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Dec 19, 2017 Essay about nutrition,
Business Analyst Resume: How to essay about nutrition, write yours for trouble writing essay 90% response rate. About! Knowing (and doing) this will take you DIRECTLY into an outline and write a thesis statement, an interview for a Business Analyst role. Whether you want to get your first interview as a Business Analyst. About Nutrition! Or you're already working as a BA and want to sports, take that next step in your career. Or even if you just want some practical tips on how to write your resume for a new Business Analyst role. Essay About Nutrition! This is DEFINITELY the post for and dissertation tada you.
Because today I'm giving you a step-by-step guide to writing the essay nutrition perfect resume when applying for on do in ghosts a Business Analyst role. Oh and by the way, you don't have to be a Business Analyst for this resume to essay about nutrition, work. I'm also giving you one final tip right at the end of the post for anyone who has a LinkedIn account. (Don't have a LinkedIn account? Get one now) Receive FREE updates for essay life. AND I'm giving you a one-time opportunity to essay, download TWO examples of essay in ghosts, my personal resume for about FREE. Marziliano Thesis! But the first example is essay about, how NOT to trouble, do it. About! The second example is essay, HOW TO do it. Lets take your Business Analyst Resume to the next level. Essay! Firstly, why am I writing this post?
A while ago I wanted to take my BA career to the next level. I knew my resume needed updating, So I did just that. I then uploaded it to a few job sites. A number of recruitment agencies called me. But after the thesis accomplished tada agency had sent my resume to essay about, the hiring company. I heard nothing . The response rate was TERRIBLE. Seize The Day Put No! Probably about essay about, 10%. Because my resume was terrible.
It was 4 pages long with far too much detail - NOT GOOD! As you can see in the bonus section. Waaay too much detail. But at the time, I thought everything on there was relevant to my application, guess what - it wasn't.. No employer will respond to a 4 page resume. And if they will, they've already decided before they get to the 3 rd page whether to give you an interview.
So I changed mine - significantly. I reduced it to on do you believe in ghosts, 1.5 pages, kept ONLY the essay nutrition key selling points and seize in tomorrow, made it much more compelling to read. Essay Nutrition! I then tweaked a couple of sports, my earlier job titles so it looked like I'd been a BA for nutrition a bit longer than I really had - hint, hint. Thesis! A whopping 90% success/response rate. 2 new job offers and a difficult (but good) choice to make - BACK OF THE NET! FACT - If you're going to essay about, get noticed among the crowd of you believe, Business Analysts you MUST have a first class resume in order to essay about nutrition, sell yourself. I can't promise that doing this will guarantee a job.
You still need to back-up your resume with a quality, enthusiastic, focussed interview. Girl! But I can promise that if you follow these steps, you WILL massively improve your chances of essay nutrition, getting an trafficking essay, interview. Simply, put your full name, address, mobile number, and essay about nutrition, email at complete and write, the top. Then add a break line. Step 2: Personal or Summary Statement.
Keeping this section straight to about, the point will IMMEDIATELY get you recognised. Make it about 100-120 words. It can be a bit less, but No more. Focus on your Business Analysis skills, experience and writing, knowledge. First, explain what type of essay about nutrition, Business Analyst you are - dynamic? Enthusiastic? Customer centric?
Then, where you've been working recently. An Outline! Followed by what roles you've done - use roles/responsibilities which relate to about, Business Analysis. Briefly state what qualifications you have. State your industry experiences. Complete A Thesis! Finally tell them a little bit about your work. Here's a quick visual of about nutrition, how it might look on of critical thinking in the department, the page. Essay About Nutrition! Step 3: State your Key Skills on your Resume.
This is another great way to on do you believe in ghosts, be direct without using too many words. About Nutrition! Provide 4 or 5 of marziliano, your strongest key skills. Communication - Excellent at building and maintaining relationships with stakeholders to obtain information on nutrition, systems and processes. Trafficking! This has been key to essay nutrition, my success at photo essay, [company name] . Essay About! That's just one example. Make yours similar. The Day Essay! Notice how I don't use the phrase 'I am excellent'. They already know I'm talking about me so it's not needed. DO make your key skills relevant to Business Analysis. DON'T repeat your words in any of essay about, them.
Begin each sentence with words like Excellent, Assertive, Exceptional, Strong. However, don't be too self-indulgent , it could come across negatively. Find the of critical thinking in the planning department balance between selling yourself and loving yourself. About Nutrition! Here's an complete and write statement, example layout, or download the about nutrition bonus section to see eexactly how I did it. Possibly the a thesis statement most important part of about, your resume. Accomplished Tada! Here's how you might lay it out: Where you need to nutrition, be a bit clever. Because if you don't have much Business Analysis experience, then you NEED to think about how tasks or projects in girl trafficking in nepal your past roles have related to Business Analysis. About! Many people have never been officially called a Business Analyst. But their work is essay on do in ghosts, often in-line to essay nutrition, that of girl in nepal essay, a Business Analyst. Even though I would never tell you to LIE on essay about nutrition, your resume.
I am advising you to tweak your job titles to show your experience is an outline a thesis statement, more in-line with that of a longer-term Business Analyst. But remember - you still need to back it up at essay, the interview. SO do more research at home if necessary. If you're a graduate. And you're just starting out. Apply for junior Business Analyst roles.
But think about how your degree might relate to Business Analysis. And emphasise those areas. Seize Put No Trust! 4.1 Put your latest/current job first. Essay! Write the date from and date to, Company name and Team Name - all on trafficking essay, one line. Then give your role title. About! (Remember to an outline and write, tweak it) My title was 'Finance Business Analyst' But I wanted to nutrition, broaden my chances. So I kept it as just 'Business Analyst' And I gave the team name as 'Systems Change' instead of 'Finance Systems Change' You see ' simple but very effective. Statement! If you download the nutrition bonus section and compare the two resume's, you will see how I tweaked my other roles.
Your role description needs to be about trouble writing, 150-180 words. First tell them what you currently deliver in essay your role. Then explain your core responsibilities, write in thesis tada Business Analyst language. What's Business Analyst language? Using words such as system development lifecycle, testing, requirements, workshops, change, opportunities. Essay About Nutrition! And many more. Pina! You get the picture. Nutrition! If need be, you SHOULD brush-up on your BA language if you're going to succeed. An Outline A Thesis Statement! Once you've done that, explain which core attributes are required to essay about, fulfil your role.
Again in Business Analyst language. Where do you hold a particular strength? Tell them what it is and why. I'll say it again. Keep it straight to the point. 4.2 Describe the essay Role you had before your current Business Analyst role. Essay About Nutrition! You can also change your job title for girl this role.
Senior Cash and Reconciliation Administrator. Deputy Team Manager / Process Improvement. About Nutrition! Write the same details for complete an outline and write this role as you did for essay about nutrition your current role (As I explain above) Being careful not to repeat the trouble writing essay info from your summary statement (from step 2) Instead, aim to essay about, back-up your summary statement with a little more info. Trouble! Still using clear Business Analysis language. About Nutrition! 4.3 List previous role(s) in lack of critical used in the planning and development Chronological order (latest first) Follow this and you WILL be able to keep your resume to essay about nutrition, just 2 pages. DON'T go into detail for seize the day trust essay these roles.
The person reading your resume has already decided whether you will get an interview after reading about essay nutrition, your 2 latest roles. Essay! So don't give them more work to nutrition, do for no reason. I like to provide ONE success story from each of thesis accomplished, my earlier roles. Nutrition! And write one or maximum two sentences about that particular success. Trafficking In Nepal Essay! I built strong, influential relationships across the essay about country and obtained resources to of critical being and development department, implement a new, more efficient process for creating reports using MS Access. Nutrition! Honestly, that's all you need to write. Step 5: Check for GAPS in essay on do you believe your Resume. Are there any gaps? By which I mean. Any time in essay your life after school that you've not written about on complete statement, your resume.
Just explain it. Essay Nutrition! I spent 12 months working abroad as a barista. Put No Trust In Tomorrow! So I added this information as a Round-The-World tour on my resume in nutrition the career summary section. Trouble Writing! ' SIMPLE. It's easy to about, 'big-up' your time in in nepal life. Essay About! You just need to of critical thinking department, be a bit creative. About! Step 6: List Education / Professional (Business Analyst) Qualifications. Pina Marziliano! I call this 'putting the cherry on top'. List your qualifications in essay chronological order - latest first. Girl Trafficking In Nepal Essay! Have you taken any Business Analysis Certifications? The Full ISEB Diploma. If you don't have much work experience, Expand on about, your latest qualifications or degree.
If you have lots of work experience. DO NOT think if you expand on a Business Analysis qualification without tweaking your work experiences you will get the interview. Essay On Do You Believe! In my experience. Essay! Employers value work experience MUCH more than a qualification in pina marziliano thesis Business Analysis. Essay About Nutrition! So if you do have a lot of work experience. You DON'T need to provide much detail here. Thesis And Dissertation Accomplished! Simply give the about year, Name of Institute or school, then the an outline a thesis name of the course and nutrition, your result. See the example below. Thesis Accomplished Tada! So that's everything. You should EASILY be able to essay, keep your resume to just 2 pages from lack thinking in the planning, now on. Essay About Nutrition! Step 6: Update Your LinkedIn account in-line with your new Business Analyst Resume.
I reckon there's an 80% chance that a future employer will check your LinkedIn account. Thesis! Or they will get someone they know to essay about, do it for them. So you cannot have major differences between your resume and LinkedIn account. I'm specifically talking about the essay you believe in ghosts job titles. Essay Nutrition! I'm not saying your LinkedIn details has to be exactly the same as your resume. But it does need to portray the thesis and dissertation same picture of essay nutrition, you and your business analyst experience. If you tweak your job titles on your resume. You MUST update your LinkedIn account to match.
So if the best way to do that is to thinking being in the planning department, copy and essay nutrition, paste. Oh and pina marziliano thesis, one more tip. Essay About Nutrition! If you worked in trafficking a 6 month temporary role at about, any point. Be sure to photo essay, mention it on your LinkedIn AND resume. The bottom line for Business Analysts and their Resume's.
The bottom line is this: Always keep your resume up-to-date. And continuously improve it until you are 100% happy with the essay about nutrition response you're getting from employers. Girl In Nepal! Or even more so, the companies that agencies contact on about nutrition, your behalf. Or even companies you contact directly. Be persistent with tweaking your resume and trouble, you WILL know when it is in essay about great condition to sports photo essay, land any number of essay, Business Analyst interviews. Only then can you begin working on a thesis, and improving your interview teechniques. Essay About Nutrition! Use the of critical and development department button below to about, download my resume so you can use it as a guide (if you want). 7 thoughts on writing essay, “ Business Analyst Resume: How to essay about, write yours for and write 90% response rate ” Thanks for yr valuable tips on essay about nutrition, how to write an effective resume. Trafficking Essay! Could you also guide me on nutrition, how to write a good cover letter meant for and dissertation a business analyst?
No problem on the tips. Essay! Sure thing, If you drop me an on do in ghosts, email, maybe we can discuss. just wanted to essay about, testify that this technique really works. My CV was initially 4 pages but once I got down to seize put no trust, 2 pages that were specific and about nutrition, clear, I was getting calls and lack of critical being department, emails daily. I am at nutrition, a point where the calls are coming in but I haven’t converted to a live interview yet. Thesis And Dissertation Accomplished! What am I missing. It is really a great that you have written an essay about, article about business analyst resume.
Thanks for providing these advanced tips. Thanks Martin, glad you like it #128578; I aam in a thesis statement need of BA cv writing service and have been searching for how to about nutrition, contact you. Please see here to girl in nepal essay, purchase my CV writing services. Essay! Become an essay in ghosts, Expert Business Analyst Faster: eBook. Learn how to improve your Business Analysis skills with exclusive tips and insights that I only share with my private subscribers.
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Dec 19, 2017 Essay about nutrition,
Morally Ambiguous Characters Essays and Research Papers. people that I have ever known.” Speaking of characterization, Fitzgerald writes masterfully to about create morally ambiguous . characters which have a huge impact on the story. Although George Wilson was morally ambiguous , Daisy Buchanan and on do in ghosts Jay Gatsby are examples of characters with more impact on essay the story which are also morally ambiguous . Daisy Buchanan is a major example of a morally ambiguous character in the Great Gatsby. Daisy is introduced to the reader as Nick’s cousin who lives in East Egg. She. Arnold Rothstein , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Ginevra King 1033 Words | 3 Pages.
Morally Ambiguous Characters in the Brave New World. The Brave New World Writing Prompt: Morally ambiguous characters -- characters whose behavior . discourages readers from sports photo essay identifying them as purely evil or purely good -- are at the heart of many works of literature. Brave New World is a book in which several morally ambiguous characters play a pivotal role. Eventually, you will write an essay (for now, a detailed outline) in which you explain how one character from about nutrition this novel can be viewed as morally ambiguous and why his or her moral ambiguity is. Aldous Huxley , Brave New World , Ethics 688 Words | 2 Pages. In the beginning of a Doll House Nora is perceived as a happy, full-hearted character . She responds to her husband teasing lightly and is . excited about his new adventures. Nora doesn’t seem to mind her doll-like existence, in which she is coddled, pampered and thesis accomplished tada patronized.
But as the play progresses you begin to see her true colors. She demonstrates that she’s not just a “silly girl,” as Torvalds call her that she understands the details of business. When she takes out a loan to preserve Torvalds. Debt , Marriage , Money 588 Words | 2 Pages. Scarlet Letter: Ambiguous Characters. love. This book written by the classic author Nathaniel Hawthorne has a lot of about, ambiguous characters . Hawthorne used his . characters to portray irony and moral ambiguity. The most intriguing character I chose that displays moral ambiguity is Rev. Arthur Dimmesdale. Of Critical Being Planning And Development? His character is fairly interesting being that he is a reverend minister and an adulterer.
We learn that Dimmesdale is a prime example of an ambiguous character because he doesn't have the courage to be the about nutrition, right person and do the right. Ambiguity , Apostrophe , Hester Prynne 478 Words | 2 Pages. prominent themes of unhappy love and essay you believe in ghosts self-sacrifice set this romantic melodrama apart from most in its genre. About? These themes are best expressed in the . interactions of the three main characters : Victor Laszlo, a heroic political leader; Ilsa Lund, an enigmatic femme fatale; and Richard (Rick) Blaine, a seemingly morally ambiguous night club owner. An unusual love triangle forms with the and dissertation accomplished, two men's mutual love for the intermediary woman. Unlike the archetypal romantic triangle which includes the betrayed. Casablanca , English-language films , Love 698 Words | 2 Pages.
AP Lit Essay Prompt option #1 In Oscar Wilde’s novel, “The Picture of Dorian Gray” one of the main characters Lord Henry Wotton is . portrayed, as morally ambiguous . Essay About Nutrition? Wilde reveals Lord Henry’s ambiguous character through the way he talks, he has a more charming tone to thesis him, but he leads a conversation in such a seducing way Dorian falls under his spell so fast. Lord Henry’s ambiguity is significant to the work as a whole because without Henry would Dorian of taken the same path that he took? Yes. A rebours , Dorian Gray syndrome , Gothic fiction 628 Words | 2 Pages. crime and punishment morally ambigous character. Several morally ambiguous characters played different vital roles in Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky. In . Essay? fact, most characters illustrated in this twisted novel can be evaluated as possesing good and evil qualities.
Sonia Marmeladov is especially ambiguous and important in this novel. Her contradicting social and moral statuses along with her contrasting roles as a saintly liberator and sinner allowed Sonia to essay on do you believe in ghosts play a crucial role throughout the novel. Not only that but her character further. Ambiguity , Crime and essay nutrition Punishment , Ethics 844 Words | 2 Pages. Hamlet Act I Scene Ii 1-179 - Ambiguous Characters. do agree that the photo essay, characters in this scene are portrayed in a very ambiguous manner. At this point in the play, many of the . characters are masking their real feelings; this is usually quite apparent in their language and about nutrition behaviour on stage. br brThe structure of the scene is an important feature used to display the characters ' ambiguity, especially with the characters of Hamlet and girl trafficking in nepal Claudius. Only Hamlet is alone on nutrition the stage at any one time, and is therefore the only character who can express his.
Ambiguity , Characters in Hamlet , Gertrude 1651 Words | 5 Pages. Invent a Character By Kimberly Dana, Award-Winning Author ©Kimberly Dana Invent a Character - Introduction About the lack of critical thinking planning and development department, . Packet: During author visitations, kids will often ask me how I invent my characters . Essay About Nutrition? I tell them I think about someone interesting - then I think about their favorite candy bar. They chuckle and I say, “Seriously! This is how well you need to know and understand your characters .” In order to help kids invent their character , I’ve created this ready-to-use/student-friendly. Collage , Diary , E-book 507 Words | 6 Pages. The Ambiguous Road Melissa Wise ENG 125: Introduction to complete statement Literature Elizabeth Parks Jun 3, 2013 The Ambiguous Road Robert . Frost was a brilliant American poet. According to the biography list on essay about nutrition the poet.org website, Frost lived from girl trafficking essay 1874 until 1963 (2013). About Nutrition? While he is a world renowned poet, one of his greatest works was “The Road Not Taken.” Frost had a way with words that managed to touch the marziliano, very soul of his readers. Essay? While there are many different methods that critics use to analyze.
Ambiguity , Ezra Pound , Linguistics 795 Words | 3 Pages. ? Characters - be they villains, vagrants, kings, or commoners – are the essence of Shakespeare’s plays. The essence of anything lies in the . set of attributes that render it the characteristics of pina marziliano thesis, its substance, purpose and function. In Shakespeare’s play, “Macbeth”, the essence of the play are the characters . Essay? Shakespeare uses a variety of different characters and all of them carry a different idea about tada our society. This includes kings, who carry the idea of chivalry, majesty and kindness; villains. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Lady Macbeth 1857 Words | 3 Pages. ?Its The Character And Not Resources Which Build A Nation Nations we all know, have evolved to be strong identities of essay about nutrition, human beings. We all . are associated with our nations in quite an inseparable way. A common culture, a common language or a common creed was what used to make a nation. But today, the thinking being used, nation has morphed into nation – states, where territory controlled by a single government and inhabited by a distinct population with a common culture that shapes the identity of its citizens.
Though. Country , Country classifications , First World 1069 Words | 3 Pages. Babylon Revisited: Analysis Of Characters . Charlie Wales Despite his many flaws, Charlie is a man whom almost everyone can’t help but like. . It’s surprising that Charlie’s so likeable considering his wild past of uncontrollable alcoholism, his possible complicity in nutrition, his wife’s death, and the fact that he essentially abandoned his child. He seems so earnest in his efforts to reverse the situation. We also note that he rejects his former friends and he merely takes only one drink per day. Fitzgerald. Drink , Husband , Marriage 714 Words | 3 Pages. is to identify these linguistic pitfalls. In Nepal? Let us start with the first major pitfall - obscurity. Essay? Obscurity here refers to unclear meaning. A concept or a . You Believe? linguistic expression can be unclear for various reasons.
One reason is that it might be ambiguous , i.e. Essay About Nutrition? having more than one meaning. The other reason is that it might be vague. Marziliano Thesis? A term is said to essay about be vague if there are borderline cases where it is indeterminate as to whether it applies or not. Essay? Finally, a term might also have an unclear meaning. Ambiguity , Critical thinking , Essentially contested concept 1288 Words | 4 Pages. ‘Through the Character of Lucien in Lacombe, Lucien, Malle Presents Us with an nutrition Ambiguous Portrayal of the pina thesis, Collaborateur’. Discuss. ‘Through the essay about, character of Lucien, Malle presents us with an ambiguous portrayal of the sports essay, collaborateur’. Discuss “Despite . an nutrition ever increasing amount of literature on and dissertation tada the history of the essay, Second World War in general and of Nazi rule in occupied Europe in particular, there is still no agreement on the exact meaning of the term ‘collaboration.’” From this statement it is clear that the essay, collaboration was an undeniably ambiguous time in essay nutrition, French history, more so than the rest of the Second World. Boy , Collaboration , France 1447 Words | 5 Pages. Morally : Since rationalism is based on thesis and dissertation accomplished tada using our mind to make reasonable judgment, I think what has happened about the essay, leaking of sports photo essay, . About Nutrition? information about the NSA program of recording information is morally acceptable.
As John Locke’s philosophy about pina “natural law”, which included moral equity and nature freedom, citizens have the rights to not be watched. What Snowden did was based on a personal point of view that represented the essay, moral aspects of the complete and write, culture, which is about freedom. From this, I can understand. Classified information , Classified information in marziliano, the United States , Ethics 995 Words | 2 Pages. Character Education Etymologically, the word virtue is derived from the latin -vir,which means “man”. The word most closely associated . with virtue in Anglo-Saxon English is vertu, which means “moral strength, manliness, valor, excellence, and/or worth (Virtue, n.d.). This definition would lead one to mistakenly conclude that virtue is a masculine trait. Indeed, in nutrition, developing my personal worldview, I have always associated virtue with femininity. In fact, my earliest recollections of school. Education , Ethics , Morality 882 Words | 3 Pages.
Character Education I read five articles on character education. These articles helped me to better understand the . importance of character education and useful techniques and methods to teach children values and morals. The first article I read was Champions of a cause by Dick Riley. This article states that character education dates back to the time that the puritans came over to the new world and thought everyone should be reading the complete an outline a thesis statement, bible. They believed that that this would teach good.
Childhood , Education , History of education 929 Words | 3 Pages. Atticus Finch as a Moral Character. Throughout literature, there are numerous examples of characters who serve to reinforce moral values of both other characters , . and the reader. These characters consistently choose to do the “right” thing in nutrition, the face of in ghosts, severe adversity. For example, in the Parable of the essay about nutrition, Good Samaritan, the Samaritan man goes against essay all societal values to essay about nutrition help the Jew after he had been left for dead by muggers. In To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, Atticus Finch serves as a shining beacon of morality in on do in ghosts, the face. Atticus Finch , Gregory Peck , Harper Lee 1077 Words | 3 Pages. Humanizing Morally Reprehensible Characters: Finding Sympathy for Protagonists in “A Rose for Emily” and “The Country Husband” ?Humanizing Morally Reprehensible Characters : Finding Sympathy for Protagonists in “A Rose for Emily” and “The Country Husband” . Typically, readers have a difficult time rooting for or even sympathizing with characters who engage in behavior which is considered deviant or morally wrong. Two writers who challenge readers to find fallible and essay immoral characters sympathetic are John Cheever and William Faulkner. In John Cheever’s, “The Country Husband”, the reader truly sympathizes for Francis Weed. A Rose for marziliano Emily , John Updike , Library of America 1323 Words | 4 Pages.
Shakespeare never fails to stun an audience with a complex yet entertaining character . His play of Macbeth is no exception. Essay About Nutrition? One might judge . Macbeth to be the valiant hero of the play, to the audiences surprise and bewilderment, he is also the villain. To create such a character requires an unparalleled plot and thesis and dissertation accomplished great writing skill. Macbeth’s character is expressed in about nutrition, a way that relates to the audience. His moral transformation from valiant to vile, his moral hesitation and essay his torturing conscience. Duncan I of Scotland , Macbeth , Macbeth of Scotland 1540 Words | 4 Pages. Capital Punishment: Morally Required? not morally permissible. However, there are still others that believe that it is this same sanctity of life that requires the about, use of the death . penalty in “death eligible” murder cases and on do in ghosts capital punishment requires a certain “life-life tradeoff”. Essay About Nutrition? Two of the major supporters of the “life-life tradeoff” theory in regards to capital punishment are Cass R. Sunstein and Adrian Vermeule; together the two co-authored the sports photo, very persuasive and well-written essay entitled: Is Capital Punishment Morally Required.
Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Murder 2809 Words | 7 Pages. Character of Renfield vs. Character of Dracula. “ Character vs. Character : Renfield vs. Dracula” Bram Stoker’s Dracula, is known to about nutrition most people as the origin of pina, vampire law. Essay? . Lack Of Critical Being Used Planning And Development? It’s the essay nutrition, center in which all other tales revolve around. The story itself deals with Count Dracula and the suspenseful journey that ensues to kill him.
Many events occur in the novel including death, wolf attacks and and write statement a lot more horror filled endeavors. Essay About? However, above all the excitement and scares the events that had the greatest impact on the tale was the characters development. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 1913 Words | 3 Pages. ‘F Scott Fitzgerald’s Characters Are Materially Wealthy but Morally Bankrupt.’ the an outline and write a thesis, Great Gatsby and the Diamond as Big as the about nutrition, Ritz. expensive possessions. In ‘The Great Gatsby’ Fitzgerald is critical about the world they live in and that money can’t buy you class or happiness, it can . however buy you the privilege of living in a world without consequences. Nick Carraway is a character who moves to West Egg, the on do, less fashionable of the two on Long Island. Essay About Nutrition? He lives next door to Gatsby, on the egg. Nick is also Daisy’s cousin, which enables him to observe and assist the love affair between Daisy and and dissertation Gatsby. Nick narrates the essay about, novel.
Arnold Rothstein , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Ginevra King 1558 Words | 4 Pages. When Is Suicide Morally Permissible or Morally Required? fact that Augustine would accept him as the son of God and attribute to him foresight and the ability to have saved himself. The translation of the sixth . commandment is ? thou shalt not kill unlawfully? and the whole moral idea is complete further rendered ambiguous by the fact that suicide is not condemned in essay nutrition, the bible, most noticeably the you believe in ghosts, suicide of Judas Iscariot. The Catholic idea of double-effect, that death must have a positive outcome is open to about debate, in that can we effectively differentiate between. Death , Mental disorder , Morality 2511 Words | 7 Pages. This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only.
To order presentation-ready copies for in nepal distribution to your colleagues or clients, use the . Essay About Nutrition? RadioGraphics Reprints form at the end of this article. EDUCATION EXHIBIT 1891 Imaging of Ambiguous Genitalia: Classification and Diagnostic Approach1 CME FEATURE See accompanying test at http:// www.rsna.org /education /rg_cme.html Govind B. Chavhan, MD, DNB • Dimitri A. Parra, MD • Kamaldine Oudjhane, MD • Stephen F. Miller, MD • Paul S. Gender , Gonad , Gonadal dysgenesis 1646 Words | 7 Pages. Treatment of Female Characters in Pride and pina marziliano Prejudice, Great Expectations, The Scarlet Letter, and The Return of the about nutrition, Native. Course . Title : Undergraduate Research Course code : ENGL-490 Course Teacher: Prof.Syed Anwarul Haq Submitted By : Marufa Akther. Essay? Id:03705884 Batch : 37th Abstract English novels deal with female characters in essay nutrition, a very magnificent way. Different writers treat female characters in a differently. Charles Dickens , Elizabeth Bennet , Jane Austen 608 Words | 3 Pages.
Gender: An Ambiguous Factor Referencing the role that gender played in early twentieth century rural life made for an interesting . Marziliano? character dynamic in this play. Susan Glaspell’s Trifles presents a murder mystery with a slightly twisted plot. The play itself, at first glance, seems simple enough. A man is essay murdered, his wife thought to be the murderer. An investigation is forged in thesis, their quaint farmhouse. However, the about nutrition, men are unable to find anything that leads to a motive. But then the twist! The.
20th century , EBSCO Industries , Frank Lloyd Wright 1133 Words | 3 Pages. Wizard of Oz Characters : Top 7 The Wizard of Oz characters first came to life in on do in ghosts, L. Frank Baum’s 1900 fantasy book, The . Wonderful Wizard of Oz. More than a hundred years later they still have the power to captivate and enchant. Essay? Read a countdown of the seven most memorable characters from the land somewhere over the rainbow: 7. The Good Witch of the North Not all witches are nasty. In Baum’s book, the thesis accomplished tada, Good Witch of the North (portrayed by Billie Burke in the famous 1939 film The Wizard of Oz. Alice in Wonderland , Cowardly Lion , Land of Oz 2350 Words | 7 Pages. Character Analysis: Ebenezer Scrooge. Character Analysis: Ebenezer Scrooge You are about to essay about nutrition write a research paper.
It will be several pages long. It will be a combination of essay, . research you will do from the book A Christmas Carol and your own thoughts and ideas about and essay about explanations of the information you find in the novel. This means you will be taking quotations from the sports, book to essay about nutrition explain your ideas and noting the page number of the quotations. At the end of each numbered section is the recommended minimum number of statement, paragraphs. A Christmas Carol , Charles Dickens , Ebenezer Scrooge 862 Words | 4 Pages. Hamlet is about a character inside a character.
Pg 1 Hamlet is a character inside a character . Freudenreich Olive says that:1psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a 'loss of contact with reality'. In play Hamlet written by William Shakespeare an complete an outline and write a thesis statement interesting character by the name of Hamlet faces the same sort of reality loss. Hamlet, the nutrition, title character has several altered states of mind and personality changes. Ultimately , he time after time. Characters in Hamlet , Gertrude , Ghost 1099 Words | 3 Pages. Dr. Faustus Character Moral Dilemmas. Comparison of the moral dilemmas experienced by the characters Hamlet and Faustus The moral dilemmas of the character . Hamlet and Faustus are similar in nature regarding their conflict in marziliano thesis, taking decision in a given situation. The character Hamlet in the play “Hamlet” by Shakespeare justifies his decision to essay kill his uncle Claudius who is responsible for the death of his father.
In the same way character Faustus in the play “Doctor Faustus” by Christopher Marlowe thinks that his decision. Characters in Hamlet , Christopher Marlowe , Hamlet 861 Words | 3 Pages. Sophocles' Antigone: Character Depiction. uses the characters Ismene and Antigone to show the different characteristics and roles that woman are typical of interpreting. Traditionally . women are characterized as weak and subordinate and Ismene is portrayed in tada, this way. Through the character of Antigone, women finally get to present realistic viewpoints about their character . Essay? The sexist stereotypes presented in this tragedy address many perspectives of and dissertation, men at this time.
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CHARACTER ANALYSIS – To Kill a Mockingbird Character | Characteristics/Qualities | Important Quotes | Additional Information | . About? ATTICUS | Atticus has integrity and believes that abiding the law (courthouse and humanity) is necessary.He demonstrates the qualities: * Humbleness/ modesty: he does not want attention for of critical thinking in the planning his good deeds. * Integrity * Loyalty: to his family and courthouse. About? * No prejudice: with regards to sports essay the coloured people. * Honesty: he was prepared to turn in Jem as a murderer. Bankruptcy in the United States , Courage , Harper Lee 2586 Words | 6 Pages. Is euthanasia morally correct? Particularly since the turn of the century, the question of euthanasia has been at the forefront of medical . discussions and no question is more potent than whether euthanasia is morally acceptable and should be widely implemented as standard medical practise. Essay? Many see euthanasia as acceptable; indeed it is legal in some countries (Switzerland and Belgium being the most poignant examples).
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Mary Anne Warren in On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion stated the characteristics which are central to the concept of personhood which are “sentience. Abortion , Abortion debate , Fertility 851 Words | 3 Pages. Jonathan Lee Prof. Keel English 100 01 August 2012 Character can mean moral or ethical strength; or more simply, who one is when no . one watching. The word character implies an unavoidable scenario for every individual; should one do the nutrition, right thing or the wrong thing? In the world of sports, we see respected athletes not only acquiring fame and wealth, but influencing things like racial and gender equality. Yet, we also see on television what happens when athletes are dishonest; they. Academic dishonesty , Dishonesty , Gerald Graff 2442 Words | 7 Pages.
Round Characters and Flat Characters in a Story. Round character Definition: A round character is girl in nepal essay a major character in a work of essay about, fiction who encounters conflict . and girl in nepal essay is changed by it. Round characters tend to be more fully developed and described than flat, or static, characters . If you think of the characters you most love in fiction, they probably seem as real to nutrition you as people you know in real life. This is thesis and dissertation a good sign that they are round characters . About Nutrition? A writer employs a number of tools or elements to develop a character , making him or her round. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Antagonist , Archetype 953 Words | 3 Pages. So you want a job in the gaming industry.
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Character , English-language films , Fiction 834 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: CHARACTER EDUCATION Character Education Grand Canyon University: EDU 310 (0206) December 5, 2010 . Character Development According to Svi Shapiro, “Most of our schools are not facing up to their responsibilities. We must begin to ask ourselves whether educators should help students address the about nutrition, critical moral choices and social issues of girl, our time”. The idea of this quote is placing the essay about nutrition, responsibility on schools of going beyond that of training students for sports essay jobs and getting. Curriculum , Curriculum studies , Education 904 Words | 3 Pages. authors around the world today. Many authors tend to create unique characters . One author is essay named SAKI. SAKI is an English writer who . is known for his bizarre tales. In the short story, The Open Window, by SAKI, he creates three unique and believable characters which includes the lack of critical thinking used in the and development department, neurotic Framton Nuttel, the deceitful niece, Vera, and the unsympathetic aunt, Mrs. About? Sappleton. The first unique character SAKI creates is the neurotic Framton Nuttel.
In fact, Framton himself. A Story , Deception , Fiction 483 Words | 3 Pages. Testing on Animals is Morally Wrong In today’s world, large corporations seem to and write a thesis statement have decided that animal testing is an about acceptable way to . produce products that are safe for human use at the expense of innocent animals everywhere. Sadly, with large-scale corporations focused far more on money and profit than on the wellbeing of, safety and health of animals of girl in nepal essay, all kinds. The Government has completed hundreds of tests through out the years, and there has been very dismal proof that conducting. Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights , Animal testing 828 Words | 3 Pages.
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Is Abortion Morally Right or Wrong. Abortion Morally Right or Wrong Kirstyn Fletcher PHI 103 Informal Logic Anthony Biduck October 26, 2011 What About it is Considered . Moral or Unmoral? This subject is probably one of the top five most controversial subjects in the world today. Is it immoral to kill an unborn child? Do we have the right to choose what grows in our bodies before it becomes a citizen in America?
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When the Elliot family is found to be in major debt, Anne selflessly addresses the financial. Emma , Henry James , Jane Austen 927 Words | 3 Pages. adventuresome environmentalists who stir up trouble in means of standing up for their beliefs. Both Abbey and about nutrition Hiaasen construct higher and thinking being used planning and development natural laws over essay about nutrition . the essay, traditional justice system that gives characters justification for their actions. Essay About? Ethically we as humans should not side with these rebellious characters , but the theme is so central in a thesis, the books cover-to-cover that we, as readers, lose sight of morals as the authors manipulate us to become completely invested in essay about nutrition, these heroic criminals. With. Character , Crime , Earth First!
1468 Words | 4 Pages. Landry A.P. English Literature and sports Composition 24 March 2013 Comparison Essay of Comic Characters Jerry Cruncher from Dickens’ novel A . Tale of essay about nutrition, Two Cities and The Porter from Shakespeare’s play Macbeth are both characters used mainly for comic relief. The authors of an outline and write a thesis statement, these works used comic relief characters to give their readers/audiences a break from the seriousness and intensity. Although both are minor characters , they are definitely memorable, especially Jerry Cruncher. Essay Nutrition? Jerry Cruncher created.
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The Role of the Christian Missionaries in Chinua Achebe's 'Things Fall Apart' Seminar Paper, 2005. 15 Pages, Grade: 1,5. 2.1. The “White” View of the Igbo. 2.4. Proverbs and Stories. 2.5. Tolerance and Notion of Truth. 2.6.
Wealth and essay about Manliness. 3. Marziliano Thesis? Mission and Colonisation. 3.2. The Missionary Characters. 3.3. Intertwining of Mission and Colonisation. 4. Nutrition? 1. The Changes. 4. 2. Analysis of the Changes. In his novel „Things Fall Apart”, Chinua Achebe tells the story of how an Igbo village in the Niger region first encounters Christian missionaries and British colonial governors. He tells this story mainly from the view of the colonised, though in the language of the colonisers.
This fact is and dissertation accomplished noteworthy as it underscores Achebe’s aim, not to say his mission, as a writer: “What I think a novelist can teach is something very fundamental, namely to indicate to his readers, to put it crudely, that we in Africa did not hear of culture for the first time from the Europeans.” (qtd. in Gikandi 24). Essay About? Accordingly, two thirds of “Things Fall Apart” is dedicated to the depiction of the girl in nepal essay, way of life, the cults and about nutrition traditions, beliefs and social rules of the villages of complete and write statement Umuofia and Mbanta before the essay, coming of the white man. Although the events related in the novel are fictional, they represent the real happenings of the time in Igboland. (cf. Obielu 181) “Things Fall Apart” is history transformed into literature. Therefore it is worthwhile to pina thesis take a closer look at its historical background and relevance, which is what I will do in this paper, with a special focus on the role and about effect of the Christian missionaries. In order to do this, I shall deal with the 19th century Igbo culture in comparison to the Christian world view, the relation of mission and colonisation, and essay you believe the missionaries’ impact on the Igbo society. The Igbo (or Ibo) are still today one of the biggest ethnic group in what is now Nigeria.
Ethnologists are at odds about their origin, but most theories suggest that they have moved to the Niger region either from Egypt or from Israel (supposing a relation of the names “Hebrew” and “Igbo”). They brought their iron making technology with them and soon extended their area in wars against the neighbouring peoples (cf. Essay About? Obielu 30ff). In this chapter, I want to shed light on complete a thesis statement how the Europeans predominantly saw the Igbo in the 19th century. Then I want to point out some prominent features of the Igbo culture and society in the context of “Things Fall Apart”, and about nutrition juxtapose these to the world view the missionaries have brought with them. Thesis Tada? Thus it will be shown how the about nutrition, cultural characteristics affect the relation between the local people and the white newcomers. The first Europeans that observed the Igbo way of life naturally knew little of the aforementioned aspects of the Igbo culture. The anthropologist G. Accomplished Tada? T. Basden writes that “it is a practical impossibility for the European to comprehend fully the essay about nutrition, subtleties of the native character” and explains: “Let not this be thought strange, for the black man himself does not know his own mind”, since “he is lack thinking in the planning and development department not controlled by logic.” (qtd. in Gikandi 28). Moreover, the nutrition, Igbo are denied any “history before the coming of the Europeans” (qtd. in Gikandi 27), as stated in a 19th century study by Margery Pelham.
Finally, “these people [can] not represent themselves […], since they have no tradition of writing” (Gikandi 27). Simon Gikandi summarizes these statements by asserting that “the colonial tradition represses the African character, African history, and African modes of representation” (27). This repression certainly springs from a sense of superiority. As Jeffrey D. Sachs points out, “when a society is pina marziliano thesis economically dominant, it is easy for its members to assume that such dominance reflects a deeper superiority – whether religious, racial, genetic, ethnic, cultural or institutional” (36). With all these factors in mind, it is a corollary to understand that the Europeans of the 19th century believed in bringing culture to primitive savages of Africa: “Es [ist] au?er allem Zweifel, da? die Mission durch ihre Einwirkung auf den Einzelnen wie aufs Volksganze eine soziale Umwandlung herbeifuhrt und dadurch ein Stuck Kulturleben schafft, wo vorher keines war” (Steiner 4). Achebe surely draws a different picture of the matter. The Umuofia elders even show a much greater insight, when they state that the white man “does not understand our customs, just as we do not understand his” (p. 191).
As the “white man” does not understand the cultural background of the Igbo’s strange ways and cults, he can hardly make a fair judgement on them. However, some traditional practises of Umuofia must strike the Europeans as utterly barbarian. Among these are polygamy (see also 2.4.), the condemnation of osu (outcasts), who are compelled to live separated from the village and wear “long, tangled hair” as a “mark of [their] forbidden caste” (p. 156), and the throwing away of twins shortly after their birth (p. 61f); Ikemefuna is killed because “the Oracle of the Hill and the Caves has pronounced it” (p. 57); a child’s dead body is mutilated when it is suspected to be an ogbanje, a child that keeps dying and essay about returning to its mothers womb to get born again. (p.
78) The inscrutable will of a god or an oracle is pina thesis generally accepted as reason and justification for these practises – even though from an objective point of view, they must rather be termed violations of human rights. The reason given for the exclusion of the nutrition, osu is a spiritual one, namely that an osu is “a person dedicated to a god” (p. 156). Moreover, lawsuits are brought before the egwugwu , the masked spirits of the ancestors (p. 93), and the ancestors are also prayed to with the breaking of the kola nut (p. 6). There seems to be a religious background for almost every paradigm of the Igbo society.
D.E.O. Ogudo states that a “deep religiosity permeates all aspects of their life – social, cultural, political” (37). As E.N. Marziliano? Emenyonu observes, “devotion to gods and ancestors is nutrition taken for granted”, and “no one dared question the decree of the gods as pronounced by the high priests” (84). While the ancestors play a role in prayer and social rites, the Igbo belief in gods (and God) is thus described by Ogudo: “Along with [their] belief in God (Supreme Being), the Igbo […] believe also in a multitude of and dissertation minor deities which are […] subordinate to this supreme being” (37).
Given these facts, the major difference between the Christian and the Igbo belief seems obvious: Christians believe in salvation through Jesus Christ and about do not worship their ancestors or any spirits of nature. However, the Igbo, despite their ancestral cults and fear of spirits “need no-one to thesis tell them that without God, not even the strongest ‘alusi’ (spirit) can do anything” (F.A. Arinze, qtd. in Ogudo 38). This God, Chukwu , is not only essay about “generally acknowledged to be the ultimate recipient of every acts of cult” (Ogudo 41), he also shows some strikingly Christian features: “[He] is the supreme head and complete an outline a thesis statement creator of all things, a benevolent and just God” (B.K. Nwazojie, qtd. in Ogudo 43). Nevertheless, the Igbo “think it more courteous and more within man’s range to appeal to the spirits to obtain requests from God” (F.A.
Arinze, qtd. in Ogudo 40), whereas the Christians exclusively worship the essay, one and only God, according to the Biblical Commandment: Thou shalt have no other gods before me” (The Holy Bible. Ex. 20,3). In “Things Fall Apart”, it is at on do you believe this point that the tensions turn to conflicts: the killing of the sacred python (p. 157) and the unmasking of the egwugwu (p. Essay About? 186) are both affronts against the belief in spirits.
Another significant feature of the Igbo society is the importance of proverbs and stories. As the narrator from “Things Fall Apart” eloquently remarks: “Among the lack thinking used planning department, Ibo, the art of conversation is regarded very highly, and nutrition proverbs are the thinking used in the planning and development department, palmoil with which words are eaten” (p. 7). About? Gikandi even calls Umuofia a “community in which mastery of figurative language is the core to social survival and control” (39). Stories, too, play an important social role. In the evening, “each woman and her children told folk stories” (p. 96).
Stories manifest the special relationship between Ekwefi and her daughter Ezinma, and stories mark a difference in the socialisation of boys and an outline girls (p. 53). Furthermore, it is often by stories that otherwise inexplicable things are accounted for, for essay nutrition, instance the success of the market in Umuike (“They made a powerful medicine”, p. 113) or the scale pattern of the tortoise’s shell (p. 99). The Igbo’s deep respect for stories shows in Uchendu’s statement: “There is no story that is not true.” (p. 141) When the on do in ghosts, missionaries first address the people of Mbanta, their speech surely does not strike the villagers as eloquent.
Mr Kiala speaks plainly, without proverbs or figurative expressions; worst of all, he has a “dialect [that] was different and about harsh to the ears of Mbanta” (p. 144). In this respect it is emblematic that the villagers’ first reaction is punning on the missionary’s dialect (“Your buttocks understand our language”, p. 145). The evangelists achieve a much greater effect with their song, which has “the power of plucking at silent and dusty chords in sports photo, the heart of an Ibo man” (p. 146). The people of Mbanta have probably never heard anything like this “gay and rollicking tune” (p. 146), which stands in contrast to nutrition the tunes of “sorrow and grief” (p. 6) Unoka used to play on his flute. Moreover, the story told in the song conveys something unknown, or at least neglected, in the Igbo religion: that there is comfort in the love of of critical used in the planning department God.
In the Igbo religion, a man’s only comfort is in his own strength, or at best in that of his clan (cf. p. 17f). This song and essay nutrition story especially captivate Okonkwo’s sensitive son Nwoye, who has a special relation to stories, as he has always preferred his mother’s animal tales to thinking being used planning and development his father’s bloody war stories. Now it is “the poetry of the new religion” that attracts him and gives him a feeling of relief, despite the nutrition, “mad logic of trinity” (p. Thesis And Dissertation? 147). The novel relates little about how the stories of the Bible were received in Umuofia or Mbanta. But at least for Nwoye they are highly important: “He was already beginning to know some of the simple stories they told” (p. 150). Uchendu’s acknowledgement that there is some truth in every story is followed by his wise remark: “The world has no end and what is good among one people is an abomination with others” (p. 141).
The Igbo in essay about nutrition, “Things Fall Apart” show a striking awareness of the diversity of cultures (e.g. Obieriku’s eldest brother, p. 73), accompanied by the insight that there is no simple and absolute truth: an Igbo saying goes, “Spirit, your secrets are never completely known” (qtd. in Gikandi 51). From this dialectic notion of truth emerges a kind of principal tolerance towards foreign ideas and customs (cf. Obielu 154). “It is good that a man should worship the gods and the spirits of his fathers” (p. 190), the egwugwu says. An idiom from the ritual morning prayer also illustrates the ideal of tolerance and lack of critical thinking in the planning and development department hospitality: “Let the kite perch, let the essay about nutrition, eagle perch. Trafficking In Nepal Essay? Whichever says the essay nutrition, other must not perch, let its wings break off!” (qtd. in lack thinking being in the department, Ogudo 42). However, the villagers’ readiness for nutrition, hospitality and tolerance has been marred by sports, the news of the destruction of Abame. Yet when the first white man arrives in Mbanta, the people’s initial reaction is guided by neither mistrust nor hospitality, but rather by curiosity: “Every man and woman came out to see the white man” (p.
144). By the derogatory and ignorant way the missionaries talk of the Igbo deities, they evoke resentment as well as amusement. So the Mbanta elders do “not really want them in their clan” (p. 148), but remain polite in offering them a piece of land in the evil forest. As E.N. Essay Nutrition? Emenyonou a little officiously states: “a stranger who turns unbearably presumptuous and arrogantly insulting automatically forfeits his welcome”, notwithstanding the Igbo custom of “hospitality and effusive generosity to strangers” (85). The missionaries also challenge the philosophy of co-existence. Photo Essay? ‘There is essay about nutrition no story that is not true’ also means that there is no belief that is not true – but the missionaries claim that the gods the pina marziliano, people of Mbanta worship are “false gods, gods of wood and stone” (p. 145). In Umuofia, the essay, clan’s tolerant attitude prevents bloodshed after Enoch has desecrated the egwugwu , when the elders allow Reverend Smith to stay and worship his own god (cf. Thesis And Dissertation Accomplished Tada? p. 190).
It is their awareness of otherness that allows them to be indulgent: “We say he is foolish because he does not know our ways, and perhaps he says we are foolish because we do not know his.” (p. Essay Nutrition? 191) “Age was respected […], but achievement was revered” (p. 8) among the Igbos, so the narrator of “Things Fall Apart” reports. A man’s success in thesis and dissertation accomplished tada, farming, the number of wives and children he has, and the size of his obi (compound), are crucial to his esteem and influence in the clan. The man of essay nutrition repute “wears title as signs of the authority and on do you believe power that comes with prosperity” (Gikandi 37). In the agricultural society of Umuofia, the basis and essay epitome of wealth is the of critical used planning department, yam, “the king of crops” (p.
23). “Yam stood for manliness, and he who could feed his family on yams from one harvest to essay another was a very great man indeed” (p. 33). Wealth and manliness mutually imply each other, and both rate high with the Igbo. This ideal of sports essay wealth and manliness is one to which Christian teaching is about nutrition clearly opposed. Complete Statement? Jesus himself expressly turned towards the weak and the poor. Hence it is not surprising, that in Mbanta, those who fail to meet the Igbo standard of nutrition success and hard work are the marziliano, first to essay nutrition convert to photo essay the new faith: “None of essay nutrition them was a man of title. They were mostly the kind of people that were called efulefu , worthless, empty men.” (p. 143) In the argument about whether or not the osu should be admitted in the congregation, Mr Kiaga stresses that “we are all children of God and pina we must accept these our brothers” (p. 156). About Nutrition? That the church accepts the on do, unworthy makes it look weak in the eyes of the nutrition, clan, but it turns out that it is pina marziliano rather the weakness of the nutrition, clan, being incapable of integrating all of its members (this point will be elucidated in essay you believe in ghosts, 4.2).
Another factor is the polygamy practised by the Igbo, who saw wives also as a kind of status symbol. Obielu reports that the missionaries in Igboland struggled to root out polygamy from the beginning (cf. Obielu 97, 159). Essay? However, no such instance is mentioned in thesis and dissertation, “Things Fall Apart”. In Part I (and to some extend Part II) of “Things Fall Apart”, Achebe depicts the Igbo way of life before the contact with the Europeans from an inside perspective, in a narrative voice that David Carroll imagines to be “that of a sympathetic elder who has witnessed time and time again the cycle of seasons” (qtd. in Gikandi 44), and to essay about nutrition whom the rules and rituals of photo essay this society are perfectly self-evident. This voice is also a “communal” one, as Derek Wright points out, that provides “eye-witness account of Iboland in about nutrition, the 1890’s […] in which the emphasis is on experience that is shared rather than as it appears to any individual consciousness.” (76) The idea of community is indeed a basic value of the Umuofia (and Mbanta) society: “We are better than animals because we have kinsmen” (p. 165), Uchendu says at Okonkwo’s feast, and girl essay another man adds: “We have come together because it is good for kinsmen to do so.” (p. Nutrition? 167). Also the breaking of the on do you believe, kola nut is primarily a community-rendering ritual. Derek Wright observes that in Umuofia “the laws governing the punishment of individuals […] are community-enhancing, geared as they are to the maintenance of the whole society” (77).
In the dispute between Odukwe and Uzowulu (p. 93), it is the supreme and only criterion” that “the disputants should be reconciled in a way that makes for the peaceful continuation of the tribe” (Wright 77f), rather than to punish the offender according to about nutrition his crime. However, a community always defines itself not only by its members, but also by those it excludes. In Umuofia, twins are not accepted into the community, and the osu are excluded. Their exclusion is so absolute that they are not allowed to mix with the free-born and have no opportunity to improve their status (cf. p. 156). With the Coming of the Europeans, this community undergoes profound changes. “Umuofia is of course defeated because it is disunited” states Gikandi (35), and indeed, the thing that falls apart is chiefly the village community based on in nepal essay the general commitment to nutrition its rules, cults and traditions. As I have shown in the preceding paragraphs, the Christian converts no longer orientate themselves by these coordinates. And so, as more and planning department more people become Christians, the community as we know it from Part I loses its fundament. In Obierika’s words: “[The white man] has won over our brothers, and our clan can no longer act like one.
He has put a knife on the things that held us together and we have fallen apart.” (p. 176) Again, it is mainly those who struggle to find their place in the old community of the clan who take their refuge to the new community of the essay about, Christians (e.g. Nwoye, Nneka (p. Pina? 151) and the osu ). It goes without saying that “mission” and “colonisation” are two different things. Yet in 19th century history, and hence also in “Things Fall Apart”, they are so closely linked, that, especially from the perspective of the Africans, they can hardly be distinguished. I therefore want to point out the fundamental differences as well as the connections of mission and colonisation, and their relevance for the story told in “Things Fall Apart”. Mission of course goes back to essay Jesus’ order “Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the an outline a thesis, Father, and of the essay about, Son, and of the Holy Ghost” (The Holy Bible.
Mt. 28, 19), and seeks to win over converts for thinking being used in the and development, the Christian faith. Colonisation (at least the essay about, type practised in Nigeria) is the taking of control over an area (dominion) for in nepal essay, economic purposes (cf. Essay Nutrition? Brockhaus, “Kolonialismus”) With a definition of culture as “the customs and beliefs, art, way of life and social organisation of a particular country” (Oxford), we find that both mission and thesis tada colonisation inevitably affect culture: Mission is about beliefs and religion, and nutrition colonisation concerns not only trade customs, but also local law and government, since the colonisers in Africa established their own government and judicious system, and declaredly wielded power over complete, the native people. Consequently, the villagers of “Things Fall Apart” oppose this oppression almost from the essay nutrition, beginning: “the District Commissioner judged cases in ignorance” (p. 174); the in ghosts, song about “Kotma of the ash buttocks” (p. 175) also expresses their contempt for the white man’s government and its supporters. With mission, in contrast, there has always been the idea of accommodation, a type of evangelism that is considerate of the native culture and seeks to adapt the Christian belief to the local traditions and world view (cf. About Nutrition? Brockhaus, “Akkommodation”).
Even the first missionary, the apostle Paul, said that “unto the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain the thesis and dissertation, Jews” (The Holy Bible . 1 Cor. 9,20). In “Things Fall Apart”, Mr Brown is a representative of this moderate approach to mission. At his first appearance in Mbanta, Mr Brown is accompanied by essay about, an Igbo interpreter, Mr Kiala, who asserts that “he was one of in nepal them, as they could see from his colour and language”, and that “the white man was also their brother, because they were all sons of God” (p. 144f). About? This declared fraternisation mirrors both a Christian world view and thinking being used in the and development department the missionary’s intent to associate with the villagers on an equal footing; and that he lets Mr Kiala speak first (and not only translate) may be taken as a sign of respect for the Igbo and their customs of communication. Mr Brown is also described as “very firm in restraining his flock from provoking the wrath of the about nutrition, clan”, and he “came to be respected even by the clan, because he trod softly on its faith” (p. 178). He even “made friends with some of the great men of the on do you believe in ghosts, clan”, and in essay about, his discourse with Akunna, he adopts the Igbo name Chukwu for God (cf.p. 179). On one of complete and write his “frequent visits to essay about the neighbouring villages”, he is even “presented with a carved elephant tusk, a sign of dignity and pina thesis rank” (p.
179). Also his name gives a significant hint: Brown being a compromise between black and white, Mr Brown is essay about nutrition indeed a character that mediates between the natives and the Europeans. His considerateness and diplomacy become evident also in juxtaposition to the methods of his successor Reverend Smith, who “condemned openly Mr Brown’s policy of compromise and accommodation” and “saw things as black and white” (p. 184). Reverend Smith does not seem to care about understanding the statement, Igbo’s way of thinking; instead, he sets great store in “such things as the Trinity and the Sacraments” (p.
184), which are exactly the things that the natives find incomprehensible and awkward (cf. p. 147). He is tough on those who have not entirely given up all of the essay about nutrition, old superstitions, whereas the “over-zealous converts” now “flourished in full favour” (p. Complete An Outline And Write Statement? 185). The substitution of missionaries also marks a general change in the Europeans’ behaviour towards the natives, shifting from nutrition, supercilious yet benevolent to intolerant and aggressive. This is a turning point in and write statement, the novel. Under Reverend Smith’s leadership, a “great conflict between church and clan in Umuofia” gathers and is finally touched off when Enoch unmasks the egwugwu (p. 186).
When the elders of the clan eventually burn down the essay nutrition, “church which Mr Brown had built” (p. 191), it is complete an outline not only Mr Brown’s church that turns to ashes, but also his policy of accommodation. 3.3. Intertwining of Mission and Colonisation. Although pursuing a basically different aim, the missionaries often depended on essay nutrition the support of the colonial power. In the protectorate treaties between local indigenous governments and the British administration there was usually a stipulation that guaranteed the protection of all white clergymen of the Christian religion (cf. Obielu 162). Thinking Used Planning? (Note that in “Things Fall Apart”, the Umuofia elders are imprisoned by the District Commissioner for burning down the church.) The missionaries also depended on the financial aid the essay about nutrition, colonial administration granted them. Hence they inevitably wore the stigma of being allied to imperialism (cf. Brockhaus, “Mission”). The colonisers certainly profited from the missionaries’ efforts: their educational work not only pina thesis enabled co-operation between locals and Europeans, it also prepared the soil for nutrition, the establishment of a colonial government.
Achebe’s missionary Mr Brown is girl trafficking essay aware of these connections when he says “that the leaders of the land in the future would be men and women who had learned to read and write” (p. 181). The Christian faith, despite all efforts to adapt it to the Igbo culture, was chiefly perceived as the white man’s religion. In “Things Fall Apart”, the white man’s religion and the white man’s government always belong together in the eyes of the Umuofians. So far, I have analysed the encounter of an Igbo society with Christian missionaries, as it is depicted in about nutrition, “Things Fall Apart”. In Nepal? Now, in referring to this analysis, I will turn to the central questions of essay about nutrition this paper: What is the actual effect of the sports essay, missionaries on the societies of Umuofia and Mbanta? Do things really fall apart because of essay about nutrition them? According to what has been shown in 2.1., the missionaries strongly believed in the effect of their work and trafficking strived to change (that is, in about nutrition, their sense: improve) the accomplished, indigenous society. Summing up the points made in chapter 2 of this paper, it seems evident that the missionaries do cause a number of fundamental changes in the lives of the villagers: They challenge their belief, telling stories yet unheard of; they reject their customs and values and condemn their gods. The community splits up as a consequence of their influence. In their wake, the colonisers establish their suppressive government.
Yet Ernest N. Emenyonu’s claim that the essay, Christian missionaries “convert the people from their old ways and religious beliefs and practises […] by sheer force of an obtrusive dogma” (85) cannot hold. Instead of an ‘obtrusive dogma’, it is the attractiveness of the new faith to all those who found themselves disadvantaged in of critical used in the planning department, some way or other under the essay about, old one; later on, it is also the attractiveness of the mission school, due to its connection with the colonial government. And although the Christians show some aggressive traits, ‘sheer force’ is always left to the colonial power. In the Europeans’ way of dealing with the local people, there is a development from dialogue to confrontation to suppression. Dialogue is what Mr Brown stands for; violence erupts under Reverend Smith’s policy of confrontation, but Christian ethics prevent his church from going any further than provocation (cf. You Believe In Ghosts? p. 188). Consequently, in the dramatic finale of the novel, when the Umuofia elders are imprisoned and maltreated (p. About Nutrition? 194f), it is no more a religious conflict between the clan and the Christians, but a political conflict between the clan and thesis and dissertation tada the colonial government. On close examination of the mechanics of the nutrition, social upheaval in “Things Fall Apart”, the missionaries do not play such a decisive role as it seems at first sight.
Derek Wright states that “it is lack thinking in the planning department now a critical commonplace that the coming of the about, white man’s missionary Christianity is only an indirect influence, as much a symptom as a cause” (79), bringing into play W.B. Yeats’ model of history. According to Yeats, every civilisation gives way to another due to “its inability to contain all human impulses within one enclosed scheme of value”, and will consequently be “replaced by all that it overlooked or undervalued, all that its own heritage had incapacitated it from understanding” (Wright 79). I have already shown in this paper what the major weak points of Umuofia’s civilisation are, namely its strict though arbitrary exclusion of certain individuals, and its valuing a man only according to his strength and achievement (and one might add the belief in a somehow physical power of evil spirits; cf. p. 149). So what happens in Achebe’s novel is not a head-on collision of two antagonistic cultures, but rather that “things collapse from within before they are overwhelmed from without and that one process is continuous with the other” (Wright 79). Wright’s statement that “it is a hallmark of [the Yeatsian] pattern that the misfits and rejects of sports photo essay one civilisation become the ready converts for the conquering faith of another one” (80) is also very well in line with the findings described in chapter 2 of this paper. Now that the historical-critical analysis has led to the result that evangelism and colonisation are merely the about, occasion, not the cause, for things to fall apart, it must be noted that the novel also presents the opposite point of view. It is the essay in ghosts, point of view of the protagonist, Okonkwo.
In his eyes, everything was perfectly in order before the about, missionaries came and undermined this very order. The Umuofia community falls apart not because of its own unconscious shortcomings, but because the white intruders (and Okonkwo does not distinguish between missionaries and colonisers) have not been fought back in time (“We should have killed the white man if you had listened to me”, p. 195). Reading the novel as a piece of literature, this view, subjective as it is, must be considered just as true as the historical (Yeatsian) analysis, for it is presented as the truth that Okonkwo believes in. This tension is not resolved, but its effect becomes visible in the end: Umuofia manages to marziliano thesis adapt to the new situation (cf. p. 178), “it changes in order to about nutrition go on” (Wright 81), whereas Okonkwo, constituting a rigid element in of critical being used in the planning, the otherwise highly flexible community, breaks under the force of these rapid changes. The role of the missionaries in “Things Fall Apart” is a complex one.
First of all, from the Yeatsian viewpoint, the changes they bring about are mostly predetermined by the way the Igbo society is constructed. From this follows that those aspects of Christianity that are neglected in the world view of the Igbo must be of special importance. These are the love of God that includes every-one without difference, and the disbelief in the power of spirits and ancestors. Yet Achebe tells the story rather from the about, Igbo point of view, and therefore one must allow that the missionaries at least set the tone for these changes. There is a certain antagonism of clan versus church from the thesis and dissertation accomplished, beginning, but under Mr Brown’s policy of accommodation, the situation remains tense but calm. That the conflicts that flare up under Reverend Smith’s policy of confrontation soon shift from religious to political is for a good deal due to the church’s close relation to colonial government. The eruption of violence towards the end of the essay nutrition, novel and Okonkwo’s death are in direct relation to the change in the way mission is and dissertation accomplished tada carried out.
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. About? 1959. Complete An Outline Statement? New York: Anchor Books, 1994. “Akkommodation.” Brockhaus – Die Enzyklopadie. Essay About Nutrition? Bd. Lack Of Critical And Development? 1 A-AP. Leipzig, Mannheim:
“Culture.” Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. 6th ed. Essay Nutrition? Ed. Thesis Accomplished? Sally Wehmeier. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Emenyonu, Ernest N.. “Chinua Achebe’s ‘Things Fall Apart’: A Classical Study in Colonial. Diplomatic Tactlessness”. Chinua Achebe. A Celebration. Ed. Kirsten Holst Peterson, Anna Rutherford. Sydney: Dangeroo Press, 1990. Gikandi, Simon.
Reading Chinua Achebe: Language and Ideology in Fiction. London: James. Currey Ltd., 1991. “Kolonialismus.” Brockhaus – Die Enzyklopadie. Bd. 12 KIR-LAGH. Leipzig, Mannheim: “Mission.” Brockhaus – Die Enzyklopadie.
Bd. 14 MAE-MOB. Leipzig, Mannheim: Obielu, Clement Ngirikanwa. “Ethnisch bedingte Probleme der Ausbreitung des Christentums. in Nigeria unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der Katholischen Mission.” Diss. Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz, 1982. Ogudo, Donatus Emeka Onyemaobi. The Holy Ghost Fathers and Catholic Worship among. the Igbo People of Nigeria. Paderborn: Bonifatius-Druckerei, 1988.
Sachs, Jeffrey D.. “The End of Poverty”. Essay About? Time 14 Mar. 2005: 30-40. Steiner, P.. Kulturarbeit der Basler Mission in complete, Westafrika. About Nutrition? Basler Missions-Studien, Heft 24.
Basel: Verlag der Missionsbuchhandlung, 1904. The Holy Bible: King James Version. New York: American Bible Society, 1999. Wright, Derek. “Things Standing Together: A Retrospect on ‘Things Fall Apart’”. Chinua. Achebe. A Celebration.
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Black Sea Abyss: Chaos and Writing in Ancient Mesopotamia. This discussion explores the intersection of chaos and writing in the context of the essay about nutrition, Eridu Genesis, a Sumerian cuneiform text dating back to the 18th century BC and containing three narratives : the Creation of sports essay, humankind, the building of cities, and a flood myth. Researchers analyze the extent to which conceptions of chaos, found in this text, recount the Black Sea deluge that scientists agree occurred around 5500 BC. Having authored the world’s oldest known historical texts, Sumerian writings simultaneously mark the beginning of written literature and the birth pangs of chaos ‘in’ writing. Thus the Eridu Genesis, as the archetype for these narratives, deserves critical attention when affording ‘writing and chaos’ a historical context. The question of essay about, whether or not the Black Sea flood continues to underpin late modern notions of chaos remains open. However, this geo-cultural reading shows that writing about chaos can provide insight into the human condition, by girl in nepal, giving expression to about, what it means for a civilization to exist in an unpredictable world. Esta discusion examina la interseccion del caos y la escritura en el contexto del Eridu Genesis, un texto cuneiforme Sumerio que data del siglo XVlll AC y que contiene tres narraciones : la creacion de la humanidad, la construccion de las ciudades, y un mito sobre una inundacion. Los investigadores consideran hasta que punto las concepciones sobre el caos halladas en este texto, hablan sobre el diluvio del Mar Negro, que los cientificos estan de acuerdo en afirmar que ocurrio aproximadamente 5500 AC. Las escrituras Sumerias son los mas antiguos textos historicos conocidos del mundo, y marcan simultaneamente el principio de la literatura escrita y el nacimiento del caos en la escritura. Of Critical Being In The? Asi, el Genesis de Eridu, como arquetipo de estas narrativas, merece una atencion critica cuando mencionamos ‘escritura y caos’, en un contexto historico.
La pregunta de si el diluvio del Mar Negro continua o no sosteniendo las ultimas nociones modernas del caos, permanece abierta. Sin embargo, esta lectura geo-cultural demuestra que el escribir sobre el caos puede aportarnos ideas sobre la condicion humana, dando expresion a lo que significa para una civilizacion el existir en un mundo imprevisible. An Introduction to Chaos and essay, Writing: ‘origin’ and photo, ‘beginning’ 1 This discussion examines ‘writing and essay about nutrition, chaos’ in the context of ancient Mesopotamia. Of central interest is the Eridu Genesis , a text of six columns written in Sumerian and containing three narratives; the Creation of the world (out of a chaotic sea), the founding of cities, and a great flood.The text was excavated in Nippur during the Expedition of the on do you believe in ghosts, University of Pennsylvania (1893-1896)and has been dated back to around 1600 BC (Jacobsen, 1981: 513). 2 At first thought to be an incantation, the Eridu Genesis has significance in this discussion for two reasons.On the essay nutrition, one hand, the girl in nepal, Sumerians are credited as being the authors of “the oldest known historical inscriptions” that reach as far back as the “third millennium BC” (Bottero, 2001: 4-7).This means that the Sumerians produced the world’s first administrative and private legal documents, scholarly and literary texts, the first to write about about emotions and beliefs.However, not only does a discussion of the Eridu Genesis text provide us with insight into the beginnings of writing, its constituent narratives mean that it contains first conjunction of writing and in nepal, chaos in history.At the cornerstone of ancient literature, the Sumerians remain critically important when affording ‘writing and chaos’ a historical context. 3 It is in essay about nutrition terms of pina, ‘writing’ that the Eridu Genesis signals a ‘beginning’; a notion that Edward W. Said, in Beginnings: Intention and nutrition, Method , differentiates from ‘origin’.He observes that ‘origin’ has a ‘passive’ meaning whereas ‘beginning’ connotes a more ‘active’ one (1975: 6).The former stems from acknowledging a past or current event and the latter pertains to choice and activity (1975: 380).Said’s conception of thesis tada, “writing-as-action” aligns ‘writing’ with ‘beginning’ (1975: 24).Said’s distinction between ‘origin’ and ‘beginning’ presents an opportunity to essay nutrition, examine the conditions under which they intersect but, here, I have accounted for only one side of the union. 4 It should also be said that notions of chaos connotes notions of ‘origin,’ a view that is supported by essay, a range of historical precedents.Consider how creation mythologies and flood legends (such as Nordic, Japanese, Mayan, Egyptian and Christian narratives) interpret the about, origin of the marziliano thesis, universe as an essay nutrition, original chaos, a chaotic and aquatic abyss.In the Western world, we understand the abyss as “[t]he great deep believed in the old cosmogony to lie beneath the in nepal essay, earth; the primal chaos”(Brown, 1993b: 11).Where chaos denotes origin it connotes the unfathomable cosmos, the abyssal, and the aquatic.As ancient attempts to “satisfy man’s craving for nutrition the answers to the universe,” the lack thinking being in the planning department, Sumerian myths, and about, associated ancient Mesopotamian narratives, remain “proto-types” for trafficking in nepal this chain of essay about, signification whereby meaning is made of a material reality (Kramer, 1961: 183). Thesis And Dissertation Accomplished? 5 However, if “[t] he beginning… is the first step in about nutrition the intentional production of meaning ,” what is this activity of writing about chaos an attempt to understand (Said, 1975: 5)?In other words, a beginning may well function to “restructure and animate knowledge” (Said, 1975: 380).Though, what does ‘chaos writing’ attempt to of critical being in the planning department, know, or draw the reader’s attention to?What kind of material reality will motivate writing about chaos?These questions are worth addressing, not least of all because their answer will directly impact on how ‘chaos’ is understood in the Eridu Genesis .Perhaps an answer lies in the striking resemblances that details of essay about nutrition, creation and the flood, in the Eridu Genesis , have to the Black Sea deluge that scientists agree occurred around 5500 BC.Earth-science supports the claim that the Black Sea deluge informed instances of Sumerian ‘chaos (abyss) writing’ nearly three millennia later. On Do? 6 While we might find a discussion of the about, Eridu Genesis drawing us towards the beginning of writing, it is and dissertation tada, a discussion of the about nutrition, Black Sea deluge that turns our attention to the origin of chaos, and it on on do this point that this discussion shall commence.For only once a set of material circumstances have been established may adequate sense be made of the about nutrition, writing they inspired.Thus, it is not at the beginning that this discussion shall commence but at the origin; at the chaos of the Black Sea deluge.
The Black Sea Deluge: a geographical context. 7 The Black Sea is an inland sea located in South Eastern Europe, spanning an area of around 430,000 square kilometres. The Encyclopaedia Britannica World Atlas shows the Black Sea to be approximately 1150 kilometres across from Georgia on the East to Bulgaria on the West and extending along the northern coast of Turkey (2006: 15).It is 580 kilometres across from North to South, from thesis and dissertation accomplished tada, Odesa to Istanbul, although this distance reduces to essay, around 250 kilometres between Sevastopol and marziliano, Sinop due to its kidney-like shape (2006: 15).With a maximum depth of 2.2 kilometres, the Black Sea is “basically a freshwater sea that’s contaminated with ocean water, so it’s roughly half as salty as the sea” (Kruszelnicki, 1997). 8 Dubbed Pontus euxinos by the Greeks, with its image as a ‘hospitable sea’ stemming from its weak tides due to relative isolation, the essay, history of the Black Sea is one of seafaring.Supported by the Bosporus Strait (which connects it to pina marziliano thesis, the Mediterranean Sea), the sea has been the site of trade between surrounding and distant countries for centuries, leading to the rise of cities such as Byzantium in the Middle Ages and “the Grand Comnenian Empire of Trezibond during the medieval period” (Ascherson, 1996: 8).Even today, Hiebert points out, there is an “attempt to re-establish the Black Sea as one of the major trading zones in Eurasia” (in McCalla, 1999).In the meantime, the essay about, Black Sea’s temperatures and sunny climate make it a desirable holiday destination for marziliano thesis locals and tourists. 9 However, through scratching beneath the surface of the water, scientists have found reason to believe that the Black Sea has not always been a sea.In their book, Noah’s Flood: the New Scientific Discoveries about the Event that Changed History (1998), Columbia University Geologists Ryan and Pitman outline their discoveries regarding the preponderance of flood legends such as ‘Noah’s Ark’ in the Old Testament and the Epic of Gilgamesh .To the extent that mythologies attempt to about, “satisfy man’s craving for the answers to the universe,” it is widely understood that these narratives are motivated by the conditions of a material reality (Kramer, 1961: 183).Thus, over the last ten years or so, there has been debate building surrounding the Black Sea and the role that it may have had upon these kinds of thesis tada, texts.Ryan and Pitman theorise that a number of flood epics can be explained via a study of the history of the Black Sea and that, what is referred to as the about, Great Flood, could have been the Mediterranean Sea filling the Black Sea at this time.To the girl essay, extent that earth-science frames the nutrition, Black Sea as a prehistoric site of watery chaos, a catastrophic deluge, it is this research that provides some insight into the conjunction of chaos and writing in the Eridu Genesis . 10 It is understood that the end of the world’s last period of glaciation, a period that lasted for approximately 100,000 years, ended about 10,000 years ago, with the melting ice from the retreating sheet resulting in a rise of global sea levels (Laing, 2003).During this ice age the essay you believe in ghosts, Black Sea region was a mostly dry region (the Euxine basin) and had, up until that time, been separated from the about, Mediterranean Sea by you believe, the Bosporus Strait.Not only do scientists believe that the rises in global sea levels caused the essay about nutrition, Bosporus Strait to breach, but that this breach resulted in a catastrophic flood.This interpretation is supported by results that Ryan et al. An Outline And Write? have gained through the radiocarbon dating of essay, shells from an underwater beach front, as well as the results of core samples taken from photo essay, its base.In both cases, data has “pointed to essay, an abrupt inundation of the entire Black Sea Basin… [that] occurred sometime around 5,550 BC” (Laing, 2003). 11 Some sense of the magnitude of the thesis, flood can be gained from Ryan et al. ’s observations of dozens of bedrock cross-sections.Flooding an area of essay about, 155,000 square kilometres, the deluge would have filled the Black Sea region rapidly.As Ryan and Pitman explain, “[t]en cubic miles [42 km?] of on do you believe, water poured through each day, two hundred times what flows over Niagara Falls…The Bosporus flume roared and surged at full spate for at least three hundred days,” (p. 124, 1998).Occurring with a roar that could have been heard over essay, one hundred kilometres away, this was certainly no ordinary flood.In fact, as Laing (2003) points out, “It has been estimated that the volume of water it took to fill the Black Sea Basin accounted for the lowering of the on do you believe, world's oceans by as much as one foot!” 12 Remembering that the deluge was caused by a rise in sea levels, this is quite an essay nutrition, outcome.But, more importantly here, what this earth-science research constructs for lack in the planning and development department us is a mental picture of the first days of the Black Sea—an evidence based snapshot of a prehistoric and watery chaos.However, while a material context for chaos has been established, writing is a human activity.What is the cultural significance of the essay about, Black Sea deluge?In what way might the Black Sea deluge, as a cultural context, have led to the ‘play’ of lack being in the, chaos in ancient Mesopotamian writing? The Black Sea Deluge: a cultural context. Let us not forget that The Origin deals with the about nutrition, essence of an outline statement, truth…, and the abyss… which plays itself out there like the ‘veiled’ destiny [fatum] which transfixes being. (Derrida: 306) 13 If it only took a short period of time for about the chaotic deluge to transform into the Black Sea, it would have been a terrifying and sports, amazing sight for anyone who witnessed it.
This is one of the reasons why archaeologists who are interested in theories about the Black Sea deluge have, for some time, also been interested in uncovering the human side, especially in relation to those who might have been directly impacted upon by the deluge.Of course, the noise that it created would have helped word of about nutrition, mouth carry news of it to prehistoric communities nearby.However, explorations of the bottom of the Black Sea have uncovered various artefacts, the nature of which leads scientists to believe that, around 5,000 BC, having mostly dried up during the last ice age, the Euxine Basin was inhabited by small villages of “Neolithic farmers and foragers” (Ryan et al. , 1997: 1).This means that not only girl, do details of the chaotic deluge have environmental significance, they also have cultural significance. 14 Nearly nothing is known of whoever lived in the Euxine basin prior to the deluge.As a result, it is hoped that an examination of essay, objects found in the depths of the Black Sea (a region referred to as the on do you believe, ‘abyss,’ in line with oceanographic convention) will help resolve this uncertainty.Fortunately, the research process is about nutrition, being helped by the fact that the Black Sea is “the world’s biggest single reservoir of hydrogen sulphide,” an extremely deadly substance that makes “90 per cent of the of critical being used in the and development department, Sea’s volume sterile” (Ascherson, 1996: 4-5).The Black Sea is regarded to be the “world's most special deep-water environment” because it contains “no microbes, no oxygen, no wood bores.If there were a shipwreck in that area, in deep water, it would be perfectly preserved” (Heibert, in McCalla, 1999).Thus, while the top 200 metres or so is essay about, full of “thriving marine life,” as Gugliotta puts it, “the rest is as dead as the thesis, ancient day when the flood waters settled” (2000: A01). 15 This information indicates that the aquatic conditions at the bottom of the Black Sea are conducive to the success of archaeological investigations in essay about nutrition that region, given that ancient artefacts are less likely to trafficking in nepal, disintegrate over time spent at nutrition, the bottom of the Black Sea than they are under ‘normal’ deep-sea conditions.It is no surprise, therefore, that theories about a human presence in the basin prior to the deluge stem from the discovery of human artefacts and ancient building materials 900 metres below the sea’s surface.Using remote-controlled underwater vessels and cameras to explore the Black Sea’s abyss, have scientists located “a former river valley” in which “a collapsed structure, including some preserved wooden beams that had been worked by hand” ( Japan Times ). 16 Fredrik Hiebert of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and complete a thesis statement, Anthropology, and the chief archaeologist for the Black Sea project, said the discovery represented “the first concrete evidence for the occupation of the Black Sea coast prior to its flooding” (Krause, 2000, par. 4).Given that the structure was characteristic of other examples of stone-age structures that were built at the estimated time of the flood Hiebert’s research partner, Robert Ballard (discoverer of the Titanic), maintained that it was “clearly built by humans” ( Japan Times , 2000).The expedition also spotted planks, beams, tree branches and chunks of wood untouched by worms or molluscs, a strong indication that the oxygen-free waters of the Black Sea's 2 kilometre-deep abyss may be sheltering intact shipwrecks that date back to essay nutrition, the dawn of seafaring. Photo Essay? “It is nutrition, beyond our wildest imagination,” explorer Robert D. Ballard, leader of the expedition, said yesterday.“Wood is existing much shallower than we thought.When we do go deep, it can only get better.” (Gugliotta, 2000: A01) 17 While nothing is known of their language, customs, or creative practices, the discoveries of Ryan et al. and other Black Sea experts lead us to wonder what it might have been like to experience the chaos of the deluge. For communities living in sports photo essay the Euxine basin when the Bosperus Strait breached, the essay about nutrition, flood would have lead to the deaths of thousands of people.A person fleeing the flood might well have seen many drowned and drowning bodies sinking into the tumultuous waters depths to where their villages now lay.Ryan et al. (1997) postulate that “a simultaneous onset of organic-rich sediments [occurred] at all depths” (p. 120).What this means is that, as a result of the movement of the water over the surface of the earth, as well as the pina, dark colour of the sediment, it would have become extremely murky throughout.Coupled with the fact that the water was already darkening in essay as much as it was getting deeper, it is possible that the villagers witnessed the same bodies of the dead, the injured as well as those others who were trying desperately to stay afloat, drifting out of the sight into a black aquatic mass, perhaps waving for help to those who were clinging to essay you believe, the land at the edges of the torrent.It could certainly have appeared as if the watery abyss had created an aquatic underworld where the villagers’ homes became abodes of the dead, sites of devastation, of death and despair. Essay About? 18 Because the Black Sea is surrounded by steep hills, and so is situated near very little flat land, any escape from girl essay, a deluge is likely to essay, have been nearly impossible.Kruszelnicki suggests that the few survivors of this deluge would have moved “to Russia and Ukraine…, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece… to Georgia and India…. to Turkey and the Middle East.Wherever they went, these people took the story of a Great Flood with them” (1997: 1). Ryan et al. Marziliano Thesis? raise the point that “such ‘wave-of-advance’ population movements… could have been induced by the permanent expulsion of inhabitants which had adapted to essay about nutrition, the natural resources of the formerly-emerged Black Sea periphery” (1997: 125). 19 This information means that, not only trafficking, can the essay about nutrition, Black Sea deluge be acknowledged as a catastrophic and thesis, chaotic flood, understood in terms of its geographical context, we may proceed to interpret it as a cultural context—a set of circumstances to which human lives were subjected.To many villagers it would have been an abrupt and fatal end for, in the aftermath of the deluge, little more would have remained of the nutrition, Euxine villages than the bodies of the drowned amidst the debris of ravaged communities and inconceivable trauma. 20 But, for the survivors who fled with their first hand accounts, the deluge could well have been a definitive, albeit chaotic, beginning.It, perhaps, marked a Mesopotamian beginning that is characterised by pina thesis, an almost complete break with the past—a veritable erasure of the history of about, a culture outside of the capacity of human memory.It is of little surprise that flood stories have been passed on through oral traditions and into girl trafficking essay the creation mythologies of ancient Mesopotamian cultures, that scientists consider the essay nutrition, Black Sea discoveries to be “dramatic new evidence of an apocalyptic flood 7,500 years ago that may have inspired the girl trafficking, Biblical story of essay about, Noah” (Gugliotta, 2000: A01).Consider also the raging currents of Tiamat and Absu, as described in Babylonian mythology and in nepal, later reinterpreted as the ‘abyssal deeps’ of Genesis in the Old Testament and, their archetype, the Sumerian creation mythology and flood epic dating back to essay about, the period between 3500 BC and 2000 BC.Each example postulates an abyss of watery chaos as the ruptured cosmic egg of creation and, in doing so, illustrates how beginnings can “only be discovered a posteriori ” (Levi-Strauss, 1966: 58).
21 But taking into pina marziliano thesis account that “ [t]he Origin deals with the essence of truth, the truth of essence and the abyss,” is it reasonable to ever expect to capture the chaos and trauma of the about, Black Sea deluge in the cuneiform writing of the you believe in ghosts, ancient Mesopotamians?If the locus of ‘truth’ finds us arriving at a truth about the chaotic abyss, maybe this shall be a truth about the essay, nature, the limitations of its written representation that play into the problem of representation itself. 22 It is from this point that we may proceed to pina, examine the close relationship between the act of writing, as a performative cultural practice, and preoccupations with chaos that, in time, can be seen to have informed Sumerian cosmology. 23 So far, this discussion has addressed research that establishes the Black Sea deluge both as a geographical context and as a cultural context.The purpose of essay about nutrition, this has been to observe an ‘origin’ that is chaotic, as the first step to unravelling the essay, conjunction of ‘writing and essay, chaos’ in the Eridu Genesis .It is in ghosts, now possible to take the second step by considering the beginning of writing, i.e. the conjunction of chaos and writing in ancient Mesopotamia, by turning our attention to the Eridu Genesis .It will be apparent that notions of chaos, in this text, recall the Black Sea deluge and, in turn, find chaos and writing playing a central role in a proto-historical cosmology. The Eridu Genesis : Finding a Form for Chaos. The invention of writing was one of Mesopotamia’s greatest achievements.It facilitated the organization and management of society and served as the chief instrument by which a complex civilization could come into being.Eventually, it became the medium through which the people’s collective experience and wisdom were transgenerationally transmitted. (Bertman, 2003: 144) 24 Sumerian artefacts have fascinated archaeologists and historians ever since they were first discovered in the 1850’s, and knowledge of this innovative culture is about, increasing. The proximity of sports, Sumerian culture to the Black Sea makes it a primary focal point when examining the legacy of the Black Sea deluge in the writing of the ancient world.But while it is believed that the Sumerians had settled in the southern part of Mesopotamia by the fourth millennium B.C. (between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, South East of the Black Sea region), their origin is about nutrition, still uncertain (Chavalas Younger Jr, 2002: 92).It is interesting that the fate of the Euxine villagers is as indeterminate as the essay, origin of the Sumerians as if one culture had ventured into the unknown and the other out of essay about, it.The migrating survivors of the Black Sea deluge may well have found refuge in the southern Mesopotamian region and, across the girl essay, millennia, provided the basis of the Sumerian people.Whatever the essay about nutrition, case, there is accomplished, little doubt that they emerged from the “pre-history” of Iraq (Kramer, 1988: xx). 25 Because the Sumerians are credited as the authors of “the oldest known historical inscriptions,” the Eridu Genesis is about, one of the first texts ever to photo essay, have been written (Bottero, 2001: 4-7).Having developed the “art of writing,” Sumerian documents “mark the beginning of historical times” (Champdor, 1958: 8).This is what Bertman refers to as the beginnings of “humanity’s autobiography,” in turn implicating chaos and writing in self-reflective practices, in ‘writing the self’ (2003: 142).Just as importantly, given the about, present discussion, the subject matter of the Eridu Genesis places it at the beginning of ‘chaos and writing’.
1 Perhaps there is some echo of this process in the English language, at least, where the word ‘writ (. ) 26 To consider the practice of writing in general, it can be said that the “ideas, values and beliefs of a group are embodied in and write symbols, artefacts” and about, that these symbols “can be part of a written language,” (Inglis, 2005: 9).For the Sumerians, this writing came in the form of cuneiform text, achieved by way of sports photo essay, blunt reeds being impressed onto a clay tablet; hence the resulting wedge shaped characters.1 Writing can be used to pre-empt the fallibility of memory, and essay, so cuneiform enabled Sumerian writers to afford their ideas and beliefs a degree of permanence (even though, as van de Mieroop points out, cuneiform itself “is a script, not a language”) [1999: 10]. 27 In view of the administrative, private legal, scholarly, literary, and historiographic cuneiform texts, as well as letters that have been uncovered by sports, archaeologists over the past century, the Sumerians seem to have understood that writing also carried with it the thrust of authority, of ownership and in this way, perhaps, of certainty.But the permanence of cuneiform opened the about, door to another way of teaching Sumerian culture, of aligning everyday experience with cosmology.That is to say, writing played a role in an attempt to create a bridge between a material reality and a spiritual reality as von Rad points out, ancient man “makes no distinction between spiritual and material—the two are intertwined in the closest possible way; and in consequence he is also unable to thesis tada, differentiate between word and object, idea and reality” (1965: 80-1). Essay? 28 As Jacob recognises, “[a] spoken word is and write statement, never an empty sound but an about, operative reality whose action cannot be hindered once it has been pronounced, and which attained its maximum effectiveness in complete and write formulae of blessing and cursing” (1958: 127).The cuneiform word, in Sumerian culture, could also possess spiritual import, as reflected in the metaphorical concepts that structure a meaning system.As Lakoff and essay nutrition, Johnson (1980: 3) acknowledge, “[o]ur concepts structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world… [thus playing] a central role in defining our everyday realities.”Thus, it is useful to consider the role of chaos in Sumerian writing by acknowledging how notions of girl in nepal, water have been in about nutrition metaphorical expressions in Sumerian writing. 29 One way of doing this is by referring to Sumerian writing as a general category.A Sumerian once wrote, “Tears, lament, anguish, and depression are within me.Suffering overwhelms me.Evil fate holds me and carries off my life.Malignant sickness bathes me” (Marcus, 1998).These expressions of feeling ‘bathed’ and being planning department, ‘overwhelmed’ conjure up impressions an emotional flood whereby the individual implies an association between misery, misfortune, and a watery chaos. Essay Nutrition? 30 Another way of identifying the role of tada, chaos, as part of about nutrition, a metaphorical concept system, in Sumerian writing, is by referring to the Eridu Genesis , a segmentary (thus incomplete) text that archaeologists have pieced together using remnants and preserved lines.However, because notions of ‘chaotic water’ ground metaphorical expressions, it is not necessary to sports photo, literally pin-point the word ‘chaos’ as it occurs in essay about translation.This would reduce the task down to a criticism of pina thesis, translation rather than an assessment of the about, meaning behind the passages.Rather, the trafficking, task is to essay about nutrition, identify points in the writing that connote chaos, and water.After 36 lost lines, the pina, first column recounts the words of Nintur, the goddess of essay about, birth and the mother of thesis tada, humankind.Kramer’s (1983: 117-8) numbered transliteration reads: 38.I would [halt(?)] the perishing of my mankind, 39.I would restore there to Nintu the… of my creatures, 40.We would return the people from their (dispersed) habitations. 41.Let them build there the me-endowed cities, I would refresh myself in their shade, 42.Let them lay the bricks of the me-endowed cities in holy places, 43.Let them erect the me-endowed ki-es in about nutrition holy places, 44.I have directed there the complete an outline and write, fire-quenching holy (?) water,?
45.I have perfected there the divine rites (and) noble me, 46.I have watered the earth, I would establish well-being there. 47.After An, Enlil, Enki, (and) Ninhursag. About? 48.Had fashioned the you believe, blackheads, 49.Nig-gil (rising) repeatedly out of the earth, multiplied. 50.Herds of about, animals, four legged, were brought into existence in on do you believe in ghosts the steppe as is befitting. Essay Nutrition? 31 These lines recount the creation of humankind and the animals, an interpretation that is clarified by way of introduction to the roles of the four primary gods that are mentioned. First of and dissertation accomplished tada, all, An (or ‘Anu’), whose name literally means ‘heaven,’ was a “supreme authority among the gods, and among men,” dispensing justice and controlling the laws “that governed the universe” (Bertman, 2003: 116).Second in charge was Enlil (or ‘Ellil’), ruler of the earth and about, director of “the forces of nature (especially torrential floods)” [Bertman, 2003: 118].Enki (or ‘Ea’) dwells in, and is in charge of, the Abzu (or ‘Apsu’), an aquatic abyss that gives life to the “streams and rivers” and “was associated with arcane wisdom” and creation (Bertman, 2003: 118).Ninhursaga was the on do you believe, Sumerian mother-goddess and nurturer of the “earth’s creatures,” and the equivalent of Nintur (Bertman, 2003: 124). 32 Given the central role of water in the Creation narrative, it is useful to consider the ‘sea’ as it exists in the Sumerian lexicon.The Sumerian word ‘Abzu’ means “[s]ea, abyss; home of the water-god Enki” (Kramer, 1988: 358-60), as well as “primeval source” (Guisepi, 2003).A variation of Abzu , ‘Apsu,’ has been translated into the English language as “deepwater” and “beginning (one who exists from the beginning)” (Guisepi, 2003).Reference is made to “the abzu, the pure place” that is associated with “sacred water” throughout Sumerian incantations (Cunningham, 1997: 116).Thus, the life giving waters that are represented by Enki, and in which he dwells, provide the foundations of human and animal life.In this context, chaos is that primeval sea before the creation of the universe, a kind of “first cause” and “prime mover,” a boundless and aquatic abyss (Kramer, 1988: 76).Given that Sumerians never considered that there might be anything “prior to the sea in time and in space,” it is not unlikely that they considered the sea to about nutrition, have existed “eternally” (Kramer, 1988: 76, 82).
33 Thus, the universe is created out of the chaos of the thesis, sea, perhaps stemming from the nutrition, problem of being clear about ‘what existed before’.Perhaps this symbolises a kind of cultural chaos, a primal and uncivilised society for, following the creation of humans and animals, the narrative recounts how steps were made towards building the first city; the familiarly named ‘Eridu’.Eridu, once located in the south of the Sumerian region, speaks not only of the and write statement, beginning of the universe, its Genesis , but the beginning of civilisation and settlement, wherein people are conceivably committed to essay, place. Photo? 34 By bringing order to chaos Creation has put an end to nomadicism, planting the seed of settlement in the Neolithic age.Up until this time, Palaeolithic nomadic communities moved through nature seasonally, as a way of essay about, taking advantage of animal migration as well as the girl trafficking in nepal essay, ripening of fruits and so on.Thus, while they possessed the skills required to essay about, survive, they had no irrigation or crop development technology.They had no sense of up, down, forwards or backwards.In short they possessed what can be referred to trafficking in nepal, as non-geometric knowledge and, as a result, have been described as existing in a state of disorientation. 35 The ability to construct permanent buildings saw the nomadic hunter gatherer lifestyle eventually give way to something quite opposite, i.e. Essay Nutrition? a state of orientation, and the beginning of architecture.The ability to build more permanent structures meant an emerging and fundamental sense of geometry.The Sumerians narrative reflects this transition into the clearing of land, the beginning of lack of critical in the department, architecture and agriculture, the domestication of plants and animals. 36 In addition, having established themselves on essay about nutrition the land between two main rivers, the Sumerians relied heavily on sports irrigation for the maintenance of their crops.They had achieved a level of expertise in the art of irrigation, though they struggled constantly against the forces of the two rivers that surrounded them.Childe (1969) explains: Arable land had literally to be created out of a chaos of swamps and sand banks by a ‘separation’ of land from nutrition, water; the swamps drained; the floods controlled; and life-giving waters led to the rainless desert by essay, artificial canals. (p. 114) 37 In short, being civilised entails a culture’s presumption of mastery over the natural world—knowledge and skill become invested in a project of bringing order to essay about, the environment, especially where no perceivably order previously existed. This means that notions of chaos, in Sumerian writing, can be seen to document a new phase in cultural thinking—the emergence of the culture/nature binary opposition.This is also the emergence of the inside/outside binary opposition.When what is inside the walls of a city, within the perimeter of Eridu as a place of civilisation is presumably safe, domesticated, predictable, tame, ordered, that which remains outside of the city (the natural world with all of the forces that it maintains) is rendered a place of danger, of the untamed, of disorder, and chaos. 38 The city offers protection against the outside, the protection of a cultured condition.This, combined with a capacity to girl in nepal essay, return easily to burial grounds, for example, meant that certain sites became sacred.In the Eridu Genesis , Nintur has instructed the ‘black-headed people’ to build cities, with the knowledge that they might then be used as hubs of worships.In fact Enki, being the essay about nutrition, primary god of the city of pina marziliano thesis, Eridu, has his own temple.The Abzu temple, otherwise known as e-engur-a or ‘house of the lord of deep waters,’ was situated in Eridu in the wetlands of the about, Euphrates (Kramer, 1968: 103).The settlers hope that, by pleasing the Gods, that they will ensure the safety of the population.It is here that we find watery chaos at the centre of civilised worship; that is, ironically, as an agent for cultural integration and cohesion. Lack Of Critical Being In The Planning And Development Department? 39 But there is a point, in the Eridu Genesis narrative, where our attention is drawn to a problem in the city.The people prove to be quite noisy and this is not at all pleasing to the Gods.As a result Enlil, vexed by the disturbances because they keep him from sleeping, convincing the other gods to nutrition, bring about a destructive deluge.In columns three and four the text describes the events leading up to the flood (from Kramer, 1983: 119-20). 140.Then did Nintu [weep] like a… 141.Holy Inanna [sets up] a lament for its people.
142.Enki took counsel with himself, 143.An, Enlil, Enki (and) Ninhursag. Of Critical Being Used And Development? 144.Adjured the gods of essay about, heaven (and) earth by of critical being in the planning and development department, An (and) Enlil. 145.In those days Ziusudra, the king, the gutug-priest… 147.Humbly eloquent [filled with] fear, 148.Standing daily, constantly… 149.Bringing forth all kinds of dreams, con[versing], 150.Adjuring the nutrition, gods of heaven (and) earth he… 152.Ziusudra standing at its side, list[ened]: 153.“Stand by the wall at my left side… 154.At the wall I would say a word to accomplished, you, take [my word], 155.[Give ear] to my instruction: 156.The me -endowed cities(:)—the flood [will sweep over their] kab [ dugga ] 157.To destroy the seed of mankind—[thus it has been decreed], 158.The verdict, the word of the assembly, [cannot be revoked] 159.The word commanded by An (and) Enlil [knows no overturning], 160.Their kinship—its reign [has been cut off, the heart is aggrieved]. Essay About Nutrition? 40 Enki has spoken, deciding to marziliano, flood the city. This watery chaos will come to breach Eridu’s perimeter and essay nutrition, wash away the failed city with the trafficking in nepal, full force of the essay about nutrition, natural world; something that is, in Sumerian cosmology, demonstrative of the power of the angry Gods. 41 The reason that Ziusudra’s status as a priest is announced is that, as Jacobsen notes, the fact that the essay, priest has fashioned a statue of the ‘god of giddiness’ “suggests that he also was able to communicate with the world beyond through ecstasy, and essay nutrition, so valued and sought the lack being used planning and development department, giddiness that precedes and induces ecstatic trance” (1981: 523).His status symbolizes a bridge between the world or order and nutrition, that of a divine chaos.Ziusudra’s valuing of giddiness, of the divinity of chaos, is perhaps what finds him to be favoured by Enki—favoured enough to be informed, by Enki, of the and dissertation, impending deluge.He is advised to essay nutrition, build a boat that will enable himself, his family, and representatives of the animals to survive the marziliano, flood (a part of the essay about nutrition, text that scholars recognise as being strongly reminiscent Noah’s Arc ).The boat symbolises of hope for, when skilfully made, it is protective.Once again, knowledge of water becomes a way to and dissertation accomplished, survival.Kramer’s (1983: 120) transliteration continues. 201.All the windstorms (and) gales attacked together, 202.At the nutrition, same time, the flood swept over the kabdugga. 203.After, for seven days (and) seven nights, 204.The flood had swept over the land.
205.(And) the huge boat had been tossed about by the windstorms on the great waters, 206.Utu came forth, who illuminates heaven (and) earth. 207.Ziusudra drilled an opening in the huge boat. 208.Valiant Utu brought his light into the huge boat. 209.Ziusudra, the king, 210.Prostrated himself before Utu, 211.The king slaughters oxen, multiplies sheep. A Thesis Statement? 42 The flood has passed.Its chaos, and that of the windstorms, is over.But we are left with the question of essay nutrition, how the thesis accomplished tada, written construction of a chaos can ever do justice to it.While they often seem normal, representations are not naturally occurring depictions, which is precisely why they can be examined for their cultural, ideological, and semiotic content (O’Shaughnessy Stadler, 2002).The problem of essay nutrition, finding a form for chaos, in and write statement terms of the Eridu Genesis, is only further frustrated by essay, the “restrictions imposed by the nature of the text type” (Oppenheim, 1977: 144).If the Eridu Genesis constitutes a latent response to the Black Sea deluge can writing, in its infancy, ever be expected to capture the essence of chaos?As Lyotard (1987) says: We can conceive the sports essay, infinitely great, the infinitely powerful, but every presentation of an object destined to “make visible” this absolute greatness or power appears to us painfully inadequate.Those are ideas of which no presentation is possible. (p. 78) 43 While we cannot, with certainty, distinguish between fact and fiction in Sumerian writing, the evidence available today, particularly that attributed to earth-science, gives us reason to interpret the Eridu Genesis as a use of literature to reveal a historical event in theological terms. That is, it seems highly probable that certain literary qualities of the Eridu Genesis, in its description of Creation and of Eridu’s inundation, have been inspired by a historical episode known as the Black Sea deluge. About? 44 The Eridu Genesis takes part in an attempt, not only to “satisfy man’s craving for pina the answers to the universe,” but to attribute some kind of form, an order, to a watery abyss (Kramer, 1961: 183).But, with Lyotard’s comments still in mind, it seems that the question of the text’s adequacy as a representation of chaos becomes rhetorical.In other words, to the extent that chaos and the abyss cannot be fathomed, we are left to consider what insight such inadequacy provides us in terms of the human condition.
45 If Sumerian writing, in general, became another tool for expressing mastery over essay about nutrition, the natural world, it follows that, at some stage in writing’s development, it also provided an unpassable opportunity to domesticate the essay, legacy of the Black Sea deluge; a chance to inscribe, in clay, millennia old cultural memories of an abruptly inundation.This was an essay, inundation that confirmed humankind’s impotence in the face of nature’s unforgiving power, and so writing functions as a symbolic gesture through which human evolution can be demonstrated. 46 The conjunction of thesis, ‘writing and essay nutrition, chaos’ is disclosed as a battle between the will to personal power and autonomy in the world, and the inherent power of an essentially unpredictable nature of that very world.If the Black Sea is understood as a place where place was erased by chaos, it can be taken to represent a site of death and subjectivity—that is, a place in thesis and dissertation which personal or individual feelings, belonging to the survivors of the deluge, emerged in about response to humankind’s impotence in being used in the planning and development the face of nature’s unforgiving power.Thus, the writing of chaos becomes an attempt to negotiate the part of the human condition that is a struggle between chaos and order, between the assessment of threat and risk, and essay, a course of action that will ensure one’s safety in the future.It seems that the Eridu Genesis responds to a timeless question.That being, what is the individual’s position in essay you believe this world, in view of a certain set of historical circumstances as they are understood at any given time?The Eridu Genesis remains a “proto-type” for this kind of thinking, this uncertainty towards certainty that plays into a sensibility of infinity and which is made manifest through an ancient cosmology. 47 When the about nutrition, Black Sea deluge was happening it could not have been fully comprehended and what it would mean, over time, could never have been imagined.But what can be ascertained is photo, that the Eridu Genesis marks the beginning of a profound negotiation of the notion of origin.By using the innovation of writing to about nutrition, express an impossible narrative of a primordial chaos that dwells in the consciousness of a civilised society, the Eridu Genesis sets the challenge of writing and chaos in motion.For this reason, it is entirely plausible to complete and write statement, claim that notions of the watery abyss underpin how chaos is viewed in the late modern world. 48 Perhaps, in a way that is coherent with the essay nutrition, subject matter, the origin of chaos raises an uncertainty with regard the statement, beginning of writing.In the essay about nutrition, same way that we may wonder how far the Black Sea can be credited for the content of the Eridu Genesis , it is also fair to wonder how much credit can be taken by the Black Sea for lack used and development the text’s very form.Did writing emerge from a need to document laws, property and everyday life, or did it emerge as a response to a very human need to nutrition, secure oneself in the world, with these others being merely secondary applications?This question will take much more time to address. But whatever the answer may be, the Eridu Genesis continues to anchor ‘writing and lack of critical used in the planning and development, chaos’ in a literature of ‘the deep’. Ascherson, N. (1996). Black Sea: the Birthplace of about nutrition, Civilisation and Barbarism . London: Vintage.
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341). London: Sheffield Academic Press. Childe, G. Thesis Tada? (1969). New Light on the Most Ancient East. Routledge and Kegan Paul. Cunningham, G. (1997). Deliver me From Evil: Mesopotamian Incantations 2500-1500 BC . Rome: Pontificio Istituto Biblico. Essay Nutrition? Derrida, J. Pina? (1987). Essay? The Truth in Painting (G.
Bennington I. McLeod, Trans.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Encyclopaedia Britannica World Atlas . (2006). Chicago, London: Encyclopaedia Britannica Ltd. Gugliotta, G. (2000, September 13). “Black Sea Artefacts May Be Evidence of Biblical Flood”. Washington Post . Inglis, D. (2005). Culture and Everyday Life . London New York: Routledge. Thesis And Dissertation Accomplished? Jacob, E. (1958). Theology of the Old Testament . New York: Harper and Row. Jacobsen, T. Essay Nutrition? (Dec., 1981). “The Eridu Genesis”. Journal of thesis and dissertation accomplished tada, Biblical Literature , 100(4), p. 513-529.
The Society of Biblical Literature. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3266116, retrieved May 15, 2008. Nutrition? The Japan Times . (September 15, 2000). And Dissertation Accomplished Tada? “Human Artefacts Found at Bottom of about nutrition, Black Sea: Evidence of Disastrous Flood 7,000 years ago may coincide with Bible Story of Noah”. http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news210.htm, retrieved April 2, 2008. Kramer, S. N. (1961). Mythologies of the Ancient World . New York: Doubleday and trafficking in nepal essay, Company, Inc. —, (1968). Cradle of Civilization . Nederland: Time-Life Books. —, (1983). “The Sumerian Deluge Myth: Reviewed and essay about nutrition, Revised”. In Anatolian Studies , Vol. 33 (Special Number in Honour of the Seventy-Fifth Birthday of Dr.
Richard Barnett), p. 115-121. —, (1988). History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-Nine Firsts in Man's Recorded History (3 rd ed.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Krause, L. (September 13, 2000). “Ballard Finds Traces of girl trafficking essay, Ancient Habitation Beneath Black Sea”. Essay? In National Geographic News . Retrieved February 2, 2008: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2000/12/122800blacksea.html. Kruszelnicki, K. (1997). Great Moments in Science: Noah and the Great Flood . Ep. 39. http://www.abc.net.au/science/k2/moments/gmis9743.htm, retrieved April 1, 2008.
Lakoff, G., Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We Live By . Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Levi-Strauss, C. (1966). Complete An Outline And Write? The Savage Mind . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lyotard, J-F. (1984). The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge . About Nutrition? Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. McCalla, J. Photo Essay? (January 14, 1999). “Fredrick Hiebert”. Pennsylvania Current ‘Q A ’. Retrieved April 1, 2008: http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/current/1999/011499/Hiebert.html. The New Jacaranda Atlas (3 rd ed.). About Nutrition? (1987).
Milton, Queensland: The Jacaranda Press. The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (4 th ed. Vol. 1). (1993b), Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oppenheim, A. (1977). An Outline And Write A Thesis Statement? Ancient Mesopotamia: portrait of a dead civilization . Chicago London: University of Chicago Press. O’Shaughnessy, M Stadler, J. (2002). Media and society: an introduction (2 nd ed). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Ryan, W.B.F., Pitman, W.C. (1998). Essay About? Noah’s Flood: the New Scientific Discoveries about the Event that Changed History . New York: Simon Schuster.
Ryan, W.B.F., Pitman, W.C., Major, C.O., Shimkus, K., Moskalenko, V., Jones, G.A., et al. (1997, April 1997). “An abrupt drowning of the Black Sea Shelf”. Marine Geology , 138, p. 119-126. Said, E. Sports Essay? W. (1975). Beginnings: Intention and Method . London: Granton Books. Van de Mieroop, M. (1999). Cuneiform texts and essay, the Writing of History . New York: Routledge. Von Rad, G. (1965, ii).
Old Testament Theology . Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd. 1 Perhaps there is some echo of of critical thinking being in the and development department, this process in the English language, at least, where the word ‘write’ originates from the Old English writan , meaning to “sense, to score, scratch” (Brown, 1993b, p. 3731). David Prescott-Steed , « Black Sea Abyss: Chaos and Writing in about nutrition Ancient Mesopotamia », TRANS- [En ligne], 6 | 2008, mis en ligne le 07 juillet 2008, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. Thesis Accomplished Tada? URL : http://trans.revues.org/249 ; DOI : 10.4000/trans.249. David Prescott-Steed was born on England’s Devon coast and migrated to Western Australia at the age of six. Having exhibited artwork since 1993, David continues to pursue a creative praxis and, in 2006, completed his PhD on about nutrition representations of the abyss. He is unit coordinator and lecturer for sports photo Cultural History and Theory in the Faculty of nutrition, Education and Arts at essay on do you believe in ghosts, Edith Cowan University and also works within the Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Visual Arts at the University of Western Australia. His research interests include deep-sea imagery and concepts, historical representations of the unknown, and the role of indeterminacy in everyday thinking. Tous droits reserves.
Resister a la litterature 19 | 2015. Visions du Sud : Universite invitee - Santiago du Chili 18 | 2014. La reference 17 | 2014. Litterature, Paysage et Ecologie 15 | 2013. Terrorismes 14 | 2012. Utopies contemporaines 13 | 2012. Marges et Deviances 12 | 2011. Trahisons 10 | 2010.
Pop culture 8 | 2009. A tu et a toi 7 | 2009. Ecriture et chaos 5 | 2008. A quoi bon la litterature ? 3 | 2007. Ecrire le present 2 | 2006. Litterature et image 1 | 2005. ISSN electronique 1778-3887. Informations Titre : TRANS- Revue de litterature generale et comparee En bref : Revue de litterature des jeunes chercheurs de l'Universite Sorbonne Nouvelle.
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