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An Essay on Understanding the Mind. Several conjectures by A. S. Iberall on ap psych test essays, life and mind are used as a backdrop to sketch a theory of mental activity that respects both the contents of thought and the dynamics of essay, thinking. The dynamics, in this case, refers fundamentally to animated, meaningfully coupled self-organizing processes (coordination dynamics) and exhibit multistability, switching, and, because of symmetry breaking, metastability. The interplay of essays, 2 simultaneously acting forces underlies the metastable mind: the tendency for essay my writing experience the coordinating elements to couple together (integration) and the tendency for the elements to ap psych essays, express their individual autonomy (segregation). Metrics for metastability are introduced that enable these cooperative and competitive tendencies to be quantified. Whereas bistability is the basis for polarized, either/or thinking, the metastable r#x000e9;gime#x02014;which contains neither stable nor unstable states, no states at all, in fact#x02014;gives rise to a far more fluid, complementary mode of operation in which it is possible for apparent contraries to coexist in the mind at the same time. By way of reminiscence, and who killed paret thesis apropos the topic of ap psych test, this contribution, the essay my writing experience, photograph in Figure 1 was taken at ap psych test a symposium on Nonlinearities in Brain Function, organized by Eugene Yates and Arnold Mandell, held at the Kroc Ranch in Santa Ynez, California, from March 1 through March 5, 1982.
As remarked upon previously (Kelso, 1995, p. 50), this was an event way ahead of its time, organized by visionaries and supported by enlightened philanthropy. Essay Experience! A quarter of a century ago there were no Centers or Institutes for Complex Systems and the like yet, and test essays no one was talking about #x0201c;brain dynamics,#x0201d; a field of research that very much stirs the air of contemporary neuroscience. The organizers of this remarkable meeting, Yates and Mandell, sensed the potential and the power of transdisciplinary science and were doing something about it. The man we honor in these lectures was living testament to that. Arthur Iberall (#x0201c;Ibby#x0201d;) was the centerpiece of the creative writing, Kroc symposium, holding court every evening, laying out his homeokinetics manifesto in test essays a unique and irrepressible way. Reflective On 9/11! Only once can I remember him being told to ap psych essays, shut up. Ibby was both generalist and air pollution short specialist, theorist and test experimenter, scientist and issues engineer, physicist and biologist, swimmer and poet-and much, much more.
Was it Georges Braque who said, #x0201c;Le conformisme commence #x000e0; la definition#x0201d;? Iberall was no conformist so there is no point in trying to classify him. The usual categories fail and ap psych test essays words are not the thing. Nevertheless, he was a great man and friend, the likes of which one is not likely to meet, as they say where I grew up, in a month of Sundays. For students with an interest in the history of science and especially #x0201c;the sciences of coursework creative writing, complexity#x0201d; who also want to get a sense of the man and the range of his intellect in one swift glimpse, consider Iberall's (1994) short article in Physics Today , where he chastises a Nobel laureate for, shall we say, pontificating with blinders on.
For those in the know, the reply is revealing enough. What did Iberall have to test, say about nature, life, and mind? Quite a lot, as it turns out, initially with Warren McCulloch (see Kelso, 1995, pp. 114#x02013;115). On the occasion of his 80th birthday, he and his colleague of 60 years, Harry Soodak, provided a primer that contains his principles of homeokinetics along with a number of conjectures about their application to air pollution short, matters of ap psych essays, nature, life, mind, brain and humankind (Iberall #x00026; Soodak, 1998). Among those pertinent to short, the present concerns (words italicized to convey effect) are: (1) the notion of test, a homeokinetic oscillator , a unit of creative, some generality that underlies nature's self-organization of forms and functions, even complex ones; (2) said unit consists of an ap psych test, energy storing nonlinear element and is conceived of as bistable; (3) the energy to snap the element in a direction from one #x02018;stable#x02019; position to another is very small (the quotation marks around #x02018;stable#x02019; are theirs); (4) the human is conceived as a nonlinear marginally stable storage device who can #x02018;self-urge#x02019; (Ibby's words) onboard sources in creative any number of directions (Ibby loved telling the story of a young boy's bar mitzvah; when asked by test his father what he was today, he replied, #x0201c;Today I am a fountain pen#x0201d; ). The idea is that people snap into to write a research paper about a direction by ap psych test essays . . . #x0201c;always taking a binary decision mind set , e.g., to trade or to rob, to persuade or to rape, to buy or to expository essays, sell, to be or not to be, to kill or not to kill, to ap psych test, eat or not to eat, to scratch or not to essay experience, scratch a body itch#x0201d; (p. 29); (5) complexity develops from interacting or synergetic engine processes; (6) by virtue of very weak interactions #x0201c;whose complex character we do not quite understand yet,#x0201d; a kind of mutual entrainment is possible, which may leave a memory after the interaction is over (for a recent example of social memory following entrainment, see Oullier, DeGuzman, Jantzen, Lagarde, #x00026; Kelso, 2008); (7) a direction of essays, common agreement often emerges, a higher order chemistry or command-control system typical of any complex system; (8) the laws and rules for command-control (a term that Ibby liked despite its linguistic similarity to discredited #x02018;commands to muscles#x02019; schemes for motor control; see, e.g., Turvey, Fitch #x00026; Tuller, 1982) lie in a homeokinetic spectrum in the person's body, brain, and mind; this ushered in air pollution and grounded the field of biospectroscopy (see Yates, this issue, and for an application Goodman #x00026; Kelso, 1983); (9) the test essays, human mind operates, as does nature, by expository worksheets a #x0201c;peculiar fumbling mode#x0201d; identified as #x0201c;reverie,#x0201d; suggesting that thought has its own typical space and time scale ; and (10) consonant with 3 and 4, command-control is catalytic, chemically based linguistic signals causing low energy switching among action modes . It is a tribute to Iberall's powers of divination that empirical traces of many of his proposals continue to permeate the ap psych test essays, literature and will be touched upon on 9/11, as we proceed. The foregoing list is presented here principally as a backdrop for where this article is headed, which is to sketch a theory of thoughts and thinking that attempts to: (1) accommodate both the content of thoughts and the dynamics of thinking and (2) narrow the gap between the test essays, language and science of molecules and essays cellular machinery (genetics, neuroscience) and the language and science of mind and behavior (cognitive science, neurology, psychiatry). How the molecular biological level relates to mind, brain, and behavioral function is far from transparent. As Kandel (2006) has recently concluded, a conceptual shift is test essays needed from studying elementary processes such as single proteins, genes, and cells to studying complex systems of nerve cells, the functioning of whole organisms, and the interactions of organisms. #x0201c;Biology,#x0201d; says Kandel (2006), #x0201c;will have to paret norman cousins, focus more on test, human beings as the model system of choice#x0201d; (p.
423). Essay! He kids not. Ultimately (and there is no point in beating about the bush) we need a language and ap psych test science of experience, of everything we human beings take for my writing experience granted#x02014;as Virginia Wolf would say, #x0201c;an ordinary mind on essays, an ordinary day#x0201d;#x02014;that connects to a language and science of body#x0223c;brain activity. The central thesis of this article can be stated bluntly: Minds, brains, and bodies, yours and mine, immersed as they are in their own worlds, both outside and inside, share a common underlying dynamics. They are cut fundamentally, as Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (2004) says, from the same dynamic cloth. The dynamics here refers to equations of motion for key coordination variables or order parameters that characterize patterns of behavior on multiple levels of description: patterns of brain activity, patterns of cognition and emotion, patterns of who killed benny cousins thesis, human interaction, patterns of the mind. The dynamics are not of a system described by states parameterized or forced by environmental signals, though they may be conceived as such (cf.
Rosen, 1991). The dynamics refer to both environment and animal in a way that ordinary physics does not (Kelso, 1994a). The dynamics deal with coordination, not (or not only) with matter and motion: coordination dynamics . Coordination dynamics deals specifically with informationally coupled, self-organizing systems, where information is meaningful and specific to coordination tasks and functions: functional information (for the ap psych, origins of the notion of information as form, see references and discussion in Kugler, Kelso, #x00026; Turvey, 1980, 1982). Coordination dynamics stresses, in the words of the late James Gibson (1979/1986), himself a genius, that the organism and benny paret the environment are complementary . Indeed, as we shall see, coordination dynamics shows how many apparently contradictory aspects such as whole versus part, integration versus segregation, individual versus collective, cooperation versus competition, stability versus instability, and so on, are complementary. In doing so, coordination dynamics opens up a path to reconciling contradictions, dualisms, binary oppositions, and the like in all walks of life, illuminating thereby the test, complementary nature (Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006; see also Kelso, 2005). On 9/11! 1. TOWARD A COMPLEMENTARY SCIENCE OF BODY, BRAIN, MIND, AND BEHAVIOR. It is worth noting that up until the time of Bohr, Heisenberg, and Pauli, physics debated over whether light, sound, and atomic scale processes were more basically particle-like or wave-like in character.
Philosophy spoke of thesis and antithesis, of ap psych test, dialectic tension, of self and essay my writing not self, of the qualitative and the quantitative, the objective and the subjective, as if they were either/or divisions. This tendency to dichotomize, to divide the world into opposing categories (the binary decision mind-set , see 3 earlier) appears to be a #x02018;built in#x02019; property of human beings, perhaps arising very early in ap psych test development and independent of who killed benny paret norman, cultural background (Spelke, 2006). For Bohr, Pauli, and ap psych test Heisenberg, three of the chief architects of quantum mechanics, it became abundantly clear that sharp dichotomies and worksheets contrarieties must be replaced with far more subtle and sophisticated complementarities, for all of nature, human nature (and human brains) included. Probably Pauli (1994) expressed it best: To us the only acceptable point of view appears to ap psych essays, be one that recognizes both sides of reality#x02014;the quantitative and the qualitative, the physical and the psychical#x02014;as compatible with each other.
It would be most satisfactory of all if physics and psyche could be seen as complementary aspects of the issues to write, same reality. (p. 260) The remarkable developments of ap psych essays, quantum mechanics demonstrating the essential complementarity of both light and reflective essay on 9/11 matter should have ushered in not just a novel epistemology but a generalized complementary science. However, they did not. Essays! Thinking in terms of contraries and the either/or seems to come much more easily to the human mind. As in traditional logic, the mind is in one state or another but not both at expository the same time. Much harder to grasp is the ap psych test essays, notion that contraries are complementary: Contraria sunt complementa , as Bohr's famous coat of arms says. That mind-set might change, however, if complementary aspects and their dynamics were found not just at the remote level of the subatomic processes dealt with by essay experience quantum mechanics but also at ap psych test essays the level of human beings, human brains, and norman human behavior. In particular, over the last 25 years or so, due to the efforts of people working in and across many fields, a multilevel, interdisciplinary science of coordination has emerged called coordination dynamics . A broad range of test essays, coordinative phenomena have been studied and explained using the essay my writing experience, concepts, methods, and tools of ap psych test, coordination dynamics (Fuchs #x00026; Jirsa, 2008; Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2004; Kelso, 1995; Tschacher #x00026; Dauwalder, 2003, for who killed benny norman cousins thesis reviews). Because coordination dynamics deals in the currency of meaningful information, it's to coordination dynamics where we might look for insights into understanding mind. COORDINATION DYNAMICS: MULTISTABILITY, PHASE TRANSITIONS, AND METASTABILITY.
New empirical and theoretical developments in the science of ap psych, coordination suggest that the short, reason the mind fragments the world into ap psych dichotomies (and more important, how opposing tendencies may be reconciled) is deeply connected to the way the human brain works, in particular its multi- and metastable dynamics (Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Fingelkurts #x00026; Fingelkurts, 2004; Friston, 1997; Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2004; Kelso, 1995; Oullier #x00026; Kelso, 2006; Tschacher #x00026; Dauwalder, 2003; Velazquez, 2005, for reviews). Etymologically, #x0201c;metastability#x0201d; comes from the Latin meta (beyond) and stabilis (able to stand). In coordination dynamics, metastability corresponds to a regime near a saddle-node or tangent bifurcation in which stable coordination states no longer exist (e.g., inphase synchronization where the short, relative phase between oscillating components lingers at zero), but attraction remains to where those fixed points used to be (#x0201c;remnants of ap psych test, attractor repellors#x0201d;; see Figure 2 ). This gives rise to a dynamical flow consisting of both phase trapping and phase scattering. Metastability is thus the simultaneous realization of two competing tendencies: the tendency of the essay, components to couple together and the tendency for test the components to essay experience, express their intrinsic independent behavior. According to a recent review (Fingelkurts #x00026; Fingelkurts, 2004), Metastability is an entirely new conception of brain functioning where the individual parts of the brain exhibit tendencies to ap psych essays, function autonomously at the same time as they exhibit tendencies for coordinated activity. (Kelso, 1991, 1992, 1995; Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; see also Bressler, 2003) A number of neuroscientists have embraced metastability as playing a role in various cognitive functions, including consciousness (e.g., Edelman, 2004; Edelman #x00026; Tononi, 2000; Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Friston, 1997; Koch, 2005; Sporns, 2004; Varela, Lachaux, Rodriguez, #x00026; Martinerie, 2001; see Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007, for review). Metastability's significance lies not in the word itself but in what it means for understanding informationally coupled, self-organizing dynamical systems like the brain and its complementary relation to mind. In coordination dynamics, metastability is coursework creative not a concept or an idea but a result of the broken symmetry of a system of (nonlinearly) coupled (nonlinear) oscillators.
The latter design is test motivated by empirical evidence that the structural units of the brain that support sensory, motor, and cognitive processes express themselves as oscillations with well-defined spectral properties. Essay! At least 12 different rhythms from the infraslow (less than 1 Hz) to the ultrafast (more than 100 Hz) have been identified, all connected to various behavioral and cognitive functions (e.g., Chen, Ding, #x00026; Kelso, 2003a). Indeed, brain oscillations are considered one of the most important phenotypes for studying the ap psych essays, genetics of complex (non-Mendelian) disorders (Begleiter #x00026; Porjesz, 2006). The mechanisms that give rise to rhythms and essay synchrony exist on different levels of organization: single neurons oscillate due to voltage-gated ion channels depolarizing and essays hyperpolarizing the membrane; network oscillations, for example, in hippocampus and neocortex, strongly depend on the activity of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons in the central nervous system (so-called inhibition-based rhythms; see, e.g., Whittington, Traub, Kopell, Ermentrout, #x00026; Buhl, 2000); neuronal groups or assemblies form as transient coalitions of discharging neurons with mutual interaction. Neuronal communication occurs by air pollution short means of synapses and ap psych glia. Synaptic connections between areas may be weak but research shows that synchrony among different inputs strengthens them, thereby enhancing communication between neurons (for one of many recent examples, see Womelsdorf et al., 2007). Phase coupling, for example, allows groups of neurons in distant and disparate regions of the brain to synchronize together (e.g., Canolty et al., 2006).
According to coordination dynamics, nonlinear coupling among oscillatory processes that possess different intrinsic frequencies is necessary to generate the broad range of behaviors observed, including pattern formation, multistability, phase transitions, switching (sans #x0201c;switches#x0201d;), hysteresis, and so forth. Although the essay my writing experience, mechanisms of coupling multiple oscillations within and between levels of organization are manifold, the principle is clear enough: patterns of behavior arise as an ap psych essays, emergent consequence of self-organized interactions among neurons and neuronal populations and this self-organization is a fundamental source of cognitive, affective, behavioral and social function (Ba#x0015f;ar, 2004; Buzs#x000e1;ki, 2006; Kelso, 1995; Oullier et al., 2008; Schmidt #x00026; Richardson, 2008; Van Orden, Holden, #x00026; Turvey, 2005). Metastability was originally discovered when experimental observations of sensorimotor coordination (Kelso, DelColle, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1990) made it necessary to extend the elementary HKB coordination law (Haken, Kelso, #x00026; Bunz, 1985; Sch#x000f6;ner, Haken, #x00026; Kelso, 1986) to handle the interaction of oscillatory components with different intrinsic properties 2 (Kelso et al., 1990; Kelso, 1995, chap. Who Killed Benny Paret Norman! 4). This breaks the symmetry of the original HKB equation, which describes changes of the order parameter relative phase over time ( #x003d5; . ): where #x003d5; is the relative phase between two interacting components, a and b are parameters p setting the strength of attracting regions in ap psych test essays the system's dynamical landscape, Q #x003be; t is a (delta-correlated) noise term of strength Q , and current issues to write a research #x003b4;#x003c9; is a symmetry breaking term expressing the fact that each coordinating element possesses its own intrinsic behavior (Kelso et al., 1990; see Park #x00026; Turvey, 2008, for further discussion). The introduction of the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; in Eq. 1 changes the entire coordination dynamics (layout of the fixed points, bifurcation structure) of the test, original HKB system. This is important to realize because it is the subtle interplay between the coupling ( k = b/a ) and short the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; in Equation 1 that gives rise to metastability 3 (see Kelso, 2002, for further discussion). where X 1 and X 2 are the individual components, the ap psych, dots are their time derivatives and coursework creative writing #x003b1; and #x003b2; are coupling parameters (Haken, Kelso #x00026; Bunz, 1985). A nontrivial aspect of ap psych, HKB is that it derives patterns of coordination from the individual components and their nonlinear interaction (see Kelso, 2007b for steps and rationale). Equation 1 is weird.
Even though it is an reflective essay, order parameter equation of motion that is ap psych essays designed to describe collective behavior (in words, phi dot is a function of phi), it includes also a parameter that arises as a result of differences among the individual components . Eq. 1 is thus a strange mixture of the whole and the parts, the global and the local, the cooperative and the competitive, the collective and the individual. Were the components identical, #x003b4;#x003c9; would be zero and we would not see component differences affecting the behavior of the whole. Eq. 1 would simply reflect the behavior of the essay, collective untarnished by component properties, a purely emergent interaction#x02014;the HKB equation. Ap Psych Test! It is the fact that both the paret, components and their (nonlinear) interaction appear at test essays the same level of description that gives rise to the array of who killed benny norman, coexisting tendencies characteristic of metastability.
Eq. 1 is a basic representation of a synergy : a low dimensional dynamic of essays, a metastable organization in which the tendency of the parts to act together coexists with a tendency of the parts to reflective essay, do their own thing (Kelso, 1995, chap. 4; for more on synergies, see Kelso, 2007a, 2000b, in press). Essays! It is metastability that endows the synergy with robustness and flexibility, enabling the same parts to paret norman cousins, participate in multiple functions. If the synergy is test a unit of life, then it is metastability that brings it alive. The flow of the coordination dynamics across a range of #x003b4;#x003c9; values is shown in Figure 2 for a fixed value of the coupling parameter, k = b/a = 1, where a = 1 and b = 1). Stable fixed points (attractors) are presented as filled circles and cousins unstable fixed points (repellors) as open circles. Note these fixed points refer to the coordination variable or order parameter and are not known in advance but have to be experimentally identified (see Kelso, 2000, for a full discussion).
Here, fortuitously for the brain, fixed points of the coordination variable #x003c6; represent the phase and test essays frequency relationship between oscillatory processes. Essays Worksheets! The surface shown in Figure 2 defines three regions under the influence of the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; . In the ap psych test essays, first region, present in air pollution short the lower part of the surface, the test, system is multistable: two stable attracting fixed points (filled circles) represent possible alternative states. Air Pollution Essay! Which one the system settles in depends on ap psych test, initial conditions and the size of the current issues a research about, basin of attraction. In an ap psych, intermediate region, following the line labeled 2 from left to right, the weakest attractor near antiphase (right side) disappears after it collides with its associated repellor somewhere near #x003b4;#x003c9; = 1.3, but the strongest attractor (left side) is still present as well as its repellor partner. Finally, in the third region, in the upper part of the surface, the dynamics become metastable. Expository Worksheets! Following the line labeled 3 from ap psych left to right, no fixed points exist anymore: this part of the my writing experience, surface no longer intersects the isoplane #x003d5; . = 0 where the fixed points are located. Test Essays! Strictly speaking, coordination states qua frequency- and phase-synchrony no longer exist in the metastable regime of the coordination dynamics. What does individual and coordination behavior look like in the metastable regime and how might their relationship be quantified? A unique flow now exists in which the dynamics may be characterized by places where the trajectory of the coordination variable relative phase converges and pauses around the horizontal and places where the coursework creative writing, trajectory drifts or diverges from the ap psych test, horizontal. Let us define the former as a dwell time and the latter as an escape time . In Figure 3c we show two locations for expository worksheets the dwell times: one that lingers a long time before escaping (e.g., Figure 3c , annotation 1), slightly above the test essays, more stable inphase pattern near 0 rad (modulo 2 #x003c0; ), and the other that lingers only briefly (e.g., Figure 3c , annotation 2), slightly above #x003c0; (modulo 2 #x003c0; ). Essay! These inflections recur over and over again as long as the system self-organizes in test the metastable regime, that is, as long as it does not undergo a phase transition to a locked or unlocked state.
Despite the complete absence of phase-locked attractors, the who killed norman cousins thesis, coordinating elements in the metastable regime do not behave totally independently. Rather, their interdependence takes the form of dwellings (phase gathering) near the remnants of the fixed points (cf. Ap Psych Test Essays! Figure 2 ) and may be nicely expressed by concentrations in issues to write a research paper the histogram of the relative phase (see Kelso, 1995, chap. 4). METRICS FOR METASTABILITY: A START.
In the following some potential measures of metastable coordination dynamics are introduced. Notice that all the usual measures used previously in coordination dynamics to measure and test quantify stability and loss of reflective essay on 9/11, stability such as local and global relaxation times, switching times, fluctuations, and so on, no longer apply in test essays the metastable regime (see Kelso, Sch#x000f6;ner, Scholz, #x00026; Haken, 1987; Sch#x000f6;ner #x00026; Kelso, 1988, for reviews of theory and experiments establishing the utility of these quantities). The reason of course is that in the metastable regime, all fixed point states have vanished leaving only traces of coordination, #x0201c;ghosts#x0201d; or #x0201c;remnants#x0201d; of where the fixed points once were. Once the fixed points go, so also all the methods and short essay techniques of test, linear stability analysis. 4 This means we have to be creative about finding new ways to capture metastable coordination. A dwell time may be defined by how long a collective or coordinative tendency persists in a system or data set; an escape time is air pollution essay how long the coordinating elements express their individual autonomy in a system or data set. 5 Consider first the pure cases. Ap Psych! For reasons of generality that may become apparent later, let's refer to them as complementary aspects ca1 and ca2. Coursework! An example of a pure case is illustrated in Figure 3d : there is no coupling and the oscillators are completely independent (ca1). Examples of another pure case are illustrated in Figures 3a and ap psych test essays 3b . Whether in the mono- or bistable regimes, the oscillators are locked together, coupled in phase- and frequency-locked states (ca2), which constitute asymptotically stable states of the coordination dynamics.
The metastable regime is current issues a research in-between the two pure cases and test is a blend of two tendencies: one for the elements to bind together and the other for the elements to behave independently. Such coexisting tendencies may be denoted as a complementary pair, ca1#x0223c;ca2. Notice that the transition from a metastable regime to a mono- or multistable regime constitutes the creation of functional information (Kelso, 1994a, 2002; Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006). That is, the system moves from a place where there are no states to a place where the coordinated state is well defined and vice versa. Notice also that in the metastable regime near the saddle-node bifurcation, information in the classical Shannonian sense (and presumably #x0201c;information processing#x0201d;) is at a maximum. The two pure cases, fully coupled and totally uncoupled, represent a minimum of information. They are what they are forever. For Iberall, the creation and stability of new forms requires two or more force systems. The physical intuition is who killed benny norman of a generalized Reynolds number. If the energy sweeping into a field of atomisms can be absorbed, nothing much happens.
If it cannot, the field becomes unstable and some new inhomogeneous patterning emerges. The generalized Reynolds number is dimensionless and expresses a competition between a global, convective process and a local diffusive transport or propagative process. The resulting form or pattern is a collective, cooperative effect. Note again how the ap psych test essays, complementary pairs competition#x0223c;cooperation and local#x0223c;global come into play. Formally, the my writing experience, generalized Reynolds number (Re) can be written as follows: with unity (Re critical = 1) reflecting the ap psych test, critical value at which the transition to new forms occurs. With apologies for essay belaboring the fact, criticality conditions have to ap psych essays, be worked out in each case (for an interesting example, see Warren, 1984). Along the same lines of reasoning, a k number may be defined as follows: The dimensionless k number appears to provide a measure of the quality of metastability . The mathematical expression is trivial: In words, as the escape time (e) approaches zero, the dwell time (d) relative to (e) gets larger and larger. This means that there is a stronger and stronger tendency for the individual elements to reflective essay on 9/11, bind together than to stay apart. Ap Psych Essays! Likewise,
In words, as the escape time (e) gets larger and larger, the dwell time (d) relative to (e) gets smaller and smaller. This means that the individual elements tend to express their autonomy more and more, approaching total independence. In analogy to the generalized Reynolds number, a critical k number expresses when the tendency to coordinate overcomes the tendency to essays, stay apart, and vice-versa. The k number might be expected to scale with the distance from the asymptotically stable locked state. But how? This will again depend on ap psych test, the details of the system. Thesis! Were this process analogous to so-called Type-1 intermittency, the distribution of dwell times should scale as the distance #x02212;1/2 from the critical surface where the test essays, parameterized function (Eq. 1) lifts off the on 9/11, origin. Experimentally, this would require pinpointing the ap psych, bifurcation point and manipulating control parameters very precisely. 6 More generally, comparing k numbers, the ratio of dwell and escape times, across a range of levels of observation of the same and different systems may even reveal scale-free properties (for examples, see Billock, DeGuzman, #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Chen, Ding, #x00026; Kelso, 1997, 2003b; Eguiluz, Chialvo, Cecchi, Baliki, #x00026; Apkarian, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2005).
METASTABLE COORDINATION DYNAMICS OF THE BRAIN. This brief introduction to measures of metastability once again highlights the complementary nature. Only together, as a complementary pair, do apparently contrasting phenomena, such as individual #x0223c; collective, integration #x0223c; segregation, local #x0223c; global, cooperation#x0223c;competition, attraction#x0223c;repulsion, convergence#x0223c;divergence, dwell#x0223c;escape, and so on, exhaust the knowledge necessary for understanding. We are reminded once again of Von Holst's (1939/1973) classic analysis of coordination: Both the #x0201c;magnet effect#x0201d; and the #x0201c;maintenance tendency#x0201d; are needed for a complete description of coordination in all its forms (see also Turvey #x00026; Schmidt, 1994). The metastable regime of the coordination law (Eq. 1) shows how this is so: both tendencies arise as the result of the dynamic interplay between nonlinear coupling and to write a research about individual intrinsic dynamics. How might the brain make use of metastability? For a fuller discussion of this question, including #x0201c;The Freeman-Kelso Dialogue,#x0201d; the reader is referred to essays, Kelso #x00026; Tognoli (2007).
As the Fingelkurtses (2004) remark, metastability is an entirely new conception of brain organization, not merely a blend of the current issues to write a research paper, old. Individualist tendencies for ap psych test essays the diverse regions of the brain to express their independence coexist with coordinative tendencies to couple and cooperate as a whole. As we have seen, in the metastable brain local segregative and global integrative processes coexist as a complementary pair, not as conflicting theories. Metastability, by reducing the air pollution short, strong hierarchical coupling between the parts of a complex system while allowing them to retain their individuality, leads to a looser, more secure, more flexible form of functioning that promotes the ap psych test, creation of issues paper, information. Too much autonomy of the component parts means no chance of their coordinating and communicating together. On the test, other hand, too much interdependence and expository the system gets stuck; global flexibility is ap psych test essays lost. In comparison with theories of air pollution short essay, large-scale neural organization through linear phase-coupling (e.g., Eckhorn et al., 1988; Gray, K#x000f6;nig, Engel, #x00026; Singer, 1989; Varela et al., 2001) the test, ability of metastable dynamics to coordinate or compute without attractors opens a large set of possibilities. 7 The classical view of air pollution short essay, phase-locked coordination prescribes that each recruited element loses its intrinsic behavior and obeys the dictates of the assembly. When such situations arise, from the functional point of view, individual areas cease to exert an influence for ap psych the duration of the synchronized state, and the pertinent spatial level of description becomes the synchronous assembly itself. However, it appears that phylogenesis also promoted specialized activity of local populations of neurons (e.g., Chklovskii, Schikorski, #x00026; Stevens, 2002; Ebbesson, 1984). In theories of large-scale integration through phase synchronization, the expression of local activity can exist only when the area is not enslaved into an assembly, whereas in short the metastable regime, the tendency for individual activity is ap psych test essays continually preserved (see also Friston, 1997).
As exemplified explicitly in the elementary coordination law (Eq. 1), a delicate balance between integration (coordination between individual areas) and segregation (expression of individual behavior) is achieved in the metastable regime. Studies of interareal connectivity both at the anatomical and functional level (Friston, 1997; Tononi, Sporns, #x00026; Edelman, 1998) support the notion that the region between complete integration and complete segregation is the on 9/11, most favorable for cognition: measures of complexity reach a maximum when there is a balance between segregative and essays integrative forces. Note, however, that such measures are based upon stationarity assumptions whereas metastability in coordination dynamics is a #x0201c;stationary transient.#x0201d; Although the holding and releasing of the relative phase over time appears to be of a transient nature, it is actually quite stationary. What are the implications of metastable coordination dynamics for air pollution understanding the mind? Like nature and nurture, the contents of the mind and the dynamics of the essays, mind are inextricably connected. Air Pollution Short Essay! Thoughts are not static: like the flow of a river, they emerge and disappear as patterns in a constantly shifting dynamic system (Kelso, 1995). Test! Pretty though this metaphor is, science demands we go beyond it to essay my writing experience, seek description and test explanation.
As in other, more mature fields it is crucial to have a theory or at who killed benny thesis least a conceptual framework of what one is trying to understand. The aim of the present approach is not a detailed model of neurons or neuronal connectivity that will underlie all forms of thought and thinking. Ap Psych! Nor is who killed benny paret norman cousins this the test, forum to present a comprehensive account of the supporting neurophysiological and behavioral evidence. Rather, in air pollution short essay the spirit of the person we honor here, the purpose is to stimulate insight into how mind, brain, and behavior might be connected in ap psych test a unified way. Figure 4 is intended to convey the gist of the story. On the left side of the middle panel, two areas of the brain (for the sake of simplicity) are shown to be active. This acknowledges a simple fact#x02014;or at least a dominant assumption in contemporary neuroscience: The contents of thoughts depend on the neural structures activated. Reciprocally, the neural structures activated influence#x02014;directly or indirectly#x02014;the contents of thoughts. If one is worksheets imagining producing a pattern of sensorimotor coordination, such as syncopating to a rhythmic stimulus, fMRI studies show that the same neural structures are active as would normally be engaged in the act of syncopation itself (Oullier, Jantzen, Steinberg, #x00026; Kelso, 2005).
If one is expecting a reward as a result of an economic transaction, the so-called reward centers in the subcortical nuclei of the ap psych, limbic system (e.g., nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area) and associated pathways are activated (e.g., Knutson, Adams, Fong, #x00026; Hommer, 2001). If one perceives a new face or recognizes an old one, structures in the fusiform gyrus and the inferotemporal visual cortex appear to be activated, and so forth (e.g., Haxby et al., 1996). Thoughts crop up from within, contemporaneous with the air pollution short essay, activation of neural structures associated with memory and emotion such as the essays, hippocampus and amygdala, and current issues paper they can be triggered from without by a familiar sound, touch, sight, or smell. Ap Psych Test! Occasionally insightful thoughts arise too. Expository Essays Worksheets! Though much remains to ap psych test essays, be learned about air pollution short essay what exactly constitutes the contents of thought#x02014;which are inherently context-dependent#x02014;thoughts appear to have neural correlates. Essays! 8 However, identifying thought-specific structures and circuitry using brain mapping, important though it may be, is hardly sufficient to tell us how thinking works. Unlike real estate, thoughts, consciousness, and mind are not only about location. The overuse and abuse of the coursework creative writing, terminology of #x0201c;states#x0201d;#x02014;mental states, psychological states, physiological states, emotional states, and so on#x02014;muffles any sense of dynamics. Active, dynamic processes like #x0201c;perceiving,#x0201d; #x0201c;attending,#x0201d; #x0201c;remembering,#x0201d; and #x0201c;deciding#x0201d; that are associated with the word thinking are not restricted to particular brain locations but rather emerge as patterns of test essays, interaction among widely distributed neural ensembles and in general between human beings and their worlds. One of the great riddles of current a research paper about, contemporary neuroscience is how the multiple, diverse, and specialized areas of the brain are coordinated to give rise to thinking and coherent goal-directed behavior. Ap Psych Essays! A key primitive of the present theory is that neuronal assemblies in different parts of the essay my writing experience, brain oscillate at different frequencies.
Such oscillatory activity is a prime example of self-organization in ap psych test essays the brain. But oscillation, though necessary, is not sufficient. It is the fact that oscillations are coupled or bound together into a coherent network when people attend to a stimulus, perceive, remember, decide, and act (e.g., Ba#x0015f;ar, 2004; Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Buzs#x000e1;ki, 2006; Kelso, 1995; Singer, 2005; Varela et al., 2001, for reviews). Essay! This is a dynamic, self-assembling process, parts of the brain engaging and disengaging in time, as in a proverbial country square dance in test essays rural Connecticut. In the simplest case shown in the left column of Figure 4 , oscillations in different brain regions can lock #x0201c;inphase,#x0201d; brain activities rising and norman thesis falling together, or #x0201c;antiphase,#x0201d; one oscillatory brain activity reaching its peak as another hits its trough and vice versa. Inphase and antiphase are just two out of ap psych test, many possible multistable, phase synchronized states that can exist between multiple, different, specialized brain areas depending on their respective intrinsic properties and functional connectivity.
More broadly, as Iberall intuited, the organism and writing its environment are embedded in ap psych test essays a nested frame of rhythms ranging from expository worksheets rest activity and sleep cycles to test, circadian and seasonal rhythms that both modify and are modified by behavior, development, and my writing experience aging. Coming back to the brain, different aspects of a moving scene, separate remembered parts of a significant experience, even different ideas that arise in a conversation may be bound together into ap psych essays coherent forms by essay synaptic coupling of essays, (oscillatory) neural populations. The key proposal, conveyed in the top panel of Figure 4 , is that thoughts (figuratively shown as balloons) are #x0201c;coded#x0201d; as relative phases between oscillating brain areas. Relative phase is a natural quantity for coordinating different things and is a long established order parameter in coordination dynamics. Air Pollution Short Essay! 9 Phase is also the means by which excitatory and inhibitory neurons communicate with each other in test essays so-called central pattern generators (e.g., Grillner, 1985).
If nature operates with ancient themes, as Ibby often reminded us, it is reasonable to propose that the same pattern generating principles typical of spinal circuitry are exploited at the level of cortical circuitry also (Kelso, 1995, chap. 8; Ikegaya et al., 2004). In coordination dynamics, phase relationships carry meaningful information with multiple attractors (the fixed points shown in left top part of Figure 4 ) setting alternatives for complementary aspects to enter the mind. The top left part of Figure 4 conveys the essential bistable nature of physical and social reality. Two states are possible for identical parameter values: which state one enters depends on reflective essay on 9/11, initial and boundary conditions. Baldly put, bistability is the basis of polarization and the either/or.
Note that this does not necessarily imply any judgment of good or bad. Polarization, for example, may be seen as the driving tension behind scientific progress in test essays the sense of a research, Thomas Kuhn (1962), and bistability may be exploited for solving ill-defined problems where the consideration of multiple interpretations of data is an advantage. Bistable, and in test essays general multistable coordination dynamics confers many advantages on living things, in particular multifunctionality (see, e.g., Kelso, 1991). Why is it that some thoughts seem to short essay, persist longer than others? Coordination dynamics suggests that the ap psych test, persistence of a thought depends on the stability of the brain's relative phase dynamics.
Some thoughts persist longer than others because the phase relations underlying them are more stable. In Figure 4 (top left), the negative slope through the ordinate near inphase (#x0201c;thought 1#x0201d;) is greater, hence more stable, than its antiphase counterpart (#x0201c;thought 2#x0201d;). This proposition is supported by experiments and specific neurally based modeling, which shows that different patterns of spatiotemporal brain activity are differentially stable (Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Jirsa, Fuchs, #x00026; Kelso, 1998; Kelso et al., 1992; Meyer-Lindenberg, Ziemann, Hajak, Cohen, #x00026; Berman, 2002). For example, applying transient perturbations to worksheets, Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) and lateral premotor cortex using Transcranial Magnetic stimulation induces transitions from antiphase to inphase coordination but not vice versa (Meyer-Lindenberg, et al., 2002). Even more tellingly, recent fMRI work shows that increases in BOLD amplitude in a network of brain areas that includes pre-SMA, premotor cortex, cerebellum, and ap psych insula increases linearly as pattern stability decreases (Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Jantzen, Steinberg, #x00026; Kelso, under review). 10 Such evidence suggests that disruption of a distributed network of coursework creative, brain areas#x02014;in contrast to a discrete switch in a particular locus#x02014;results in the destabilization and eventual dismantling of a less stable coordination pattern in favor of a more stable one. So what makes thoughts switch? When it comes to the nervous system, it is always tempting to ask, as does Abbott (2006), #x0201c;Where are the switches in this thing?#x0201d; (see also Martin, 2006).
But merely because there is switching does not necessarily mean there are switches (Kelso, 1984). The middle column of ap psych test, Figure 4 offers a different mechanism: dynamic instability. Multistability and spontaneous switching in perception as in the alternating vase or faces in ambiguous Rubin figures, Necker cubes, the continuous wagon wheel illusion, and so forth, continue to be a subject of much fascination in cognitive psychology and neuroscience (e.g., Billock #x00026; Tsou, 2007; Van Rullen et al., 2004; for paret norman cousins review, see Kelso, 1995, chap. 7 and articles in Kruse #x00026; Stadler, 1995). The picture shown in Figure 4 (middle column) is ap psych test essays based on considerable experimental evidence demonstrating that switching in both brain and behavior is a self-organized process that takes the form of a nonequilibrium phase transition (e.g., Daffertshofer, Peper, #x00026; Beek, 2000; Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Fuchs, Deecke, #x00026; Kelso, 2000; Fuchs, Kelso, #x00026; Haken, 1992; Fuchs, Mayville, et al., 2000; Kelso, 1984; Kelso et al., 1990; Kelso, Scholz, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1986; Kelso et al., 1992; Mayville, Bressler, Fuchs, #x00026; Kelso, 1999; Wallenstein, Kelso, #x00026; Bressler, 1995). Fluctuations play a key role, testing the stability of writing, states and enabling the system to discover new states.
In coordination dynamics, once the system settles into an attractor, a certain amount of noise or a perturbation is required to switch it to another attractor. Or, if internal or external conditions change when the system is test near instability, a bifurcation or phase transition may occur, causing the system to switch from being multistable to monostable or vice versa (see Ditzinger #x00026; Haken, 1989, 1990, for excellent examples of such modeling). Thinking in this view involves the active destabilization of one stable thought pattern into another. A different view emerges from the flow of the relative phase dynamics in the metastable regime ( Figure 4 , right). Instead of thoughts corresponding to rigid, phase synchronized states that must be destabilized if switching is to occur, metastability consists of a more subtle dwell and escape dynamic in which a thought is never quite stable and merely expresses a joint tendency for neural areas to expository essays, synchronize together and to oscillate independently. Fluid thinking, in this view, is when the brain's oscillations are neither completely synchronized nor desynchronized (see also Fig. Test! 3c ). In the metastable regime, successive visits to the remnants of the fixed points are intrinsic to the time course of the system and norman cousins do not require any external source of input. Ap Psych Test! Switching occurs, of course, but continuously and without the need for additive noise or changes in parameters. From the perspective of coordination dynamics, the time the system dwells in each remnant depends on my writing experience, a subtle blend of the asymmetry of the rhythmic elements (longer dwelling for smaller asymmetry) and the strength of the coupling (longer dwelling for larger values of a and b in Eq. 1). The metastable regime offers scientific grounds for Iberall's intuition of #x0201c;reverie#x0201d;: thoughts come and ap psych essays go fluidly as the oscillatory units of the brain express both an interactive integrative dynamic and an individualistic segregative dynamic.
Metastable coordination dynamics also rationalizes William James's (1890) beautiful metaphor of the stream of consciousness as the flight of a bird whose life journey consists of #x0201c;perchings#x0201d; (viewed here as phase gathering, integrative tendencies) and who killed norman cousins thesis #x0201c;flights#x0201d; (phase scattering, segregative tendencies). Both tendencies appear to be crucial: the former to summon and create thoughts, the latter to release individual brain areas to participate in other acts of cognition, emotion, and action. In some traditions, it is not the essays, contents of thoughts that matter but their #x0201c;stickiness.#x0201d; In the coursework writing, metastable regime of the coordination dynamics, the #x0201c;stickiness#x0201d; of thoughts depends on how close the neural system is to the fixed points of the relative phase dynamics. Sticky thoughts have long dwell times and essays a high probability density of near perfect phase synchrony between the brain's oscillations. Passing thoughts, as the name suggests, have short dwell times and reflective essay on 9/11 low probability density. Test Essays! Stickiness means that the coupling interaction between neural populations is stronger than the tendency of these populations to writing, express their individual autonomy and/or to disengage from one neural coalition to participate in others. Test! Very sticky thoughts correspond to phase trapping between the reflective essay on 9/11, brain's oscillations and may be pathological. Ap Psych Essays! Well-known manifestations of who killed paret cousins, too much synchronization in the brain are diseases like Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. Ap Psych! On the other hand, it appears that certain diseases such as schizophrenia appear to be characterized by issues to write a reduction in oscillatory brain activity and test essays a relative absence of long range phase synchrony (Uhlhaas #x00026; Singer, 2006). Like order and chaos, it seems the boundary between health and my writing disease is a fine one.
A few further remarks may be in order. Essays! One, hinted at earlier, is that environmental, intentional, attentional, emotional, learning, and memory processes are all capable of both stabilizing and destabilizing the coordination dynamics. A recently proposed dynamical mechanism is parametric (de)stabilization by functional information (e.g., Fink et al., 2000; Jirsa et al., 2000; Kelso et al., 2001; see also Kay #x00026; Warren, 2001). The neural mechanisms of parametric stabilization by intention are beginning to be uncovered (Jantzen, Bertollo, deLuca, Comani, #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Kelso, Scholz, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1988; Scholz #x00026; Kelso, 1990). A full accounting of this work, though highly relevant, would take us too far afield. Essay Experience! We remark that to the extent these influences may be said to control the mind, this is the mind controlling itself. Second, certain views on ap psych test essays, meditation view the mind (pardon the pun)#x02014;with its beliefs, biases, and prejudices based on past experience and memory#x02014;as an obstacle to being truly aware, to seeing what is . Awareness is where the mind stops wandering and worksheets thinking is the pause between two thoughts, where the brain is not trapped in a coherent state. Ap Psych Essays! Here we may say that for thought not to air pollution, interfere, there should be no #x0201c;binding#x0201d; among brain areas; all the parts of the ap psych test essays, brain should be in a default state poised, as it were, to expository worksheets, respond to any input. Metastabilty resolves, nay embraces, any paradox between #x0201c;content full#x0201d; thought and #x0201c;content less#x0201d; awareness: the flow of the dynamics allows both. Third, notice in Figure 4 and test throughout this discussion that the linkage between events at different levels, from neural to psychological and experiential, is by virtue of shared pattern or coordination dynamics, not because any single level is any more or less fundamental than any other. Thus, psychological terms like #x0201c;stickiness#x0201d; or #x0201c;unhooking#x0201d; or #x0201c;trapping#x0201d; or even #x0201c;task difficulty#x0201d; have explicit meaning in terms of meta- and multistable coordination dynamics.
This amounts to transcendence if not translation. Thought is matter and thinking is matter in motion#x02014;coordinated motion. Thought arises as a low-dimensional, coherent pattern in an extremely high-dimensional system called the human being coupled to its world. The slightest fluctuation can trigger a thought. Context matters. Creative Writing! The coordination dynamics of thinking is essentially nonlinear and essays contains multistability and switching#x02014;which may be debilitating when it leads to cousins thesis, polarization. Coordination dynamics differs from other theories of self-organization, including Iberall's homeokinetics, because it deals primarily in the currency of functional information : the two #x0201c;forces#x0201d; that drive coordination dynamics deal fundamentally with meaningful information exchange in living things. Ap Psych Essays! One force is the reflective, strength of coupling between the elements; this allows information to test essays, be distributed to all participating elements and reflective is a key to ap psych essays, integrative, collective action. The other is the ability of individual elements to express their autonomy and thereby minimize the influence of others. Self-organization in the metastable regime is the interplay of both. This is the architecture of mind#x02014;metastable mind.
This article is a written version of the Arthur S. Iberall Distinguished Lecture on Life and the Sciences of issues to write about, Complexity, Storrs, CT, December 2005. A similar lecture was delivered as the ap psych essays, F. J. McGuigan Prize Lecture for Understanding the essay on 9/11, Human Mind at the American Psychological Association convention in Washington, DC, August 2005. The author would like to thank Professors Michael Turvey and Claudia Carello along with many friends and colleagues at ap psych test essays The University of Connecticut for coursework writing their wonderful hospitality during my visit to test essays, present this lecture. The title is intended to convey the norman thesis, problem that all of us share. Essays! It is an #x0201c;essay#x0201d; in the sense of the French word essai , a try. #x0201c;Mind#x0201d; as used here is worksheets multifunctional: we pay attention, we see, we hear, we remember, we feel, we act, we experience, and so on. Essays! These are activities that rely at essays worksheets least in ap psych test essays part on the workings of a physical organ called the brain. Like structure and function, organism and environment, affordance and reflective effectivity, mind and brain are complementary. The author is also in the departments of Psychology, Biological Science, and Biomedical Sciences. The writing of this article was supported by a National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH) Innovations Award (MH 42900), National Institute for Neurological and Communicative (NINDS) Grant NS48220, and test essays the U.S.
Office of Naval Research. The comments of Drs. Emmanuelle Tognoli, Gonzalo DeGuzman, and Maxine Sheets-Johnstone are much appreciated as are the expository worksheets, helpful reviews by William Mace and Michael Turvey. Publisher's Disclaimer: Full terms and ap psych test conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article maybe used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.
The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the my writing, contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out ap psych test essays, of the use of this material. We note that we are never faced by more than a small number of interacting levels. The overseer always seems to be faced only by king and by peasant.
That is our key notion. (Iberall #x00026; Soodak, 1978, p. 22) This is the second paper in the series, #x0201c;Life and expository the Sciences of Complexity: Essays in Honor of Arthur S. Iberall.#x0201d; 1 The symbol of the complementary nature relating contrarieties, opposites and ap psych test essays their kin is the essay on 9/11, tilde or squiggle (#x0223c;). If you see things like yin and yang, organism and environment, nature and nurture, mind and ap psych body, friend and essay my writing experience enemy, living and dying, creation and annihilation as mutually related and essays inextricably connected, you are exercising your squiggle sense. If you see them as contraries, us versus them, nature versus nurture, mind versus body, or if you overemphasize one extreme over the other, you are not using your squiggle sense. Integration#x0223c;segregation, local#x0223c;global, individual#x0223c;collective, part#x0223c;whole, competition#x0223c;cooperation, creation#x0223c;annihilation, convergence#x0223c;divergence, dwell#x0223c;escape, states#x0223c;tendencies, symmetry#x0223c;dynamics, form#x0223c;function and so forth are some of the complementary pairs that constitute the base set of complementary pairs of coordination dynamics.
Note the squiggle is not a bridge: it doesn't stand for glue holding complementary aspects together or mediating between them. It is a way to write and think about complementary aspects in a way that emphasizes their relational and dynamic character. The squiggle exposes a basic truth: both complementary aspects are required for an exhaustive understanding of phenomena. 2 Research has established that the oscillators are self-sustaining and contain Rayleigh and van der Pol terms (e.g. Essay My Writing! Beek, et al., 1996; 1997; Haken, et al., 1985; Kay et al., 1987). More than the functional form of the oscillator, per se, the test, key to emergent coordination is the nonlinear coupling. Essay On 9/11! The simplest, perhaps most fundamental coupling that guarantees multistability, switching and primitive memory (hysteresis) is:
3 Sometimes in the literature Eq. 1 is referred to collectively as the Haken-Kelso-Bunz equation. Though convenient, this is technically incorrect and fails to recognize both the intellectual contributions to its extension and the conceptual consequences thereof. For reasons of symmetry and simplicity, the original HKB equation did not contain the symmetry breaking term, #x003b4;#x003c9; (Kelso, et al., 1990) nor did it treat fluctuations explicitly (Schoner, Haken #x00026; Kelso, 1986) both of which are crucial for capturing the broad range of phenomena observed and testing further predictions. In particular, without #x003b4;#x003c9; there is: a) no fixed point shift, a sign of adaptation to changing circumstances, see Fig.
1 ; b) the bifurcation is ap psych essays a saddle node not, as in worksheets the original HKB equation a pitchfork. Ap Psych Test Essays! These are different normal forms, see Kelso (1994b); and 3) most important of all, the original HKB equation does not and cannot exhibit metastability which is the key to understanding the complementary relationship between the synergic tendency of the oscillators to couple (integration) and at benny paret norman thesis the same time to express their individual differences (segregation). The oscillators in test the original HKB formulation were identical thereby excluding metastability. For these reasons, it seems wise to refer to essay experience, Eq. 1 as the extended HKB equation. 4 We remark, however, how helpful these techniques have been in establishing the presence of test, self-organization (phase transitions) in human brain and paret cousins thesis behavior, and for essays testing predicted effects, such as critical slowing down, fluctuation enhancement, switching time distributions, and norman so forth that are hallmarks of dynamic instability. Note that all these measures require detailed investigation and have to be established in each particular case. Note also that they are valid only before the transition and the associated breakdown of timescales occur (see Kelso, et al., 1987 for details). 5 Of course, in experiments these times need to be operationally defined, similar say to ap psych test essays, the operations used to determine the who killed paret norman cousins thesis, onsets and offsets of other physiological measures such as EEG and EMG (see Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007, for a start). 6 Such experiments are nontrivial. Nevertheless, very clear hints are available in behavioral studies that have systematically detuned, in small steps, a two-frequency system coordinating near 2 W 1 (DeGuzman #x00026; Kelso, 1991; Kelso #x00026; DeGuzman, 1988).
7 In fact, it can be proven that only dynamical systems whose basins of ap psych essays, attraction are poised on the boundaries of paret cousins, elementary attractors are capable of test essays, universal computation (see Velupillai, 2007). 8 For a sobering analysis of some of the pitfalls in the methods and interpretation of brain imaging data, see van Orden #x00026; Paap (1997) and Uttal (2003). 9 An argument can be made that spatial patterns of amplitude in high density EEG recordings of expository essays worksheets, olfactory cortex also constitute an order parameter (e.g., Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007). In coordination dynamics, following theories of self-organization (Haken, 1977; Nicolis #x00026; Prigogine, 1977) coordination variables or order parameters and test control parameters may be identified by studying dynamic instabilities or phase transitions (Kelso, 1990). The former change qualitatively at transitions and the latter#x02013;when systematically varied#x02013;lead the system through transitions. Order parameters and control parameters are thus co-implicative and complementary in essays worksheets the framework of coordination dynamics (Kelso, 1995; Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006).
Recent empirical and theoretical research contacts Freeman's work in that it shows that phase transitions can also arise through the test, amplitudes of to write a research paper, oscillation (Assisi, Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2005). Both routes are possible depending on the situation, e.g. amplitude drops across the transition, the relative phase changes abruptly. 10 Stable thoughts, like stable gaits it seems, correspond to minimum energy configurations among participating neural ensembles. Test Essays! Analogous to gaits, research shows that oxygen utilization (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent effect) increases as the pattern loses stability, suggesting that the demands on neural resources to sustain a given pattern stable also increase. Who Killed Thesis! Pattern stability, which can be precisely measured in terms of variability appears to be an ap psych, (as yet unheralded) determiner of brain activity (number and intensity level of voxels, see Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007, Figs. 3 and #x200B; and4 4 ). Abbott LF.
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Dec 19, 2017 Ap psych test essays,
The Scoop on Resume Length: How Many Pages Should Your Resume Be? by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Once upon test essays a time, someone came up with a “rule” that resumes should not exceed one page. No one really knows who came up with the expository essays rule, but a great many job-seekers still seem to test live in fear of this supposed edict. The fact is that very few “rules” exist today in essay my writing experience, the world of resume writing. Unbreakable rules include: You can’t lie, you can’t have typos/misspellings, and you can’t include negative information. Just about every other rule you’ve ever heard about resumes, however, is breakable, including rules about how many pages your resume should comprise. Rules are one thing, but trends are another. Ap Psych Test? After a period that could almost be described as “anything goes” in terms of paret norman cousins thesis, resume length, the pendulum in this Twitter-inspired, short-attention-span age has swung back toward shorter resumes. “The norm for most resumes/CVs is one to two pages, even for very experienced professionals,” says the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the ap psych test New the who killed benny cousins thesis Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium.
The publication went on to note that a survey of HR/recruiters on LinkedIn indicated an overwhelming preference for a second page. Even against within this climate of shorter resumes, each individual situation dictates resume length. After surveying career experts, we developed some guidelines to test help you determine the right length for issues your resume. It should be noted that length is primarily an ap psych issue that pertains to the traditional, formatted, “print” version of your resume. For resumes in electronic formats that are intended to be placed directly in keyword-searchable databases, page-length is immaterial. “The length of reflective, your resume doesn’t matter to an applicant tracking system,” affirms Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). “It will scan your resume regardless of whether it’s two pages or four. Ap Psych Test? Submitting a longer (say three or four page) resume that allows you to pack in more relevant experience and keywords and who killed benny paret, phrases could increase your chances of ranking higher in the system,” Ciampi says in Levinson’s article. Thus, this article’s guidelines apply either in situations where your formatted resume is screened by ap psych test, human eyes without having been placed into a keyword-searchable database or after a keyword search has narrowed the field of applicants.
Resumes for new grads and entry-level job-seekers are often, but not always, one page. Most college career-placement centers tell students to to write a research paper limit their resumes to one page, notes resume writer Sharon Pierce-Williams, 75 percent of whose business is writing for the college population. Pierce-Williams observes that many career offices even require that students stick to a one-page resume.” Indeed, if there is one group that should strive for ap psych test a one-page resume, it is expository worksheets, college students and new graduates. In many cases, these entry-level job-seekers don’t have enough relevant experience to justify more than a page. Test? Some new grads do, however, have lots of relevant internship, summer-job, extracurricular, leadership, and sports experience that justifies a two-page resume.
Pierce-Williams takes an reflective essay on 9/11 unusual approach to new-grad resumes. “I have compelling proof that two-page resumes land job interviews for college students,” Pierce-Williams says. “Length depends on extra-curricular involvement and leadership. It takes a certain ‘go-getter’-type student for essays a two-page resume.” Pierce-Williams designs college-student resumes in which page one “often looks like a ‘regular’ resume, but page two is air pollution short essay, entitled ‘Key Leadership and essays, Project Management’ or simply ‘Key Leadership.'” Pierce-Williams says she uses this page-two section to list three to four projects in which the creative writing student made a difference in an association or sorority/fraternity. If you fall into the college-student/entry-level/new-grad group and are tempted to go to two pages, just be sure that you have the relevant material to justify a second page. “Once someone has been in business for 10 years, particularly if they have switched jobs, I find it difficult to essays keep it on coursework creative, one page,” says coach, speaker, and trainer Darlene Nason. “I think a two-page resume is a good average.” In his Resume Critique Writer software, Grant Cooper of Strategic Resumes offers this view of the two-page resume: “The resume has now taken the place of the ap psych test initial interview, and only those with significant qualifications and short, strong resumes are even invited to interview.
True, it does take an additional minute or less for an HR professional to review the second page of a resume, but that extra minute is seen as far more helpful than scheduling a questionable candidate for ap psych test essays a personal interview.” Supplemental sheets and addenda provide a way to present additional information without adding to the length of the resume itself. Executives in particular were advised till recently that three- and paper, four-page resumes were acceptable and even expected. Now, though, the trend is toward two-page or even one-page resumes for executives that are supplemented by test, various addenda that can optionally be submitted with the resume. “A suite of addenda,” says Deborah Wile Dib, president of Executive Power Brand, can be “a strategic way to mention presentations, awards, published works, technical skills, extensive education, and expanded success studies.” Dib, who particularly uses addenda with executives, notes that “such addenda allow for even greater depth without cluttering the essay my writing experience resume.” Creating various supplements and addenda enables the test job-seeker to essay experience choose which pieces to send along with the resume. He or she might instead choose not to send any addenda but to ap psych essays bring them to the interview.
Even among employers, there’s no consensus on preferred resume length. While there is no consensus among employers and recruiters about resume length, some feel one page is coursework creative writing, too short. Maureen Crawford Hentz, manager of talent acquisition, development and compliance at ap psych test Osram Sylvania, Boston MA, particularly disdains “abbreviated or ‘teaser’ resumes” that urge the recruiter, “for more information, call me.” Many recruiters believe that two pages is my writing experience, about the ap psych essays right length; for reflective some, three pages is the outside limit that they will read. “If the resume is longer than two pages, it needs to test essays be well worth it,” noted Hentz’s colleague at Osram Sylvania, Harlynn Goolsby. Short? Others question executives’ ability to prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages. Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. Ap Psych? “Most of expository essays, my clients profess that they are too busy to read anything lengthier — thus, I deliver what they require,” said Chris Dutton, director at Intelligent Recruitment Services and Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK. Essays? Recruiter opinions about resume length have been colored in recent years by the growing practice of reading resumes on a computer screen rather than printing them. Resumes that might seem too long in print are acceptable on screen. For many decision-makers, page length is less important than providing sufficient details. “I … encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of any detail in order to confine them to one or two pages,” said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for Professional Personnel in Alabama. “My immediate response is to ask for a more detailed resume. Essay My Writing Experience? A resume that’s three or four pages but actually shows the ap psych test qualifications and experience necessary for air pollution a position is much preferred, in my opinion, to one that has cut out all the substance to meet some passe idea of a one-page resume.” John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at Belcan agreed: “Resume length is of very little importance so long as the information is ap psych test essays, accurate, verifiable, and coursework writing, pertinent to the position. If a candidate has 20 years of experience directly relating to the position being applied for and that experience is ap psych test essays, verifiable, it should be listed even if the resume goes four-plus pages.”
Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the reader’s interest. Air Pollution? “As long as the resume grabs the ap psych essays attention of the hiring manager, it is the right length,” says McCown-Guard. “Whatever the length of the resume, the critical factor is to current paper make absolutely certain that your reader’s interest is ap psych test essays, piqued within the first half of the first page,” cautions Laurie J. Smith, president of essay, Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service. “Of equal or greater importance [to length] is concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of bullet points, and test essays, good organizational strategies that ensure the resume can be quickly skimmed,” notes the air pollution Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the test essays New the Next in who killed paret norman cousins, Careers . Test? “In addition, it is reflective essay on 9/11, essential to use strong merchandising and positioning strategies to bring the most relevant information to the forefront. Test? Creating a strong impact “above the fold” — on the top half of the first page of the resume — has become increasingly critical for job seekers in one of the coursework most competitive employment markets we’ve ever experienced.” Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at least a third to a half of the page. If the last page of your resume amounts to just a few lines of text, it’s best to condense so that the preceding page becomes the last page of your resume. Conversely, don’t add superfluous text just to fill up the last page of your resume. “I never fluff up content for the sake of ap psych, filling space,” says Teena Rose of Resume to Referral. “Irrelevancies can dilute the overall effectiveness of the resume.” The end of your resume, Rose notes, “should offer additional value and not be perceived as leftovers.”
Don’t sacrifice your resume’s readability to make it conform to arbitrary “rules” about resume length. It’s always pitiful when we have to whip out the air pollution short magnifying class to read the tiny 8- or 9-point type on the resume of a job-seeker who has gone to absurd lengths to test limit his or her resume to a certain number of pages. Don’t forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to essays 11.5 is better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; we’ve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto X number of pages. “It’s less taxing and time-consuming to ap psych read one and a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everything’s squished together,” observes one expert. “Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally ‘crammed’ into one page, are now frowned upon,” says Cooper in his Resume Critique Writer software. “It is simply too difficult for who killed benny paret norman a hiring director to ap psych test read the tiny print and jam-packed information squeezed into a one-page stuffed resume. Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and well-formatted two-page resume that is easy to read, yet has the detailed information they now need.” Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in a resume that is two or more pages. All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Some job-seekers choose a “page 2 of 3” model. “If you decide to go with two or more pages, be sure to include your name and appropriate page number at experience the top,” suggests Ann Baehr of Best Resumes. “And organize all of the information with distinct categories to make it easier for ap psych test essays the reader to find what they are looking for at a glance.” Including your name close to the page number is highly desirable in case resume pages get separated from each other.
However, repeating your entire “letterhead” from the first page of your resume on subsequent pages can be confusing and take up too much space. Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to who killed benny paret cousins thesis a footer designed to entice the employer to keep reading the resume: “At the bottom of my multi-page resumes, there is a [customized] footer that reads something like this: ‘More indicators of ap psych test essays, performance General Motors can use now…'” It’s OK for writing a resume section, such as your experience, to straddle two pages of your resume, but avoid splitting the description of a given job over ap psych two pages. Air Pollution Short? Finish describing a job on one page, and begin detailing the next-oldest job on ap psych test essays, the following page. Final Thoughts on Job-Seeker Resume Length. One more guideline to consider is that one-page resumes are typically expected for networking and at job fairs. If you’re still torn about how long to who killed benny norman make your resume, consider contacting a qualified resume writer for test an expert consultation. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article?
Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to reflective our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of test, Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of essay, Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an ap psych essays electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and reflective essay on 9/11, blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Ap Psych? Katharine, who ea ned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dyn mic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in t e Door: N tworking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by creative, Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Have you taken advantage of all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and more that we have in the Resume Resources section of Quintessential Careers?
QUINTESSENTIAL RESUME-WRITING PARTNER. LiveCareer’s Resume Builder is the fastest, most efficient way to build an effective resume. Featuring hundreds of templates and professional designs for all jobs and ap psych test, industries, Resume Builder also includes sample phrases written by our experts, plus helpful tips and advice to make your resume stand out. We’ll guide you step by step through the process, so you can build an impressive resume that will make employers want to know more. Ready to jump-start your job search and move closer to reaching your goals? Try Resume Builder today, and learn how easy it is to my writing experience create your own resume. We’re so confident that you’ll love Resume Builder that you can try it for FREE! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over ap psych 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Essay Experience? Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the ap psych test essays job you want.
Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Current About? Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of essays, EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and reflective essay, EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine.
Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an essays educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at [email protected] Check out Dr. Expository Worksheets? Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an ap psych test educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for writing jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in test essays, organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to my writing experience Study Skills (Alpha).
Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at [email protected] Check out Dr. Test Essays? Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or 
Quintessential Careers: Career and essay my writing experience, Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by ap psych, the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Reflective Essay? Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of test essays, Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of who killed benny, a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and test, employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.
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4 Ways to Perfect Your Resume in the New Year. By Robin Reshwan, Contributor | Jan. 4, 2016, at test essays, 9:30 a.m. Instead of relying on issues to write a research paper about, on-screen editing to catch every error, print out ap psych test a copy and review your resume on paper. (Getty Images) The start of the year is experience, a time of ap psych, renewed conviction to improve professionally, and many workers change jobs within the first several months of a new year. Expository Essays. As you enter 2016, here are four things you can update on ap psych essays, your resume to prepare for a possible career change this year. 1. Creative Writing. Your career objective. I know. Implying that your resume has an ap psych test essays, Objective seems taboo per paret cousins modern standards.
However, even if you don't write Objective on your resume, it needs a professional purpose. You need to determine if you are targeting more of the same or looking to change your role, responsibilities or industry. Depending on your goal, your resume should clearly reflect how you are a strong contender for a specific role. Resumes without a specific purpose – or objective – do not fare as well as those that are targeted. Test. Remember, it is the job seeker's responsibility to establish his worth if he wants to reflective essay, capture the attention of ap psych test essays, a busy and distracted hiring manager. So, even though you no longer write Objective, your summary, the description of your previous positions and overall look and about, feel of your resume should be aligned with the change you seek. 2. Your layout. Once you have a professional goal in mind, reexamine your resume to ap psych test essays, see if the paret thesis layout helps or hurts. For example, when you are a new college graduate, your college degree is most likely your greatest professional accomplishment and should be listed first. Fast forward a couple of years, and instead of ap psych essays, listing your degree first, relevant work experience should lead the resume.
Another cause for layout modification is a desired change in career path or industry. Current Issues A Research About. For example, let's say that you have been working as a sales person in test, the pharmaceutical industry and would like to essay my writing experience, start in project management in essays, any field. You may need a strong summary at cousins thesis, the top of your resume to ap psych essays, convey how your sales role gave you opportunity to hone your project management skills. Or maybe you have gone through a rigorous project management certification program and creative, would benefit from including a Skills and Training section near the top of your resume. Finally, everyone should view their resume on essays, a mobile phone. Air Pollution. You will be amazed at how little space you have to work with before the screen cuts off. It is test, critical that those top few lines capture the expository readers so that they are compelled to open the document all of the way or scroll down.
Wasting half of the available mobile screen space on test essays, contact information is coursework creative writing, never a good idea. 3. Test. Your impact. A typical resume is a list of duties. However, a powerful resume communicates the impact you have made in your roles, not just your tasks. Think about the business problems you have solved.
Look for ways to quantify or measure your success. For example, does your role have an efficiency rating or customer satisfaction score? Do you process a high volume of something or perform with a low error or escalation percentage? Numbers make the reader feel that something is true and factual, not just your opinion. When you can include them, along with a well-written description of coursework creative, how you added value, a hiring manager is more likely to think you're a better hire than someone who has no visible track record. 4. Your errors. Once you have put the finishing touches on your masterpiece, print it out. Too often, people rely on on-screen editing to catch every error.
Your eyes will catch more when you look at your document on test essays, paper. Of course, you can use the expository essays worksheets Reveal Codes feature to see all the ap psych test essays hidden editing, such as spacing, but you should still print a final document. After your first review, walk away, then review one more time later in the day. It never hurts to ask a trusted friend to review as well. Who Killed Benny Norman Thesis. Make sure you pick someone detail-oriented with excellent command of grammar and punctuation. Ask someone who will truly take the time to read your resume. With those three extra layers of review, your resume should be ready for submission.
Landing a new career is not easy for most. Taking time to examine and test essays, enhance your critical first impression – your resume – displays your professional commitment. It also makes it easier to be identified for a first interview by recruiters and hiring managers who receive hundreds of poorly matched – or poorly written – submissions. Here's to your success in 2016. Didn't Get Hired? Don't Take It Personally.
You can control a lot about how well you do in paret cousins thesis, your job search … but not everything. Everything You Ever Wondered About Negotiating Salary, Answered. How much should you ask for? What if they pull your offer? We#39;ve got answers to all your trickiest salary questions. 4 Steps to a Successful Job Application. Ap Psych Test Essays. If you meet the qualifications, how can you put your best foot forward? 8 Things You Should Never Do at a Job Interview. Don’t make these mistakes during your next interview. 5 Things to Remember When You Don't Get the Job. How to short, use rejection to your own advantage.
Here's what you need to know about what to wear, how to test, prepare and what to say in a job interview. What to Do When You Disagree With Your Boss's Feedback. Try to understand their perspective, and don't get defensive. Job Postings Alone Rarely Lead to Jobs. Older job seekers cannot rely only on postings to get the position they want.
When managing remote employees, schedule regular check-ins and evaluate skills that are unique to their circumstances. Why You Should Look for a New Job While You're Happy in Your Current One. Keeping your eyes and ears open can lead to positive results. Our expert contributors give their best advice on answering common interview questions, perfecting job applications, negotiating salary and more. Find savvy job advice from the brains behind top careers blogs and websites, including Ask A Manager, Collegial Services, Vicki Salemi, Jobhuntercoach, Career Sherpa, Career Valet, Hallie Crawford, Robin Madell, Chrissy Scivicque and Peter Gudmundsson.
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Early Interactions With Children Who Are Deaf-Blind. OHOA Intervener Modules. Families Lead Website. Child Count Maps. Recursos En Español. National Intervener Certification ePortfolio. Early Interactions With Children Who Are Deaf-Blind. January 2008 - Revised. Are the essays, following conditions part of your story?
If yes, you are not alone. You may be overwhelmed with the idea that your child has vision and hearing problems. You may find it difficult to creative writing relax and get to know your baby. Medical complications may require unending appointments and interventions. You may have to make sense of conflicting advice or opinions from test professionals.
Your child may associate being touched with unpleasant medical procedures. He may fuss or stiffen whenever anyone touches him. Your child may appear unresponsive. Cousins? He may not smile or make eye contact. It may be difficult to figure out what your child enjoys or what will make him happy. Interactions may be frustrating and may take a lot of effort.
Your child may act passive. Your child may need constant help from ap psych test you since he or she can’t “explore” or “listen to” environmental cues. It may be difficult to understand what your child is trying to communicate. All babies communicate. It is through communication that relationships are formed and sustained. All parents must learn how to creative writing interpret and test essays respond to their baby’s communications in order to form the bonds that become the foundation for development. When your child has both a visual impairment and hearing loss, however, it may be more difficult to understand what she is trying to tell you and you may not be sure how you can best communicate and interact with her. We will share some ideas to help you discover how you can make your child’s world safe and understandable and paret cousins how you and your young child can share many enjoyable “conversations” together. You do not need to travel this journey of discovery alone.
Professionals in test many areas will help you. Many groups and many people will offer services. They will all help, but in essay the long run, it's you, the parents and the family, who will have the most profound effect on your child. Your child will be molded and influenced by the kinds of ap psych test, interactions he or she has with YOU. The caring and trusting relationship you build with your child will form the foundation for expository worksheets, her to essays explore and paret thesis discover an ever-expanding world. In this fact sheet we present numerous ways you can interact with your young child. We offer practical suggestions for giving your child consistent sensory cues. We suggest ways you can recognize and then respond to your child's responses. We also include techniques that encourage exploration of the environment. Finally, we present the idea of test, playing simple games that are not only fun but also help develop interaction and communication. The senses of vision and hearing are often referred to as the “distance senses” – that is, they connect a child with the air pollution short essay, world that extends beyond his or her personal body space.
Children who are sighted and hearing learn language and many important concepts without any specifically planned instruction. They learn simply by being surrounded by language and by having ready access to environments that are safe, interesting, and essays invite exploration. My Writing Experience? The senses of vision and hearing help the ap psych test essays, child organize information from the environment. Reflective Essay On 9/11? The young child who is deaf-blind, however, does not have access to opportunities for this “incidental learning” and the information the ap psych, child does obtain from contact with people and the environment is about often fragmented or distorted. A sighted and hearing infant comes to anticipate daily routines because of the sights and essays sounds associated with them and can prepare himself or herself for the activities in advance.
The infant who is deaf-blind misses these cues because of limited vision or hearing and may find the world unpredictable and confusing--possibly even scary. This child needs others to help make sense of the world. From a child's perspective, what does it mean to have both a vision and hearing loss? Many things may happen that are unpleasant surprises. She may not understand or be able to anticipate what is happening to her. He may try to communicate, but his cues may be so subtle they are difficult for people to on 9/11 understand. He may also find it difficult to understand his parents' best attempts at communication.
Let's look at a common routine--diaper changing--but let's do so from the perspective of the baby. Meg has just awakened from her nap with a soiled diaper. She fusses a bit to let her dad know she's awake. She looks up as she hears footsteps and essays the opening of her door to short see her dad walking toward her crib. She listens to her dad talk to ap psych test essays her as he bends down over her crib, picks her up, and carries her to who killed benny paret norman cousins the changing table. Meg recognizes where she is from many previous experiences here. She knows what's coming! She watches her dad take a bag from the shelf, open it, and test pull out a clean dry diaper. Then she sees him reach for a small plastic rectangular box, open it, pull out expository essays worksheets a moist disposable wipe, close the box and put it back on the shelf. After Dad removes her wet diaper, Meg watches him take the cover off a big round bucket, drop the diaper in, then replace the cover. Once she's cleaned up, she enjoys the freedom of test essays, kicking her feet without the restrictions of her bulky sleeper.
Meg is current issues a research beginning to learn to anticipate daily routines and to ap psych essays develop an understanding of many important concepts such as object permanence (something still exists even if I can’t see, hear, or feel it), “containers” (in/out, open/close, size, shape), and essay spatial organization. Alex just woke up with a messy diaper, too. He has a profound hearing loss, but is able to ap psych see faces and essay brightly colored objects when they are no more than 18 inches away. He doesn't hear his mom come into his room and is surprised to suddenly see someone moving above his crib. Ap Psych? Because his diaper is so messy and current issues a research Alex is not terribly fond of having his diaper changed, Mom decides to change his diaper quickly in his crib so they can get on to doing more playful activities. Essays? By now, Alex is beginning to recognize his mom from her touch and closeness and is hoping to be picked up to play but suddenly he's confused. What's happening to my legs? Why am I cold? What's that cold wet thing on my bottom? I don't really like this.
Maybe if I squirm away it will stop. Oops, that didn't work, how about if I stiffen up a bit. Still no luck. I guess I'll have to resort to crying. Finally, I'm back in warm dry clothes and Mom is holding me.
After all that, though, I'm not sure either of us is in the mood for playing. Michelle is fussing because she also just woke up with a messy diaper. Air Pollution Short Essay? Michelle has no vision and a moderate hearing loss. Her mom approaches Michelle's crib and gently places her hand on Michelle's chest to greet her with their special hello sign, pauses, then gently brings Michelle's hand up to test touch Mom's hair, which is Mom's name sign. Michelle becomes quiet and reaches out to touch her mom's face. This has become a special greeting. (She knows it's Mom who's going to pick her up rather than Dad from the feel of Mom's soft hair rather than Dad's rough chin).
Michelle feels her mom’s hands gently lifting her under her arms as she says something that sounds like up. Mom waits until Michelle starts to creative writing lift her head to indicate she is ready, then she picks her up. Michelle wonders what they'll be doing next, then feels the ap psych essays, soft terry cloth of her changing table beneath her. She kicks her feet and feels the crumply mylar paper her sister so carefully attached to the foot of the changing table. She relaxes, knowing this is a familiar place. She feels her mom touch her diaper and then feels another clean diaper close to current a research her hand. Michelle grabs it and enjoys crunching it together in her hands while her mom cleans her bottom.
What fun it is to kick the mylar and feel it move without being restricted by all those sleepers and blankets! When she feels the clean dry diaper Mom puts on her, Michelle knows she’ll be getting up from the ap psych test essays, changing table soon. As Mom gently lifts under her arms and she hears that sound, “up”, again Michelle lifts her head up, letting Mom know she’s ready. She relaxes into her mom's shoulder after she's picked her up and short essay they go off to play together. The amount of information children are able to ap psych test gather depends not only on the amount and type of vision and hearing they have, but also on writing, how they learn to use that vision and hearing. Each child learns to make use of available sensory information in his or her own way. Some children interact with their world primarily through touch, while others may rely more on ap psych test, vision or hearing. For many children, a combination will be most useful. For other children, using vision, hearing, and touch all at one time is too confusing and, in my writing experience different situations, they may choose to rely primarily on one sense. Some children use their vision and hearing inconsistently. Some days they appear to use their vision well and ap psych test other days they do not.
Likewise, a child may seem to hear things well some days and not on other days. This can be confusing for parents and current issues about service providers alike. Although complete ophthalmological and test audiological examinations are essential, they may not be able to tell you how your particular child uses his or her residual vision or hearing. This information is creative writing best gained by carefully observing your child in familiar places and at different times. Communication May Already Be Happening. There are many ways in which your young daughter or son may already be communicating.
Watch for these cues: Her breathing may change when she hears grandpa’s voice, recognizing a familiar and beloved person in her life. She may open her mouth eagerly when her spoon touches her lips, clearly indicating she wants more food. Ap Psych Essays? She may keep her lips closed as the spoon approaches, and coursework creative writing if feeding attempts continue, may turn her head away, lean back into her chair, stiffen, or become agitated, indicating she does not want to test eat what is expository essays being offered. Essays? When Big Sister pauses in a pat-a-cake game, he may reach for who killed paret, her hands as an indication he wants to continue. When Mom stops rocking with him in the rocking chair, he may move his body in a slight rocking motion to indicate he wants to continue. When Dad pauses in a favorite game after saying, I'm going to get your nose, he becomes excited, anticipating the ap psych test essays, coming kiss. She may actively and eagerly participate in a familiar song and movement game (such as Row, Row, Row Your Boat, for who killed benny paret, five minutes or so; then you may feel her participation fade. Test Essays? She may turn her head to air pollution essay the side.
If you persist in ap psych essays continuing the interaction, she may actively resist moving her hands with yours, stiffening her whole body and turning away. Expository Essays? Clearly she has had enough. She may crawl to the door and sit, or bang on ap psych, the door, as an indication that she wants to short essay go out. Later, she may even come take your hand and take you to the door as a request to go outside. During her bath, she may splash her hands in the water. Ap Psych Test? When she pauses, her dad splashes his hand near hers, then pauses. She splashes again. Reciprocal interactions with this back-and-forth turn-taking help establish early conversations. Tips for Developing Good Communication.
Early communication development is based on four ideas: Developing a close and coursework writing trusting relationship with your child Using consistent daily routines in which your child is ap psych test fully involved Providing your child with cues so he or she can learn to anticipate what is going to happen Giving your child opportunities to have some control over his or her environment. You, as the parent, take the my writing, all-important beginning steps by developing a close and trusting relationship with your child. One of the most important things you can do to develop a sense of bonding and security is to hold your baby in essays your arms. Your baby will learn how you move and coursework creative writing will feel safe and secure as he encounters events of the ap psych essays, day with you.
Rather than feeling alone and isolated in his own world, he will begin to learn about a larger world that includes caring people and a variety of interesting movements, things to touch, textures, smells, and perhaps some sounds and sights. As you join your child in play, you demonstrate that you share your child’s interests. You play simple turn-taking games together, which, through daily repetition, a child may learn to coursework creative writing recognize. You interact in ways that encourage your child to ap psych test essays tolerate touch and handling, and in which he or she can begin to demonstrate enjoyment during interactions. The following suggestions may be helpful as you and your child learn to reflective on 9/11 communicate together: “Hello. Ap Psych Essays? It’s me. Let’s play.” Always greet your child with a special hello (touching her chest or shoulder, for example) to let her know someone is there. Then let her know who it is with your own special name sign (by helping her feel Dad's scratchy chin or beard, or Mom's hair, or a watch or ring you always wear). Tell her what you will do together (touch her diaper to on 9/11 indicate diaper changing, for ap psych test essays, example, or introduce a favorite toy or movement game). Coursework Writing? Remember to ap psych test essays say “good-bye” before you leave, perhaps by waving “bye” with your hand under her hand. Establish predictable routines with clear beginnings and ends.
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At the beginning of essays worksheets, a meal, your child may touch his bib before you help him put it on, and when he is test finished eating he can help take off his bib. You bring the essay my writing experience, dirty dishes to the sink together and turn on the warm water to rinse them. Throughout the activity, you offer your child simple signs (hungry, eat, drink, all done, wash). Provide opportunities to essays make choices. Throughout the day, give your child choices: bounce or rock? cracker or juice? bells or slinky? pat your hands or kick your feet? You could show her two toys (perhaps the giggle ball and a mylar balloon) from reflective essay which to essays choose. If she has some vision, you may hold the expository essays, toys where she is best able to see them, alternately moving each one to help get her visual attention and watching to see which one she looks at longer or reaches toward.
If she is not able to see the toys, you can help her touch each toy by gently bringing the toys to ap psych test essays her hands (rather than taking her hands and essays worksheets putting them on the toys) and watching to see which one she touches longer, keeps her hand on, or tries to grasp. (Sometimes you may have to guess her choice.) Remember to offer pauses. Some children take a little longer to process the information that they are receiving. It is important that they are given enough time to ap psych test respond. If we don’t allow the child this time, she may give up trying.
Respect your child's pace and who killed paret follow his or her lead. If she has chosen the ap psych essays, giggle ball, you turn it on for her, then after a brief play time, turn it off and pause, waiting expectantly, leaving both your hand and the giggle ball very close to air pollution short her hand. Ap Psych Test Essays? She can have some control over the game by telling you she wants more. Current To Write? She may do this by ap psych essays vocalizing, or making movements such as kicking her feet, waving her arms, touching the ball, or touching your hand. When you slow down and offer plenty of pauses, you allow your child time to my writing anticipate and ap psych test essays respond. You also give yourself time to recognize your child’s responses.
Perhaps your son has a music box with illuminated moving pictures that he enjoys, but he doesn't have the motor ability to turn the knob to activate the music and light box himself. You and your child touch the music box together, pause, and then you turn the music box on for your child. When the music and who killed paret norman thesis moving lights stop, however, you don’t immediately turn it back on. Instead, you wait with both your hand and the toy near your son's hands for him to give a signal, such as touching the toy or your hand, or waving his arms or vocalizing that he wants more. You then immediately respond to his request by turning on ap psych essays, the toy for him. Watch for cues. Stay alert for to write a research paper about, signals your child may give you that he or she is ready to communicate and participate in ap psych essays turn-taking games. Your child may signal that she wants to essay on 9/11 continue the game or, perhaps, she is all done or needs a break from the ap psych test, communication/interaction.
She may kick her feet, wave her arms, make sounds, reach to experience touch your hand or the giggle ball, or use another signal. When she no longer indicates she wants more, you may offer her another choice of play activities. Look for the following: quiet alertness, orienting toward the person or activity, reaching toward the person or activity, or vocalizing. Ap Psych Essays? Children have many ways of letting you know they would like to continue the interaction. A Research Paper About? Watch for small hand or body movements that reach toward the person or object. Watch for searching hand or foot movements, a smile, an open mouth. Stay in ap psych essays physical contact (allow him to lean on you or keep his hand on you or sit close enough so your leg is touching his leg). The following cues will tell you when your child has had enough and needs a break: turning away the face or body, leaning back, stiffening, fussing or crying, withdrawing, engaging in creative writing self-stimulatory behavior such as head waving or eye poking, closing eyes or mouth, or shifting attention to another object or activity (pulling on a blanket, sucking on ap psych test, fingers, etc.).
Reading these cues and responding appropriately is a very important part of early interactions. Invent your own games. Reflective Essay? Perhaps now she'd rather play one of her favorite games that you and she invented together. You begin at her toes and slowly move your hands up her legs, up her chest, pause at essays her chin, then continue to her cheeks, ending by to write paper rubbing your nose and face against hers. Because this is ap psych essays a game you often play together, and always in the same way, she has learned to anticipate what will happen. You may notice her excitement build as she begins to anticipate the fun. Perhaps she starts to air pollution essay move her face back and forth too, or reach up for your face. When you put your hands back on her toes, she might kick her feet indicating she wants to play again. Explore the world together (“hand under hand”). It is very important for family members to test remember that if a child has limited vision and hearing that they are not aware that you are both “looking” at expository worksheets the same object or engaging in ap psych test the same activity (for example, the child may not be aware that other people eat!).
Helping your child understand that others are sharing in the same experiences with him is an important factor in building relationships and self-esteem. The hands of a child who is deaf-blind become his ears, eyes and voice. Essay My Writing? If he is exploring a toy, join him by gently placing one of your fingers under part of his hands. Likewise, if you want to show something to a child, encourage him to place his hands over ap psych essays your hands as you move toward the object. This way you can explore together. Then you may gently remove your hand so he can play on his own. These strategies will send a message to the child that you are joining him and not simply manipulating him. Air Pollution Essay? When a child’s hands are being manipulated hand over hand through a task often his reaction will be to pull away. If, however, a child learns to test seek out your hands to share and explore, you will naturally be fostering a stronger desire to reach out to you for information and essay again, building a stronger sense of self-esteem. Join your child in ap psych test essays her play.
What is interesting or fun for your child? Perhaps she has one of your shiny metal mixing bowls filled with brightly colored mylar paper and she likes to move her hands over the crinkly reflective paper in the bowl. You could sit across from her with your hands partly under hers in the bowl. After she moves her hands in the mylar, you can take a turn crinkling the air pollution short essay, paper. She will feel the movement of both your hands and the paper beneath her hands and test will know that you share her interest. Pause so she may take another turn. As you take turns back and forth, you are having an early “conversation” about something that is of interest to your child. Initially, your son may accidentally bang his arm down on benny cousins thesis, his sound/light piano toy, not realizing he has caused the ap psych test essays, sound and the keys to my writing experience light up. With repeated experiences, however, his movements will become more purposeful as he realizes he made something happen. You can join him in play as you invent a turn-taking game: First, he bangs on the piano, then you take a turn and pause and test essays wait for him to paret norman thesis repeat his turn. By joining your child in a movement or activity he likes, by ap psych test following your child’s lead, and by imitating your child's movements and/or sounds, you and your child can share many enjoyable conversations.”
Encourage use of all sensory information. Help your child who is deaf-blind learn to short use vision and essays hearing for functional activities and to interpret the limited sights and sounds that are available. Experience? Approach your child gently to let him know you're available for interaction; do not surprise him with unexpected or abrupt touches or sounds. Ap Psych Test? Attend to expository essays worksheets and imitate any actions and essays sounds; invite him to take another turn; let him know you share his interests. Offer consistent touch and creative writing object cues to signal the beginning of an activity and use movement and body contact during your interactions. Adapt the environment. Ap Psych Essays? Create clearly defined spaces for your child to play and explore; provide optimal visual contrast and auditory feedback; include toys and essays worksheets materials with sensory characteristics she will appreciate (e.g., shiny reflective toys such as a mylar balloon, toys with vibration, and easily activated sound toys that provide auditory feedback within his or her range of usable hearing). Objects may be placed where your child can find them--attached to the crib, high chair, or car seat, or in a hanging mobile or some special play space.
In this way he or she will not lose them. Ap Psych Test Essays? They may also be placed so any movement the child makes produces a result. Writing? You need to provide opportunities that not only encourage your child to interact with the environment and the people and objects in it, but also give results of that interaction, so he can make the ap psych test, connection of I did something/I made that happen. The little boy who kicks his feet while lying on a water-filled mat may not initially realize that he caused the a research, movement he feels. Test? However, with repeated experiences-- The mat only moves beneath me when I move--the child will learn that he can make something happen. This child will become a more active player in the world.
Monitor levels of stimulation. Essays Worksheets? Be sensitive to the type and amount of ap psych test, sensory stimulation your child can handle at essay on 9/11 any given time and adjust activities and materials accordingly. Be sure to monitor or eliminate background noise and confusing visual effects. Use appropriate cues. Use simple, consistent, and respectful cues that will be understandable to your child. Cues should be clearly related to the activity from your child’s perspective and presented just before the activity starts. To let your child know it is bath time, for example, you might dip his foot in test essays the water, sign “bath,” pause to observe his response, then lower him into my writing, the tub. In this way your child will learn to anticipate familiar activities; his world will be predictable and interesting; and ap psych test he will develop a trusting relationship with the people who care for him. Expose your child to language. Children hear a great deal of verbal language long before they learn to talk themselves. Likewise, a young child with deaf-blindness needs to be involved in writing an environment that is rich in all forms of communication.
This may include words, signs, gestures, touch cues, object cues, movement cues, contextual cues, visual and/or auditory cues. Provide your child with language in test any form he can understand. It is important to expose the my writing, youngest infant to essays sign language. When you use object cues, pair them with simple signs. As you respond to your child’s communications, offer him simple signs. As a parent, you instinctively can discriminate between a cry of essay experience, hunger and a cry of pain. Just as a mother would respond to a baby’s cry by saying, “Oh, you’re hungry”, we must provide the same response using signs so the child will gradually learn that “every time I’m hungry and I cry, mom does this; maybe if I do the same thing I won’t need to cry. Help your child interact with others. As she begins to interact with other children, you can be a facilitator. Help other children learn effective ways to essays understand and respond.
Help them learn how to use their hands to essay experience provide cues and how to use their hands to test play together in a respectful way that encourages active participation and exploration by both children. Playing games is much more than mere play. Through play, your child can learn a great deal: Trust and air pollution anticipation that certain things will always occur How to make things happen Ways to essays ask for help, ask for air pollution, more, ask to be done The power of making choices Better understanding of the world Communication in its many different forms. The term deaf-blind can be confusing.
We know that very few children are totally deaf and totally blind, and ap psych when the term is used, it refers to expository essays a child who has a combination of vision loss and hearing loss. Most young children who are deaf-blind have some usable vision and/or some usable hearing. The combined effects of both losses, however, are far greater than either loss would be by itself. Your child will require special methods of communication and special educational services that will surpass what may be required for a child who experiences either vision loss or hearing loss alone. It is you, however, the parents and ap psych essays family members, who will have the reflective, greatest influence on your child's development. Seek out help from others but be assured that your loving responses to your child, coupled with ideas gleaned from professionals and those who have been there, will make the biggest difference. Test? Just as other parents do, you will discover your child’s unique personality and celebrate your child's achievements.
Deborah Gleason is the Regional Coordinator for Asia/Pacific Programs for the Hilton/Perkins International Program at Perkins School for the Blind. She has many years experience as a Vision and Deafblind Teacher/Consultant with young children, and served as a national trainer for the VIISA Project at Utah State University. She teaches regional, national and paret norman cousins international seminars on assessment and family-centered intervention for young children with visual impairment, deafblindness, and multiple disabilities. Special thanks to test essays Marianne Riggio for her suggestions and input. Marianne is an Educational Consultant with the creative writing, Hilton/Perkins Program and has many years experience teaching infants and test children who are deaf-blind. Almost 100 Motor Activities for essay, Infants and Toddlers. Uriegas, Olga. SEE/HEAR, vol.
6, #3, Summer 2001, pp19-21. Orientation and mobility activities for parents to use with their infants and toddlers who are visually impaired. Developmentally Supportive Care: Hospital To Home for ap psych, the Infant With Deafblindness. Greeley, J. Denver: Colorado Deafblind Project, 1997. Developmentally supportive care is a method of caring for fragile infants who are not yet able to regulate their physiological, motor or state systems. Expository Essays? The strategies include supportive environments, pacing and timing, transition support for ap psych test, new environments and situations, supportive movement, handling and positioning, and supporting sleep wake cycles.
Essential Elements In Early Intervention: Visual Impairment and Multiple Disabilities. On 9/11? Chen, Deborah (Ed.) New York: AFB Press, 1999. Presents information about assessment and intervention strategies for infants and young children (birth to 36 months) who have visual impairment in addition to other disabilities, including deaf-blindness. Includes: a description of early intervention services; recent research about brain development; early developmental needs; the importance of caregiver interactions; early identification, including a discussion of conditions associated with multiple disabilities; functional vision assessment; hearing loss assessment, including functional hearing assessment; and interventions that focus on early communication. AFB Press, Customer Service, P.O. Test Essays? Box 1020, Sewickley, PA 15143, (800) 232-3044, (412) 741-0609 (fax). The Intervener in Early Intervention and paret thesis Educational Settings For Children and ap psych test Youth With Deafblindness. Reflective Essay? Alsop, Linda ; Blaha, Robbie ; Kloos, Eric.
NTAC Briefing Paper Monmouth, OR: The National Technical Assistance Consortium for Children and Young Adults Who Are Deaf-Blind, 2000. Describes the work of interveners in early intervention and test educational settings for children and youth who are deaf-blind. A discussion of issues, concepts, and terminology associated with intervenors and the role they play is provided. Available from DB-LINK. NCDB : The Research Institute : Western Oregon University : 345 N. Monmouth Ave. : Monmouth, OR 97361.
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Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and online job search profiles not yielding you the results you need to ap psych find gainful employment and finally afford to pay your bills? No doubt about it; it’s tougher to find a job now than it’s been in decades. That doesn’t mean, however, that you can’t give yourself every fighting chance of snagging the next available job. While there is plenty to reflective on 9/11 be said for test essays, effective interviewee skills, the absolute most important step for getting hired is creative writing a winning Curriculum Vitae. Essays! Without a highly attractive C.V, you’re just one of dozens or more applicants that begin to blend together after a while. Air Pollution Short Essay! You want your most relevant skills and experience to jump off the test, page and grab the attention of the person responsible for reviewing the group of CVs in which yours is reflective on 9/11 stacked or filed online. Direct access to resume templates advices. 1. Choose your favorite Curriculum Vitae.
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This is your opportunity to test essays tie everything together, leading the reader to invite you to an interview. You need to reference your resume and any other included attachments. In addition, you need to politely, yet confidently state that you wish to be invited to an interview. Finally, state the easiest way for the employer to reach you, referring to the phone number and e-mail address in your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to go beyond your computer’s spell check and essay grammar check. Ap Psych Test Essays! Place the cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at short essay, it with fresh eyes. Ap Psych Test Essays! You might find errors that you didn’t see previously.
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Your mindset dictates the demeanor you portray. If you seem too desperate, you don’t make it to the next step, however, too arrogant and test doors will close. You have to put yourself in the shoes of the interviewer and determine your moves every step of the way. Spend about five hours preparing for each hour of interview, you want to investigate how you can deliver value to the organization. By researching and probing how you can make an impact in the position, you are going beyond the canned responses of expository essays worksheets, most candidates. Your resume should announce that you are qualified for ap psych test essays, the position. After the interview, you want to leave the impression that you can start the job tomorrow. You want to contact somebody who does the same job at the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions. It’s a must that you discover the current challenges for the position within the organization and the industry as a whole. The next step is reflective essay succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to show initiative by suggesting ideas for the position.
Hiring managers have so many job functions to perform, by proving that you not only did research concerning the position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. You would be surprised how those that have been performing the job for years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to go beyond lip service, you want to ap psych test essays demonstrate the homework you have done. Reaching out to a current employee performing the same job function puts you over the top. Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Many employees have innovative ideas about how to perform their jobs better, tap into that information for free and then add your own spin.
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