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Dec 19, 2017 Mamatas term paper,
Applying For Jobs Out Of State? This Resume Tip Can Help. Your resume is extremely important in finding a job and is the biggest factor in whether you get the term interview or not. Historicism. Living in one state (or country) and mamatas, applying for jobs out of state makes it even more vital. Textiles Coursework Analysis. And one of the term biggest hurdles is how to discussion essays, list your location on your resume when applying for jobs in a different state. Term Paper. A question on research this topic was emailed to mamatas, me by a reader last week: Hi Biron. I’m living in paths San Francisco and trying to move to mamatas, Denver. The problem I’m running into is that I’m not receiving any interviews and I’m guessing it’s because there are local applicants that are equally qualified. I believe I can interview better than them and prove myself but I need to get into the interviews.
My address and phone number on my resume are a dead giveaway that I’m living in essays the Bay Area. Mamatas Term Paper. Do you recommend that I lie on writers my resume to get a job interview? How To List Your Address When Applying For Jobs Out Of State: At first glance there are 2 options: Tell the truth or lie about term your address. Essays. Let#8217;s look at the pros and paper, cons of historicism essays, both options so you know what you#8217;re up against. Then keep reading because there#8217;s a third option that works pretty well too and you won#8217;t want to miss it. When applying for jobs out of mamatas term paper, state, one strategy is to geogrphy, use a friend or family member#8217;s address in mamatas term paper that city, or just list the city without a street address on your resume. Or make up an accountant letter with salary address. Lying on mamatas paper your resume will probably get you the initial phone interview, but there are a few problems with all of textiles coursework gcse research, these tactics. You probably don’t have a local phone number to mamatas, put on your resume.
You can’t hide everything. You’re beginning the interview process with a huge lie. Even if it doesn#8217;t get uncovered, you’ll be more nervous during the geogrphy coursework process and it won’t feel as comfortable. Mamatas. If everything goes well on historicism a phone interview, they’ll invite you on term paper a face to historicism essays, face interview and mamatas, you’ll have to coursework, cover all of the travel expenses since the company thinks you’re living locally. Some companies do multiple rounds of face to mamatas paper, face interviews! And finally, when you#8217;re offered a job, they#8217;re probably going to mail the offer letter to the address you provided. Also if a company offers relocation assistance, you might lose out on that because they think you#8217;re a local candidate. English. Option #2: Tell The Truth And Put Your Out-Of-State Address. This option is simple, and chances are you#8217;ve already tried it. Term. Accept that some employers won#8217;t want to of glory essay, interview you, but continue to mamatas term, list your full out-of-state address on geogrphy your resume. There#8217;s one big drawback, which you probably already know#8230; Some companies only paper, consider local candidates.
This will limit the paths essay number of opportunities you’re able to interview for. Not every company will be open to term, interviewing you, even on the phone. Still, I would try this option for a couple of essay, weeks to mamatas term, start my job search. Geogrphy. It#8217;s a good place to start because it#8217;s the mamatas term paper safest, assuming you can get some companies willing to talk to you. The only risk is spending time applying for geogrphy, jobs and finding out you#8217;re not getting enough responses or interviews. If that happens, you#8217;ll need to consider other options. Term Paper. That#8217;s where option #3 comes in#8230; Option #3: Tell A White Lie (I Recommend This) This option is great if you don#8217;t want to tell a flat out lie, but you#8217;re not getting enough interviews telling the essays truth on your resume. Mamatas Paper. Here#8217;s what to do#8230; Put your name and english, phone number on your resume, but don’t list an address.
Where you’d normally put an paper address, instead say something like “Relocating to Denver in March 2017”. (replace #8216;Denver#8217; with whichever city the job is in). Of Music. Using this approach to mamatas, apply for jobs in accountant letter with a different city or state should get you a higher number of interviews without having to term paper, lie about where you currently live. This is of glory, still a bit of mamatas, a lie, since you’re probably not going to relocate without a job offer, but it’s also quite true- your goal is to find a job in teaching essays the new city, and your plan is to relocate to that city if you can find a suitable position. This will get you the greatest number of term, phone interviews and essay writers, will keep your resume out of the garbage pile. If you have an interview and they ask about term this (they probably will), you can tell them you plan on historicism relocating either way but you are trying to mamatas term paper, secure a job beforehand. Writing Discussion Essays. That will put their mind at mamatas term paper ease and english teaching essays, quickly convince them you#8217;re serious about mamatas paper finding a job in writing discussion their city. There#8217;s one potential drawback with this option#8230;
Just like Option #1, there#8217;s a chance that you could lose out on relocation assistance if you say you#8217;re moving to their city no matter what. It#8217;s not very likely but it#8217;s possible. With most companies, they#8217;ll still offer to help if it#8217;s a part of mamatas term paper, their benefits package though. Geogrphy. Very few companies will try to weasel out of paying relocation assistance. The ones that do, you probably don#8217;t want to work for.
So this method has a lot of potential and very little risk. I recommend giving it a try. Now that you know what to do#8230; you#8217;re probably wondering how soon to start applying for jobs. If so, check out this article on term timing your job search. Essays. I wrote it after a reader who is relocating from New York to mamatas paper, Texas emailed me asking this exact question.
Also, make sure to leave a comment below if you have a question or if you#8217;ve tried any of these options. If you#8217;re job searching in a new city, I think you#8217;d love the step-by-step interview guide I just created. Each interview counts for geogrphy coursework, a lot when you#8217;re relocating; I#8217;ve done it first-hand and term paper, know it#8217;s definitely harder than the typical local job search. But it#8217;s still doable! If you want to english essays, go into your next interview feeling 100% confident and term paper, well-prepared, you#8217;re the type of person I had in english teaching essays mind when I created this guide. Term Paper. You can read about on little bighorn it here.
Like this post? Pin it to term, save for teaching, next time you need it! Hey, I;m planning to move to mamatas paper, another state mid June of 2017.How soon should I start looking for paths essay, another job? Check out this article and mamatas term, let me know if it helps. Essay. I wrote it after a reader asked me the same question#8230; they were moving to a new state and term, wanted to know how soon to writing discussion, start applying for mamatas term paper, jobs: Im Robert, from of music, Europe. I just got my bachelor degree in paper MIS from Texas Tech. Because i have a 36 month employment authorization in US, I want to live and work during that time in essays Boston, MA (because, I want to term, get master in historicism essays one of the schools in paper boston, and also because of the essay life style of Boston is like Europe). Paper. My major is geogrphy, MIS, which means i can work either as a programmer, project manager, or system analyst.
But, my concern is: First, Competitiveness. Mamatas Paper. Because Boston has Harvard, MIT and UM, do you think it will be harder for coursework gcse analysis, me to mamatas term paper, find an of music IT job in paper Boston? Because companies are willing to hire more from english essays, prestige. Second, Cost of mamatas paper, living: Since i got used to the cost of living of Texas, will it be harder to historicism essays, live in mamatas term paper Boston, or somewhere close to Boston? Third, Relocation on resume: Instead of Lubbock, TX address, is cover letter salary requirements, it better to write: a) #8220;Next month, Im moving to boston for mamatas term paper, grad school purpose,#8221; But the of glory problem is, because grad school lasts only mamatas term, 1-2 years, what is cover letter salary, next? b) are companies willing to mamatas paper, hire someone who is english essays, planning to term paper, attend to a school while he/she is working at their company? And, would it be less effective to insert “Im relocating to essay writers of music, Boston for school reason”?
Hi, Biron! I#8217;ve read the paper entire comment thread, and geogrphy, it has been very helpful. Mamatas Paper. However, I#8217;m interested in your advice for essay, my specific situation. Mamatas Term Paper. I#8217;m 32, and writing essays, my husband (of 1 year) currently commutes 60 miles toward Tampa from paper, Orlando, and I commute about 40 minutes in the opposite historicism, direction. We have been in this arrangement for mamatas term paper, 1 year, and have decided that we want to work within 30 miles of each other (relocate to Tampa Bay area from Orlando; about essays a hour and mamatas term, 25 minutes away). I have now worked in my current field for essay on little, 3.5 years and am ready for a change in employer but wish to paper, continuing to coursework gcse research, work in the same field. Mamatas. There is with salary requirements, one large employer in term this sector in historicism the Tampa Bay area, with job postings from mamatas, a myriad of english teaching, offices within the mamatas institution. Coursework. I have said #8220;relocating to paper, Tampa Bay Area#8221; at textiles coursework gcse research the top of my resume, but think i should add #8220;from Orlando#8221; to that phrase so they know we are local. Mamatas Term Paper. My question is english, really your thoughts on whether or not I should tell them that I am relocating due to mamatas term paper, my husband#8217;s position.
I don#8217;t want them to english, think I just follow my husband everywhere, or that he may not like his job (he has been there 1 year already). Mamatas Paper. If we move to Tampa Bay when our lease is up in on little April 2016 and while I continue my job search, then my commute to my current job will be 1.5 hours each way, 5 days a week, which is term, risky (unsustainable) if I am not offered a new job within a month or two. Accountant Cover Letter With Salary Requirements. Sorry to be so long-winded, but it feels like a unique situation. Mamatas Term. To live in textiles gcse Tampa Bay would mean I would be in mamatas the same location as my intended employer, and my husband would only have to essays, commute 30 minutes. It#8217;s definitely what we want, and where we want to #8220;settle down.#8221; Moving prior to leaving my current job would be challenging, but it would update my address in the online application system to mamatas, a local address#8230;. Historicism. I look forward to term paper, hearing your thoughts, and accountant cover letter requirements, thanks for mamatas paper, your time! Happy New Year! Thanks, happy new year! I#8217;d make it clear that you#8217;re dead-set on moving to geogrphy coursework, Tampa, AND that you#8217;re currently in FL too (because that makes the move easier).
That might be as easy as just making sure your latest job on your resume says #8220;Orlando#8221;. If not, you could put something up top mentioning that you are #8220;relocating from Orlando to term, Tampa#8221;. Essays. But for your main question: No, don#8217;t tell them directly that you#8217;re relocating for mamatas paper, your husband#8217;s position. Tell them that you and teaching essays, your husband decided you want to live and mamatas term, work in geogrphy the Tampa area for a number of term, reasons and you#8217;re both committed to essay, making the move happen now. Paper. Although you might want to mention that your husband has already secured a job. So that they won#8217;t worry that you#8217;re both job hunting. Let me know if this helps! I see that even years latter you are still responding to accountant letter requirements, comments on mamatas term paper this article, (which is great I#8217;ve read quite a few of them).
I#8217;m curious if you have any feedback for me on my potential strategy for relocating. Essay. I#8217;m already planning a vacation to my target city and I was thinking that I would include the mamatas term paper dates that I would be in textiles coursework gcse research analysis town on my resume, while also using some of the term other strategies mentioned here to indicate that I intend to relocate. My though process is that by letting them know I intend to relocate and of glory, when they can do an in person interview it would increase my chances of the mamatas term paper companies viewing me as a local candidate. Historicism Essays. Also if I do this what do you think would be good for timing? I was planning on term paper sending resumes a month ahead of time, is that too early, too late or about right?
You can try it. Test it out. Essays. I might put it in term the cover letter instead. Putting the teaching exact week you#8217;ll be visiting on mamatas a resume might come off a bit #8220;strong#8221;. Geogrphy Coursework. But test it out, try it. It depends on your industry, there#8217;s no #8220;right#8221; answer unfortunately. But definitely take advantage of that vacation week.
When you talk to employers on mamatas term the phone, mention the time you plan on being in historicism town, and that you#8217;d love to meet with them for a coffee or an interview. That#8217;s a great thing to mamatas term paper, do! For timing I#8217;d apply a bit earlier. Geogrphy Coursework. But it depends on your industry and your level. Check out mamatas term paper, this article. I#8217;d say you should start applying 2 months ahead of time: https://careersidekick.com/timing-your-job-search-when-should-you-begin/
What if you are seeking a fresh start in a new city? Is that phrase something that will #8220;turn off#8221; possible employers? I#8217;ve been out writing discussion, of the workforce, but am seeking to relocate to mamatas term paper, a new city so I#8217;ve applied for coursework gcse research analysis, many out of state jobs. Mamatas Term. My experience is historicism essays, also out of mamatas term, state. I was thinking of including that statement in my objective of my resume. Yes? Or big NO? example for objective statement: Web Developer seeking to coursework, relocate from mamatas term paper, San Francisco. Hi Amy, I think it#8217;s worth testing/trying. Doesn#8217;t seem like it#8217;d be a turn-off but that#8217;s just my best guess.
But honestly I tell most people not to textiles gcse, even put an objective in their resume. Mamatas. I say put a career Summary instead. 99% of the time your objective is to land a job of writing discussion essays, a certain type in mamatas a certain industry. And this is essays, pretty obvious to the employers you apply to. Hopefully this answer doesn#8217;t make things MORE confusing. That#8217;s not my intention obviously. But that#8217;s my honest take on it. Mamatas Term. I guess the short answer is that you could try doing what you described. However if it were me, I#8217;d put the on little bit about relocation up top in my contact info like the article says, and then just jump into a Summary, and then recent experience right after that. I really want to mamatas term, just take my cat and paths, got to Berkeley, CA.
There is mamatas, a graduate program I really want to attend. I get the essay bighorn whole applying and trying for a phone interview, but do you have any pointers for the unemployed and how they can go about finding suitable places to live until they can afford an mamatas term apt. English Teaching Essays. If you know someone i can speak with that would be great. Hi Sage, since you will be in mamatas school are you able to get student loans to essays, pay for term, your living expenses until you get a job? I went to school out essay, of the country and had no job . Term. I used my student loan to pay my rent until I got a job on coursework campus at mamatas term paper my school. Bighorn. This is a long answer as I am over 35 but not yet 50. My question is I lived in the Washington DC area for mamatas paper, 7 years in total. Accountant Cover Salary Requirements. I lived there for 2 years after completing a second bachelors degree (International Relations) in another country. My goal was to work there pay off debt for paper, a couple of years get experience and accountant letter with salary, apply for term paper, graduate school in the UK. When I got back to Washington DC I was not able to paths essay, secure a permanent job that paid enough to support myself long term AND#8230; pay enough to pay off my debt (credit card bills) after being an international student (not being able to work full-time while in term paper school) It got so bad for me financially in coursework gcse research DC due to high rents and paper, high public transit costs after 2 years and some months that I decided to of glory, move to mamatas paper, a mid-sized city in the mid-west. Before I could move to of music, this new city I lived with my family in Illinois and worked for 2 months to have the mamatas paper money to teaching, move.
I did not get accepted in graduate school in the UK last summer so#8230; After living in this mid-sized city for 2 1/2 years I am more than ready to mamatas paper, move back to essay bighorn, Washington DC to term paper, pursue my career in international relations. I have gotten advice from friends and writing essays, family not to limit my search to only Washington DC for relocation. I am open to living other in term paper other progressive cosmopolitan places but only have a history in the DC area. My area of english essays, interest is immigration so I can work on either coast. Mamatas Term Paper. I have applied for 2 jobs in Seattle and used my Brothers address. I used my old address from the DC area to geogrphy coursework, apply for the DC area jobs. Term. Do I make up addresses for coursework, say 4 cities that I would like to target for mamatas paper, jobs? I don#8217;t think relocation assistance will be offered as an english teaching essays option for me as I am applying for an administrative assistant position in term paper my new field as I start over.
Sorry Biron This subject is geogrphy coursework, my passion now. When I moved to my mid sized mid-western city from the DC area I used a fake address from an term apartment complex that I looked up on coursework the internet in that city. Luckily I lived in Illinois with my parents so when I got a call from my temp agency who got me the mamatas term paper job to come in an interview /fill out paper work/start working. English Teaching. I was able to mamatas term paper, catch the mega bus overnight and gcse, be in my targeted city early the next morning (8 hour ride). Mamatas Term. After I got to gcse, my new city I lived in Air B n B for term, a week then moved to a hotel and ended up staying there for the next 2 months. It was expensive about on little $1,300 a month (#8220;rent#8221;) $350 a week. Paper. But I felt safe, not knowing the neighborhoods at all my commute to work was ok and I was across the essay street from a Walmart so I had access to mamatas term, food daily as I did not have a car.
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Dec 19, 2017 Mamatas term paper,
Is junk DNA bunk? A critique of mamatas term paper ENCODE. Edited by Michael B. Eisen, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA, and accepted by paths the Editorial Board February 4, 2013 (received for review December 11, 2012) Do data from the term Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project render the notion of junk DNA obsolete? Here, I review older arguments for essay of music, junk grounded in term paper, the C-value paradox and propose a thought experiment to challenge ENCODE’s ontology. Essay! Specifically, what would we expect for the number of mamatas functional elements (as ENCODE defines them) in genomes much larger than our own genome? If the english essays number were to stay more or less constant, it would seem sensible to consider the rest of the DNA of larger genomes to mamatas term be junk or, at english teaching, least, assign it a different sort of role (structural rather than informational).
If, however, the number of functional elements were to rise significantly with C-value then, ( i ) organisms with genomes larger than our genome are more complex phenotypically than we are, ( ii ) ENCODE’s definition of mamatas functional element identifies many sites that would not be considered functional or phenotype-determining by standard uses in biology, or ( iii ) the same phenotypic functions are often determined in a more diffuse fashion in larger-genomed organisms. Good cases can be made for propositions ii and english teaching essays, iii . A larger theoretical framework, embracing informational and structural roles for DNA, neutral as well as adaptive causes of mamatas term complexity, and selection as a multilevel phenomenon, is needed. There is much excitement in the blogosphere, among mainstream science journalists, and within the coursework community of practicing genome biologists about a flurry of articles and letters in the September 6th, 2012 issue of Nature . These papers and many others published at about the same time and term paper, since under the umbrella of the ENCODE project collectively claim function for the majority of the 3.2 Gb human genome, not just the few percent already recognized as genes (traditionally defined) or obvious gene-controlling elements. Kolata writes in english essays, The New York Times that “[t]he human genome is packed with at least four million gene switches that reside in bits of DNA that were once dismissed as ‘junk’ but that turn out to term play critical roles in controlling how cells, organs and other tissues behave” (1). In a Nature News and View commentary, Ecker et al. (2) assert that “[o]ne of the more remarkable findings described in letter with salary requirements, the consortium’s entree paper is that 80% of the genome contains elements linked to mamatas biochemical functions, dispatching the widely held view that the human genome is mostly ‘junk DNA.’” The editors of The Lancet (3) enthuse: “Far from being ‘junk,’ the DNA between protein encoding genes consists of myriad elements that determine gene expression, whether by switching transcription on essay on little, or off, or by regulating the degree of term paper transcription and consequently the concentrations and accountant cover requirements, function of all proteins.” Succinctly, in Science , Pennisi (4) declares that the mamatas paper ENCODE publications write the “eulogy for junk DNA.” The new data—coming from paths essay high-throughput analyses of transcriptional and chromatin landscapes, transcription factor footprints, and mamatas term, long-range chromosomal interactions—support many current population genetic studies linking human diseases to supposedly nongenic regions, and they are truly impressive in scope and depth (5). They resonate with the current enthusiasm for geogrphy, assigning multiple subtle but vital regulatory roles to the still enigmatic long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) now known to be transcribed from much of the length of term our genome (6, 7). Additionally, congruence at many sites between the many methods used (RNA sequencing, binding by one or more of essay writers of music 100+ DNA binding proteins, DNase I hypersensitivity, histone modification, DNA methylation, and chromosome conformation capture) leaves no doubt that many of these 4 million gene switches do represent chromosomal loci that are special in some way, in at mamatas, least one cell type. However, do ENCODE’s data truly require us to abandon the widespread notion that junk DNA—here specifically understood as DNA that does not encode information promoting the cover letter salary requirements survival and reproduction of the organisms that bear it—is the major constituent of many eukaryotic genomes, our own genome included? I will argue by way of a thought experiment and paper, an analysis of what biologists traditionally have understood as function that they do not.
At the very least, “junk” as it has been conceived is an apt descriptor of the bulk of historicism essays many genomes larger than our own. Moreover, it almost certainly still is for mamatas term paper, much of our genome, unless we hold Homo sapiens to be unique among the animals in the efficiency of cover letter requirements its chromosomal organization and not just its cultural attainments. Such genomic anthropocentrism, unacknowledged conflation of possible meanings of “function,” questionable null hypotheses, and unrecognized panadaptationism are behind this most recent attempt to junk “junk.” Several of these same points have been made in brief by Eddy (8) and Niu and mamatas term paper, Jiang (9). My aim here is to remind readers of the structure of some earlier arguments in defense of the junk concept (10) that remain compelling, despite the historicism obvious success of ENCODE in mapping the subtle and complex human genomic landscape. Also, I will suggest that we need as biologists to defend traditional understandings of function: the publicity surrounding ENCODE reveals the paper extent to which these understandings have been eroded. Writers Of Music! However, theoretical expansion in other directions, reconceptualizing junk, might be advisable.
The junk idea long predates genomics and paper, since its early decades has been grounded in the “C-value paradox,” the observation that DNA amounts (C-value denotes haploid nuclear DNA content) and teaching essays, complexities correlate very poorly with organismal complexity or evolutionary “advancement” (10 ? ? ? –14). Humans do have a thousand times as much DNA as simple bacteria, but lungfish have at mamatas, least 30 times more than humans, as do many flowering plants and some unicellular protists (14). Moreover, as is coursework often noted, the disconnection between C-value and organismal complexity is paper also found within more restricted groups comprising organisms of seemingly similar lifestyle and comparable organismal or behavioral complexity. The most heavily burdened lungfish ( Protopterus aethiopicus ) lumbers around with 130,000 Mb, but the paths pufferfish Takifugu (formerly Fugu ) rubripes gets by on less than 400 Mb (15, 16). A less familiar but better (because monophyletic) animal example might be amphibians, showing a 120-fold range from term frogs to salamanders (17). Essay! Among angiosperms, there is a thousandfold variation (14). Additionally, even within a single genus, there can be substantial differences. Salamander species belonging to Plethodon boast a fourfold range, to cite a comparative study popular from the mamatas term 1970s (18). Sometimes, such within-genus genome size differences reflect large-scale or whole-genome duplications and sometimes rampant selfish DNA or transposable element (TE) multiplication. Schnable et al. (19) figure that the maize genome has more than doubled in size in the last 3 million y, overwhelmingly through the replication and accumulation of TEs for example. If we do not think of this additional or “excess” DNA, so manifest through comparisons between and within biological groups, as junk (irrelevant if not frankly detrimental to the survival and reproduction of the historicism organism bearing it), how then are we to think of it?
Of course, DNA inevitably does have a basic structural role to play, unlinked to specific biochemical activities or the encoding of information relevant to mamatas term genes and their expression. Centromeres and telomeres exemplify noncoding chromosomal components with specific functions. More generally, DNA as a macromolecule bulks up and gives shape to historicism essays chromosomes and thus, as many studies show, determines important nuclear and cellular parameters such as division time and size, themselves coupled to organismal development (11 ? –13, 17). The “selfish DNA” scenarios of 1980 (20 ? –22), in which C-value represents only the outcome of mamatas term conflicts between upward pressure from reproductively competing TEs and downward-directed energetic restraints, have thus, in subsequent decades, yielded to more nuanced understandings. Cavalier-Smith (13, 20) called DNA’s structural and essays, cell biological roles “nucleoskeletal,” considering C-value to be optimized by organism-level natural selection (13, 20). Gregory, now the principal C-value theorist, embraces a more “pluralistic, hierarchical approach” to what he calls “nucleotypic” function (11, 12, 17). Mamatas! A balance between organism-level selection on nuclear structure and cell size, cell division times and developmental rate, selfish genome-level selection favoring replicative expansion, and essay, (as discussed below) supraorganismal (clade-level) selective processes—as well as drift—must all be taken into account. These forces will play out term paper, differently in different taxa. Geogrphy Coursework! Gonzalez and Petrov (23) point out, for instance, that Drosophila and mamatas term paper, humans are at essays, opposite extremes in terms of the balance of processes, with the minimalist genomes of the former containing few (but mostly young and quite active) TEs, whereas at term, least one-half of accountant requirements our own much larger genome comprises the moribund remains of older TEs, principally SINEs and LINEs (short and long interspersed nuclear elements). Mamatas! Such difference may in part reflect population size.
As Lynch notes, small population size (characteristic of on little bighorn our species) will have limited the effectiveness of natural selection in preventing a deleterious accumulation of TEs (24, 25). Zuckerkandl (26) once mused that all genomic DNA must be to some degree “polite,” in paper, that it must not lethally interfere with gene expression. Paths Of Glory! Indeed, some might suggest, as I will below, that true junk might better be defined as DNA not currently held to term paper account by geogrphy coursework selection for term, any sort of role operating at any level of the biological hierarchy (27). However, junk advocates have to bighorn date generally considered that even DNA fulfilling bulk structural roles remains, in terms of encoded information, just junk. Mamatas Paper! Cell biology may require a certain C-value, but most of the stretches of noncoding DNA that go to satisfying that requirement are junk (or worse, selfish). In any case, structural roles or multilevel selection theorizing are not what ENCODE commentators are endorsing when they proclaim the end of junk, touting the existence of 4 million gene switches or myriad elements that determine gene expression and historicism, assigning biochemical functions for 80% of the genome. Mamatas Paper! Indeed, there would be no excitement in either the press or the scientific literature if all the ENCODE team had done was acknowledge an established theory concerning DNA’s structural importance. Rather, the excitement comes from essay on little bighorn interpreting ENCODE’s data to mean that a much larger fraction of our DNA than until very recently thought contributes to our survival and reproduction as organisms, because it encodes information transcribed or expressed phenotypically in mamatas term paper, one tissue or another, or specifically regulates such expression. ENCODE (5) defines a functional element (FE) as “a discrete genome segment that encodes a defined product (for example, protein or non-coding RNA) or displays a reproducible biochemical signature (for example, protein binding, or a specific chromatin structure).” A simple thought experiment involving FEs so-defined is at the heart of my argument.
Suppose that there had been (and probably, some day, there will be) ENCODE projects aimed at enumerating, by transcriptional and chromatin mapping, factor footprinting, and so forth, all of the FEs in the genomes of geogrphy coursework Takifugu and paper, a lungfish, some small and large genomed amphibians (including several species of historicism essays Plethodon ), plants, and mamatas, various protists. There are, I think, two possible general outcomes of this thought experiment, neither of which would give us clear license to abandon junk. The first outcome would be that FEs (estimated to be in the millions in of glory essay, our genome) turn out to be more or less constant in mamatas term paper, number, regardless of english C-value—at least among similarly complex organisms. Paper! If larger C-value by itself does not imply more FEs, then there will, of course, be great differences in what we might call functional density (FEs per essay, kilobase) (26) among species. FEs spaced by paper kilobases in Arabidopsis would be megabases apart in maize on average. English Essays! Averages obscure details: the extra DNA in the larger genomes might be sequestered in mamatas term paper, a few giant silent regions rather than uniformly stretching out the space between FEs or lengthening intragenic introns. However, in either case, this DNA could be seen as a sort of polite functionless filler or diluent. At best, such DNA might have functions only of the structural or nucleoskeletal/nucleotypic sort. Indeed, even this sort of functional attribution is not necessary. There is room within an coursework, expanded, pluralistic and hierarchical theory of C-value (see below) (12, 27) for paper, much DNA that makes no contribution whatever to survival and reproduction at the organismal level and thus is junk at that level, although it may be under selection at english, the sub- or supraorganismal levels (TEs and clade selection).
If the human genome is paper junk-free, then it must be very luckily poised at some sort of minimal size for organisms of human complexity. We may no longer think that mankind is at the center of the universe, but we still consider our species’ genome to be unique, first among many in having made such full and efficient use of all of its millions of SINES and LINES (retrotransposable elements) and introns to encode the multitudes of lncRNAs and house the millions of enhancers necessary to of glory make us the uniquely complex creatures that we believe ourselves to be. However, were this extraordinary coincidence the case, a corollary would be that junk would not be defunct for many other larger genomes: the mamatas paper term would not need to be expunged from the genomicist’s lexicon more generally. As well, if, as is english essays commonly believed, much of the functional complexity of the human genome is to be explained by evolution of our extraordinary cognitive capacities, then many other mammals of term lesser acumen but similar C-value must truly have junk in their DNA. The second likely general outcome of teaching my thought experiment would be that FEs as defined by paper ENCODE increase in number with C-value, regardless of apparent organismal complexity. If they increase roughly proportionately, FE numbers will vary over a many-hundredfold range among organisms normally thought to be similarly complex. Defining or measuring complexity is, of course, problematic if not impossible.
Still, it would be hard to convince ourselves that lungfish are 300 times more complex than Takifugu or 40 times more complex than us, whatever complexity might be. On Little! More likely, if indeed FE numbers turn out to increase with C-value, we will decide that we need to think again about what function is, how it becomes embedded in macromolecular structures, and term paper, what FEs as defined by ENCODE have to essay tell us about it. What do we mean by function, informational or otherwise? Most philosophers of biology, and likely, most practicing biologists when pressed, would endorse some form of the selected effect (SE) definition of function (28 ? –30). Mamatas Term Paper! Selected effect is the form of teleological explanation allowed, indeed required, by Darwinian theory (31). Accordingly, the functions of a trait or feature are all and only those effects of its presence for which it was under positive natural selection in essay of music, the (recent) past and for which it is under (at least) purifying selection now. They are why the trait or feature is there today and mamatas term, possibly why it was originally formed. Letter With Requirements! Thus, we might reasonably say that the function of the lac operon in Escherichia coli is (and presumably, long has been) to paper allow facultative growth of paths bacteria on ?-galactosides, because we believe that, long before E. coli was brought into the laboratory, the lac operon was maintained by mamatas paper selection to allow such growth. We might also say that one of the functions of the human FOXP2 gene (which we share with many other vertebrates) is now to support speech (32), although in the more distant mammalian past, it could not have. We would imagine that there has been selection for cover letter with requirements, speech in human populations over considerable time.
Traits like FOXP2, now under positive or purifying selection for one effect but first arising because of selection for another, are what Gould and Vrba (33) called “exaptations”. What we would not want to call functions (or even exaptations) are effects never so far selected for—side effects, as it were. Gould and Lewontin (34) famously called these “spandrels.” They comprise both undesirable but apparently unavoidable consequences, like vulnerability to phages in bacteria with pili or lower back pain in primates walking upright, and term paper, seemingly neutral ones, like the thumping noise made by the heart, to use an example beloved of english teaching philosophers. Indeed, even fortuitously advantageous traits, such the FOXP2 -enabled capacity to leave voice messages on answering machines, are not SE functions. We do not think that our ancestors experienced positive selection for leaving voice messages, although our descendants well might (and FOXP2 would then for them have acquired a new exaptive function). In any case, past selection, recent or ancient, can only be inferred, and we must use indirect ways to make the inference. One way, likely the term paper most reliable but not universally applicable, is evolutionary conservation.
If diverse lineages retain a DNA sequence despite the erosive force of accountant with salary requirements mutational divergence, there must be some effect maintained by purifying selection. Mamatas Term! The above is not to say that all conserved sequences are conserved through purifying selection at essay bighorn, the level of organisms: some may be selfish. Conversely, some conserved functions, such as the complementary base-pairings that maintain ribosomal RNA secondary structures, do not require primary sequence conservation (35). Moreover, not all sequences that are likely to be currently under purifying organismal selection are conserved on an evolutionary (transspecies) timescale. In a recent comparative genomic survey, Ward and mamatas term, Kellis (36) find both mammal-conserved human sequences showing increasing diversity within our species (and thus, likely becoming nonfunctional in humans) and mammal-nonconserved sequence showing reduced within-human diversity (and thus, likely acquiring new function among us). Ponting and Hardison (37), using methods that they believe to english teaching essays take into account such turnover, “estimate that the steady-state value of ? sel [the proportion of all nucleotides in the human genome that are subject to purifying selection because of term paper their biological function] lies between 10% and 15%” (37). Another way to attribute function is through experimental ablation: whatever organism-level effect E does not occur after deleting or blocking the expression of a region R of DNA is taken to be the latter’s function. This attribution is close to the everyday understanding of on little bighorn function, as in the function of the carburetor is to oxygenate gasoline. The approach embodies what philosophers would call a causal role (CR) definition of mamatas term paper function and supposedly eschews evolutionary or historical justifications. Much biological research into function is english teaching done this way, but I think that most biologists consider that experimental ablation indirectly points to SE. They believe that effect E could, under suitable conditions, be shown to have contributed to the past fitness of organisms and mamatas, most importantly, that R exists as it does because of E . Essays! Cardiologists do not say that it is the mamatas term function of the heart to make a thumping noise, although stopping the heart will silence it.
Similarly, geneticists studying Huntington disease would not say that the trinucleotide repeat in geogrphy coursework, the cognate gene, reiteration of which gives rise to the disorder, has disease causation as a function—although replacing the term paper repeat with a nonidentical set of unique triplets encoding the same amino acid sequence would eliminate the deleterious effect (38). A third, and letter salary requirements, the least reliable, method to infer function is mere existence. The presence of a structure or the mamatas term paper occurrence of paths essay a process or detectable interaction, especially if complex, is taken as adequate evidence for its being under selection, even when ablation is infeasible and the possibly selectable effect of presence remains unknown. Because our genomes have introns, Alu elements, and mamatas term, endogenous retroviruses, these things must be doing us some good. Because a region is of glory essay transcribed, its transcript must have some fitness benefit, however remote. Mamatas Term! Because residue N of protein P is essays leucine in mamatas, species A and isoleucine in species B, there must be some selection-based explanation. This approach enshrines “panadaptationism,” which was forcefully and effectively debunked by Gould and Lewontin (34) in essay writers of music, 1979 but still informs much of molecular and evolutionary genetics, including genomics.
As Lynch (39) argues in his essay “ The Frailty of Adaptive Hypotheses for the Origins of Adaptive Complexity ,” This narrow view of evolution has become untenable in light of recent observations from genomic sequencing and population genetic theory. Mamatas Term Paper! Numerous aspects of genomic architecture, gene structure, and historicism, developmental pathways are difficult to paper explain without invoking the nonadaptive forces of genetic drift and mutation. In addition, emergent biological features such as complexity, modularity, and evolvability, all of which are current targets of considerable speculation, may be nothing more than indirect by-products of processes operating at lower levels of accountant salary organization. Functional attribution under ENCODE is of this third sort (mere existence) in the main. Although FEs as defined by ENCODE might be cross-identified by several methods and paper, even evolutionarily conserved, they could most often be the molecular equivalent of essay spandrels—structured elements that are the indirect consequence of selection operating on other features but are themselves selectively neutral, a form of structured noise.
Demonstrations that some biochemical signatures are not neutral and may even meet SE criteria say nothing about the rest and mamatas term, are, of course, expected as long as opportunism and geogrphy coursework, co-optation are understood to be key elements in evolution. In taking such a liberal definitional course, ENCODE follows the lead of the Gene Ontology (GO) project, which defines molecular function in decontextualized nonhistorical terms (40): Molecular function describes activities, such as catalytic or binding activities, that occur at mamatas term paper, the molecular level. GO molecular function terms represent activities rather than the entities (molecules or complexes) that perform the actions, and do not specify where or when, or in what context, the action takes place. Proponents of ENCODE actually are concerned with what they call “functional validation” but principally seem worried about the danger of mistaking functional specificity (recognition or activity) rather than the risk of teaching attributing function (especially regulatory function) where none exists in the SE sense. Stamatoyannopoulos (41) writes: These examples illustrate a natural temptation to equate activity with patterning of epigenomic features. However, such reasoning drifts progressively farther away from experimentally grounded function or mechanistic understanding. The sheer diversity of cross-cell-type regulatory patterning evident in distal regulatory DNA uncovered by ENCODE suggests tremendous heterogeneity and functional diversity.
ENCODE is thus in a unique position to promote clearer terminology that separates the identification of functional elements per se from the ascription of specific functional activities using historical experimentally defined categories, and also to dissuade the mamatas term paper ascription of very specific functions based on essay writers of music, a biochemical signature in place of a deeper mechanistic understanding. There are three other “natural temptations” that I would caution consumers of the ENCODE project product to avoid. The first temptation is the assumption that, because some members of a class of elements have acquired SE functions, all or most must have functions or (more broadly) that the mamatas paper class of elements as a whole can thus be declared functional. Stamatoyannopoulos (41), for instance, writes: In marked contrast to the prevailing wisdom, ENCODE chromatin and transcription studies now suggest that a large number of transposable elements encode highly cell type-selective regulatory DNA that controls not only their own cell-selective transcription, but also those of neighboring genes. Far from an evolutionary dustbin, transposable elements appear to be active and lively members of the genomic regulatory community, deserving of the same level of scrutiny applied to other genic or regulatory features.
It is surely inevitable that evolution, that inveterate tinkerer, will have sometimes co-opted some TEs for such purposes (42). However, it is an writers, overenthusiastic extrapolation to describe TEs as a class as “active and lively members of the mamatas term paper genomic regulatory community.” Moreover, the word “regulation” has itself degraded through use by genomicists, from designating evolved effects shown or likely to enhance fitness, presumably by efficient control of the use of essay writers resources, to more broadly denoting any measurable impact of one element or process on other elements or processes, regardless of paper fitness consequences. I think this broadening of definition misleads biologists such as Barroso (43) in a passage cited later in this essay. Pacemakers regulate heartbeats and that is cover letter salary requirements their function: tasers and caffeine also affect cardiac rhythm, but we would not (at least in the former case) see this as regulatory function. Regulation, defined in this loose way, is, for instance, the term assumed function of many or most lncRNAs, at accountant letter with salary, least for some authors (6, 7, 44, 45). However, the mamatas term transcriptional machinery will inevitably make errors: accuracy is on little expensive, and the selective cost of mamatas term discriminating against writers, all false promoters will be too great to bear. There will be lncRNAs with promoters that have arisen through drift and term, exist only as noise (46).
Similarly, binding to proteins and accountant cover, other RNAs is something that RNAs do. It is inevitable that some such interactions, initially fortuitous, will come to be genuinely regulatory, either through positive selection or the neutral process described below as constructive neutral evolution (CNE). However, there is no evolutionary force requiring that all or even most do. At another (sociology of science) level, it is inevitable that molecular biologists will search for and discover some of those possibly quite few instances in which function has evolved and argue that the function of lncRNAs as a class of elements has, at last, been discovered. The positivist, verificationist bias of mamatas paper contemporary science and the politics of bighorn its funding ensure this outcome. However, what is the correct conceptual framework here? Why should either function or nonfunction for a class of elements be taken as the null hypothesis, and why should evidence for or against function, however defined, be taken as support of one or the mamatas other? Either is a form of essentialism or natural kind thinking inappropriate in contemporary biology.
There is, after all, nothing in nature that constrains classes of genetic elements defined by humans as sharing certain common characteristics to share others not part of that definition. The second natural temptation is to paths essay assume that function of a part implies function of the whole. Co-optation of the promoters of TEs or the insertion of bona fide regulatory sequences into introns is mamatas term paper taken to writers impart function to the TE or intron as a whole. However, the paper cell does not necessarily see the rest of the TE or the intronic surround of an embedded enhancer as relevant to its activity, and only the promoter or enhancer sequence may be under selection. English Essays! Even when an mamatas, entire genetic element seems relevant or necessary (whole introns must be removed even if only certain sites are active in letter salary, their removal), there is the possibility of mamatas term excess baggage or junk-like character. Do enhancer-harboring introns really need to essay be so long? Another analogy seems in order: My computer might be 5 ft from the mamatas paper wall socket, but if I have only a 10-ft electrical cord all 10 ft will seem functional, because cutting the writers cord anywhere will turn off my machine. In this connection, note that much more than one-half of 80.4% of the mamatas paper human genome that ENCODE deems functional is so considered because it is transcribed (4), most often into an intron or lncRNA, only a tiny fraction of the length of which is essays likely to be involved in potentially regulatory interactions. A third and related natural temptation is to inflate functional attribution through choice of window size. The ENCODE Project Consortium notes (5) that: The vast majority (80.4%) of the human genome participates in at least one biochemical RNA- and/or chromatin-associated event in at least one cell type. Much of the genome lies close to a regulatory event: 95% of the genome lies within 8 kilobases (kb) of a DNA–protein interaction (as assayed by bound ChIP-seq motifs or DNase I footprints), and 99% is within 1.7 kb of at least one of the biochemical events measured by ENCODE.
Even this last and largest percentage, assuming the average biochemical event to directly involve tens to hundreds of mamatas term bases (41), assigns functions to historicism only a minority (perhaps 10%) of the genome’s base pairs. ENCODE’s data are indeed unexpected and paper, impressive, but without some principled and agreed-on metric for functional density and FE boundaries, any answer to the question “how much of the genome is functional?” remains endlessly negotiable and essay, transparently window size-dependent. In her News and View editorial in the September 6, 2012 issue of mamatas term Nature , Barroso (43) speculates as follows concerning the vast majority of human DNA, until now thought useless: …there is a good reason to geogrphy keep this DNA. Results from the ENCODE project show that most of these stretches of DNA harbor regions that bind proteins and RNA molecules, bringing these into positions from which they cooperate with each other to regulate the function and level of expression of term paper protein-coding genes. In addition, it seems that widespread transcription from non-coding DNA potentially acts as a reservoir for the creation of paths new functional molecules, such as regulatory RNAs. In addition to equating regulation with having an effect, Barroso (43) revives here the notion that excess DNA is term not junk because it may some day be of use, and thus it is maintained as a reservoir. Brenner (47) long ago derided this sort of reasoning as follows: There is a strong and widely held belief that all organisms are perfect and essay, that everything within them is there for mamatas, a function. Believers ascribe to the Darwinian natural selection process a fastidious prescience that it cannot possibly have and accountant with, some go so far as to paper think that patently useless features of existing organisms are there as an investment for the future. One sees similar Panglossian futuristic speculation in some of the recent literature on essays, robustness and evolvability (critique in ref. 48).
However, it cannot in general be the case that selection operating at the level of fitness of individuals within a species can favor the origin or maintenance of mamatas paper traits that incurs selective cost at that level, while offering only the paths of glory essay remotest hope of future benefit to the individual and its descendants. Other evolutionary mechanisms can. Term! The publications by Lynch et al. Essay! (24) and Lynch (39, 49) have effectively argued that drift operating in very small populations will (by chance) encourage accumulation of DNA that can add to mamatas term C-value and might, in the future, come in handy. Selection at the suborganismal (selfish DNA) level may also seem to be future-directed: TEs do sometimes later become useful through co-optation or general effects on the generation of novelty (42, 50). Indeed, Fedoroff (51) has recently proposed that TEs should not be described pejoratively as “selfish” and that the prevailing view—that the epigenetic silencing mechanisms that eukaryotes use to limit TE replication arose to do just that—puts the evolutionary cart before the with horse. Rather, Fedoroff (51) suggests that these mechanisms, by mamatas term paper also limiting recombination between repeated TEs (which makes genomes smaller), allow TEs to accumulate, growing genomes and that this was a “…critical step in the evolution of paths essay multicellular organisms, underpinning the ability to diversify duplicates for expression in specific cells and tissues” (51). Fedoroff (51) concludes that On balance, then, the likelihood that contemporary eukaryotic genomes evolved in mamatas term paper, the context of epigenetic mechanisms seems vastly greater than the likelihood that they were invented as an essay, afterthought to combat a plague of term paper parasitic transposons. However, evolutionary explanations of genome structure need not be either/or in this sense, after it is historicism essays recognized that selection affecting the genome operates at all (including supraorganismal) levels of the mamatas term biological hierarchy (12, 27). TEs can be selected through selfish replication at essays, the level of DNA, while selection at term paper, the level of requirements organisms has established silencing mechanisms to mamatas term reign in TE replication, and historicism, selection at the level of clades has looked favorably on those clades with complex genomes that engender evolutionary novelty and mamatas paper, render whole-clade extinction less likely. (That is, clades that have TE-rich dynamic genomes may have indeed because of that produced more and historicism essays, more interestingly diverse and evolutionarily robust and evolvable descendant species.) Evolutionary forces operate simultaneously at all levels in the same and different directions with differing strengths and results measurable in different units (such as the frequency of mamatas TEs in an individual genome, TE-enhanced individuals in a species, TE-bearing species in a genus, or classes comprising such species in a phylum). Indeed, one could reasonably argue for historicism, an eventual expansion of the SE definition of “function” to include all levels as long as we distinguish them (DNA-level function, organism-level function, clade-level function, and so forth). This definitional expansion might well lead to a reduction in the amount of DNA that we could reasonably call junk.
However, I think such an expanded idea of function does not currently inform ENCODE or most genomic thinking, and in any case, the problems of term inference, evidence, and writers of music, appropriate null hypotheses remain. Quite often, we can intuit the results of a thought experiment before articulating the reasons for our intuition. This propensity is the term mysterious appeal and essays, practical use of thought experiments. My intuition is that, when ENCODE-like methods are applied with equal thoroughness to larger genomes, outcomes of the second sort described above will be obtained. That is, lungfish will have many more FEs than Takifugu , and paper, large-genomed Plethodon species will have more than smaller-genomed ones. If there were a primate with a C-value substantially greater than that of H. sapiens , it would prove to essay have more FEs, even if judged more primitive in intelligence or on mamatas term, behavioral grounds. An exception might be genomes in which C-value increases are very recent and paths essay, caused by mamatas term paper the expansive replication of repetitive sequences that previously lacked ENCODE-definable sites.
Assuming these predictions are borne out, what might we make of it? Lynch (39) suggests that much of the genomic- and systems-level complexity of eukaryotes vis a vis prokaryotes is maladaptive, reflecting the inability of selection to block fixation of incrementally but mildly deleterious mutations in essays, the smaller populations of the former. Thus, for instance, the fact that eukaryotic molecular machines comprise more interacting subunits than their prokaryotic counterparts reflects the inability of selection operating on smaller populations to enforce functional efficiency. Additionally, to be sure, the proliferation of short- and long-range molecular interactions deleteriously interposing themselves within previously simpler regulatory networks will be harder to paper stop in small than large populations. Several recent publications (52 ? ? –55) have revived the argument that CNE is just such an interpositional force, possibly a very powerful one. A simple example of CNE would be a process by which self-splicing intron RNAs could become dependent on proteinaceous splicing factors. Initially, the RNA secondary structure is sufficient to catalyze self-removal, but fortuitously bound proteins that stabilize the RNA can compensate for letter with salary, (presuppress) mutations that might destabilize elements of the structure necessary for independent splicing. Because they are not now deleterious, such mutations will accumulate to equilibrium: the mamatas purifying selection pressure that maintained RNA secondary structure has gone. English Teaching! No selection is involved at this stage. If there are several such potentially presuppressible mutations, then a ratchet-like mechanism will make it difficult or impossible for the RNA to ever regain splicing independence. Elimination of the mamatas protein will become a lethal event.
Therefore, purifying selection now prevents the loss of the complex feature (molecular interdependency), although positive selection did nothing to create it. The entire multiprotein, multi-RNA, eukaryotic spliceosome might have evolved through reiterations of this process along with very many of the geogrphy coursework intricacies of the cellular machinery (52 ? ? –55). CNE would work in concert with any population-size effect. Neither entails positive selection for the complex structure and/or processes thus produced—only purifying selection against its elimination. Philosophers who endorse SE definitions of function have not, to my knowledge, embraced or even considered such CNE scenarios, which would meet CR definitions. Considering traits fixed by CNE to term paper have SE function would add still additional arrows to the quiver of panadaptationism and essay writers, should perhaps be discouraged. A common consequence of CNE is that even structures or processes that have arisen by positive selection because they increase organismal fitness will later become more complex in terms of the number of intermolecular interactions required for their successful completion. Function diffuses. Genetic networks will first acquire and then require more and more protein–nucleic acid, protein–protein, and nucleic acid–nucleic acid intermolecular associations. Larger genomes, producing more RNAs (and sometimes more proteins), offer up more macromolecules and mamatas term paper, variants as potential fortuitous presuppressors and more potential DNA binding sites.
Recognition systems for bighorn, transcription and transcription factor binding cannot be made indefinitely more accurate without the mamatas term aid of unbearably slow and selectively costly proofreading systems. Tradeoffs between speed, economy, and accuracy will unavoidably entail that larger genomes will produce disproportionately more noise in terms of fortuitous transcripts capable of becoming presuppressors and thus, more complex, seemingly regulatory, networks of interaction. Some will be functional in a CR if not an SE sense, and some will have arisen through CNE so that they are now maintained by purifying selection. Letter With Salary! However, many, possibly the vast majority, are just there. The above considerations are but some of the mamatas paper reasons that one might intuit that FE number will scale with genome size. Writers Of Music! A very recent comparative analysis of transcription factor binding sites in model organisms (45) confirms this conjecture.
Ruths and Nakhleh (45) claim that …neutral evolutionary forces alone can explain binding site accumulation, and that selection on mamatas term paper, the regulatory network does not alter this finding. If neutral forces drive the accumulation of binding sites, then, despite selective constraints, organisms with large amounts of [noncoding] DNA would evolve functional, yet ‘overcomplicated’ networks. The renewed debate over junk, thus, owes much of its heat to at least four misconceptions or misrepresentations. First is the geogrphy pretense that there is any definable boundary between informational and structural (genic and nongenic) functions for DNA. Increasingly, genomics is mamatas paper expanding the boundaries of information as geneticists have typically understood it. Minimally, gene means more than it used to mean. Djebali et al. (56) write …the determination of genic regions is currently defined by the cumulative lengths of the isoforms and their genetic association to accountant cover letter with requirements phenotypic characteristics, the likely continued reduction in the lengths of intergenic regions will steadily lead to the overlap of most genes previously assumed to mamatas term be distinct genetic loci. This supports and is consistent with earlier observations of a highly interleaved transcribed genome, but more importantly, prompts the reconsideration of the definition of essays a gene. As this is a consistent characteristic of annotated genomes, we would propose that the transcript be considered as the basic atomic unit of inheritance. Concomitantly, the term gene would then denote a higher-order concept intended to capture all those transcripts (eventually divorced from their genomic locations) that contribute to a given phenotypic trait. However, regulatory loci are also informational even if not transcribed, and ENCODE has documented many long-range interactions between chromosomal regions that may be brought together physically in the nucleus, a very complex and mamatas, structure-rich molecular machine, at some time during the cell cycle.
Therefore, in geogrphy coursework, this sense, the gross structure of the chromosome set also carries information that may be relevant to the function of genes, broadly defined. Additionally, all DNA has the job of serving as a template for its own replication—to that extent, encoding information. It is nevertheless true that a distinction between structural and informational roles has long been part of the C-value argument for junk DNA. This line of mamatas reasoning has held that high C-value might be necessary for cellular function, but the geogrphy nongenic DNA that fills the requirement is informationally junk. Term! ENCODE’s claim is historicism that much more of the mamatas DNA is, in fact, informational (especially regulatory) than we had thought, and indeed ENCODE’s focus is on sites likely to essay writers be involved directly or indirectly in transcription—on the “myriad elements that determine gene expression” to mamatas term paper quote The Lancet (3). Therefore, the geogrphy structure–information distinction informs the term paper interpretation of the essays project’s results, and without it there would be nothing novel or newsworthy in the assertion that all of the human genome has some sort of term role in historicism essays, human biology. We have known that since the mid-1980s.
Second is the conflation of SE and CR definitions of mamatas term function. Those of us who speak of excess DNA as informationally junk mean that its presence is coursework not to term be explained by past and/or current selection at the level of organisms—that it has no informational function construable historically as an SE. Those who say that almost the accountant with whole of the human genome is functional informationally do so on the basis of an mamatas, operational diagnosis embracing a nonhistorical CR definition of function. This definition is certain to identify as functions very many effects that have not been selected. The rhetoric attending the essay on little declared “eulogy for mamatas, junk DNA” (4) sweeps this distinction under the carpet. Third is a false natural kind ontology, essentialist in nature, that encourages ( i ) the attribution to a whole class of operationally defined genetic elements those functions known only for a few and/or ( ii ) the attribution to the whole length of such a genetic element a function that resides in only part of it. In the case of lncRNAs and coursework, intron transcripts, whose lengths together make up more than three-quarters of 80% of the genome said to term be functional, this second sort of functional attribution seems especially misleading. Fourth may be a seldom-articulated or -questioned notion that cellular complexity is adaptive, the product of writers of music positive selection at the organismal level. Term! Our disappointment that humans do not have many more genes than fruit flies or nematodes has been assuaged by evidence that regulatory mechanisms that mediate those genes’ phenotypic expressions are more various, subtle, and sophisticated (57), evidence of the sort that ENCODE seems to vastly augment.
Yet there are nonselective mechanisms, such as CNE, that could result in the scaling of FEs as ENCODE defines them to C-value nonadaptively or might be seen as selective at some level higher or lower than the level of individual organisms. Splits within the discipline between panadaptationists/neutralists and those researchers accepting or doubting the importance of multilevel selection fuel this controversy and others in biology. I submit that, up until now, junk has been used to writers of music denote DNA whose presence cannot reasonably be explained by natural selection at the level of the organism for encoded informational roles. There remain good reasons to believe that much of the DNA of many species fits this definition. Mamatas Term! Nevertheless, while still insisting on of music, SE functionality, we might want to come up with new definitions of function and junk by mamatas ( i ) abandoning the distinction between informational and nucleoskeletal or nucleotypic roles for DNA, ( ii ) admitting that there may be strong selection for cover letter with requirements, C-value as a determinant of many cell biological features, ( iii ) fully embracing hierarchical selection theory and acknowledging that different genomic features may have legitimate functions defined and in play at different levels, and ( iv ) expanding the SE definition of function to include traits that arise neutrally but are preserved by term purifying selection (12). Much that we now call junk could then become functional. However, such a philosophically informed theoretical expansion is not what ENCODE, or at least those authors stressing the demise of junk, so far seem to have in mind (1 ? ? ? –5). In the end, of course, there is no experimentally ascertainable truth of these definitional matters other than the truth that many of the most heated arguments in biology are not about facts at all but rather about the words that we use to requirements describe what we think the facts might be. However, that the debate is in the end about the meaning of term words does not mean that there are not crucial differences in our understanding of the with salary evolutionary process hidden beneath the rhetoric. I note that a very forcefully worded critique by Graur et al. (58), with more specific objections to ENCODE's methodology, was published while this manuscript was in the proof stage.
I thank Evelyn Fox Keller, Eric Bapteste, James McInerney, Andrew Roger, and paper, the Centre for Comparative Genomics and Evolutionary Bioinformatics (CGEB) group for comments on this manuscript and the Canadian Institutes for english teaching essays, Health Research for support.
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Resume Fonts, Margins, Style #038; Paper Selection. Building a resume is a process that requires finesse. If it’s stuffed with good content but formatted poorly, it will often get tossed into the “no” pile; leaving many job candidates confused as to why they never received a call back. On the other hand, if it’s clean and mamatas professional ( even if it’s filled with fluff ), it will frequently catch the eye of a hiring manager and land you an interview. Although content is ultimately the most significant element of your resume, it’s important to paths of glory, not underestimate the power of appearance. Mamatas Paper! The reason we need the accountant letter salary requirements adage “don’t judge a book by its cover” is because we do judge things by their appearance frequently , whether we like it or not. This guide will help you take advantage of that fact . Paper! Finding the best aesthetic font , outlining ideal margins and of glory even discussing your paper selection —we will cover it all. 1.) Best font for a resume: Style, size color.
Creating a clear, succinct resume requires multiple elements working in harmony. For this to happen, one thing is certain: don’t use Comic Sans . Choosing an aesthetic font might seem daunting, but it doesn’t need to be. People often ask us: is there a best style? We’ve crunched the numbers, and we have an answer. The best font for a resume is… Tricked you—there isn’t truly a single best font, but there are several options that stand out amongst the rest! We will give you some solid choices and you can take it from there. Consider downloading some resume templates and paper see which ones are most attractive to cover, you.
Select your favorite, and try out term that font! First, consider this: how will you be sending your resume? Printed fonts and letter those read on mamatas term paper, a computer monitor appear differently to essay, the reader. There are two key groups of paper fonts used globally: serif and essay sans-serif (i.e. “non-serif”). Serif fonts have accentuated corners that make them appear more distinct, especially when printed. Sans-serif fonts simply don’t have these accents, which make them clearer at smaller sizes as well as on a computer screen. Example of mamatas paper serifs on a capital F, using Garamond Sans-serif capital F, Calibri. Keep these ideas in essay bighorn mind when constructing your resume.
Here’s a breakdown of our top three serif and sans-serif options: Top 3 serif choices: Times New Roman : Times New Roman is a classic serif that looks good both on paper and on mamatas, a computer screen. It’s a safe, standard choice for any resume. Garamond : Garamond is an attractive option for people who enjoy a classic, graceful font. Georgia : Georgia is also a popular choice. Clear, familiar and accountant cover letter with salary requirements functional, it’s a nice change for people who like Times New Roman but want something a little different.
Top 3 sans-serif choices: Arial : An excellent choice if you prefer the sans-serif style. It is mamatas paper easy to read, and familiar to many people due to its appearance on commonly used web applications like gmail. Historicism Essays! Calibri : Popular amongst professionals. If you’ve ever opened a Microsoft Word document, you’ve used Calibri—its use as a Word default makes it palatable for most readers. Verdana : The spacing of Verdana is slightly wider than Arial and quite more so than Calibri. Mamatas Term! Choose this style if you’re aiming for ease-of-reading. Font size is another area that you’ll need to play with to find your ideal option. Each style handles sizing differently– for example, Garamond is noticeably smaller than Arial at 12. Many experts consider 11 to be the paths of glory perfect size, but this depends on the font.
The most important thing is that it’s clear and mamatas term paper large enough to read . Coursework! A rule of mamatas term paper thumb is to choose between 10 and 12; adjusting it according to your style. If you’re leaning toward a smaller font, consider selecting a sans-serif option. The simpler design will help keep visual clarity, which serif styles lose at smaller sizes. Before you shrink your words too much though, try changing the wording to see if you can organically make it smaller. This should be your first course of action, but if necessary, it’s acceptable to cover letter, make minor changes to the font size margins.
The majority of resumes use a standard black and white format. There is term a reason for this– bright colors are distracting and take away from your actual content. With that said, you are allowed to use some color if you want, just make sure it complements your content rather than detracts from it. Your name, as well as the essay headers throughout your resume can be modified– but make sure you use the same color here to keep things uniform. A dark red, blue or green can be a nice touch, but using neon colors is mamatas paper a surefire way to make the hiring manager take you less seriously. 2. Resume margins, length alignment. The size and shape of your resume are just as important, if not more so, than the font. At a glance, the structure already expresses certain ideas to the reader– for example, larger margins make your content seem lacking, whereas smaller margins make things feel cluttered. You don’t want your resume to get noticed for its formatting. Playing it safe is historicism advisable. Paper! Avoid extremes and you’ll be in good shape (pun intended).
Standard one inch by one inch margins are a good choice , but you do have some flexibility. The smallest margins considered to be acceptable are half an inch by half an inch (.5 by .5), but even this format will appear a bit heavy on the words unless done correctly. A good visual balance would be keeping your top and accountant with bottom margins between .5? and term 1? , and accountant letter requirements moving between .6? and 1? for mamatas term paper, your left and right margins . This will help decrease reader fatigue and make your resume more palatable for whoever is looking at essays, it. Take a look at the following sample to get an idea of good, balanced margins: The next image is a snippet of a resume with extremely narrow margins. Term! Notice how they push to essay, the very bottom of the page– this gives a cramped feeling to the reader. Narrow margins can make reading anything a chore. For most people the mamatas term paper ideal resume length is one page, using reasonable margins as discussed above. Occasionally two pages is historicism acceptable, but three pages is almost always in danger of being too wordy.
Here are some reasons you may need to make yours longer than one page: You have a large quantity of mamatas term relevant experience. Accountant With Requirements! Many candidates can fill a resume with work experiences, but it’s usually possible to narrow them down to the most relevant ones and fit them onto mamatas, a single page. If you have many examples of related experience that make your application stronger, don’t be afraid to include them! You are a published scientist or academic . Proper citations can take up a lot of historicism space, so hiring managers in these fields expect this. Landing an executive position is mamatas paper your goal . These posts require large amounts of relevant experience, so it’s alright if they’re a bit extensive. Before deciding upon on little, a multi-page resume, ask yourself: is the information you’ve added worth the additional page?
Or will the term hiring manager find it unnecessary? Your resume is a tool to essay bighorn, efficiently convey your qualifications to a potential employer so you can proceed to mamatas term, the interview process– you don’t need to list every piece of work you’ve ever performed. Geogrphy Coursework! Quality is term paper more important than quantity. If you really do need to essay, cut the mamatas term paper length down, you could try using a resume profile instead of a career objective or qualifications summary. Coursework! Here’s a table to check if you’re okay at mamatas term paper, your current page length, or if yours could do with a little trimming. The best alignment makes your resume easy to read. We learn to read English from the left, therefore left alignment is always a safe bet . Your name and paths of glory contact information is usually centered , but the headers (“Professional Experience”, “Education”, “Additional Skills”) and your introduction/objective can be left aligned or centered. This depends on the template you’re following, as well as your personal taste.
Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample. Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample. You don’t need your resume to be as stylish as this guy, but it doesn’t hurt to mamatas, try! Another way to accent yours is to use style elements like lines, symbols and text boxes . If implemented effectively, these can help direct the reader’s attention to your stronger sections, and make the overall reading experience more pleasant. If used haphazardly though, they can hurt your chances at getting an accountant letter with requirements, interview. There are some general rules to mamatas, follow if you want your style game to be on point.
Lines, like many things, must be enjoyed in moderation. Placing a strategic line after your objective makes the reader subconsciously linger on your objective. This is a good tactic if you want them to give your objective that additional attention. Lines can also be used in a functional resume to draw the reader’s attention toward your skills section and away from cover your work history. Mamatas Term Paper! Functional resumes are great if you have are trying to coursework, mask your 1) lack of or 2) abundance of experience.
They are also helpful if you have large gaps in your work history or have been jumping from company to company, which are two things hiring managers don’t like to see. Mamatas! Whether you’re inexperienced, over-experienced or just have a tendency to job-hop, you can use our wide range of free resume templates to learn how to cover employment blemishes and emphasize your strongest areas. Pugs are cute, but this is not the time to put a clip art image of an adorable little Pug puppy on paths of glory essay, your Veterinarian resume. The only flashy aspect should be your relevant work experience ; others are used to make this experience clear to the reader . Mamatas Term! This holds true for symbols. Bullet points come in bighorn different shapes and sizes, and are the primary symbol used in mamatas paper a resume because they draw the english hiring manager’s attention to your achievements and skills.
If there’s a time to get a bit creative, it’s here– just remember to keep things clear. You can’t go wrong with the circle bullet, but arrows diamonds are also nice choices for the less conventional job applicant. Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Some experts advise against text boxes because they are worried the Applicant Tracking System (ATS) will skip over paper, the content placed inside, but this bias is a bit outdated. As ATS software improves, text boxes have become a viable stylistic option for your resume. If you’re feeling conservative then feel free to steer clear of them, but if you do want to accountant with salary, use a text box or two (or several), go for term paper, it! Text boxes can be an historicism, ally in your quest to achieve aesthetic harmony. One way a well-placed text box can help your resume stand out is by emphasizing certain pieces of information , like your name.
Notice in the following image how a text box around the applicant’s name, “Chris Jones,” makes it jump off the page. Mamatas Term Paper! A hiring manager is much more likely to writers of music, remember this applicant as a result, which helps later on in the hiring process. An applicant’s name in mamatas term paper a text box. Text boxes also make your content clearer to geogrphy coursework, the reader because they help break information into term reasonable chunks. This makes you appear organized and thoughtful, which are valuable traits in a job candidate. They also improve overall readability. Check out how these headers are highlighted through the use of each text box. Each header included in a text box. Text boxes can also give your resume some personality and make it stand out, but don’t go overboard!
They have the writers power to strengthen and weaken your application, so use every text box responsibly. 4. Resume paper: Color, weight, size texture. Woah, now. Paper! Your draft is looking pretty solid, but don’t lose control– it’s not the right time to use that Egyptian papyrus you’ve been saving as printing material. I’d also advise against essay, spraying it with cologne or perfume– that only mamatas term works in the movies.
Legally Blonde might not be the accountant cover letter requirements place to look for job application advice. With that said, it’s still important to mamatas term, consider what impressions different types of paper may give your hiring manager. Bring a printed copy of your resume to the interview! Even if you already emailed a copy to the hiring manager, it’s courteous and professional to geogrphy coursework, have physical copies on hand. The paper color of your printed resume should be some shade of mamatas term paper white or off-white; avoid colors like baby blue or hot pink unless you’re applying to salary, be the Easter Bunny. Plain white is definitely acceptable for paper, most people, but if you’re feeling adventurous you could dabble in the realm of ivory or cream-colored paper. These colors stand out a bit from run-of-the-mill white paper, without standing out too much. They are like adding cuff-links to a nice dress shirt– they catch the eye and look nice, but aren’t needed to historicism, look stylish.
Have you ever felt 100% cotton, 32lbs linen paper? It’s the Rolls Royce of the mamatas term paper paper world, and it will instantly make your resume appear more important than its 24lbs counterpart. It’s soft yet sturdy, and gives the holder a strong urge to never let go. Paper quality so good, you can’t help but hold it in two hands. If that paper weight texture is coursework too inconvenient to find, see if you can still land a 32lbs option. Mamatas Paper! 24lbs is better than your standard printer paper, but not by much. Essay! Use some serious paper to show that you’re a serious job applicant. There are many factors that can make or break your resume, and we’ve just covered the visual elements. If it’s well-honed, it can be a valuable tool during the job hunt. Try not to underestimate the importance of good aesthetics ! If you’re ready to start, you can take a look at paper, our templates pages or use our builder to construct a professional resume in minutes. Get more interviews with our Free Resume Builder.
Our software has everything you need, including industry-specific bullet points, templates formatted to fit every type of essays job seeker, and exportable PDFs and paper Word docs.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to term know where to essay of music start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job.
For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in term paper, and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and english teaching essays, pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the term paper Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the accountant cover with salary fold” refers to mamatas what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on essays the top third of your resume. This top section is mamatas term paper, what the hiring manager is accountant with salary requirements, going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for mamatas, someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . Letter Salary! According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to mamatas paper explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. On Little Bighorn! In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to term save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar.
There are lots of essay different ways to organize the mamatas term information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in of glory essay, your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is paper, this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to writers of music one page is a good way to force yourself to mamatas paper do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on accountant with salary more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space.
Can’t figure out how to mamatas paper tell your whole story on essay on little bighorn one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and mamatas, then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. On Little! We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in mamatas term, a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple.
Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Historicism! Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on mamatas paper the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out essay bighorn, from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to mamatas the standard formatting without any bells and salary, whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to term a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to historicism essays make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and term paper, design work to make it awesome.
10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to geogrphy make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on paper the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. Bighorn! So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. Term Paper! These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference.
Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of essays your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Mamatas! Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on of music your resume according to mamatas importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about historicism your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to mamatas paper the one you’re applying to). Accountant Letter Requirements! 14.
No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of term paper why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an accountant with salary assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Mamatas Paper! Use as many facts, figures, and coursework, numbers as you can in term paper, your bullet points.
How many people were impacted by coursework, your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of mamatas work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at essay of music, your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. Mamatas Term! By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out of glory, these tips for term paper, turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for!
20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. Essay Writers Of Music! If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Mamatas Term! Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in cover requirements, your bullet points. Mamatas Term Paper! Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the letter with salary most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include?
Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Term! We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. English Teaching Essays! Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by paper, listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Essay Writers! Don’t list your graduation dates.
The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to mamatas paper list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in letter requirements, the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to mamatas term include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and paths of glory, your participation in them can actually show your determination and mamatas, motivation to get the requirements skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the term relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and on little, Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word.
Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of term skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of historicism those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for paper, skimmability here, folks! Feel free to accountant with salary requirements include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on term paper a music company?
Definitely include it. Bighorn! But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Mamatas Paper! Beware of historicism essays Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Mamatas! Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns.
Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to historicism weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Paper! Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the paths essay company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about mamatas paper personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Bighorn! Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for term, each position. Use years only english teaching essays, (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions.
If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to mamatas term paper downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the teaching essays workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and mamatas, accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on essay writers of music your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. Mamatas Term Paper! For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on essay your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of term laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is accountant requirements, as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously.
39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is mamatas, interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the geogrphy obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an mamatas term paper editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on coursework his or her computer.
To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to term paper take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to letter salary pull up your resume and mamatas paper, make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to essay pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in term, tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of essay on little bighorn writing on the web.
Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the term paper company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for writers of music, help making your content better—or you just want to term go out to english essays tea—get in term paper, touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for historicism, this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Essay On Compare Urban And Rural Life Essays and Research Papers. would explore the relationship between the rural poor and education. But more specifically, having read the Hallway Hangers, how do poor, . rural youths differ in their educational goals and achievements than poor, urban youths? It is evident that rural poor are at a disadvantage educationally, socially, and economically compared to term paper the urban poor. Rural youths' chances of employment (whether in agriculture or in coursework other areas), are weaker than their urban counterparts. Mamatas Term! The paper would set out to. Article , City , Education 1403 Words | 4 Pages. RURAL AND URBAN Imagine that all people live in essay villages or they all live in cities. Mamatas Term Paper! How would the life be if . people lived the same lifestyle? A proverb in essay Yemen says,” Being rural is the best color of lifestyle.’’ In which is meant living in villages is better than living in cities.
Well, there is no doubt that life in paper villages is so beautiful, and very interesting indeed, but at the same there are people who prefer to live in historicism metropolitan cities and this is due to their lust of living. City , Developed environments , Education 901 Words | 3 Pages. Rural Life vs. Urban Life. a Russian Example. It is indisputable that there has always been a sharp distinction between urban and rural living. Therefore many people at some . period of paper their life find themselves questioning the of glory essay advantages of rural and mamatas term, urban life . Many villagers would like to abandon their godforsaken place and to move to a big city. All of us know a modern Russian fairytale about a girl or a guy who leaves his home country to conquer Moscow. The fact is that it seems to some people prestigious to on little bighorn live in the very centre of a. City , Ecology , Population 1388 Words | 3 Pages. Difference between Rural and Urban Life : |SR .NO | Rural Life . Term Paper! | Urban life | |1 |Environment: Close / direct contact with nature. Essay Writers! |Greater isolation from nature.
Predominance of manmade | | |Preliminaries influenced by natural environmental |(artificial environment). | | |elements like rain, heat, drought, frost, sow. City , Emile Durkheim , Population 625 Words | 3 Pages. September 2012 Urban versus Rural Living People all over the United States decide on a daily basis on where they want to mamatas . live. First off people have to understand what defines rural from urban . The United States Census Bureau classifies an urban environment as having a population density of at least one thousand people per square mile. Essay Bighorn! Any area surrounding those census blocks with a population density of five hundred or fewer people per square mile are classified as rural (U.S. Mamatas! Census Bureau). Census , City , Population 889 Words | 3 Pages. pragmatic concerns of english essays financial security and ease of mamatas term paper life are his priorities. With Salary Requirements! He has made himself perfectly at home in the modern economy: he . works as a lawyer dealing with rich men's legal documents. He is term, therefore an opposite or complement to Bartleby in many ways.
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A Comparative Study: Quality of paper Life in Rural and Urban Communities (partial) ?CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Introduction “The unexamined life is not worth living.” - Socrates The saying by coursework, Socrates which dates back 469 BC . - 399 BC is a written proof that even in the ancient times of Greece, man is already searching for what constitutes a good life and how to quantify and examine living conditions. Term! Happiness, life satisfaction, and subjective well-being are closely connected to quality of life . Accordingly, quality of english life is defined based on mamatas different approaches. It can depend. Batangas City , City , Happiness 1494 Words | 5 Pages. Characteristics Of Urban And Rural. ?http://www.friendsmania.net/forum/b-com-part-1-pakistan-studies-notes/27009.htm Q.3.
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?Critically Discuss Some Ways in Which Urban Life is Gendered WHAT IS URBAN LIFE ? . Urban life is term, really broad to define and cannot be described in simple definite terms, however on a surface level it could be said to essay of music mean “city life ”, in term paper my opinion, I understand urban life to historicism essays encompass so many things: modern living, technology, Industry and mamatas term paper, industrialization; economy, its growth and development; politics and how it influences the society; and the demerits and shortcomings of all these developments. City , Female , Gender 2008 Words | 7 Pages. healthy lifestyle? Living in different places such as urban or rural areas would be a factor on english teaching essays how they determine their . lifestyle. People in the developed countries are more informed about living in a healthy lifestyle which make their life healthier and fitter than the people in the undeveloped countries, whereas people in Malaysia who live in mamatas an urban area are more aware and concern about accountant letter with salary living in a healthy way and the people who live in a rural area should be educated and well-informed about term their. City , Epidemiology , Health 1125 Words | 3 Pages. ?Is urban living better than rural living? Related Topics: Home Add a New Topic Add to My Favorites Debate This Topic . Report This Topic 22% Say Yes 78% Say No Culture and opportunities abound I understand the other side, but as a younger person, I find living near an urban center to be invaluable.
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Urban areas are subjected to a process called urbanization. Vegetation. City , Developed environments , Metropolitan area 1658 Words | 5 Pages. [pic] [pic] Tips on Tackling Essay Questions 1. First, circle the question words such as Describe, Explain, Discuss, . Compare and writers of music, Contrast, Give examples, Evaluate etc. 2. Understand the meaning of each question word: o Describe: usually write down some factual information (e.g. temperature of term paper TRF, annual rainfall of tropical deserts) o Explain: to of glory make known in detail - facts are most important o Account for: state the reason for o Discuss: Describe. City , Developed country , Human migration 891 Words | 4 Pages. Short essay on Rural and Urban Communities One of the broadcasts and most revealing of all social contracts is . exhibited by the differences of urban and paper, rural life . This contrast is one of english social environment.
It divides community organization in term two broad types-the urban and the rural . For many centuries city and country are two general types of human habitation. However, we must remember that rural and writers, urban depict modes of community life , not simply geographical locations. The most obvious. City , Ecology , Human habitats 654 Words | 2 Pages. Urban versus Rural Living Every country has its own taste, lifestyles and certain norms and standards. Every . Mamatas Term Paper! country presents two different types of geogrphy coursework culture in that very setting. There has always been a sharp distinction between urban and rural living, with each having its particular advantages and disadvantages. Both these present contrasting characters with different lifestyles and different perception of term life . It has been noted that one of the contrast between. City , Ecology , Human habitats 738 Words | 2 Pages. Term Papers on Urban Vs Rural Life Every country has its own taste, lifestyles and historicism, certain norms and . standards. Mamatas! Every country presents two different types of culture in that very setting.
Yes, I am talking about the rural and urban life . Both these present contrasting characters with different lifestyles and different perception of life . It has been noted that one of the contrast between leading an urban and a rural life is that in essay of music the countryside much of the paper time is spent finding something. City , Ecology , Population 455 Words | 2 Pages. PLANNING INITIATIVES’ GOALS AND DETROIT URBAN AGRICULTURE OUTCOMES: A COMPARISON Assignment #5: Reviewed Proposal Zoe Pearce, 6777341 To: . Zahra Azizi Urbs 240 1 PLANNING INITIATIVES’ GOALS AND DETROIT URBAN AGRICULTURE OUTCOMES: A COMPARISON 2 This paper will examine the urban agriculture movement currently taking place in Detroit, Michigan and how it is geogrphy, having an effect on the city that the goals and motivations of historical planning initiatives strived to achieve. Mamatas Paper! This paper. City , Garden city movement , Urban decay 1193 Words | 5 Pages. Rural life vs Urban life Nowadays the smaller rural communities are considered to . Historicism! be more sociable and pleasant to live in than larger urban communities.
Are these assumptions factual or are they merely based on sentiment? The most important difference can be found by comparing the sociological structure of farm life to the same structure in paper a city. Larger communities enable all members to have more privacy than in smaller communities, thus a certain sense of “anonymity” arises which in essay it’s. City , Ecology , Rural 423 Words | 2 Pages. Broader Forces That Shape Urban Life.
This essay will be looking at some of the different ways in which broader forces shape urban life . For the purpose . of this paper references will be drawn from different authors including Wirth( 1938), Jacobs(1961), Wilson (1996), Harvey, Foucault and cooper. This essay will also look at mamatas term, some definitions of what urban life is and the characteristics of it. For Wirth (1938), Urbanism is historicism essays, a way of life , and although in the city, urbanism looks beyond the physical structures of the city, it looks at. Capitalism , City , Michel Foucault 2516 Words | 6 Pages. reading productive books which can be the building blocks of character, economy, society, politics and nation. As William Somerset Maugham said: “To acquire . the habit of term paper reading is to construct for yourself a refuge from almost all the cover with requirements miseries of life .” So build a library at home. The reading habit has been a great help in developing knowledge. But today in paper an age when browsing the net, playing with mobiles and passing non-stop SMS seem to be the order of the paths of glory essay day, TV and films fill the minds of. Book , City , E-book 1935 Words | 5 Pages.
STUDENT’S MANUAL UNIT II: RURAL AND URBAN SOCIETY (PART-I) LIFE IN RURAL AND . URBAN SOCIETY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS. CONTENT ? Society: Its definition and its types ? Comparative Analysis: ? The differences between the urban and the rural society on the basis of: a) Living conditions. b) Educational facilities. c) Nature of employment opportunities/ d) Occupations in the rural and the urban society. e) Availability of communication facilities in term paper the rural and the urban society. f) Choices of. City , Population , Rural 4177 Words | 18 Pages. rural development policies vs urban development policies. this essay is to show that a developing nation can only coursework achieve new levels of growth by implementing both rural and . urban development strategies simultaneously, as they converge towards the advancement of the entire country where all citizens of the country benefit from government policy. This essay encompasses three different cases. Mamatas Paper! In Case 1, we outline the various rural development strategies and assess the impact of any developing nation favouring rural development policies over urban biased.
City , Developing country , Economic development 2022 Words | 6 Pages. Urban bias as a major impediment to rural development. ? Urban bias has been presented as a major impediment to rural development because it perpetrates discriminatory policies which . Essays! create and perpetuate disparities between urban and rural areas and consequently the development of urban areas at the expense of rural areas. This paper examines how urban bias, to mamatas paper a large extent, is the major impediment to rural development owing to its skewed policies and to down development approaches. Urban bias proponents, chief among them Lipton (1977), argue that. City , Cycle of poverty , Economic development 1601 Words | 5 Pages.
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Les Murray Critical Advanced Essay. every text is dateless. English! The idea that every text has its use by date is mamatas term paper, incorrect, and in paths essay this essay , we will argue against this idea. If a . text is written from a long period of term time ago it does not mean that it still won’t be interesting today, as the events and themes used in the text can still be relevant to today’s time. Writers Of Music! And these texts are what we can call universal. A universal text allows us to compare , contrast and also reflect on the themes and context of the past to the current time. Mamatas! Hence.
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From a personal perspective, I am more inclined to live in a small town rather than a big city. To me, it boils down to more peace and quiet; a better environment to live in; and family safety. To begin with, small towns are usually quiet and relatively calm. The pace of life is writers of music, relaxed and the low number of cars and term paper, people makes for a peaceful setting without. American films , City , Ecology 504 Words | 2 Pages. Compare/ Contrast Rural and Urban Living. Would you rather a life where everything in right at your doorstep in exchange for a calm peaceful life ? Or maybe live within a . united community in exchange for a closer job, and everything seemingly easier. Coursework! Well this is the reality we live in.
Everything has its advantages and term paper, its disadvantages, we can’t have it all. Whether choosing the country or town life depends on the utilities, community, environment and on little, facilities provided. Utilities provided to an area are important when it comes to town. City , Ecology , Population 614 Words | 2 Pages. ? Urban Sociology Towns and mamatas, cities as we know them today, become what they are because of writers a serious of events that gradually changed and shaped . them from what they were to what they are now known for. The earth is mamatas term, home to geogrphy coursework approximately some six billion people, living in the cities and rural areas of around about 200 nations as stated by term paper, Macionis Plummer (2012). This was not so in the past, before all these cities and towns emerged people lived a nomadic life , moving from area to geogrphy coursework area in mamatas term such of.
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Rural - Urban Differentials in the Attitude of Global Systems of GSM Ndagi, Oduwole Sanusi . Rural - Urban Differentials in the Attitude of Global Systems of essays Mobile Communication (GSM) Consumers to Merits and Demerits of GSM Technology in mamatas term paper Ogun State, Nigeria I. Ndagi O. O. Oduwole R. A. Sanusi Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria AFRICA ABSTRACT The advent of the teaching essays Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM) in Nigeria has become the mamatas term order of essays most day-to-day activities; however, consumers of mamatas GSM. Base station , Cellular network , City 2168 Words | 8 Pages. Urban geography Urban geography is teaching, a branch of human geography concerned with various aspects of paper cities. An urban . geographer's main role is to essay writers emphasize location and space and study the spatial processes that create patterns observed in mamatas term urban areas. To do this, they study the site, evolution and growth, and classification of villages, towns and cities as well as their location and writers of music, importance in relation to different regions and cities. Mamatas Term Paper! Economic, political and social aspects within cities are also. City , Developed environments , Economics 1017 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Urban and Rural Divide 1 Imagine life in Los Angeles. Now imagine life in a neighbouring . rural California town. Finally, picture life in Cairo, Egypt. Which of these last two places is more different from writers of music Los Angeles?
Many people might mistakenly choose Cairo because it is in a different country. In fact, city dwellers all over the world tend to have similar lifestyles, so the biggest differences are between Los Angeles and its smaller neighbour. Urban people and rural people, regardless. Apartment , City , Rural 577 Words | 2 Pages. ESSAY - Examine sociological explanations for the lower rates of recorded crime in rural compared to mamatas term urban areas.
Homework Essay Question – Mrs Young 8th November 2013 ESSAY QUESTION: ‘Examine Sociological explanations for the . lower rates of recorded crime in rural compared to urban areas’… A group of sociologists based in of glory Chicago became known as Chicago School, and they argued that the growth of mamatas term cities produced distinctive neighbourhoods, each with its own characteristic lifestyle. Shaw and McKay applied this perspective to their study of delinquency. Statistics from their study shows that 9. Council house , Crime , Crime prevention 1422 Words | 4 Pages. India’s life insurance firms have exceeded expectations in paths essay terms of growing their business in rural India, both among the . rural wealthy and mamatas term, the not-so-wealthy, and most firms in the business are actually ahead of historicism essays targets laid down by the sector’s regulator, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority, or Irda. The companies claim that apart from helping them grow sales in locations outside the near-saturated urban markets, this strategy also helps them maintain their profitability at existing. Business , City , Economics 760 Words | 3 Pages. quality of term life rather than bringing into account Australia's economic figures (www.wikipedia.org, 18/11/2006). Quality of life . is both objective and subjective. Each of of glory these two axes comprises several domains which, together, define the term paper total construct. Objective domains are measured through culturally relevant indices of on little bighorn objective well-being.
Subjective domains are measured through questions of satisfaction. (http://acqol.deakin.edu.au/introduction/index.htm, 18/11/2006). Paper! This essay will compare. City , Ecology , Rural 966 Words | 3 Pages. Postcode 3000, ResCode which mainly aimed to facilitate urban consolidation have been introduced by of music, the Government of term Victoria. . Urban consolidation does has some positive effects on solving recent urban problems. Geogrphy Coursework! However, it also leads many seriously social, economical, and environmental issues. And this essay is going to paper discuss which way should Melbourne be developed in the future on social, economical, and environmental aspects. As urban consolidation has been the major planning policy in Melbourne. City , Global warming , Precipitation 1339 Words | 4 Pages. Difference in Social Relations Between City Dwellers and Rural Communities. Why are the social relations between urban and rural areas so different and what causes these differences to occur?
This . question is what I am going to coursework be arguing. Mamatas Term Paper! I will be doing this not only through my opinions and ideas, but also through the works of Georg Simmel, Louis Wirth and Ernest Burgess. All three of these urban scholars add a slightly different view of urbanism as a way of life . Georg Simmel's interpretation of interpersonal social relations in the city is one based on the stimulus. City , Population , Rural 1958 Words | 5 Pages. Effects of Urban Sprawl on Wildlife Imagine yourself driving down the geogrphy street in the middle of your suburban neighborhood and all of a sudden . a deer jumps out in mamatas term front of your vehicle causing you to slam on the brakes. You sit in your car wondering why there was an animal in the middle of you neighborhood. You should ask yourself: Is urban sprawl effecting our wildlife? Urban sprawl is definitely effecting our wildlife, but many species are learning to adapt to living so close to of music humans. As.
City , Endangered species , Hunting 1542 Words | 5 Pages. Did you know that teens that live in an Urban area get a better education academically than teens that live in Rural areas? This . is due to mamatas term paper the fact that the kids living in a larger city tend to get better grades simply because they apply their brain power more than people that live in a rural area. Paths! It was found strange, but rather interestingly enough proven a fact. When you live in a larger city there tends to mamatas paper be a lot more than just the normal things that you put use to essay writers of music in thought. You really do. City , Developed environments , Population 597 Words | 2 Pages. FACULTY OF CONSERVATION, THE ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT OF RURAL AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT COURSE : SOCIAL . ECONOMICS OF RURAL LIVELIHOOD CODE : ERL213 LECTURE : FRANCIS UNGAPEMBE STUDENT : GIFT KAPOTA YEAR : 2 ASSIGNMENT : Seven QUESTION : Discuss the role of paper government in promoting socio-economics of rural livelihood DUE DATE : 7 September 2013 DATE SUBMITTED: 2 September.
Economic development , Economics , Land reform 1383 Words | 4 Pages. from a past dangerous experience and try to of music protect others from the same fate as the ones they had lost previously to paper these dangers. Cover Letter With Salary Requirements! In the end both main . Mamatas Term Paper! characters gave up their own lives for another and cover salary requirements, showed leadership. Nance and mamatas term paper, Mrs. Wang had life experiences and remained aware of the dangers of Mother Nature.
Mrs. Wang would climb the dike steps everyday after supper to see how high the accountant salary river had risen. She knew how dangerous it was if the dike broke. Term Paper! It would drown her family and the whole. Antagonist , Climbing , Old age 854 Words | 3 Pages. | | | | | | | | | | | | | How might ‘creativity’, rather than flagship developments, help to regenerate local communities?| | | | . | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Essay Introduction Presently ‘creativity’ seems to be a cure-all for a variety of problems.
Lot of english essays research has been done on the topic of creativity and mamatas term paper, its role in essay writers of music different field such as creative cities (Landry, 2000), creative clusters (Mommaas, 2009), creative industries (O’Connor. City , Creative class , Creativity 1861 Words | 6 Pages. Writing and Compare-and-contrast Essays. ? Compare and Contrast This type of writing assignment is common. On a standardized test, you may be asked to analyze literature, evaluate . ideas, or make a judgment and term, explain your reasons. In responding to these types of prompts, you often will compare and contrast characters, concepts, or choices. You will be asked to identify similarities and differences, which are the accountant cover letter with requirements key to compare -and-contrast essays . There are ways to organize your thoughts about compare -and-contrast topics, which will. Comparison , Comparisons , Essay 1384 Words | 4 Pages.
? Compare and Contrast: “Fish Cheeks” and “Caged Bird” Rachael Becker Assignment 5 . Mamatas Term Paper! Nicole Yurchak 1/30/2014 The differences between a narrative and a descriptive essay determine the way in teaching which the reader receives the story. Term! The purpose of essays each is still very clear, to connect to the reader using story telling. In order for the reader to mamatas term receive the story as intended, the author must create a clear picture of;. Amy Tan , Bird , Finite difference 866 Words | 3 Pages. Compare Contrast: The Rocking-Horse Winner/The Lottery ENGL 102_B40: Literature and Composition Spring 2011 . Michaela Gates L23562144 APA Gambling, whether for essay life or money, is risky and success is not guaranteed, even if you ‘win’. Two different tales both involving risk. 1. Gambling for something valuable - One for life and the other for money 2. Term Paper! Characters’ Personalities - Paul was hopeful and english teaching, cared deeply for his. Gambling , Horse , Horse racing 781 Words | 3 Pages. Cause and Effect of People Migrating from Rural Areas to Urban Areas. trend of people migrating from rural dwellings to urban area in search of an earning, better education or may be due to . environmental degradation in rural areas. Even, political conflicts, wars, and income disparities among and within regions may also be a motivating factor which results in migration whether international or national.
Whatever may be the reasons, migration is a very common phenomenon nowadays in most of the cities. Mamatas Term Paper! Recent studies reveal that the urban population is increasing day. City , Health care , Human migration 957 Words | 3 Pages. ??Greening urban areas is not just about coursework making places look nice. Evaluate the term paper contribution of green areas in cities to meeting the goals of . sustainable development (40 marks) Sustainable development is most frequency defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Thus, sustainable development means finding a balance between the accountant cover with salary requirements fulfillment of human needs with the protection of the natural environment.
Sustainable. Biodiversity , City , Ecological economics 1521 Words | 4 Pages. Topic: Food In The Cafeteria Should Be Healthy Type of essay : Persuasion Introduction: Introduction Sentence: Parents spend a . lot of time keeping their children healthy but at a young age, they start school and many schools n lot of time keeping their children healthy but at a young age, they start school and many schools now a days have cafeterias. Cafeteria , Greek loanwords , Rhetoric 861 Words | 5 Pages. Urban Civilization Essay For History.
?Bowie, Tomeka C. History-114 9-15-2014 Dr. R. J. Simms From the Flintstones’’ Caves to Towns and then to Sumeria, Babylon and Egypt: Early . Urban Civilizations or Not? “We are not the first to term paper suffer, rebel, fight, love and die. The grace with which we embrace life , in historicism spite of the pain, the sorrows, is always a measure of what has gone before…” Although preceding is mamatas term, a quote from Alice Walker’s “Revolutionary Petunias,” and english teaching, found in mamatas A Shining of Hope: The History of Black Women in America by. Ancient Egypt , Ancient Near East , Civilization 810 Words | 3 Pages.
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How to Write an mamatas paper, Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and historicism essays easier. Evaluation essays are just like reviews. They judge whether something is mamatas term paper good or bad, better or worse than something comparable. We are familiar with this sort of writing if we've read book, movie, restaurant, or product reviews.
Evaluation papers can be serious or funny, earnest or sarcastic. Essay. We all love to read the term paper review of a really bad movie or restaurant experience. If you like to accountant cover letter salary requirements write satire, this can be a great opportunity to mamatas paper display your humor. Accountant Cover Letter With. Chances are you will have a great time, and mamatas term so will your reader. Your topic can be something you've experienced once or many times. Keep in mind that you will write a better paper if you: Have a strong opinion—positive or negative—about this topic. Choose something you've experienced recently or that you can review again before you write your paper. Know a lot about this type of experience. Use the accountant cover letter requirements following list of categories to brainstorm ideas for what you might want to evaluate. Finding Criteria for Evaluation Essays.
To turn your opinion into an evaluation, you will need to use criteria to judge your subject. What are criteria? Criteria are the parts of your topic that you will judge as good or bad, better or worse than something else. How can you find criteria? Criteria are the parts of the thing you are evaluating.
Here are some examples of term criteria: movie criteria : plot, actors, scenery, score, directing, chemistry between actors, humor. Cover With Salary. restaurant criteria: service, atmosphere, food quality, taste, value, price. website criteria: ease of navigation, design, visuals, writing, content. Finding the best criteria for your evaluation: In order to do this kind of writing well, you need to determine what sort of a topic you are evaluating. If it is a movie, then what genre is it: horror, romance, drama, etc.? Then you need to decide what would make an excellent movie in that genre in your opinion. For example, you may decide that a good romantic comedy has to have three things: humor, surprising plot twists, and actors you enjoy getting to term know. Next, you will evaluate the movie you have chosen to see how well it matches those criteria, giving specific examples of how it does or does not fulfill your expectations of an excellent romantic comedy. In order to essay of music evaluate something, you need to compare it with the best example of term that particular thing.
So, to help you develop your topic into an essay, there are two important questions to ask when you are choosing your topic to evaluate: First question: What category of a thing is it? Second question: What is the ideal example of something in historicism, that category? What category is paper it? For the best evaluation essay, you want to essay compare your topic with things that are very similar, so try to narrow the category as much as possible.
To get there, you want to keep on mamatas term paper, asking the question, What kind is it? What category does McDonald's fit into? Answer to accountant cover with first question : Restaurant. (What kind of mamatas paper restaurant?) Fast food restaurant. Paths. (Better, but what kind of paper fast food?) Hamburger-serving fast food restaurant. (This is what you want!) So if you were evaluating McDonald's, you would want to compare it to other fast food restaurants that mostly serve hamburgers. Now the second question: What is the ideal example of something in that category? What makes that example better than others? Thinking about what you consider to english teaching essays be the very best example of something in the category of what you are reviewing can help you decide what criteria you will use, and also what judgement you can make. For example, here is a list of criteria my students have come up with for an ideal burger fast food restaurant: looks clean serves food fast makes it easy to order has great fries has options on the menu offers large drinks with free refills serves juicy burgers with lots of grease doesn't cost a lot of money. No two people will come up with exactly the same list, but most restaurant reviews look at the following criteria: Answer to mamatas term paper second question: A great fast food burger joint offers great service, atmosphere, and food at a fair cost.
Now you know what your paper is going to be about how close McDonald's comes to this ideal. Is This an Effective Advertisement? Using the list of criteria above, we can make a very fast outline for an essay about an imaginary fast food hamburger restaurant called Bob's Burgers: Thesis Statement : While you may have to wait a while to get your meal at Bob's Burgers, that is because everyone finds the meal is essay of music worth the wait; Bob's Burgers offers not only great service, but a fun atmosphere for eating with friends or family, terrific food, and a good value for the price. Topic sentence for paragraph 1: Service : Bobs Burgers offers great service that makes you feel at home.
Food served quickly Easy to order Friendly Not pushy They get the order correct. Topic sentence for paragraph 2: Atmosphere : Walking into Bob's, you know you will enjoy eating there. Looks clean Attractive colors Interesting pictures or other decorations Comfortable tables and chairs. Topic sentence for paragraph 3: Food: Most importantly, Bob's burgers are the best in term paper, town. Juicy burgers with lots of grease Many choices for toppings, including grilled onions, mushrooms, and peppers Small or large burgers Have great fries One downside: No options for those who don't like burgers. Topic sentence for accountant cover letter requirements, paragraph 4: Value : While Bob's doesn't have the cheapest meals, they do offer a good value for the price. Quality ingredients Burgers and fries fill you up Toppings on burgers are free Large drinks with free refills.
Using this quick outline, most of you could probably write your own essay on Bob's or another fast food hamburger joint pretty easily. Comparison/Contrast: Evaluate your subject by comparing it to mamatas paper one of the best of paths of glory that genre (use something everyone would know to save time). You will not do an extended comparison, but just use the comparison as a lead-off into your own judgment. Mamatas Paper. Expectations Unfulfilled: This is especially easy to do for this essay type. Use the intro to describe what you were anticipating before seeing the writers of music subject, then describe how the subject was either better or worse than you expected. Frame : Use a description of the subject to term frame the essay. That way you get right into the action.
Then break off half-way through to keep your reader in suspense. Salary. Give your evaluation and then conclude with the mamatas end of your frame. Define Genre and Compare: In this essay, you would start out by describing the typical expectations of whatever subject you have (ex: rock album, romantic movie, baseball game, jazz club). After describing the “typical,” you will then tell how your subject either exemplifies the essays genre or deviates from the norm. Probably this type of organization is paper best used for a satire or for a subject that deliberately tries to break out of the normal expectations of that genre. Of Glory Essay. Analysis by term Criteria: In this type of paper, you introduce the subject, tell why you are evaluating it, what the competition is, and coursework how you gathered your data.
Then you order your criteria chronologically, spatially, or in mamatas term, order of cover requirements importance. Mamatas Term. Chronological Order : You might use this for all or part of your paper. It means telling what happened in english teaching essays, the order it happened. This is particularly useful for a performance or restaurant review. Causal Analysis: This measures the effect on mamatas, the audience. How does this subject cause a certain effect? Analysis Focused on the Visual: This organization plan works well for analyzing works of writers of music art and pictures. The analysis focuses on composition, arrangement, focus, foreground and background, symbols, cultural references, and key features of that visual genre.
It also notices the tools of the artist: color, shape, texture, pattern, and media. Paper. This paper analyzes these details in order to explain how they are related to coursework the cultural and historical context of the mamatas paper work of art and then tells how they relate to the overall meaning of the piece. Be sure to evaluate if and why this piece is effective or ineffective. Analysis Focused on the Social Context or the Story : This type of evaluation takes an image and teaching analyzes how it is effective for a particular point. Usually, the image is about a controversial or emotionally charged cultural or historical event. Your analysis can describe how this image either demonstrates or contributes to mamatas the emotion or debate surrounding the event.
It may be that the image is ironic or misleading. The only writers of music, problem with our example above is paper that it is so easy to write, and so it might seem rather trite and unoriginal. How can you make your essay stand out? Describe vividly, using interesting verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Make the reader feel that they have been to the restaurant with you. Use the introduction and conclusion to entice the reader. Introduction and Conclusion Ideas. Use a conversation about the food. Start with your expectations and end with your actual experience (telling whether it met expectations or overturned them). Talk about paths of glory, popularity or history of the restaurant. Use statistics of term people eating fast food more.
Discuss the geogrphy controversy about fast food and obesity and mamatas term health. See the chart below for more ideas. How to Connect Introduction and Conclusion. 1. Historicism Essays. Present the Subject in an Interesting Way. Give the right amount of detail : Be sure to explain clearly what it is and provide enough information for the reader to mamatas term agree with your judgment. Sometimes movie reviews leave the reader in geogrphy coursework, suspense as to the outcome of the story. You will have to decide what you want to tell. Paper. Help readers agree with your evaluation : One reason people like reviews is because they help them decide whether they would like that subject themselves, so make sure to give your reader enough details to historicism essays decide if they agree. Write a review rather than a summary: Make sure that the summary of the subject is no more than a third of your paper. The main part of your paper is supposed to be the evaluation, not the mamatas term paper summary. It is possible to on little bighorn do the summary separately and then do the mamatas paper evaluation, or you can summarize as part of your evaluation.
Make sure what you are evaluating is clear: It is letter requirements often effective to use an introduction which describes the subject or gets the reader involved in the action quickly. 2. Make a Clear, Authoritative Judgment (2/3 of paper) Thesis sentence should tell exactly what you think. You might want to foreshadow your body by including the main reasons for your evaluation in that thesis sentence. (Ex: The movie XXX is perfect for a college student's study break because of the hilarious comedy, intense action, and fantastic visual effects.) Define the audience you are addressing and the genre of the subject (in the above example, the audience is college students and term the genre is action comedy). Create a three-column-log to help you make notes for your paper. Separate your notes into essay bighorn, three columns for criteria, evidence, and judgment. Mamatas Paper. Pick at least three criteria to talk about in essay writers, your essay. For example, for a mystery play, it could be three of the following: plot, setting, costumes, acting of main characters, acting of minor characters, the mamatas paper pace of the action, or the unveiling of the mystery.
Be opinionated! Passionate reviews are always more interesting to writers read. Use vivid nouns and engaging verbs. Have a strong judgment about how this subject is either better or worse than similar subjects. Your judgment can be mixed. For example, you might say the term paper concert on the mall was a good mix of bands and that the new songs from the main act were energetically played, but that the sound equipment was poorly set up and writers of music tended to make it hard to hear the mamatas singers. Order the essays body paragraphs from term paper, least to most important. Back up your opinions with concrete examples and convincing evidence. 3. Argue for Your Judgment. As you state each of your judgments, you need to give reasons to essays back them up that are specific, interesting, and convincing.
For evidence, describe the subject, quote, use personal anecdotes, or compare and contrast with a similar subject. In some cases it is effective to counter-argue, if you disagree with what most people think. For example, if your subject is very popular and you think it is terrible, you may want to state what most people think and term paper tell why you disagree. This exercise is essay intended to help you prepare to write your paper. As you answer these questions, you will generate ideas that you can use for your paper. What is the topic (subject) you are going to evaluate? Do a short description of it in a list or paragraph. What category is your topic? Be as specific and narrow as possible. Who might be interested in this?
This is your audience for the paper. What does this audience already know? What do they want or expect from this thing? (This can help you develop criteria) What criteria can you use for evaluating your topic? (Think of what is term most important, or what can be either good or bad, or what parts there are of your topic) What did you expect before you experienced your topic? How did your experience either fulfill or reverse your expectations? In your evaluation of your topic, what is good?
In your evaluation of your topic, what is not as good? What is the best example of something in your topic? (Or what other things can you use to essay on little compare your topic with?). How does your topic compare to the best of this sort of thing? If I had to put my evaluation in term, a single sentence, I would say: Look at “How to Write and Evaluation Essay” Organization Strategies. Coursework. Which of these will you use? Explain how you will use it. Mamatas Paper. Introduction/Conclusion ideas: Which of these will work best for you?
frame story, scenario, expectations unfulfilled, conversation, vivid scene, statistics and evidence, describe social context or historical period, describe popular trend for the subject, define the genre, personal story, quote from someone (often someone who disagrees with you), analogy, compare and paths of glory contrast. How will you use this introduction and mamatas term conclusion idea in your essay? Now write a brief outline of your paper (see hamburger example above). Most of writers of music us can tackle a writing project more easily after talking about our ideas. Instructors may have you work in mamatas term paper, groups to talk out your ideas. I've even had some students turn on their webcam and answer these questions while videotaping themselves!
If your instructor doesn't have you work in a group, you can get together with some friends to answer the following questions and essay take notes to help you get ideas for your paper. Take turns in mamatas term, your group. The main goal is to help one another prepare to write. Pay special attention to essay helping each other describe their subject vividly and make their evaluation clear and precise. Term. Also, look for good ways to organize papers. Tell your subject to your group. Teaching Essays. Let the group respond and tell you what they know about it or what they would expect. You write down their answers. Explain your subject. Have your group ask questions (someone else can record for you if you want). Explain your criteria for judging it (#5 in term, pre-writing).
Have the accountant cover with salary group respond. Do these seem like the best criteria? Any other suggestions? Tell your group your one-sentence evaluation (this is your thesis). Get suggestions for how to make is term paper more effective. Look at with salary requirements the different “Organization Suggestions” on mamatas, the “Basic Features of an Evaluation Paper.” What type of organization would work best for writers, this paper? Try to write a simple outline.
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by Virginia Kearney 37. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. Thank you for this its really helped with my college English class. thank you gave a better explanation that my professor. Thanks!
This is helpful. Virginia Kearney 8 months ago from United States. That is an interesting idea Lili. I've just created a video game character, then I made 3 seperate animations that shows her personality using only visuals, and now I have it evaluate it. I've never written an evaluation before but this helped get me started, wish me luck! Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. Hi Janelle!
I have lots of information on english teaching essays, topic ideas and paper how to write different types of Freshman English essays. Geogrphy Coursework. I wrote these over my 24 years of teaching and publish them here to help other instructors, especially those who are just starting out. Paper. Many students find my essays on essays, their own but I welcome instructors using links to mamatas my material, but please do not post the information to of glory your own website or print out my information. Thank you for this. I am teaching a Freshman Comp class in college, and I'll use some of this material to mamatas teach an evaluation essay of some kind. I will be writing my essay on the gender inequality. I am trying to essay evaluate a hotel. Evaluating a TED talks presentation/speech. Lily Galindo 2 years ago. Reviewing a technological device - the Kindle Keyboard 3G. Term. :) askformore lm 2 years ago.
Thank you for a very interesting and useful hub. Historicism. Thumbs up! Arif 4 years ago from Bangladesh. wow!! amazing really. I should develop my hub just like you :) FilipinoHeart 4 years ago.
Thank you for term paper, this very accessible and useful information. Cheers! :) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks DVKR--I think this is one of the easier essays to write because we are all familiar with the review. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. With Requirements. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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