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Counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies. This study seeks to determine the definition of plot book report prevalence of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies, patent medicine vendor drug distribution outlets and drug consumers in dr. radhakrishnan, Cross River State. A cross- sectional descriptive study design will be applied in this research and data will be collected from important drugs randomly selected from community pharmacies and patent medicine drug distribution outlet and the level of knowledge of the public health implication of counterfeit drugs will be collected from pharmacist and definition in a book patent medicine vendors using structured questionnaires. The structured questionnaire will be pretested prior to the survey in a set up similar to and outside the about study area to test for validity and reliability of instrument. In A Book Report! Data for this study will be entered, coded, cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0.
Descriptive statistics will be done using frequencies, charts, percentages and tables. Bivariate analysis and Multivariate analysis (using logistic regression) will be used to assess effects of selected variables on the prevalence of essay counterfeit drugs, P- value of less than 0.05% will be considered as statistically significant and statistical tests such as odds ratio, chi-square and 95% confidence interval will also be used to analyze the data as applicable. Final output of the research will be recommendations on the control of counterfeit drugs. The objectives of this study are to: • assess the prevalence of the distribution of of plot in a book counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. • compare the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. • compare the proportion of distribution of by air counterfeit drugs in definition of plot in a book report, urban and rural setting. • identify factors influencing the distribution of counterfeit drugs among community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. • determine the level of knowledge of community pharmacist, patent medicine vendors and consumers on the public health implications of counterfeit drugs. Identification / defining research problem.
The availability of counterfeit drugs in about cats, the market presents a serious public health problem, particularly in developing countries such as Nigeria, and definition may have a significant impact on the national disease and economic burden. Current estimate suggests that 10% of prescription drugs sold worldwide are counterfeits, fake or contaminated, and in dr. radhakrishnan essay, parts of Africa and Asia, the figures exceed 50% (Newton, Lee, Goodman, Fernandez, Yeung, Phanouvong, Kaur, Amin, Whitty, Kokwao, Lindegardh, Lukulay, White, Day, Green, 2009). Counterfeit medicines are widespread and represent a threat to public health which can lead to of plot healthcare failures, such as resistance to antibiotics and the spread of disease within a community, as well as loss of life. Research has also shown that poor-quality medicines can reach the market through deliberate fraudulent practices by those that want to discourse on method get rich overnight. There is of plot in a, low awareness of the problem of on my journey by air counterfeit medicine; a problem that could lead to definition book public-health crisis (Charles, 2010). Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding counterfeit drugs are often undermine and discourse on method essay given less concern in the area of research.
Measuring the of plot in a book report magnitude of the phenomenon of counterfeit drugs turns out to essay be extremely complicated, particularly due to various reasons that have to do with the of plot report disposable means to detect the planning page trafficking routes, the number and the identity of those involved in the production and distribution processes, and the difficulty in systematizing and coordinating the information from the various stakeholders in charge of keeping, collecting and in a book report analyzing data (Charles, 2010). Available statistics have tried to propose figures on discourse on method essay the exact percentage of counterfeit medicines within the of plot in a book report worldwide pharmaceutical market. Their estimations reflect both the essay magnitude and the volatility of the problem: percentages of counterfeit medicines in different national pharmaceutical markets vary from as 1 percent to definition book as high as 50 percent. In general, higher percentages refer to less developed countries and economies in transition whereas lower percentages refer to the developed countries. Therefore, it is essential to take into account geographical, economic, legal and social criteria in order to interpret these percentages (Newton, et al, 2009).
Research has shown that counterfeit medicines is less spread in more developed countries due to discourse on method essay a combination of enhanced legislation, stronger institutions and definition of plot in a book report a more efficient regulatory control. According to the WHO, developed countries such USA, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand and those within the European Union (EU) have a very low proportion of counterfeit medicines no more than one per essayist, cent of market value (WHO, 2012). However, the in a book fact that a considerable amount of counterfeit drugs cases are declared on an annual basis by discourse essay developed countries proves that this problem still affects both developed and developing countries. Case studies can illuminate what statistics cannot. Nevertheless, the situation is more dramatic in less developed countries due to fragile economies, widespread poverty, lack of regulation, difficulties in controlling the system, as well as the definition report difficulties in american destiny essay, furthering and enforcing strong legislative measures. WHO has estimate shows that counterfeit medicines would represent approximately ten percent of the entire amount of medicines worldwide (WHO, 2012). Pfizer estimates that counterfeit Viagra alone causes a loss of 2 billion USD in sales. According to the Centre for Medicine in the Public Interest, based in the United States of America, counterfeit drug sales generated 75 billion USD globally in 2010. However, and according to other estimates, these rates increased to 20 per cent as there is a growing problem of drugs that look alike in most market.
The situation seems to of plot book be even worse in some African countries. However, there are currently little published work on essay on my by air the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in Nigeria including Knowledge, Attitude practice and definition of plot in a book no available research work in the study area. Essay! Thus the following questions need to be answered: • What is the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in definition of plot book report, community pharmacies and foreign essayist patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. • What is the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in urban and rural setting. • What are the factors affecting the definition of plot book report distribution of counterfeit drugs among community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. • What is the level of knowledge of on my by air community pharmacist, patent medicine vendors and consumers on the public health implication of counterfeit drugs. 1. There is in a book, no significance differences in the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor drug distribution outlets in Calabar metropolis. 2. Socio-demographic factors such as age, educational qualification and years of experience has no effect on the proportion of counterfeit drugs in Calabar metropolis.
According to World Health Organization (2010) defined counterfeit drugs as drugs that have been deliberately or not well labeled with respect to essay identity and or source which makes it difficult to track the manufacturer of such drugs (WHO, 2011). The counterfeited could include incorrect ingredients, misstated amount of the definition in a report active ingredients, or lack quality control in the manufacturing of the drug. According to NAFDAC in its definition of destiny essay Counterfeit drugs included preparations without active ingredients, preparations that are toxic, expired drugs that are relabeled, drugs issued without complete manufacturing information and drugs that are not registered with the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC). Looking at the above definition, it can be deducted that counterfeit drugs are drugs that are adulterated, inappropriate, and illegal and poses a threat to human health. The latest attempts at the international level to better specify the definition of counterfeit medicines showed how complex the problem is in reality. Definition Report! This is what happened for example when in paper cats, 2008 the International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Task-force (IMPACT) tried to redefine counterfeit medicines. At the end the proposed definition, was not officially endorsed at an international level, lengthily yet precisely explained what counterfeiting was and was not, stressing the differences between Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) related issues and public health protection (Charles, 2010). The term counterfeit drugs describe a drug with a false representation of its identity and or source (3) and this is of plot book report, also applicable to the drug container or other packaging or labeling information. Counterfeits may include drugs with correct ingredients or wrong ingredients/components, some without active ingredients, with incorrect amounts of foreign active ingredients, or with fake packaging.
Drugs that are not authorized to in a book be distributed in a given country but authorized elsewhere are not considered counterfeit. In reality the fight against counterfeit medicines goes well beyond the mere protection of IPRs and is a struggle aimed at journey by air, protecting patients and public health while fighting organized criminals profiting from this crime. For this reason, its use was sometimes avoided or well specified in definition of plot book report, the new regulations proposed at the international level and aimed at protecting public health. The problem of journey counterfeit drugs is of public health concern due to definition of plot in a book report its associated health risks. Essay! The associated health risks include antibiotic resistance, therapeutic failure, toxic effects and even deaths. (Akunyili, 2005). Counterfeit antibiotics with low doses of active ingredients are potentially more dangerous than counterfeited drugs containing no active ingredient at all and this may result to negative effect of report drug resistance that may affect the entire community. Antibiotic resistance caused by drug counterfeiting might have contributed significantly to the inability to dr. radhakrishnan essay eradicate or control important infections such as malaria and tuberculosis in in a book report, developing countries. About Cats! Resistance to in a book report chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is essay on my, already common (Meremikwu, 2007). The recent emergence of counterfeits of Artemisinin derivatives (Newton et al, 2006) and antiretroviral drugs (Ahmad, 2004) in some countries of South-East Asia and Africa is an important development which is potentially disastrous because alternative drugs are either inaccessible or unaffordable. The use of counterfeit drugs can also lead to Therapeutic failure especially drugs containing insufficient or no active ingredient, which can also lead to loss of confidence by the patients on the conventional drugs and public health program if they are aware. An estimated 700,000 deaths annually are caused by fake antimalarials and tuberculous agents, suggesting that the total annual mortality due to of plot in a the menace will definitely be much higher (Harriset al., 2009).
Various instances where fake drugs resulted in deaths due to failure to treat life-threatening conditions have been reported in the literature. In 2001 about 192,000 people were reported to have died in China as a result of essayist fake drugs. Also about 2500 people died in Niger following the administration of counterfeits of meningococcal-vaccines (containing no active ingredient) to some 60,000 people during the 1995 meningitis epidemic (Cockburn 2005). Research has shown the definition in a incidence of Acute renal failure due to poisoning from diethylene glycol packaged as a cough syrup which resulted in hundreds of deaths in on my by air, Haiti, Bangladesh, Nigeria, India and Argentina which are examples of the of plot book potentially fatal effects of essay on my journey counterfeit drugs containing a toxic ingredient in place of the original active ingredient (WHO, 1995). Also as recent as 2008, deaths in the US have been attributed to the use of adulterated heparin from China (Harris et al., 2009). The Economic loss associated with proliferation of counterfeit drugs is enormous and appears to be increasing annually. According to the WHO, about 32 billion US dollars were lost to drug counterfeiting business in 2004 (WHO, 2006). This increased to 40 billion US dollars in 2006 and is projected to reach 75 billion US dollars in definition of plot in a report, 2010 (WHO, 2006; Bate and Boateng, 2007). Planning! Many pharmaceutical companies are deprived of their rightful profits due to the unjust competition from definition book this brutal crime and essay journey have even resulted in the collapse of some of the companies (Akunyili, 2005). Drug counterfeiting business thrives better in a place where the drugs are relatively scarce of the prices are high. Of Plot In A Report! According to the WHO, an estimated 2 billion people globally have limited access to essential drugs (WHO, 2004) which is attributed to foreign poverty, high cost of drugs, inadequate health facilities and corruption (Cohen et al., 2007).
Unlike in more developed nations where little or no tariffs are collected from pharmaceutical products (Harris et al., 2009), high taxes and of plot in a book tariffs are usually collected from genuine medicines in less developed countries, leading to eventual increase in drug prices, decrease in about, incentive to adequate supply of drugs and consequent scarcity of the drugs that may be exploited by the counterfeiters (Morris and Stevens, 2006) since, most of the book patients in those countries pay for the drugs from foreign their own pockets. Although, drug counterfeiting is as dangerous and as lucrative as the narcotic business, its penalty tends to be less severe. Therefore, it is not surprising that criminal gangs previously known to definition in a book report be involved in the narcotic trade usually switch to drug counterfeiting because they find it quite appealing and less risky. There are also some reports of individuals being singly involved in this offense as in the case of a US pharmacist convicted of diluting patients’ injections (Reggi, 2007). The business of fake drugs requires little capital and simple equipment hence, it can be easily and successfully carried out by some small scale unrecognized industries (Reggi, 2007). Appropriate penalty for drug counterfeiting could be an effective deterrent.
Unfortunately, the discourse on method essay penalty for in a book, manufacturing or distributing counterfeit drugs is very lenient in many developing countries. For instance, in Nigeria such an offense is on my journey by air, usually punished by imprisonment for periods ranging between 3 months to 5 years or alternatively a fine of 70-3600 US dollars (Akunyili, 2007). Similarly, in South American countries, the penalty for such a crime is just six months in definition book, jail or a fine (Bate and Boateng, 2007). Such a weak and incongruous penalty is incapable of making any great impact in page for essay, preventing this lucrative crime. Unlike developed nations with clear and strongly enforced laws on civil liability against suppliers or manufactures whose product causes harm to consumers, most of the poor countries afflicted with the problem of definition of plot book report drug counterfeiting have laws in which civil liabilities are either not clearly defined or inadequately enforced. Paper! For example, in the US it is not uncommon for victims of fake drugs to seek compensation in the order of millions of dollars from the definition book culprits of the crime. Discourse! On the other hand, although, the punishment for the supply and manufacture of of plot book fake drugs in India and China is very severe (death penalty), inadequate and essay inefficient civil liability laws is a huge roadblock to successful combat of drug counterfeiting in the two nations (Harris et al., 2009). Further findings have shown that developing countries are not merely the victims of the definition in a report problem but also serve as the sources of counterfeit drugs with India and China being the destiny biggest culprits globally (Bate and Boateng, 2007). One statistics by of plot book the European Commission described India as the source of 75% of fake drugs and according to essay one report, most of the fake drugs in Nigerian markets originate from India (Raufu, 2003). Drug counterfeiting business may also be encouraged by the different standards set by the exporting countries regarding the drugs for public use and those for exports with the standard of the latter being less stringent than the former.
One expert suggested that abolishing such a double standard could help to a large extent in combating the crime (Reidenberg and Conner, 2001). In A Report! This factor is particularly important in countries like Nigeria whose indigenous pharmaceutical industries can only discourse, cater for 40% of the demand of its teeming population (Akunyili, 2007). Despite the effort of NAFDAC in fighting counterfeit drugs in Nigeria, gap still exist in the availability of published research in the study area. The study will be carried out in Cross River State, Nigeria. Cross River State is one of the 36 political administrative states in the Federal Republic of Nigeria. In A Book! It comprises of three Senatorial districts each of which is made up of 5-7 Local Government Areas (LGAs). Calabar is the capital of Cross River State. The state is located in the south-south geo- political zone of the country within the on my journey by air tropical rain forest belt.
The State has an definition of plot annual rainfall of over 3500 millimetres. The state capital has one tertiary hospital, the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, a Neuropsychiatric hospital, two General hospitals, many primary health centres, registered maternity homes, registered private hospitals, registered clinics, registered Pharmacies, patent medicine shops. In addition, a Cement factory and a Petroleum depot are located at the outskirts of the town. The major occupations of the people are trading, farming, fishing and civil service. The state shares boundaries with Akwa Ibom,, Abia, Ebonyi and Benue State. The state is made up of 1,47,1967 males and 1,421,021 females. Majority of the population in research paper, the urban settings are civil servants while majority of the population living in the rural settlement are farmers. The researcher intends to carry out a cross sectional descriptive study by searching literature, collecting drug samples from of plot in a selected community pharmacies, patent medicine vendors and drug consumers and interviewing the subjects. Foreign Essayist! The choice of the research design is definition in a book report, because of research paper it flexibility and adaptability to in a report change. This design also requires strong focus and concern to essayist create observational skills, capable of getting precise and accurate data and to be competent to interpret different situation effectively.
Quantitative research strategy will be used in the design, collection and of plot in a book analysis of data. Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor’s outlets will be selected using a simple random sampling technique. 10 registered Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor’s outlets each will be selected in both LGAs using the collected list from the state ministry of on method health as sampling frame. In A Book! The first phase will include, mapping, enumeration of Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor outlets while Numbers will be assigned to dr. radhakrishnan each Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors outlets, folded and put in a polythene bag and then 10 persons will be blind folded to pick from the bag without replacement. The first 10 Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor outlets selected will be included in the research. Medications to be included in this research will be selected based on high therapeutic importance and utilization based on discussion with local pharmacist experts. For the community based sampling for drug consumers, the following multi-stage techniques will be used: Phase I: Simple random sampling technique will be employed to select three wards from each setting (rural and urban) using the lottery method.
Numbers will be assigned to each ward, folded and put in a polythene bag and then six persons will blind folded to pick from the bag without replacement. Definition! The first six wards selected will be included in the research. Phase II: In each selected ward, simple random sampling technique will be employed to select 4 settlements using the lottery method. Numbers will assign to each settlement folded and put in a basket. It will then be vigorously mixed. The first 4 settlements picked will be recruited into foreign the study (i.e.6 wards x 4 settlements = 24 settlements).
Phase III: In each selected settlement, at the entrance, a pen will be spin and the direction of the mouth of the pen will determined the first household to be selected and report thereafter systematic sampling procedure will be employed in subsequent selection of eligible households. Four research assistants (2 males and 2 females) who are fluent in the local language and English will be recruited for dr. radhakrishnan essay, data collection and will be trained on of plot in a book report field exercise and how to handle ethical issues. Those field assistant will present themselves as local buyers and essay by air follow the report research protocol for obtaining drug samples based on essayist the recommended sampling techniques. If they are unable to purchase the necessary quantity for a complete sample from one batch or lot, they will note it and another attempt will be made to purchase it from another randomly selected outlet of the same type. Definition Book! The quantitative data will be collected through a one-on-one interview with the respondent using a structured questionnaire.
The structured questionnaire will be pretested prior to the survey in a set up similar to and outside the study area to ensure questions are clear and well understood by the respondents and data collectors. Data obtained from the study will be entered, coded, cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Descriptive statistics will be done using frequencies, charts, percentages and tables. Bivariate analysis and Multivariate analysis (using logistic regression) will be used to access effects of selected variables on institutional delivery services utilization. P- Value of essay less than 0.05% will be considered as statistically significant and statistical tests such as odds ratio, chi-square and 95% confidence interval will also be used to analyze the data as applicable. S/N TASK/ACTIVITIES TO BE PERFORMED TIME LINE PERSONNEL RESPONSIBLE FOR TASK. 1. Final research proposal 1 week Research team. 2. Preliminary visits to area of study 1 week Research team.
3. Clearance and permit from communities and local authorities 4 weeks Research team. 4. Recruitment of field staff/community mapping 1 week Research team/ field staff. 5. Training of field assistant 1 week Research team. 6. Pretesting of instruments for collection of data (questionnaire) 4weeks Research team. 7. Book! Finalize data collection tools 1 week Research team.
8. Research Paper! Collation and analysis of definition book data 4 weeks Research team. 9. Report writing and presentation of findings 3 weeks Research team. Total weeks = 20weeks (4 months) This research will provide data on the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in Urban and rural settings and make recommendations on on my journey public health approach to addressing the of plot book current challenge. Societal and scientific relevance. The output from this research will serve as evidence to inform the scientific community and relevant government agency on the proportion of counterfeit drugs in the study area, this will help inform policy guidelines and safeguard against counterfeit drugs. This study will also improve public health practice in terms of improving health education and identify the essay most at book report, risk population of foreign essayist counterfeit drugs for intervention. The subjects will be briefed on the purpose of the study and consent will obtain from them to enroll into the study. Any subject who decline assent will be excluded from the study. All the information will be treated and kept secretly with high confidentiality without disclosure of the respondents’ identity.
No information will be changed or modify, hence the information will be presented as collected and the same with the literatures collected for the purpose of this study. Furthermore the researcher will avoid using any equipment or technique that will have possible harm or against the interest of the definition of plot in a report participants. Moreover, the researcher does not have any intention to use unfair means to on method influence the participants to obtain information. The drugs and questionnaire will be anonymous and the researcher will maintain a high level of definition of plot book confidentiality when treating the information collected. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Medicine essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and research paper about cats we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and of plot book you could have your customised Medicine work in your email box, in essay on my journey, as little as 3 hours. This Medicine essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/medicine/counterfeit-drugs-community-pharmacies/ [02-10-17]. If you are the definition report original author of for essay this content and no longer wish to have it published on of plot in a our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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Dec 19, 2017 Definition of plot in a book report,
2017 MBA Essay Questions: Chicago Booth. Chicago Booth Full-Time MBA Essay Questions Class of definition 2020. Essay? They#8217;re sticking to definition of plot in a report the same prompt, just with a different, and dr. radhakrishnan essay smaller, set of definition photos for you to choose from. The following is a collection of shared Booth moments. Choose the manifest destiny, moment that best resonates with you and tell us why. One of the best collections of modern art in the city of Chicago is found within the walls of Chicago Booth. Walking through the book, classroom level, a student passes by one of the nearly 500 ceonceptually challenging pieces, which inspire converastion and push people to think differently. Essay On My? #ChicagoBoothMoments #WhyBooth #ChicagoBooth #HarperCenter. These two Boothies remain grounded even when standing 1,353 feet above the city streets of Chicago. Investing in each other empowers Booth students to pursue their passions and reach new heights. Report? #ChicagoBoothMoments #WhyBooth #ChicagoBooth #WillisTowerSkyDeck #1353feet #LoveChicago #MyKindOfTownChicagoIs #FlexibleCurriculum. This adventurous group of students traveled together for a fun-filled Spring Break in Central America. From learning to pitch to sharks in american manifest essay, the boardroom to book report literally swimming with, well, sharks in the Barrier Reef, there are limitless ways to explore interest and challenge yourself during your two years at Booth. Essay Journey By Air? #ChicagoBoothMoments #WhyBooth #ChicagoBooth #BoothSpringBreak #SharkTank.
A student snaps a photo of friends at a school-wide celebration organized by definition report, multiple student groups in dr. radhakrishnan essay, recognition of the support and diversty within the Booth community. #ChicagoBoothMoments #WhyBooth #ChicagoBooth #TheBoothExperience #BoothBetterTogether. A student takes notes during an afternoon class. The unique perspectives and individual insights of each student play a vital role in Booth#8217;s classroom experience-whether lecture, case-based, discussion, or lab #ChicagoBoothMoments #WhyBooth #ChicagoBooth. The central pulse of Booth emanates from Harper Center#8217;s light-filled, six-story atrium where it all happens. From weekly socials to definition in a Nobel laureate speeches, this is the place where lasting friendships form, ideas take shape, and Booth comes to research cats life. Of Plot? #ChicagoBoothMoments #WhyBooth #HarperCenter @rafaelvinoly. EssaySnark says#8230;. dang there are a lot of paper about cats borrowed slogans going on in these photos this year! #8220;Better Together#8221;? #8220;Think Differently#8221;? And the weird Yoda-speak of #8220;My kind of town Chicago is#8221;?? Sorry Booth adcom. Of Plot In A? You guys should stick to your day jobs of dr. radhakrishnan recruiting applicants to your class. Marketing copywriting is clearly not your strong suit. The full application requirements are available on definition of plot in a, the Booth admissions site . Planning Page? Our Booth essay guide has also been updated for the 2017 cycle with even more strategies for how to identify the in a book, best content and put together your presentation (and yes, a PowerPoint is recommended, instead of an essay!).
Choose the format that works for journey by air you. Want to illustrate your response visually? Submit a slide presentation. Like to express yourself with words? Write a traditional essay. Definition Report? Use the format that you feel best captures your response, the Admissions Committee has no preference. Page For Essay? Determine your own length. There is no prescribed minimum or maximum length.
We trust that you will use your best judgment in determining how long your submission should be, but we recommend that you think strategically about definition of plot in a book how to best allocate the space. File Size: Maximum file size is 16 MB. Accepted Upload Formats: Acceptable formats are PDF, PowerPoint, and Word. We strongly recommend converting your piece to dr. radhakrishnan essay a PDF file prior to submitting. Multimedia Restrictions: We will view your submission electronically and in full color, but all submissions will be converted to PDF files, so animation, video, music, etc. will not translate over.
The Booth 2017 Application Guide gives you a map to developing a strong presentation for definition of plot in a book report the Booth Moments and covers many other angles and planning page aspects to a strong candidacy for definition in a book the University of Chicago#8217;s MBA program. It#8217;s been refreshed and manifest revised with all of EssaySnark#8217;s latest-greatest tips for definition of plot book report success, based on that of all the BSers who have gone before (including many admits from Snarkville in 2016!). Pick it up and get started on this critical app strategy. Manifest Destiny? Chicago Booth MBA recommendations Class of 2020. Booth Insider MBA Admissions Blog Booth Insider on Twitter Booth MBA Application Deadlines Round 1: September 21, 2017 . Definition Of Plot Report? In 2016, interview invitations were issued till around October 24th, which is when they let go of candidates they weren#8217;t moving forward with. Planning Page For Essay? That will probably happen in a similar timeframe this season.
Round 2: January 3, 2018 another right-after-the-holidays deadline. Ugh. Interview invitations and mid-cycle release are likely to definition of plot in a book report be in the first week of February. The standard career goals advice we#8217;ve offered for schools like Columbia and page for essay Harvard (and others) may be helpful for you in tackling the Booth application. In addition, the suggestions about NYU Stern#8217;s essay 3 are very relevant for definition of plot report a Booth PowerPoint presentation in 2017. Dr. Radhakrishnan Essay? The SnarkStrategies Guide for Chicago Booth has been updated for 2017! Get it now and get started on your Booth presentation! For Reference: Booth#8217;s Past-Season Essay Questions. View this collection of shared Booth moments. Choose the moment that best resonates with you and tell us why.
Choose the format that works for you. Want to illustrate your response visually? Submit a slide presentation. Like to express yourself with words? Write a traditional essay. Use the format that you feel best captures your response, the Admissions Committee has no preference. Determine your own length. There is no prescribed minimum or maximum length. We trust that you will use your best judgment in determining how long your submission should be, but we recommend that you think strategically about how to best allocate the space. File Size: Maximum file size is 16 MB. Accepted Upload Formats: Acceptable formats are PDF, PowerPoint, and Word.
We strongly recommend converting your piece to a PDF file prior to submitting. Multimedia Restrictions: We will view your submission electronically and in full color, but all submissions will be converted to PDF files, so animation, video, music, etc. Book Report? will not translate over. Yay Booth! They kept the awesome and paper about fixed the awful. This is in a book, much simpler than last year though there#8217;s still ways for on my your answer to go sideways if you#8217;re not paying close attention to strategy in how you present yourself (and authenticity matters just as much).
We encourage you to be genuine, authentic, and not overthink the question. Consider each moment, study the captions, and select the moment with which you feel most connected. Our hope is to definition of plot in a book learn a little more about why you chose a particular moment and manifest what it means for you in of plot in a book, your decision to apply to Booth. The exercise is about showing us something we cannot learn elsewhere in the application. There is no wrong way to approach this. The question and moments are yours to answer and dr. radhakrishnan essay yours to definition of plot book report interpret.
Here#8217;s the essayist, fun photos that you get to think about with a handful of links to the stuff that is definition of plot in a, referenced (you#8217;re welcome): Fellow classmates cheer on members of TransparentC as they are announced the winners of the 2016 Edward L. Kaplan, #8217;71, New Venture Challenge [winner announcements]. Run by @polskycenter [Polsky Center site], #ChicagoNVC [Twitter] is an experiential learning program that helps students turn their ideas into viable businesses. Celebrating its 20th year, NVC [NVC site] is recognized as the top-ranked university accelerator program in the nation [Seed Rankings site], where more than 140 companies got their start. #SeedCon #ChicagoBooth #ChicagoBoothMoments. EssaySnark comment: It#8217;s interesting that the first photo of the planning, bunch is of plot in a, one on entrepreneurship! A group of students travel together through Colombia. Each year, hundreds of Booth classmates have the opportunity to travel around the world, visiting destinations from planning Argentina to Vietnam.
Interantional opportunities like Random Walks [2016 Random Walks site], the book report, International Business Exchange Program [IBEP page], and Industry Treks [Treks page (out of date)] result in lifelong memories and lasting friendships. @BoothRW #WhyBooth #ChicagoBooth #ChicagoBoothMoments. EssaySnark comment: Keep in mind as you#8217;re reviewing this one that you don#8217;t go to bschool in order to discourse travel#8230; A second-year student helps the incoming class develop their individual leadership styles as a part of Leadership Effectiveness and Development (LEAD) [LEAD page], the cohorted course every Booth student takes at the beginning of their first year. As LEAD Facilitators, second years have an opportunity to in a report further practice those leadership skills and pay it forward to the next generation of Booth students. #WhyBooth #ChicagoBooth #ChicagoBoothMoments. EssaySnark comment: All the schools like to hear about examples of leadership (but we#8217;re not 100% sure about how easy it will be to present one of yours in response to this photo! #tricky). Walking in front of the Charles M. Harper Center [Harper page], a student is captured during a quiet moment before the beginning of a day on campus. American Destiny? #WhyBooth #HarperCenter #ChicagoBooth #ChicagoBoothMoments. Definition Of Plot In A Book? EssaySnark comment: Hmmmm#8230;. Talk about open-ended!
This one might actually invite some interesting (or completely boring!) responses. #ChicagoBooth faculty are thought leaders whose ideas influence markets and politics in industries across the on my journey by air, globe. Their research delves deep into the foundations of economics and behavioral sciences that underline how markets work, businesses function, and people make decisions. #RichardThaler [Booth faculty page] #LuigiZingales [Booth faculty page] #RaghuramRajan [Booth faculty page] #NicholasEpley [Booth faculty page] #ChicagoBooth #ChicagoBoothMoments. EssaySnark comment: Wait! There#8217;s nine books but only four names called out. What#8217;s up with that? Regardless, there seems like lots of possibilities here. (Just please don#8217;t say that you want to definition of plot in a report be a thought leader when you grow up. Please please please don#8217;t do that.) #ChicagoBooth students visit a village in India as part of a Global Social Impact Practicum [course description] led by the Social Enterprise Initiative (SEI) [SEI site]. Research Paper About? The program explores the potential for bamboo-based power and its impact on employment in rural India. #BoothSEI supports similar efforts through #ExperientialLearning opportunities in communities around the globe. #ChicagoBoothMoments. EssaySnark comment: There#8217;s more than just social impact here, people! A team of report #ChicagoBooth alumni compete in the 2015 Global MBA Trophy [event website] regatta in Athens, Greece.
The sailing race draws accomplished alumni from top business schools around the on method essay, world. Annual events such as these happen globally, bringing alumni together to connect, collaborate, and share in definition of plot in a book, new moments. #sailing #ChicagoBoothMoments. EssaySnark comment: Well you learn something new every day! This was an event that we had never heard of. Very cool! The Booth team even won one year.
On the floor of the New York Stock Exchange [NYSE site], cofounder and CEO Matt Maloney, #8217;10 [Matt Maloney LinkedIn], is joined by food mascots to help ring the opening bell as his company @GrubHub [prolly dint need to link that one when you use it every night] lists its initial public offering in April, 2014. Shares of the company, valued at the time at $2 billion, climbed more than 30% the first day of its IPO. @NYSE [Twitter] #Instafood [Instagram] #ChicagoBooth #ChicagoBoothMoments. EssaySnark comment: Another entrepreneurship story. OK whatevs. (Not throwing shade on planning, GrubHub but all the top schools have similar bragworthy alumni success stories too ya know.) Anyway, what#8217;s with the #Instafood tag? If you can do something (relevant) with that in your PPT, we#8217;ll be impressed! Students speak with Chairman and book report Co-CEO of manifest essay Dimensional Fund Advisors [company website], David Booth, #8217;71 [Wikipedia], whose unprecedented donation in 2008 led to renaming the school in his honor. The opportunity for business leaders to definition of plot bring insights from their careers to students is an invaluable complement to Booth#8217;s world-class academics. #ChicagoBooth #ChicagoBoothMoments. EssaySnark comment: There aren#8217;t too many alumni out planning page for essay there with wiki pages on in a report, them! (Not that we#8217;re suggesting that that#8217;s what you should focus on with this one. Foreign Essayist? It was really just an offhand comment. This one has much more to of plot in a book report be explored than that.) Nearly 100 #ChicagoBooth students put on a massive flash mob to surprise the Class of 2017 admitted students visiting #HarperCenter [Harper page] in February, 2015.
The choreographed performance of the hit #8220;Uptown Funk,#8221; [YouTube] was organized by members of the Booth Dance Club [BDC page], one of 80 student groups on campus [Booth clubs page]. #WhyBooth #ChicagoBoothMoments. EssaySnark comment: As with the research about cats, travel thing, we#8217;ll caution you again, you don#8217;t go to bschool to dance. Definition Of Plot? Just be careful if you choose this one; stay focused on the task at hand, which is to communicate something meaningful of planning for essay who you are in definition in a book, the context of dr. radhakrishnan essay your application to business school. Also: typo. Definition Of Plot In A Book? #eek. If you#8217;d like to see what Booth asked of past years#8217; applicants (including last year#8217;s version of foreign essayist this assignment) you can review the book, archive of on my Booth questions. Last year around this time, we threw out a bit #8216;o advice on Twitter: @MBA_Hopeful1908 Remember you can include text in PPT too!
We often see people do a much better job sharing depth of who they are thru pics. @felipecorcuera Many of our clients are able to definition of plot in a book communicate more of who they are through slides or other visuals instead of just text #128521; [end discussion of last year#8217;s question.] Click to discourse essay view 2016 questions. Brand-new essay requirement from of plot in a book Booth they mixed things up, yet not really. Essay? You still need to do a presentation (ideally, or an definition in a essay) to say how you fit with them. You just need to pivot that discussion off one of their Booth-centric images. So it#8217;s less open-ended than before. Dr. Radhakrishnan Essay? On Sept 2 we covered the key mistakes that people are making with this year#8217;s Booth essay and in November, we presented the simple way to handle the Booth question this year. You can also see what the Booth adcom says they saw with Round 1 applicants in 2015 . They preserved their one main app requirement the traditional Booth PPT, or you can make it a written essay but you need to approach things differently from definition of plot book report how past years#8217; Brave Supplicants have. Chicago Booth values individuality because of what we can learn from the essay, diverse experiences and perspectives of others. This mutual respect creates an open-minded community that supports curiosity, inspires us to think more broadly, take risks, and definition of plot book challenge assumptions. At Booth, community is about collaborative thinking and tapping into each other#8217;s different viewpoints to cultivate new ideas and realize breakthrough moments every day.
Using one of the photos (here#8217;s the american destiny essay, PDF to download them all together), tell us how it resonates with your own viewpoint on why the Booth community is the right fit for you. Of Plot In A? Here#8217;s the 16 choices most of which we recognize as images that Booth has been using on essay, its website for awhile. You will pick just one to talk about in your response. Wow! Talk about book report taking the question of #8220;school fit#8221; to the next level! They#8217;re still asking you to produce a PowerPoint or a Word file (or, you could build it in something else as long as you can save it as PDF). So to that extent, it#8217;s the same as they have had before. Destiny Essay? And again, there are no limits though it#8217;s helpful to recognize that in prior years when the PPT was one of several essays, then it was limited to 4 slides total. That#8217;s a pretty good ballpark place to definition of plot report start when thinking about how long you might want to go. Essay? Audio/video/etc are still not allowed, which is a bummer (especially when they do allow videos to be submitted by waitlisted candidates). In A Book? The main benefit of essayist this new question is in Booth#8217;s favor: You will not be able to reuse anything you build out for another school.
You need to create it organic to Booth. Pretty clever on their part. And, having 16 different images to choose from means that applicants will feel like they#8217;re empowered (provided they don#8217;t feel overwhelmed by of plot in a book, too many options) plus it ensures that the adcom won#8217;t get bored by seeing the same thing over and over again. It should invite more diversity in responses. Discourse On Method? There is also an of plot book optional essay (only use it if you need to literally explain something that you cannot otherwise cover), and there#8217;s a separate 300-word reapplicant essay if you#8217;re trying again. And, lest you think that they don#8217;t care about goals, they do; as with the foreign, prior year, they ask about them in the app. We participated in a Twitter chat where things were discussed: [email protected] One tip we can offer: Dissect the of plot in a book, Q, really reflect on each noun that#39;s included they bring insights! http://t.co/toe8Dfw0EZ. Oh yeah that last photo? #16? So @BoothFullTime, we really should know this, but#8230;. Who#39;s that in Essay Photo #16 ? Is that Mr. Booth? #BoothMBA pic.twitter.com/pKNHuzE9Bc. Page? @EssaySnark That is Eugene F. Fama, 2013 Nobel laureate in economic sciences. http://t.co/cDadVnN85X #BoothMBA. [end discussion of Booth#8217;s 2016 question.] Click to book view 2014 questions.
Presentation/Essay: Chicago Booth values adventurous inquiry, diverse perspectives, and a collaborative exchange of ideas. Essay? This is us. Definition In A? Who are you? This was remarkably similar to the HBS question#8230; which we have to point out, was worded quite closely to destiny Booth#8217;s original version of this prompt from several years back. For Booth last year, you could write a traditional essay (no word limit mentioned) or do a PowerPoint (again, no limit; in past years when the PPT was one of several essays then it was up to 4 slides total).
We#8217;re betting they stick with something similar this coming season, too. They recommended converting to PDF before uploading. Report? Audio/video/etc were not allowed however this is another change they make this year why not video submissions this year, Booth Insider? You allow them in the waitlist process. Seems ideal to front-load that opportunity for your candidates. Page? There was also an optional essay, which they#8217;re likely to preserve, and there#8217;s a separate 300-word reapplicant essay if you#8217;re trying again. In A Book? And, lest you think that they don#8217;t care about paper about cats goals, they do; as with the prior year they asked about them in of plot in a, the app. [end discussion of 2013 questions.] Click to planning for essay view 2013 questions. 2013 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis.
This is what we said when the two-years-ago essays came out: Here#8217;s the new Booth essay questions no career goals! Interesting. Two short-answer questions and the classic Booth presentation: My favorite part of my work is#8230; (250 words) I started to think differently when#8230; (250 words) The Chicago experience will take you deeper into issues, force you to challenge assumptions, and broaden your perspective. In a four-slide presentation or an essay of of plot in a report no more than 600 words, broaden our perspective about who you are. Understanding what we currently know about you from the rest of the application, what else would you like us to know? [that phrase #8220;the rest of#8221; is the on method essay, only change from last year] Those two short-answer questions make us feel like we work at Apple. The Booth online application does in fact ask about in a career goals here#8217;s some of the questions: Please select the industry that best represents the majority of your work experience to date (dropdown) Proposed industry post-MBA (dropdown) Proposed job function post-MBA (dropdown) What is your short-term post-MBA goal? (700 characters) What is american destiny, your long-term post-MBA goal? (700 characters) [end discussion of 2013 questions.] Click to view 2012 questions. What are your short- and long-term goals, and how will a Chicago Booth MBA help you reach them? ( We#8217;re betting they keep this question again this year. but they didn#8217;t!!) a. Definition Of Plot In A Report? What has been your biggest challenge, and what have you learned from it? b. American Destiny Essay? Tell us about of plot something that has fundamentally transformed the way you think.
The Chicago experience will take you deeper into issues, force you to research about challenge assumptions, and broaden your perspective#8230; [The same 4-slide presentation or 600-word essay as we got in 2013 except that they added the phrase #8220;the rest of the application#8221; to the actual prompt.] [end discussion of 2012 questions.] 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to of plot in a report help you with the planning, 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to definition of plot book help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and planning page for essay the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of of plot in a report 2020 app. Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on page for essay, The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to in a book report my pitch in essay journey, order to maximize my . Thanks so much for the additional feedback ES.
I really appreciate it. I just submitted my HBS app, . What were we snarking about at this time in definition of plot in a book report, past years? 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the discourse on method essay, adcom? 2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants! 2016 : No, you don't have to of plot book actually do the thing you say you will do in the career goals essay. Journey By Air? 2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark? 2014 : The disturbing trend of decreasing transparency 2013 : Success Story!
What can I do if I dont completely understand the writing - Plot | Definition of Plot by… - Interamerican University of Puerto Rico San German campus
Dec 19, 2017 Definition of plot in a book report,
European Journal of Academic Essays. International Multidisciplinary Research Journal. European Journal of Academic Essays 2(6): 32-38, 2015. ISSN (online): 2183-1904. ISSN (print): 2183-3818. Eight Types of Childhood Environments that Actually Produced Serial Killers. Based on the Information in Lay Literature and on the Internet.
Toin University of of plot report Yokohama. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Toin University of Yokohama, 1614 Kurogane Aoba Yokohama 225-8503, Japan. Abstract: Although there have been significant advances in foreign essayist, the knowledge and understanding of serial murder, its exact etiology remains unknown. In particular, the effect of environmental influences is unclear. While some researchers stress the impossibility of predicting multiple murders from an understanding of definition of plot book early childhood events, others posit the on my journey importance of traumatic event(s) on the development of serial killers. However, even among those who have stressed on traumatic event(s), there are clear inconsistencies regarding the timing and types of in a book such incident(s). This study investigates the childhood environments of 52 serial killers to see if there are any patterns that appear repeatedly among their environmental backgrounds and dr. radhakrishnan essay, if so, when such factors have more damaging effects on the subjects. This preliminary research intentionally uses lay literature and of plot in a report, Internet-based information that are normally overlooked by academic researchers. . Keywords: etiology of serial murder, development of serial killer, family environment, childhood background, environmental factors, pattern. A substantial sum of on method knowledge has been devoted to understanding the extreme form of definition of plot book report violence known as serial murder.
Among researchers, it is generally agreed that serial killers kill a minimum of three to four people over time . Page For Essay. Although there has been a steady increase in serious crimes committed by women, women still represent only about 5-8% of serial killers in the United States . Thus, the current orientation of criminological research, especially in definition of plot in a, homicide, focuses primarily on male criminality, a focus which is also partly supported by public perceptions . Lee  differentiates between types of general murders according to motive. Those motives include profit, passion, hatred, power or domination, revenge, opportunism, fear, contract killing, desperation, compassion, and ritual.
In a similar manner, Holmes and DeBurger  identify four different types of serial killers according to their core characteristics: The visionary type is on my journey by air compelled to murder by God or the definition in a book report Devil, and could be psychotic; the mission-oriented type acts in order to rid the world of a specific type of person, such as homosexuals, prostitutes, or people of other ethnicities or religions; the power or control type gains and exerts power over victims through murder; and the hedonistic type derives pleasure from killing. This last type can be further classified into lust -, thrill -, or comfort – ( profit -) oriented murderers . Regarding the essayist etiology of antisocial behaviors, an increasing number of recent studies have concluded that genetic or biological influences and their interactions with the of plot book environment are the key  . However, regarding the environmental influences, there are some inconsistencies which need to be clarified. Fox and Levin  stress the planning page impossibility of predicting multiple murders from an understanding of early childhood events, based on the fact that only a few of those who share common childhood traits actually become such killers. Holmes and Holmes  also maintain that the reasons behind antisocial behaviors are complex and not completely understood, and that until true understanding from the examination of the whole experience comes, no great strides can occur. Hickey  posits the importance of traumatic event(s) that can gradually influence a person to definition of plot in a, kill. Foreign Essayist. In his trauma-control model , Hickey hypothesizes that the subject experiences certain destabilizing event(s) “during the formative years” (p. 86).
Hickey seems to include both abusive and neglectful factors in the destabilizing event(s), such as “unstable home life, death of parents, divorce, corporal punishments, sexual abuse, and other negative events” (p. 86), and considers rejection in an unstable, abusive home as being the most common. These unresolved traumas then lead to a deep sense of anxiety, mistrust, confusion, inadequacy, and self-doubt in the subject, which is suppressed to such an extent that it cannot be recalled consciously. This suppressed experience will in time be split off within the subject, but will eventually surface unexpectedly. Holmes, Tewksbury, and Holmes  try to further specify this developmental process in their fractured identity syndrome . However, they argue that one traumatic incident happens “in the adolescent years” (p. Definition Report. 267) that causes a small fissure in the subject’s personality, and following incidents cause that fissure to explode and fracture the personality.
Holmes et al. Discourse On Method. say that before this happens, “[s]erial killers are much like everyone else during the primary years of personality development…and there was nothing in their early years that would have prepared them for the sequential predation that would occur later in their lives” (p. Of Plot In A Book Report. 267). They mention, as examples of the single traumatic incident that causes the fissure, unreasonable punishment for on method something the subject did not do and the discovery of the subject’s illegitimacy or adoption, insinuating that psychological abuse or shock is the of plot key etiological element. They further state that these subjects can also recall the painful social event that made them feel that the subsequent homicide would be acceptable. Holmes et al. also emphasize the foreign importance of the timing of the initial fracturing event and the sequence of events that followed. Especially between Hickey  and Holmes et al. (1999), who hypothesize the importance of traumatic incident(s) in the development of serial murder personalities, there are clear inconsistencies regarding the timing and types of such incident(s). However, it is proven that various child maltreatments have different effects on the development of a child’s personality.
Neglect, physical abuse, and psychological abuse each have a distinct psychological effect on a child’s development. Although physical abuse produces aggression toward others, psychological attacks and criticism from the parents appear to be specifically associated with low self-evaluation . Of Plot In A Report. Neglect, on the other hand, is associated with even more severe cognitive and academic deficits—social withdrawal, limited peer acceptance, and internalizing problems—than physical abuse . Regarding the timing of the traumatic incident, Hickey  uses the essay journey by air phrase formative years while Holmes et al. Report.  uses adolescent years . While Hickey states that “[f]or the essay offender, this cycle of trauma and definition of plot, quest for regaining control can be generated at a very early age” (p. 88), Holmes et al. give examples in which such incidents happened at ages eight, nine, and 13.
Although they could generally mean the same age range, Hickey seems to page, mean younger ages than Holmes et al. Definition Of Plot Book. There are serial killers who actually started showing their aggression at even younger ages than the researchers suggest. For example, Ted Bundy surrounded his aunt with knives at the age of three when she was taking a nap . William Heirens playfully shut a dog up in an unlit oven and locked his mother in the pantry at age two . It seems important to clarify what types of environmental factors are critical in causing serial murder and when those factors have more damaging effects on on method, the subjects. Children are known to develop a cognitive framework called an internal working model around the age of three  , and a child’s later interaction with others is guided by memories and expectations from in a report, this internal working model . Thus, this paper attempts to discover certain patterns among serial killers’ backgrounds, especially during their early childhood.
However, in general, data on homicide offenders are not freely available, and datasets are mainly derived from news archives  . Such information does not necessarily cover the offenders’ upbringings. Especially for serial murders, there are no official data sources for assessing prevalence or patterns, and essayist, depending on the authority one chooses to read, the typologies of the definition book murders often differ, some using causation while others are diagnostic in nature  . In addition, family problems are not directly perceptible by traditional measures , and serial killers are notorious for not telling the truth . These are part of why research into serial killers’ backgrounds is stagnant . Normally, lay literature and internet sources are considered unreliable for academic research. Research Paper Cats. While acknowledging the lesser credibility of information from lay literature and the internet, if a wide range of less credible information is combined and compared to find commonalities, there still is a possibility that irregular or exceptional outliers would fall off and only the common information would remain. In the current situation, in which obtaining official records for a wide range of serial killers’ backgrounds is next to impossible, such research could still serve as a pilot work that may stimulate further research. In this study, the childhood environments of 52 serial killers were looked into to see if there are any patterns that appear repeatedly among their environmental backgrounds.
The information used in this preliminary research was based on what could be obtained from lay literature on true crimes and internet sites such as Murderpedia , Crime Library on definition of plot in a book, truTV , Wikipedia , radford.edu , and journey by air, YouTube , which contain as much inside information as can be considered helpful in knowing exactly what happened during the early lives of the subjects. The subjects that were chosen for definition of plot in a book report this study included only those with ample background information available from those two types of journey sources. As a result, most of the included cases turned out to be the ones that once caused a sensation in the news. Definition Of Plot. Since this research is research paper about qualitative, to look into definition of plot in a too many cases would prevent a careful examination of each case. At the same time, too few cases could not produce reliable commonalities. Thus, the by air number of cases to look into was originally set at around 50 without any special conditions on the selection of subjects. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the collected data. Due to the preliminary nature of this research, any specific assumptions were not set in in a book report, advance, as is the american destiny case with deductive qualitative analysis   .
We first extracted sufficient information pertaining to each of the serial killer subjects’ childhood backgrounds from lay literature and of plot in a, online sources. Outstanding environmental features that characterized each case were underlined. Planning Page. They were then condensed by deleting all unnecessary words and paraphrased into a short form. Definition Of Plot Book Report. These short forms were transcribed on a coded sheet and common categories were generated. These categories were then applied to the rest of the dr. radhakrishnan cases and revised, when necessary, to assure intercoder consistency. Finally, we attempted to definition of plot book, place all the subjects into one category that we considered to best represent their childhood environment after a full comparison to similar cases of other subjects.
The results of our research and categorization are shown in the table below. Some types which clearly involve clear specific factors are divided into sub-features. Although we attempted to focus on the one most outstanding environmental feature for foreign essayist each subject, when a subject clearly belonged in more than one category, the name was also placed under the secondary feature and parenthesized. The parenthesized numbers indicate the age at which the single traumatic event occurred. The types of these events were briefly described in of plot book, parentheses in Note . Note . Andrei Chikatilo and Anatoly Onoprienko are Russian, Robert Black and Harold Shipman British, Paul Bernardo Canadian, and Charles Ng Chinese. Miyoko Sumida, Suzuka Hatakeyama, Naohide, Sakakibara Seito, Kiyotaka Katsuta, Issei Sagawa, and Tsutomu Miyazaki are all Japanese.
Naohide and Sakakibara Seito, having been still minor at essayist, the time of of plot report their offenses, are nicknames. Among all subjects, only Miyoko Sumida and Suzuka Hatakeyama are female. a The anger-prone/overbearing mother is a hysterical/volatile character. b The denial of identity/male sexuality from a mother is american manifest essay a rigid character, exemplified by the mother denying all women other than herself, forcing the subject to wear female clothing, and/or calling him by a female name. The anger-prone/overbearing and in a book, the denial of identity/male sexuality could overlap. c Neglect + ? and Adoption + ? means there was a trauma in addition to neglect or adoption. Each event was: Dean Corll (rheumatic fever), Coral Eugene Watts (meningitis), Robert Yates (sexual abuse), Donald Harvey (sexual abuse), Dennis Nilsen (death of on my journey by air grandfather), Issei Sagawa (peritonitis), Jeffrey Dahmer (hernia), David Berkowitz (announcement of adoption). d Deprived of basic care after birth was place separately under Neglect + ? and Adoption + ? due to its much greater effect over ordinary neglect that occurred after the postnatal stage  . e Neglect + ? with access to outside friends was separated from definition of plot, Neglect + ? while confined to the family because of essay by air its unique offense pattern, in which the of plot report subjects repeated their murderous acts in spite of their guilty feelings after each incident.
As seen in Table 1, eight types of environmental features emerged from the examination of the childhoods of 52 serial killer subjects. American Manifest. Against what both Hickey  and Holmes et al.  hypothesized, the single traumatic event types covered only part of the cases and the repetitive trauma types covered more cases. These single traumatic events happened between the ages of one and eight following neglect, adoption, and other types of traumas, which began much earlier than the specific events. According to Terr , traumas are divided into two types: one caused by a single event ( Type I trauma ), and the other caused by a long-standing repetitive ordeal ( Type II trauma ). Thus, 46 of the 52 serial murderers in this study experienced Type II traumas. All 52 serial killers had one or more factors from their childhood that implanted in them the definition of plot in a book report seeds of their later aggressive acts. Even if they were neglected at foreign, some point, there were always certain abusive factor(s) confirmed. Of Plot In A Report. This seems to indicate that they were under abusive, not neglectful, conditions.
Lange and DeWitt  conducted a worldwide study of 165 motiveless murders from 1600 to the present. In their research, they point out that the reason only planning a handful of people develop into serial killers is because of neurological malfunctioning resulting from of plot in a report, head injuries, epilepsy, or deep temporal-lobe spiking, which can lead to dr. radhakrishnan essay, seizures and later compulsive autonomic behavior. Of Plot In A. However, among our 52 subjects, the number of those who clearly shared such features were minor: Berkowitz, Ramirez, Bianchi, Harvey, and Heirens. It is inconclusive at this point whether the claim by Fox and Levin  that only few of those who share common environmental traits actually become serial killers is true. Still, there is a possibility that the traumatic environmental factors either occurred during very early childhood when the subjects’ personalities were not yet firmly established, were at higher damaging levels than what ordinary people experience, or were highly consistent within the dr. radhakrishnan family circumstances in which they were confined throughout their childhood. Considering that all the Type II traumas in this study were the results of parental dispositions and had likely been consistent since the subjects’ births, it is possible that most of in a report those who developed a serial murder personality were under each adverse condition before the dr. radhakrishnan age four.
This seems consistent with the age when an internal working model is established, as proposed by Bowlby  . As was mentioned, this research was utterly preliminary in definition book report, nature, with its information based on lay literature and the internet, which are not used in academic research. However, the fact that some clear factors surfaced from the childhood environments of our 52 subjects based on only unofficial information suggests that there is foreign essayist a possibility that similar, more reliable patterns could be found based on more official information. In A Book. Thus, such studies are highly recommended. It also seems promising to compare the backgrounds of those who committed serial murders and those who did not after experiencing apparently similar environmental conditions, including the age differences for when the traumatic conditions began. A careful examinations of a limited number of such subjects might be a more effective method of finding their distinctions.  E. W. Discourse On Method Essay. Hickey, Serial murderers and definition of plot in a, their victims (2 nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. (1997).  R. Discourse Essay. M. Holmes, S. T. Holmes, Serial Murder (3 rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. (2010).
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