parents are dependent on the sons for old age support. Programs High School? The few families who are very wealthy may succeed in using their property as a glue to prime keep their married sons close to them. This anxiety and essays on communal riots uncertainty about their fate vis-a-vis their sons is in large part responsible for strengthening the culture of 'dowry demands'. The fierce battles between daughters-in-law and parents-in-law are also largely due to the fact that women in mover essay most communities are conditioned to believe that their rights lie in their husbands' families. Therefore, they feel extremely insecure and resentful about the claims of essays on communal riots in india, other members of their husbands' families. Part of the aristotle prime essay solution to this dilemma, therefore, lies in giving women inalienable rights in their parental property so that they enter their marital homes with a sense of burgess model coursework, self confidence in mover essay the knowledge that they don't have to keep the marriage going 'at all costs' and don't have to carve out a niche for themselves by curbing the rights of their in-laws.
Draconian Yet Ineffective. The anti-dowry agitationists do not take these new dynamics into account. They have relied mainly on model pious outrage combined with emotive outbursts demanding that the law be made more and more stringent in their attempt to aristotle prime abolish this 'social evil'. Short Essay On Good Habits For Kids? However, such laws work only if people perceive their own interest in the proposed measure of reform. If a woman believes in taking a portion of aristotle prime essay, her parental wealth at the time of her marriage and planning if her parents believe this is a necessary investment for her future happiness, how can any law stop such giving and taking? The only effect of the anti-dowry law and campaign has been that the giving and taking has become more surreptitious. Earlier, families ensured that proper lists and aristotle essay accounts were prepared and the groom's family was made to sign the a scholarship essay list of things they received while the dowry itself was put on display for all the relatives to take note of so there were numerous witnesses to the transaction.
Today, no lists are signed and prime mover essay most of the giving and care process receiving is shrouded in aristotle prime mover secrecy and made known only through whisper networks within the kinship social circle. Though there is a helpful provision in the anti-dowry law making it a criminal offence if the girl's dowry is not returned to her on care process demand, in case of breakdown of marriage, the battles over return of dowry have become more difficult and complicated because in order to secure the return of her dowry, a woman has to first establish what was given. If there is no clear proof of what the transactions were at the time of marriage, there is ample scope for essay, false claims and fraudulent denials. In the first decade of model geography, MANUSHI's existence, most of prime mover, those who came to with essay us for aristotle mover essay, legal aid were women who alleged abuse in their marital home. In the summer high school last few years, a good proportion of the cases coming to us involve complaints by mothers-in-law and husbands about the misuse and abuse of laws, especially section 498A. Aristotle Prime Essay? Such cases are brought to my notice not only by with, aggrieved families and their friends, but more often by members of women's organisations themselves. (See my article 'Under Use Abuse of Laws against Domestic Violence' - MANUSHI No.
120, 2000). Even the most active proponents and defenders of the anti-dowry law cannot claim that the aristotle prime mover essay law has been a success. Instead of fine-tuning their campaign to the realities on the ground, the anti-dowry agitationists have continued to demand that the law be made still more stringent. Even though in recent years a good number of Indian feminists have evolved far more nuanced positions on this subject, in recent year, the Dowry Prohibitionists continue to get a lot of support from some international networks that help them remain politically fashionable. Since the wide gap between precept and practice, between what they say and what they do, has never bothered these rhetorically militant feminists, not surprisingly, the heroines produced by such a 'high-on-emotion, low-on-common-sense' anti dowry campaign have been as phony as the essay Dowry Prohibition Act. Phony Laws, Phony Heroines.
On May 12, 2004, most national papers and TV channels splashed the story of the 'heroism and courage' of 21 year old Nisha Sharma for having called the police to arrest her groom and aristotle mover his parents on her wedding day, alleging that they had suddenly demanded an additional 12 lakh as dowry from her father. Several women's organizations, including the essay National Commission for Women, vied with each other to aristotle mover give trophies and awards to Nisha Sharma, who overnight became a national icon held up as a role model for essay, young women. Every newspaper and TV channel carried long reports of the glorious saga of Nisha Sharma. She became an prime mover essay, instant heroine of the international media. A New York Times correspondent specially flew down to essay on war India to interview Nisha Sharma. However, to mover essay the allegations by the groom's family that the short fracas on the wedding day was not created by them over dowry but instead was created by a former boyfriend of Nisha who came with his friends to stop the marriage by creating a scene, were given short shrift without proper investigation.
Nisha's family did not deny that her boy friend Navneet had threatened to obstruct the marriage but insisted that the essay fight with the groom's family was over additional dowry demands. An unusual aspect of essays on communal in india, this conflict over dowry was that certain items like a home theatre system, refrigerator, air-conditioner and prime washing machine had been purchased in duplicate - one set for Nisha and her husband and a second set for essay habits, the groom's elder brother and wife. The justification given for this second dowry was that the groom's mother had demanded these additional items so that the aristotle prime mover standard of care planning, living of the aristotle prime two brothers would not vary too much. Apparently the short essay for kids first brother's wife comes from a family of modest means. Therefore, Nisha's father was expected to bridge the gap in the standard of living of the two brothers. Whatever the mover essay truth of the matter on geography coursework that front, neither Nisha nor her father hid the fact that the family had already spent Rs. 18 lakh on buying all these goods. Thus, even as per Nisha's version, the fight was over the alleged additional demand of Rs.12 lakh, not over the giving of dowry per se. Nisha's father is reported to have told the press that they had even tape-recorded earlier phone conversations with the groom's family after they had begun making more and more demands for dowry.
Both Nisha and essay her father repeatedly justified the Rs. Essays In India? 18 lakh expenditure on dowry by saying they were not against 'voluntary giving' but were opposed to prime mover 'dowry demands'. Nobody bothered to ask them by what stretch of imagination they could describe a whole range of expensive gadgets for riots in india, the elder brother's family as 'voluntary gifts' for prime, Nisha. So elated were the anti-dowry campaigners within the help with a scholarship essay media as well as among NGOs that even before the start of prime essay, court proceedings to prove the allegations leveled by Nisha against summer Munish Dalal and his mother, even before anyone bothered to investigate the authenticity or otherwise of Munish Dalal's counter allegations against Nisha regarding her boyfriend's role in disrupting the marriage, a chapter on her as an emulation-worthy role model for prime essay, young women was included in the school textbooks of the Delhi Secondary Board curriculum. Thus, for the public at large, Munish Dalal's family had been permanently condemned as guilty and their alleged crime turned into a moral lesson for generations to come on on communal riots the basis of half-baked media reports even before the lowest court in the land pronounced its verdict. Mover Essay? The Sharma family, by contrast, has been lionized as though they performed a great heroic deed despite the provision of the anti-dowry law that clearly states that both the giver and taker of dowry are liable for prosecution. No one wondered why they were not arrested for having offered Rs. Help With Essay? 18 lakh dowry as inducement to Munish Dalal's family. A few months later, media persons lost interest in her story as they allegedly discovered more and more holes in the version of the dispute Nisha and her family offered.
Consensus against Extortion. The bottom line is that Nisha, like millions of other people, believes that the voluntary giving of aristotle mover essay, gifts and essays wealth - whatever be the amount - is perfectly legitimate, while anything demanded by the groom's family ought to aristotle prime essay be treated as an offence against the law if it exceeds the paying capacity of the bride's family or goes beyond their willingness to model comply. If that is the social and legal consensus, if that is how law is aristotle prime mover actually enforced, if the dowry prohibition law comes into play not when dowry is care process being given or taken but only when the bride's family levels charges of coercion and prime mover blackmail, then logic demands that we scrap the anti-dowry law since extortion is in anyway a criminal offence under the Indian Penal Code (IPC). All cases of dowry related harassment can easily then be tried under relevant provisions of the IPC as cases of care, extortion. Since there is mover a broad-based consensus that extortionist demands are both wrong and illegal, enforcing such a law will result in greater clarity and better implementation of riots, its scope and ambit. Today, most women end up using the anti-dowry law to book husbands for maltreatment even if dowry is not the aristotle prime mover cause of marital breakdown.
Thus anti-dowry law has not curbed the essay and peace giving and taking of dowry. It has only prime mover, provided a strong weapon for revenge in the hands of wives against their husbands and in-laws, whether or not their conflict is over dowry. Lawyers and even police routinely advise families to list 'dowry demands' as the primary cause of marital violence, even if in actual fact this is not at all the case, or is only a relatively minor factor in marital conflict. We have found that when we probed deeper, women narrate far more complex stories of conflict than come out in their simplistic statements to a scholarship essay the police and law courts about dowry being the cause of all their woes. It has become politically fashionable to attribute all forms of violence and discrimination against aristotle mover essay women, including female infanticide and female foeticide to help essay the economic burden of dowry that a daughter is said to aristotle prime mover essay represent. Dowry requirements are used as another excuse for considering daughters a burden. The anti-dowry movement, by limiting itself to the constant repetition of essays in india, 'dowry abolition' as a panacea for women's empowerment and as the primary strategy for ending their oppression, has only helped give further legitimacy to the conventional belief that daughters are an economic liability. We need to combat the culture of disinheritance if we wish to effectively combat the growing hold of dowry culture. Mover Essay? There is little mention of exorbitant dowries causing the burgess model geography ruin of families in aristotle mover the literature of pre-British India.
Ruin due to exorbitant dowry payments became a major theme in nineteenth century literature because this period witnessed an unprecedented erosion of women's economic importance and inheritance rights due to the manner in which the colonial rulers carried out land settlement operations in India. In conformity with Victorian norms that they were familiar with in their home country, land entitlements were given to 'male heads of the family', bypassing our customary laws that allowed various categories of entitlements to women. This concentrated property in the hands of men in school an unprecedented way and paved the way for the disinheritance of women. In addition, the rapacious land revenue demands drained large amounts of the aristotle prime mover essay economic surplus from the rural economy. It made the peasants extremely cash poor. The destruction of traditional crafts pushed large sections of impoverished artisan groups to fall back on their small landholdings and essay on war the consequent increasing pressure on land made land ownership bestow special power and status. However, with rural society and prime essay artisan groups becoming extremely cash poor, the tradition of stridhan seems to have become burdensome. The traditional view of daughters as paraya dhan got a new and deadlier meaning.
The term paraya dhan had the connotation of viewing women as wealth. This is an apt description in a society in which women carried their stridhan with them, that is, property that is summer programs school theirs by mover, right Traditionally, the entry of a bride into burgess geography, her new family would be referred to as the coming of Lakshmi (Lakshmi aayi hai). Even today vestiges of that tradition remain in most communities. Mover? A young bride entersher marital home with haldi (turmeric) soaked feet, leaving auspicious marks on the floor, marks associated with Lakshmi, goddess of wealth. As women were increasingly disinherited, daughters began to appear as liabilities. With Essay? Kanyadan, the gift of a daughter, became not so much a matter of earning dharmic merit (the merit of doing one's religious duty) so much as getting rid of an prime mover essay, unwanted burden.
It is in this context of devaluation of women's lives and marginalisation of their economic rights that dowry payments began to assume the care form of offerings to a groom's family so that they would take a burden from the bride's family. Thus, our modem inheritance laws have increasingly moved in favour of men and against the interests of aristotle mover, women. Help With A Scholarship Essay? All those communities that practiced matrilineal inheritance, such as the aristotle prime Nairs in Kerala, have also been forced through legislation to a scholarship move towards patrilineal inheritance. Prime Mover Essay? Systems that provided reasonable or adequate protection of women's economic rights have been steamrollered out of on war, existence. The present day dowry system in India symbolizes the disinheritance of women and the desperation of essay, parents to push their daughters out of their homes after marrying them off, no matter how this affects their well-being. Failure to do so is considered a severe stigma on the family's izzat (reputation). Since the woman is school being sent as a disinherited dependent, the receiving family has to be compensated. Once women become equal inheritors, parents will not have to depend only on sons and daughters-in-law for aristotle prime, old age security because daughters too will be empowered to take care of their parents. This will make families less male-centric and therefore, less prone to violent tussles.
We need to riots in india combat the culture of essay, disinheritance if we wish to effectively combat the growing hold of dowry culture. For this the following steps are likely to essays riots in india work better than anti-dowry laws: Encourage parents through widespread, high profile campaigns, to gift mainly income-generating forms of property to their daughters (land, house or business shares) depending on prime mover essay the economic status of the family. Encourage those parents who can afford it to ensure that their daughter has a house, room or even a jhuggi in essays on communal her own name so that she is prime essay never rendered homeless, can never be 'thrown out of the house'. Amend the Hindu Succession Act to give coparcenary rights to essay for kids daughters at par with sons as the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu have already done.
Amend the Hindu Succession Act to make it illegal to routinely disinherit daughters through their wills unless they can provide strong extenuating circumstances for doing so.