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ApplyTexas: Essay Help for Topics A and B. On Performance Appraisal. Click HERE for the current essay prompts! All public universities, and some private and 2-year colleges, in Texas do not use the google thesis Common Application. Phd Thesis. Instead, they have their own consolidated system called ApplyTexas. If you are applying to any of the schools that use ApplyTexas, you need to google earth copyright figure out what essays they require (if any), and on performance, then which specific prompts. Operating Systems Research. I find it all very confusing. On Performance. But there are two main prompts that the communications paper largest schools (such as the phd thesis on performance appraisal University of on sachin, Texas at Austinpick either Topic A or B; Texas AMboth Topic A and B; etc.) require applicants to address in phd thesis on performance appraisal their essays. In Marathi. Here#8217;s some advice on on performance how to think about distributed operating systems research, these prompts, called Topic A and phd thesis, Topic B. (Find help for operating Topic C.) They don#8217;t list a word count, but I believe the appraisal common length is group, around 300-500 each. #8220;Describe a setting in which you have collaborated or interacted with people whose experiences and/or beliefs differ from phd thesis on performance appraisal, yours. Address your initial feelings, and south park essays, how those feelings were or were not changed by phd thesis on performance, this experience.#8221; What are they getting at notre supplement 2012 with this prompt? To me, this is an opportunity to share what you believe about anything from phd thesis on performance appraisal, diversity to communications leadership.

The first step is to phd thesis brainstorm a real-life experience that occurred while you worked with people who were different than you. Notre Dame Essays. The group could be big or small. They could be a different age (seniors, toddlers); culture (from any that you are not, whether it#8217;s Jewish, Asian, Native Americanas long as it#8217;s new to you on some level); religion (again, anything that#8217;s different); overall personal philosophy (conservative, liberal, strict, casual, sloppy, OCD, ambitious, laid backas long as the other people were distinctly different from you). Other potential #8220;different#8221; groups that you could consider: education level, age, appearance, health, physical/mental ability, etc. Now that you have a group in mind that you have been involved with somehow, the trick is to appraisal write an communications paper essay that shows how you were affected by them in some wayand that what you first felt about them (your opinion) was somehow changed (or not). And then why that mattered.

What you don#8217;t want to phd thesis on performance appraisal do with this essay is write a general explanation of some group you worked with and how they made you feel on park a general level and how this changed you in some general way. If you keep everything general , your essay will be dull and on performance, not reveal much about 150 essays from, you. Appraisal. To make it more interesting and personal, try to think of a moment or time something happened with that group. The most interesting moments are typically when there was some type of communications, problem. Phd Thesis On Performance. If you can think of one of these moments, especially if it involved a problem (obstacle, challenge, mistake, conflict, misunderstanding, change, etc.), you can start your essay sharing that specific, real-life incident. Then go onto south, explain how you and the group dealt with it, and share how you felt and phd thesis appraisal, thought, and then talk about what you learned about earth thesis, yourself and phd thesis on performance, the group in the process. About Democracy. Finally, reflect on how you were, or were not, changed (affected, inspired, etc.) in some way by on performance appraisal, this experience.

The point of this prompt is to get you to share how you feel and think about essay on sachin tendulkar, people who are different than you. Phd Thesis. How To Structure Your Essay. Here#8217;s a suggested outline: 1. Communications Research Paper. Start with an anecdote, which is phd thesis appraisal, a paragraph or two where you recreate a r eal-life moment or incident where you worked with a group that was different from on sachin tendulkar, you. On Performance. (Read more on systems research how to craft an anecdote in these posts.) 2. Back up and phd thesis, provide background that explains why you were working with this group, especially since they were so different from 150 essays from past papers, you. On Performance Appraisal. Share how you felt about it, and group report, what led up to the problem you faced with this group. Appraisal. 3. Explain the steps you took with this group to writing from past papers handle the phd thesis on performance problem.

4. Copyright Thesis. Share what you learned from phd thesis on performance appraisal, working on this problem with this group. *Make sure to south essays include something about how your initial feelings or opinions about this group changed along the way. On Performance. 5. Describe how you intend to paper use what you learned in this process in on performance your future . 150 Essays Past Papers. It#8217;s ideal if you can link that somehow to on performance appraisal what you plan to study or your life goals. If you write about communications research, 100 words for phd thesis each step, you should end up with a robust first draft. #8220;Describe a circumstance, obstacle or conflict in your life and south, the skills and phd thesis appraisal, resources you used to resolve it. Google Earth Copyright Thesis. Did it change you? If so, how?#8221; This prompt is more direct, and phd thesis appraisal, should be easier to essay on sachin tendulkar in marathi language write about. It is more of phd thesis appraisal, a straight personal statement type of essay democracy, essay, in that they are looking to phd thesis appraisal understand what you are made of, what core qualities, characteristics or values you have that make you effective in your life. The key is to ielts 150 essays think of phd thesis on performance appraisal, a time or moment when you dealt with some type of essay about democracy, problem (#8220;obstacle or conflict#8221;). On Performance Appraisal. The problem does not have to be some huge catastrophe or crisis (even though those can work.) Often, something everyday or simple works even betteras long as it illustrates a larger life lesson for notre dame you. Then make sure to explain how you solved, handled or dealt with it#8212;and make sure to on performance appraisal include the ielts writing papers specific #8220;skills and phd thesis, resources#8221; you used in the process.

The questions in Topic B are actually almost the park same as Prompt 4 for phd thesis on performance appraisal the Common Application. Read When Your Problem is on sachin tendulkar in marathi, a Good Thing for a step-by-step guide on how to on performance appraisal answer this prompt. Google Earth Thesis. ***If you can tell, there#8217;s a good chance you could recycle your Common App essay for phd thesis appraisal this prompt. Essay On Sachin. Just make sure it is about you dealing with some type of phd thesis on performance appraisal, issue or problem in report your life (Common App prompts #1, 2 and 4 would be the on performance appraisal most likely). Earth. #8220;Considering your lifetime goals, discuss how your current and future academic and extra-curricular activities might help you achieve your goals.#8221; Many college admissions experts believe Topic C is the on performance appraisal most important of the earth copyright thesis three essays! As a professional writing coach, I help students, parents, counselors, teachers and others from around the phd thesis appraisal world on essay on sachin tendulkar language these dreaded essays! Learn about my in-person and online tutoring, editing, workshops, books, and on performance, online courses, . READ MORE. Google Copyright. . Learn to Write Your Essay in phd thesis on performance One Hour! My on-demand, fast-and-easy online e-course: How to essay Write a College App Essay (Click lightbulb for details.) Perfect for The Common App, UCs, grad school, transfer and appraisal, scholarship essays!

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Young Persons' Self Reflections On Childhood: A Journey in Enlightenment. There seems to be a great deal of contradiction and variation in society as to appraisal the specific rights of young people , such as; the age of consent for sex, ages of accountability, and the differing legal ages applied to the purchase of various goods. Therefore it is difficult to say where the lines of childhood and adulthood might merge. It is now well established that children have the right to communications be heard, as many laws have been implemented in recent years to protect the rights of children. On Performance! Such as, the Children Act of 1989 , the 1989 United Nations Convention on project report the Rights of the Child and appraisal the, ‘Gillick competence’ 1986, which established children under the age of 16 were able to consent to dame supplement essays 2012 medical treatment without parental knowledge or consent if deemed competent enough to make that decision. There is not one specific transitional process that launches young people into adulthood; however it is the phd thesis, confusion about essay about, this important process that requires reflection and understanding from those who are at the centre of it. As Alderson (2004, p101) describes, 'It is as if we put children into a small glass cage called childhood, and then examine how they perform within the cage's restriction, instead of looking critically at the cage itself, its causes and effects.' It is therefore the young people themselves that are the best source of information through their narratives and constructions of childhood , 'Children are the best resource for understanding childhood' (Corsaro, 1997:103).

There are problems that exist in recognising young people as 'knowing subjects' and acknowledging their competence with the need to ensure their protection. The understanding of children's perspectives is phd thesis on performance important as these will differ from the accounts that are based on what adults believe children think. Google Earth! As Harding (1996) says, 'actual individual children and their lives, feelings and experiences are one thing, while (adult) concepts, constructions, representations, perceptions, attitudes, indeed stereotypes, concerning childhood (and its different-ness) are another.' There has been much media interest and policy decisions made which have been centred on and around children and young people, particularly during this century (Narvanen Nasman, 2004, Lloyd-Smith, M. and Tarr, J. 2000). It would be expected that from this we would be getting greater understanding and appraisal clarity, however it seems to have further merged the boundaries and confused the categories. The basic definition and category of childhood has not been established or even agreed, and distributed research the processes that shape children in preparation for adulthood are not defined. This may be because clarification of childhood as a definite stage of development is not possible. (Hallet, C Prout, A. 2003). This research is primarily concentrating on the personal constructs and individual accounts of phd thesis appraisal young people's views and reflections on their own childhood, if indeed that is how they choose to define them. The research investigates how children perceive and construct their place within society, because as adults we seem to construct childhood as a separate and distinctive entity to adulthood (James Prout 1997). Yet as Prout (2003) states, there is also the emergence of recognition that children and adults are bound by a mutual interdependence, and report we are beginning to appreciate the contribution that children make in both the social and economic areas, 'Whatever the level of investment society makes, without the active participation of children there will be no social future.' (Prout, 2003. P20).

Social Constructionism. Burr (1995) identifies a key number of strategies that helps to explain the theory of childhood as being a social construction. Firstly a, 'critical stance towards taken-for-granted knowledge', in which we take a critical stance on the traditionally defined theories by questioning them. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal! Secondly, 'Historical and cultural specificity', meaning we need to make sense of dame current experience and issues by using social, historical and cultural relativity. Thirdly that 'knowledge is sustained by social processes'; explains the way in which we view the world is shaped by on performance appraisal, meanings we attach to the interactions between the people we encounter.

Lastly that 'knowledge and social action go together', this perspective allows us to look at dame essays accountability and who is ultimately responsible for the perception, society or the individual. Prout, (2003), asserts that the most adequate way of representing childhood is by viewing young people as social persons, he does this in order to understand their positions from within contemporary society. Structuring of the childhood experience is represented in 'stages and scripts' that are responsible for generating the essential questions about their environments. One stage of life is childhood, and we see it as a natural stage of development. It is however not simply a biological stage of development, but an emergence of phd thesis attitudes, beliefs and communications paper values that surround the individual child at particular points in time. As such it can be defined as a fluid social category, this is not fixed and on performance it is subject to the changing values, definitions and expectations we have within society and most importantly the individual perceptions and internalisations young people make of these societal boundaries (Valentine, 2000). It is not only that there is internal confusion created by the changing hormonal balances, but also various other internal conflicts which are a direct reflection of the intricate dimensions in the process of 'growing up'. Narvanen Nasman (2004) discuss childhood as a social construction in relation to language the generational perspective in which, Children and on performance teenagers are also seen as actors who interpret their world, reflect, and create meaning; they are actors involved in constructing their own lives and influencing their own conditions.

That is, the meaning of 'child' as a social position is understood in relation to the other positions in paper relation to which it is on performance defined - those of copyright thesis parent and adult. Therefore the focus is on the construction of these relationships and how the people in those positions relate to appraisal one another, (Narvanen Nasman, 2004, pp.72) It is the social conditions that surround a young person in society that are related to the way adulthood is perceived by society; conversely this position is related to the treatment of notre supplement essays young people, (Young, 1995: 121). The Social Construction of Childhood. Aries (1962) argues that childhood is not a biologically determined stage but rather a socially imposed stage. He defined childhood as a category that was applied as a concept in society during the 16th Century, prior to phd thesis on performance appraisal that they were seen as being small adults who were capable of, and indeed made to participate fully in adult life. Aries' (1962) view is that childhood is project a new concept that did not exist within the medieval period. Childhood he claims began in the 16th and 17th centuries in on performance the upper classes, the concept then gained strength until it permeated all levels of society however it was not until later on in the 19th and research early 20th century that it was accepted by the lower classes. On the emergence of the institution of childhood, the appraisal, young people's situation within society began to change, they were 'named' children and innocence was born. Children began to be protected from the reality of the essay in marathi language, world and its events The setting of on performance legal ages for consents, for sex, the sale of notre essays alcohol, the statutory attendance of on performance appraisal schools and notre dame 2012 voting rights, thus making age the prominent marker and focus for maturity, (Hewstone, Wolfgang and Stephenson, 1996). Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal! In another theory, Muller's (1973) conception of childhood is structured using four phases that are demarcated by essay about democracy, trends in birth and death rates.

Phase one explains that children are a, 'necessary evil' until they reached adolescence when they became a financial bonus to the family as they could be put to work. In phase two children became, 'productive workers', who were 'cheap and plentiful' and could do the jobs which adults could not, like crawling under machines to phd thesis on performance fix them to. In phase three children 'assumed central importance within the family', these ideas also began to filter through to the lower and middle class boundaries. Phase four explains that society is 'child centred' where by the main goal of about democracy society is the care, respect and understanding of the child's needs rather than those of the parents (Lambert, 1996). These are marked by the 1959 United Nation's Declaration of the Rights of the on performance, Child, and the National Children's Bureau publications on Child Protection Policies and essay Guidelines For Research. As the exposure to on performance appraisal different social groupings affects and operating research shapes ' childhood ' so to does the interactions of peers and other members of the groups, both positive and appraisal negative in distributed operating nature. Berger and Luckmann (1967) state that the social construction of phd thesis childhood expressed by a young person will be that daily realities will exist outside of them and operate independently of the young person, there by reflecting the view that they are not in control of their world, and merely just a player in the grander scheme of things. How young people relate to essays 2012 each other and different members of society requires the ongoing negotiation of these social constructs. Social constructionism implies that the knowing is linked to doing and appraisal that the interaction between understanding and social action is notre dame 2012 symbiotic (Burr 1995). How we talk and phd thesis the language that is used is a basis for our thoughts, actions and how we think (Burr 1995: Gergen and Gergen, 2003; Potter and Wetherell, 1987).

There is much debate on the construct of childhood; James Prout (1997) claim that it is, 'cultures which children construct for and between themselves', where as Hendrick (1990) cites it as being in opposition and that, 'childhood - both the institution and the construction of - was composed by adults.' (James Prout, 1997, pp34). With adults having such opposing views on childhood , there is little wonder at the conflict that surrounds young people during this transitional period. Added into google earth this there is then the societal perception of childhood and phd thesis adulthood. In society young people are being judged on maturity by various age related categories, restrictions and issues; for group project, example at sixteen you can have sex, get married (with permission), have a baby, be able to smoke, and yet you have to wait a further two years until you are allowed to drink or be allowed to vote. It is therefore important to focus on the young person's relationship with the social world and examine the complex sets of phd thesis social processes that they go through to become constructed as 'children' while other people are constructed as 'adults'. To define the social construction of childhood we must first explore the notre dame supplement 2012, many social areas that children are exposed to, which may influence and enrich their worlds. Such areas as, home, school, clubs, friendships, hobbies, and groups all provide diverse influences on young people and help shape how they construct experiences into scripts that make sense to them. Identity.

There have been many studies concentrating on the development and the origins of self and identity but these have tended to focus in on the 'personal-self', and largely neglected has been the 'social- self', (Cooley, 1902; Mead, 1934). It could be that there are as Lloyd-Smith and Tarr (2000) point out, some powerful social and cultural constraints that act as the boundaries and phd thesis appraisal guidelines of childhood, and they view childhood as specifically being a social construction. A social construction that shapes us as unique individuals, through a process of socialization, which in turn allows us to feel part of the community. Social identity is, therefore, complex, fragmentary and achieved by taking up discursively constructed subject position - as 'adult', 'child', (Valentine 2000, p265). It is also assumed that a young person's conceptualisations of their identities are likely to be quite limited, (Bennett 2004) and that in particular 'subjective identification' with social groups may be quite a late achievement, (Bennett et al., 1998). Essay! Identity formation of young children, it is claimed, develops through a process where by they adopt an, 'ideological stance juxtaposed to phd thesis on performance that of their parents', (Knafo Schwartz, 2004). There are claims that only two processes that are central to notre 2012 identity formation, exploration and commitment. Exploration, 'entails seeking out, elaborating, and utilizing potential identity alternatives', and commitment, 'entails the decision to phd thesis appraisal accept particular alternatives as part of the self, and report the outcome of commitment is to achieve enduring self-orientations in various life domains.' (Marcia,1980). The research draws upon discursive psychology to explore the ways in phd thesis on performance which children talk about their lives and the process of 'becoming' an adult. Discursive psychology primarily focuses on discourse of constructs, 'a discourse refers to notre supplement essays a set of meanings, metaphors, representations, images, stories and phd thesis on performance appraisal statements and so on that in some way produce a particular version of earth copyright thesis events.' (Burr 1995:48), in appraisal particular the type of discourse, and since it is usually the case that the children have been brought up in group project report a predominantly feminine environment, a relational discourse might be expected (O'Connor et al., 2004). This notion of female influenced care is phd thesis on performance appraisal also evident in other studies (Phoenix, 1997).

Discourses allow us to identify and to structure the young persons own, individual experiences, and each one will be an alternative construction of childhood, of the democracy, self and the other events in their lives through language, which is phd thesis on performance appraisal fundamental to the social constructionist view (Burr, 1995). Project Report! There is also a prevalent view where by it is cited that, ' The discourses which govern young people's transitions to adulthood define not only the amount of independence which young people have but the basis upon which rights and responsibilities are extended to them.' (Brannen and O'Brien, 1996, p229). Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal! It has also been argued that in the production of a young persons' own narrative self, they have to democracy learn to negotiate the ambiguity of the process of individualisation, where the category of appraisal youth is being merged into adulthood, in order to position themselves correctly within adult and peer cultures, (Valentine 2000). The narratives of young people have located them, and defined them in opposition to adults; this position sets a clear division in the narrative segregation of children from adults which reinforce the social and communications research spatial compartmentalisations of childhood as being a separate category from adulthood (Valentine 2000). The Biologically Determined View.

Traditionally psychology conceptualised a definite 'stage theory' which was proposed by Freud which looked at the various stages leading up to phd thesis on performance appraisal adolescence, and it was expanded on by Erikson (1968) who mentions three additional stages which lead to and constitute adulthood. These stages are, Oral-Sensory, which is birth to distributed systems research approximately 12-18 months. Muscular-Anal, from 18 months to 3 years, Latency from 6-12 years, Adolescence from 12-18 years, Young adulthood from 19-40 years, Middle adulthood from 40-65 years and, Maturity, which is from 65-death. However by adopting this psychological theorising and stages of development it narrows the focus on the complex nature of phd thesis relationships (France, 2000). Erickson (1968) also cites that an important part of identity formation in adolescence is acquiring a stable and copyright mature value system; this is done through the exploration of their parents' ideas and values, (Knafo Schwartz 2004). Based on these ideas Marcia (1966) developed two further models of phd thesis identity, foreclosure, which is the commitment of value systems and identity without direct exposure to them, and moratorium, the status of the individuals who have not made a commitment to about an identity or value but are in appraisal the process of exploring the alternatives (Knafo Schwartz 2004).

Childhood is google earth often defined on biological grounds and is based around the physical changes which occur, such as puberty, however even when we narrow it down to just biological age, significant variations over time and space can be detracted, (Young 02/12/04). As such it is a pre requisite that we study childhood as a social construction rather than a biological category, Childhood cannot be studied in isolation from phd thesis appraisal, society as a whole, (Cunningham, 1995). Research Aims. The research aims are to: * Explore how young people reflect on essay in marathi their experience of childhood. * The discourses the young people draw upon in their construction of the society they live in. Phd Thesis On Performance! * How they construct and interpret 'childhood' in their discourse, particularly in relation to themselves as an individual. Aries, P. 1962. Centuries of essay childhood : A social history of family life. New York: Vintage Books.

Bennett. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal! M., (2004) 'Children and Social Identity'. The Psychologist. Vol 17, No 9. p512-514 Bennett, M., Yuill, N., Banerjee, R., Thomson, S. (1998) Children's understanding of extended identity. Tendulkar! Developmental Psychology, 34, 322-331. Berger, P.I Luckmann, T. (1967). On Performance Appraisal! The social construction of reality. New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday and Company. Brannen, J. and O'Brien, M. (1996) Children in families: Research and policy. Hampshire: Falmer press.

Burr, V. (1995). An Introduction to Social Construction. London: Routeledge. Children act 1989: http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1989/Ukpga_19890041_en_1.htm Cooley, C. H. (1902) Human Nature and the Social Order. New York: Scribner's Press. Corsaro, William A. (1997): The Sociology of Childhood. California, London New Delhi: Pine Forge Press Cunningham, 1995: Childhood.

Accessed 11/10/04 http://www.rouncefield.homestead.com/files/as_soc_family_26.htm Erikson, E. Essay On Sachin Tendulkar In Marathi! (1902-1994): http://azaz.essortment.com/psychosocialdev_rijk.htm. Phd Thesis Appraisal! Feuchtwang, M., Ramsay, S., (1999) The construction of childhood. Distributed Operating Systems Research! London: University of London. Accessed 02/12/04 http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/ opusuk/chldhood.htm France, A. (2000) 'Towards a sociological understanding of youth and their risk taking', Journal of Youth Studies, 3(3): 317-331. Frazer, S., Lewis, V., Ding, S., Kellet, M., and on performance Robinson, C. (2004). Doing Research with Children and Young People. London: Sage Gergen, m., Gergen, K. (2003) Social Construction, A Reader.

London: Sage Publications. Gillick competence 1986: http://www.hrcr.org/safrica/childrens_rights/Gillick_WestNorfolk.htm Hallet, C Prout, A. (2003). Hearing the Voices of Children. Report! Social Policy for a New Century. The Future of Childhood Series. London: RoutledgeFalmer. P11-25, 177-191. Appraisal! Harding, L.F. Recent developments in children's rights: liberation for notre dame supplement 2012, whom?', Child and Family Social Work Journal 1996, 1 (3): 141-150 Hays, S. (1996).

The cultural contradictions of motherhood. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Hendrick, H. Appraisal! (1990). Images of Youth: Age, Class, and thesis the Male Youth Problem, 1880-1920, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Hewstone, M., Wolfgang, S., Stephenson, G.M., Eds (1996).

Introduction to Social Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell. P308 James, A. and appraisal Prout, A. (1997) Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the sociological Study of essay in marathi Childhood. London, Falmer Press. P243 Knafo, A., Schwartz, S. H. (2004) 'Identity Formation and Parent-Child Value Congruence in Adolescence'. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 22, 439-458 Lambert, O. (1996). On Performance Appraisal! The conception of childhood: An Historical Psychological Analysis.

Simon Frazer University. Accessed 02/12/04 http://www.sfu.ca/ wwwpsyb/issues/1996/spring/lambert.htm Langdridge, D. (2004) Introduction to Research Methods and Data Analysis in Psychology. Harlow, England: Pearson Prentice Hall. p252, p286 Lewis, Y. (2003) 'The self as a moral concept'. British Journal of research Social Psychology, Volume 42, Number 2, pp. 225-237. Phd Thesis! Accessed 26/06/4. Group! http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=U0PQL2M67L06UVXYLXLL. Phd Thesis Appraisal! Lloyd-Smith, M. and essay about Tarr, J. (2000) Researching Children's' Perspectives: A sociological dimension. Buckingham: Open University Press. Marcia, J.E. Phd Thesis On Performance! (1980).

Identity in adolescence. In J. Adelson (ed) Handbook of adolescent psychology. New York: Wiley. Mead, G.H. Notre Dame Supplement 2012! (1934). Mind, Self and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Muller, P. (1973). Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal! Childhood's changing status over the centuries. In Child development: Selected readings, L.M. Brockman, J.H.

Whiteley, J.P. Zubak (Eds.), 2- 10. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. Narvanen, A-L, Nasman, E. (2004). Childhood as generation or life phase? Young, Nordic Journal of research Youth Research.

Vol 12(1):71-91 National Children's Bureau. Guidelines for Research. http://www.ncb.org.uk/ourwork/research_guidelines.pdf . Accessed 01/11/04 O'Conner, P., Haynes, A., and phd thesis Kane, C. (2004) 'Relational Discourses: Social Ties with family and friends'. Childhood: A global journal of research. Vol. 11, No3, 361-382. Phoenix, A. (1997) 'Youth and Gender; New Issues, New Agenda'; at: www.alli.fi/nyri/young/1997-3/artikkelPhoenix3-97.htm Accessed 25/06/04 Potter, J. Wetherell, M. (1987). Discourse and Social Psychology: Beyond Attitudes and Behaviour.

London: Sage. Prout, A. (2003) Hearing the Voices of Children: Social Policy for a New Century, London: Falmer Press. Distributed Systems Research! (Edited with Christine Hallett). United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989: http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/k2crc.htm Valentine, G. (2000). Exploring children and young people's narratives of identity. Geoforum 31, 257-267. Accessed 26/06/04 www.elsevier.com/locate/geoforum Willig, C., (2001). Introducing Qualitative Research in Psychology. Adventures in theory and method.

Buckingham: Open University Press. Woodhead, M., Faulkner, D. and Littleton, K. (Eds) Making sense of social development. London: Routledge, The Open University. Young, 1995: Child welfare across borders a social justice framework accessed 02/12/04 http://www.sws.soton.ac.uk/cwab/Session3/ICWs32.htm. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of phd thesis appraisal us is qualified to communications paper a high level in our area of expertise, and phd thesis we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Pyschology work in your email box, in systems research as little as 3 hours. This Pyschology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay UK, Essay on Self Reflections On Childhood | Psychology . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/psychology/self-reflections-on-childhood.php [06-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of phd thesis Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.

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Histoire des Alpes - Storia delle Alpi - Geschichte der Alpen (1998)/09. Phd Thesis On Performance? PRODUKTION, VERARBEITUNG UND VERTEILUNG. Google Earth Copyright? [ 107 ] PRODUKTION, VERARBEITUNG UND VERTEILUNG UBERLEGUNGEN ZUR BEDEUTUNG METALLISCHER ROHSTOFFE BEI DER AUSBILDUNG POLITISCHER SYSTEME IM SUDBAYERISCHEN ALPENVORLAND WAHREND DER BRONZEZEIT. Production, transformation et distribution. Phd Thesis? Reflexions sur la signification des matieres premieres metalliques dans la formation des systemes politiques dans les prealpes bavaroises pendant l'Age du bronze. Essay In Marathi Language? Cette contribution s’interesse aux possibilites qu’offrent les trouvailles et les resultats des fouilles archeologiques en vue de tirer des enseignements sur les processus politiques en jeu dans la partie meridionale des Alpes bavaroises durant l’Age du bronze.

La situation bavaroise y est comparee a celle des pays de l’est de l’Europe centrale et du sud-est de l’Europe, qui sont plus faciles a caracteriser du fait de leur proximite des civilisations hautement developpees de la Mediterranee orientale. Il apparait une concordance etonnante aussi bien dans le developpement chronologique de l’occupation que dans le genre et le but des ouvrages de fortification. Phd Thesis? Contrairement aux pays du Danube, le sud de la Baviere dispose d’un ensemble de sources supplementaire: les objets funeraires. Essay? L’article essaie de montrer les liens existant entre les fortifications d’altitude des prealpes, les places fortifiees a la lisiere des Alpes, les lieux de stockage des metaux et les riches tombes avec leurs temoignages de l’extraction et de la transformation des metaux. On Performance? Cette demarche a ete rendue possible grace a un projet de recherche, qui doit permettre de mieux connaitre les dimensions economique et politique de la distribution du metal durant l’Age du bronze dans les prealpes orientales. Operating Systems Research? Der Forschungsstand in phd thesis on performance appraisal, Suddeutschland [2] ist im Vergleich mit demjenigen des mittleren und unteren Donauraumes, unter dessen Einfluss die Kulturen der suddeutschen Bronzezeit uberwiegend stehen, [3] nicht befriedigend. Dort lassen sich immerhin die Grundzuge der historischen Entwicklung einigermassen exakt umreissen: Nach einer Phase der fruhbronzezeitlichen Belegung (2000-1600 v. Dame Supplement? Chr.) ist ein zeitweiliges Aussetzen in der Besiedlung von Hohenplatzen zu beobachten, die in phd thesis on performance, Nordungarn und Siebenburgen erst mit der Stufe Bronze D, also im 13. vorchristlichen Jahrhundert wieder aufgenommen wird. Group Project Report? In Westungarn und der Slowakei scheint der Hiatus kurzer zu sein und endet bereits in on performance appraisal, der Mittelbronzezeit um 1500 v. Tendulkar? Chr. Fur die Auswahl des Platzes sind ausser strategischen Erwagungen auch naturliche Verkehrswege, etwa am Zusammentreffen von Flusstalern massgeblich.

In vielen Fallen sind zudem direkte Zusammenhange mit den Lagerstatten naturlicher Ressourcen auszumachen. Fur das sudbayerische Alpenvorland und die Schotterplatten, weite Ebenen, die nach dem Ruckzug der eiszeitlichen Gletscher entstanden, ist lediglich der Kenntnisstand uber offene dorfliche Siedlungen in phd thesis on performance, den letzten Jahren enorm gewachsen. Essay? [4] Einer relativen Dichte fruhbronzezeitlicher Graberfelder, denen erst seit neuestem zeitgleiche Siedlungen zugeordnet werden konnen, [5] folgt ein Absinken sowohl der Siedlungs- wie auch der Grab- und Hortfunde wahrend der mittleren Bronzezeit, fur das bisher keine plausible Erklarung zur Verfugung steht, das aber kaum eine tatsachliche Siedlungsleere widerspiegeln durfte. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? Mit der spaten Bronzezeit, also seit dem 13. vorchristlichen Jahrhundert tritt dann der Siedlungstyp des Gehoftes mit mehreren Gebauden wohl unterschiedlicher Funktion auf, der sich ohne grossere Anderungen bis in about, die keltische Eisenzeit des 5./4. Appraisal? Jahrhunderts v. Notre Dame? Chr. fortsetzt. Phd Thesis? Als bevorzugte Topographie ist wie in distributed operating paper, den Dona ulandern die Lage am Rand von Mooren oder Flussauen belegt und auch die Verkehrsgunst spielt eine entscheidende Rolle. On Performance? [6] Eine andere Situation begegnet bei spatbronzezeitlich belegten Hohen- [ 109 ] Siedlungen des Alpenvorlandes, die prinzipiell seit langem bekannt sind; da jedoch ihre herausragende topographische Lage bis in on sachin, die jungste Zeit reprasentative Bauten anzog, fehlen gemeinhin befriedigende Aufschlusse zur Art der Befestigung und Besiedlung oder zu Zweck und Charakter. On Performance Appraisal? [7] Die Dauer der Belegung lasst sich zumeist nur grob umreissen. Immerhin lasst das ostliche Sudbayern mit Hohensiedlungen wie dem Freisinger Domberg [8] einheitliche Belegungsfolgen erkennen, die mit spater Fruhbronzezeit (17./16. Group Report? Jahrhundert v. Chr.), spater Mittelbronzezeit und Spatbronzezeit (14.-10. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? Jahrhundert v. Chr.) Parallelen mit den Anlagen des Donauraumes zeigen. Google Earth Copyright Thesis? Eine weitere Gruppe mittel- bis spatbronzezeitlich belegter, burgahnlicher Hohenorte, deren chronologische Entwicklung vergleichbar mit jener der grossen Hohensiedlungen des Voralpenlandes ist, kontrollierte die Ein- beziehungsweise Ausgange zu den Alpentalern mit ihren Erzlagerstatten und Passen. On Performance? [9] Damit erscheint ein soziookonomischer Zusammenhang gegeben, in dem die drei Siedlungstypen des Voralpenlandes, namlich offene dorfliche Siedlungen, grosse, teilweise befestigte Hohensiedlungen im Flachland und kleinere Hohenplatze am Alpenrand unterschiedliche Funktionen besassen. Distributed Research? Wie sahen diese Funktionen aus und in appraisal, welcher Beziehung standen sie zum wichtigsten Wirtschaftsgut der Bronzezeit, dem Kupfererz der Ostalpen?

In den Landern des ostlichen Mitteleuropa und Sudosteuropa ermoglicht die grosse Anzahl von entsprechenden Funden eine statistisch nachprufbare lokale Affinitat von Metallhorten zu befestigten Hohensiedlungen. Sowenig uber die Rolle befestigter und unbefestigter Hohensiedlungen im Gefuge spatbronzezeitlicher Gesellschaften bekannt ist, so sehr legen doch Platzwahl und Art der Fortifikation den Schluss nahe, dass sie zum einen dazu dienten, geschatzte Werte vor rauberischem oder kriegerischem Zugriff zu schutzen; die stereotype Lage an verkehrstechnisch und strategisch wichtigen Punkten und die regelhaft wiederkehrende Sitte der Niederlegung von Bronzedepots auf oder in communications research paper, der Nahe solcher Burgen belegt, dass eine zweite Aufgabe die Sicherung oder Kontrolle von Handel und Verkehr war. Phd Thesis Appraisal? [10] Uber die Art der Macht, die von diesen Platzen ausging, ist allerdings ebensowenig Aufschluss zu erhalten wie uber die Rolle und Funktion der herrschenden Personen oder Gruppen. Democracy? Fur die vergleichbare Entwicklung in on performance, Suddeutschland kann die Hohensiedlung «Rachelburg» uber den nordlichsten Randhohen des Alpeninn- [ 110 ] Abb. Essay On Sachin In Marathi? 1: Die Lage der spatbronzezeitlichen Hohensiedlung Rachelburg im Gefuge der Nordtiroler Urnenfelder (13.-10/9. Appraisal? Jahrhundert v. On Sachin Tendulkar In Marathi? Chr.). Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? Dreieck: Hohensiedlung Rachelburg; Offene Quadrate: Urnenfelder im Bereich der Rachelburg; Gefullte Quadrate: Urnenfelder des Tiroler Inntales. Research Paper? [ 111 ] Abb. 2: Rohgusskuchen aus Fahlerzen des Tiroler Inntales.

Hortfund vom Fuss der Hohensiedlung «Rachelburg», Gemeinde Flintsbach, Landkreis Rosenheim, Oberbayern. Appraisal? Abgebildet sind ganze Gusskuchen (links oben), Halb- bis Drittelfraktionen (rechts oben), Viertelfraktionen (links unten) und Reste des Schmelzvorganges (rechts unten). tales als idealtypisch gelten, [11] ein Ensemble, dessen einzelne Bestandteile, namlich Burg oder Akropolis, geschutzte Hohensiedlung und Talsiedlung ohne Zweifel in earth, einem Funktionszusammenhang standen (Abb. Phd Thesis Appraisal? I). [12] Einen Schlussel zur Deutung stellt ein Hortfund dar, der 1992 im Bereich der Talsiedlung bei der Erweiterung einer Sandgrube entdeckt und planmassig geborgen werden konnte. Es handelte sich dabei um Gusskuchen mit einem Gesamtgewicht von fast genau 50 kg, die in notre supplement, ein Gefass geschichtet waren. Sie wiesen unterschiedliche Grossen und Gewichte auf, wobei der uberwiegende Teil aus Bruchstucken mit identifizierbaren Fraktionen bis zu einem Viertel bestand (Abb. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? 2). Notre Dame? Die Datierung liegt zwischen Bz D und Ha A2 also im Zeitraum zwischen 1300 und 1000 v. On Performance? Chr. Nun sind Brucherzhorte in essay in marathi language, Suddeutschland zwar nicht gerade selten, [13] nur in Ausnahmefallen erreichen sie allerdings das Gewicht des Flintsbacher Depots und nie sind sie mit den gewaltigen zeitgleichen Depotfunden des Donauraumes zu vergleichen, deren Brucherzmassen in Einzelfallen die Tonnengrenze uberschreiten. Von wenigen Ausnahmen abgesehen tauchen [ 112 ] sie nie im Bereich der Lagerstatten im Salzburger, Kitzbuheler und Unter-inntaler Bereich auf, ein Phanomen, das seit der fruhen Bronzezeit registriert werden kann und auch am Alpensaum sind sie eher selten. Massiert treten sie dagegen im Voralpenland auf, wobei der chronologische Umgriff mit jenem der Hohensiedlungen des Alpenvorlandes und des Alpenrandes ebenso kongruiert wie mit den Nordtiroler und Munchner Urnenfeldern: Das Schwergewicht liegt zwischen dem 13. Phd Thesis Appraisal? und dem 11. About Democracy? Jahrhundert.

Die bronzezeitliche Spatphase zwischen dem 11. und dem 9. Phd Thesis On Performance? Jahrhundert ist so gut wie nicht vertreten. Project? Es stellen sich somit verschiedene Fragen: a) Wenn das Erz offensichtlich in on performance appraisal, Rohform von den Lagerstatten weg verhandelt wurde, wo liegen die Verarbeitungsstatten? b) Existiert ein funktionales Netz zwischen Lagerstatten, Hohensiedlungen am Alpenrand und Hohensiedlungen des Voralpenlandes und wie ist es beschaffen? c) Was steckt hinter der Deponierung von Gusskuchen und Brucherz und warum werden sie nicht in essay on sachin tendulkar in marathi language, den Herkunftsgebieten deponiert? d) Besteht ein Zusammenhang zwischen dem Versiegen der Kupfervorrate in phd thesis on performance, Tirol und Salzburg und dem Ende von Graberfeldern und Hohensiedlungen? Als Trager der spatbronzezeitlichen Kultur Sudbayerns sah man lange Zeit die Bewohner einer Region des Voralpenlandes, des Riegseegebietes, an, die in earth copyright, traditioneller Weise ihre Toten in Grabhugeln bestattete. Appraisal? Die Wurzeln der Riegseegruppe reichen in group report, die mittlere Bronzezeit und auch ihre soziale Entwicklung scheint sich eher langsam in kleingruppenhaften Organisationsformen zu vollziehen. On Performance Appraisal? [14] Dies verwundert, denn gerade wahrend der mittleren Bronzezeit nehmen die Fordermengen in language, den ostalpinen Kupferbergwerken, insbesondere im Salzburger Raum stetig zu. [15] Obwohl in den Grabern der Riegseegruppe ab der Stufe Bz C an appraisal den Schwertern die Entwicklung eines Hauptlingsadels mit kriegerischem Anspruch deutlich wird und ein aus den Beigaben ablesbarer, gewissermassen bauerlicher Wohlstand und einige Importstucke nahelegen, [16] dass die kriegerische Oberschicht an on sachin dem Mehrwert, der aus der Verarbeitung und Distribution des alpinen Kupfers herruhrte, partizipierte, fehlen doch ganzlich irgendwelche Hinweise, die auf direkte Verfugung uber Ressourcen, Werkstatten oder Verkehrswege hindeuteten. On Performance? Seit Beginn der 80er Jahre tauchte im Zuge grossflachiger Grabungen auf [ 113 ] den Schotterflachen um Munchen, Ingolstadt und auf dem Lechfeld bei Augsburg eine Gruppe von Flachgrabern auf, [17] die mit den Hugelbestattungen der Riegseegruppe in ihrer Anfangsphase gleichzeitig sind, in google copyright, ihrer Grundidee jedoch erheblich von diesen abweichen und eher mit jenen der fruhen Stufe der Salzburger und Tiroler Urnenfelder ubereinstimmen. Phd Thesis On Performance? [18] Wie aus dem Sachgut ersichtlich, ist die Ideenwelt der in communications paper, ihnen Bestatteten vom Donau- und ostlichen Mittelmeerraum beeinflusst. [19] Die sozialen und okonomischen Unterschiede zu den Bestattungen der Riegseeleute sind deutlich, wenngleich ohne Zweifel Kontakt und Austausch bestanden. Alle bislang bekannt gewordenen Graber dieser Gruppe befinden sich an phd thesis on performance wichtigen Punkten einer naturlich vorgegebenen Verkehrsgeographie, wo sich der Handel, vornehmlich wohl jener mit Kupfererz bundelte und verzweigte und wo in research paper, Folge der Anhaufung von materiellen Gutern auch Fernbeziehungen zu sudostlichen Hochkulturen geknupft werden konnten.

Die Eliten dieser Gruppe werden wahrend der spaten Bronzezeit archaologisch in appraisal, Schachtgrabern mit Wagenbeigabe sichtbar. [20] Bezeichnend ist die Art und Zusammensetzung, in der Grabbeigaben in Flachgrabern der suddeutschen Spatbronzezeit niedergelegt wurden. Essay On Sachin Language? Die Niederlegung von Gutern in Grabern dieses Typs weicht erheblich von jenen der Hugelgraber wie von den einfachen Brandgrabern der Urnenfelder-zeit ab. Zwar zeichnet sich in on performance, Grosse und Anlage des Grabschachtes noch durchaus die an der Korperbestattung orientierte Vorstellungswelt der Hugelgraberbronzezeit ab, in der Deponierung von verbrannten Bronzen am Rande der Grabkammern tritt jedoch ein neuer gedanklicher Kontext entgegen. In der Kombination von Wagenteilen, Pferdegeschirr, Waffen, Gusskuchen, Barren, Halbbfertigprodukten, Symbolgut und Geschirr ebenso wie in der Niederlegung auf einem Haufen scheint ein Muster auf, das auch in notre dame, den Horten des Donauraumes begegnet. Phd Thesis Appraisal? [21] Massenstatistisch ist dies bis jetzt und vermutlich auch in earth thesis, Zukunft nicht zu belegen, da die Exklusivitat von Grabausstattungen der beschriebenen Art dies verhindert: Nur eine dunne soziale Oberschicht konnte uber Mittel und Fernbeziehungen verfugen, die notig sind, um fremde Sachformen und neues Gedankengut aufzunehmen. Eine besondere Rolle nehmen dabei Zeugnisse der Produktion, Verarbeitung und Distribution von Metall ein. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? Gusskuchen, Barren und Halbfertigprodukte belegen nicht in copyright, erster Linie Besitz, sondern symbolisieren eine entscheidende Rolle der bestatteten Personengruppe bei der Forderung [ 114 ] und Verarbeitung von Metall sowie Verfugungspotential und wirtschaftliche Potenz im Handel. On Performance? So zeigen die Gewichte durch ihre geringe Grosse, dass sie nicht im Giesserei- oder Schmiedeprozess Verwendung fanden, sondern dass hier Luxusguter, also Gold, Bernstein, Kosmetika, Farbstoffe oder Gewurze eingehandelt wurden. Google Earth? [22] Der Mehrwert, der zum Tauschgeschaft not wendig war, durfte dabei zu einem guten Teil aus der Kontrolle uber Gewinnung, Verarbeitung und Distribution von Metall hergeruhrt haben. On Performance? Da sich die Verteilung dieser Graber mit der der Brucherzhorte und der der grossen Hohensiedlungen auf das offene Voralpenland konzentriert, kann in dame supplement 2012, Beantwortung der ersten Frage also angenommen werden, dass hier auch die Verarbeitungsstatten lagen.

Das aus alpinen Lagerstatten gewonnene Kupfer wurde also in Rohform ins Voralpenland gebracht, wo es in phd thesis appraisal, den Grabern der obersten sozialen Schicht symbolischen Niederschlag fand. [23] Der Weg von den Lager- zu den Verarbeitungsstatten musste damit zwangslaufig an paper den oben beschriebenen burgahnlichen Platzen des Alpenrandes vorbeifuhren, wo sich aber, mit Ausnahme der Rachelburg bei Flintsbach bisher zwar einzelne Gusskuchen oder Gusskuchenbrocken, nie jedoch grossere Horte fanden. Wie oben dargelegt, mussen die Bewohner der Lagerstattenreviere, der Alpenrandburgen und der Verarbeitungsgebiete in appraisal, einer nicht naher definierbaren Beziehung gestanden haben. Thesis? Am starksten profitierte dabei zweifellos die neue Aristokratie des Alpenvorlandes, da nur hier in phd thesis, grosserem Umfang aus Fernbeziehungen resultierendes Luxusgut nachzuweisen ist. Essay Tendulkar In Marathi? [24] Die Graber der Produktionsgebiete im Salzburger Land und in phd thesis on performance, Nordtirol zeigen demgegenuber zwar den durchaus betrachtlichen, jedoch eher traditionellen Wohlstand der alten Schwerttragerschicht an, der vergleichbar auch in den Grabern der Riegseegruppe sichtbar wird. Welcher Art die Beziehung der kleineren Burgen des Alpenrandes zu Lagerstatten und Verarbeitungsgebieten war, bleibt unklar. Nur in geringem Umfange sind aus ihrem Umkreis Graber bekannt, vornehmlich im Salzburger Becken. Google Earth Thesis? [25] Ob sie als Aussenposten zu den Organisationen der Bergleute und Giesser gehoren, ob sie als Dependancen, quasi Ministerialensitze der voralpinen Hocharistokratie anzusehen sind oder ob sie als Punkte von Produktion, Distribution und Verarbeitung eigenstandige Teile eines Gesamtsystems sind, kann zum gegenwartigen Zeitpunkt noch nicht beantwortet werden. Die archaologische Fragestellung konnte allerdings inzwischen so zielgenau ansetzen, dass intensive Forschungen mit internationaler und interdisziplinarer, vor allen [ 115 ] Dingen naturwissenschaftlicher Beteiligung hier in phd thesis on performance appraisal, Zukunft hervorragende Ergebnisse erbringen wurden. Democracy? In Beantwortung der zweiten Frage kann also die Existenz eines uber etliche Jahrhunderte wohl funktionierenden Netzes aus Leistung und Gegenleistung postuliert werden. Phd Thesis? Hierfur war eine territoriale und politische Grundordnung notig, welche die Einhaltung wirtschaftlicher Grundregeln garantierte, uber die aber bisher so gut wie nichts bekannt ist. Paper? Zur Klarung dieses Fragenkomplexes lauft seit September 1996 am Bayer. Landesamt fur Denkmalpflege in phd thesis, Munchen eine von der Volkswagenstiftung geforderte Untersuchung zur metallurgischen Produktionskette in Nordtirol, im Salzburger Land und im sudbayerischen Alpenvorland von der mittleren Bronzezeit bis zum Ende der Spatbronzezeit, also aus der Zeit zwischen 1600 und 800 v. Google Copyright Thesis? Chr. [26] Ziel des Projektes ist es, Aufschlusse uber die mittel- und vor allen Dingen spatbronzezeitliche Vertriebsorganisation des Kupfers aus dem Nordtiroler Inntal und Salzburger Land beziehungsweise dem Kitzbuheler Raum in Sudbayern zu gewinnen (Abb.

3). Phd Thesis Appraisal? Dabei sollen Aufschlusse uber die Gesamtdauer des bronzezeitlichen Kupferbergbaus im Nordtiroler Unterinntal und seine Hochkonjunkturphasen und Anhaltspunkte zu Konstanz und Wandel bronzezeitlicher Metallegierungen gewonnen werden. On Sachin Tendulkar? Erster Kernpunkt des Vorhabens ist das metallanalytische Programm. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? Es umfasst samtliche Zeugnisse der primaren Metallurgie in essay about democracy, Sudbayern. Damit sind vor allen Dingen eine Vielzahl von Neufunden von Rohkupfer-gusskuchen aus oder in der Nahe von spatbronzezeitlichen Hohensiedlungen des Alpenrandes und des Vorlandes gemeint. On Performance? Als Referenz wird eine reprasentative Serie von Fertigprodukten untersucht. Dame? Dabei werden sechs regionale Gruppen unterschieden. Nordtiroler Unterinntal, Salzburger Land und Raum Kitzbuhel, sudwestliches Oberbayern bis zum Inntal, ostliches Oberbayern, ferner der Donauraum, unterschieden in phd thesis, Ingolstadter und Kelheimer Donauraum einerseits und Regensburger Donauraum und ostliches Niederbayern andererseits. Von besonderem Interesse sind dabei wegen der darin enthaltenen Gusskuchen und Barren die Bronzen aus den spatbronzezeitlichen Wagengrabern. Group? Wir legen Wert darauf, dass die Beprobung der Kupfervorkommen in phd thesis, Bereichen erfolgt, die auch in operating systems paper, der Bronzezeit fur die Ausbeutung erreichbar waren. In der Regel wird dies die Ausbisszone des Erzkorpers sein.

Am Mitterberg und im Gebiet Schwaz-Brixlegg konnen die Proben direkt aus bronzezeitlich datierten Abbauen entnommen werden. Appraisal? [ 116 ] Die Erzproben werden auf bestimmte Elementkombinationen hin untersucht, die auch noch im Fertigprodukt nachweisbar sind. Neben den in jedem Fall zu bestimmenden Gehalten an supplement essays 2012 Zinn, Wismut, Arsen, Nickel und Silber sollen dabei auch Spurenelemente wie Gold, Uran oder Blei analysiert werden. Sinnvolle Erganzung zu den chemischen Erzanalysen sind erzmikroskopische Untersuchungen, da nur so die Erzmineralparagenese bestimmt werden kann. Appraisal? Das unterschiedliche Austreten von akzessorischen Erzmineralien (zum Beispiel Kupfernickelerzen) beeinflusst nicht nur den Pauschalchemismus der Erze, sondern ist oft auch eine charakteristische Eigenheit einzelner Vorkommen. Paper? Grundlage der bronzezeitlichen Kupferproduktion im Nordtiroler Inntal sind die Fahlerze des Unterinntals, die sich durch hohe Anteile an on performance Antimon, Arsen, Silber und Wismut pragnant charakterisieren lassen. Innerhalb des Untersuchungsgebietes sollte deswegen die Verbreitung Nordtiroler Fahlerzkupfers sowohl in den Rohkupfergusskuchen als auch in den Fertigprodukten direkt fassbar sein. Die Kupfersorten aus den Erzen des Salzburger Landes und die Kupferkiese des Raumes Kitzbuhel sind zwar durch ihre relative Armut an earth copyright thesis Spurenelementen eher uncharakteristisch, kontrastieren aber insgesamt scharf mit dem Tiroler Fahlerzkupfer. Appraisal? Aus diesem Kontrast erwarten wir jedenfalls im engeren Vorfeld der Bergbaugebiete auch die Verbreitung des Salzburger/Kitzbuheler Kupfers umreissen zu konnen. Essay Tendulkar In Marathi Language? Ausgehend von der naturlichen Verkehrsgeographie folgen wir dabei der Arbeitshypothese, dass Nordtiroler Fahlerzkupfer hauptsachlich uber das westliche Oberbayern verhandelt und verarbeitet wurde, wahrend Salzburger und Kitzbuheler Kupfer uber Salzach und Alz nach Norden gelangte.

Das erstere dieser Gebiete wird definiert durch das Wagengrab des spaten 13. Phd Thesis Appraisal? vorchristlichen Jahrhunderts von Poing bei Munchen, das zweite durch jenes des fruhen 12. Jahrhunderts von Hart an der Alz. About Democracy? [27] Erstmals sind damit Ergebnisse zur politischen und territorialen Organisation der Bronzezeit in Sudbayern zu erwarten. Die dritte Frage lautete: Was steckt hinter der Deponierung von Gusskuchen und warum wurden sie nicht in den Herkunftsgebieten deponiert? Wenn im vorhergehenden festgestellt wurde, dass in den Herkunftsgebieten des Kupfers kaum Brucherzhorte nachweisbar sind, so kann dies nicht bedeuten, dass das Kupfer den dort ansassigen Gruppen nicht zur Verfugung gestanden hatte. On Performance Appraisal? Wie die Graber der Nordtiroler Urnenfelder oder des Salzburger Raumes zeigen, wurde hier sogar betrachtlicher Wohlstand akkumuliert. Essay Democracy? [ 117 ] Abb. 3: Ubersichtskarte zu dem von der Volkswagenstiftung geforderten Forschungsprojekt des bayerischen Landesamtes fur Denkmalpflege, Abt fur Archaologische Denkmalpflege. Umrandet sind die geographisch-kulturell umrissenen Beprobungsbezirke (1A Tiroler Inntal, 1B Salzburger und Kitzbuheler Bereich, 2A westliches Oberbayern mit Munchner Schotter ebene, 2B ostliches Oberbayern, 3A Ingol-stadter Donaubereich, 3B Oberpfalzer Senke, Gauboden und niederbayerisches Hugelland) und schraffiert die Lagerstattenreviere dargestellt Punkte: Fundorte der beprobten Stucke; Dreiecke: Hohensiedlungen am Alpenrand; Radkreuze: Fundorte von Wagengrabern der Spatbronze- und Urnenfelder zeit. On Performance Appraisal? [ 118 ] zu dessen Reprasentation jedoch nicht die Niederlegung von Horten gehorte.

Die mit den neuen Bestattungssitten verbundene Vorstellungswelt blieb der Bergbau treibenden, alpinen Bevolkerung im Gegensatz zu den Eliten des Voralpenlandes fremd. Research? Nur bei jenen deckt sich die Verbreitung von Horten, grabschatzfuhrenden Grabern mit danubisch-agaischem Einfluss und befestigten Hohensiedlungen der Spatbronze grossraumig ebenso wie die jenige von Horten und Burgen der Donaulander. On Performance? Aus den Donaulandern gelangten Vorstellungen, die mit der Deponierung grosser Bronzehorte gemischten Inhalts verbunden sind, im Zuge verstarkter Fernkontakte zusammen mit zahlreichen Sachgutern nach Suddeutschland, wo sie von einem progressiven Teil der einheimischen Eliten in essay in marathi language, uberkommene Bestattungsmuster ubernommen wurde. Phd Thesis Appraisal? Der Lebensstil und die soziologische Basis dieser Eliten ist in den Landern entlang der Donau durchaus vergleichbar, wie Art und Topographie der Befestigungen verraten, und resultiert zum uberwiegenden Teil aus der Verarbeitung und Verteilung von bergmannisch gewonnenem Kupfer. Die spezielle Ausstattung der nord-alpinen Wagengraber ware als direkte Ubernahme ostmitteleuropaischer Deponierungssitten in project, das im Umbruch befindliche traditionelle Totenritual der westlichen Hugelgraberkultur zu sehen, eine Ubernahme, die wahrscheinlich auch von neuen religiosen Vorstellungen begleitet war. On Performance? [28] Die letzte Frage lautete: Besteht ein Zusammenhang zwischen dem Versiegen der Kupfervorrate in essay democracy, Tirol und Salzburg und dem Ende von Graberfeldern und Hohensiedlungen dort und in on performance appraisal, Sudbayern? Die Nordtiroler Urnenfelder, die Urnenfelder des Munchener Bereiches ostlich der Isar sowie die Hohensiedlungen des Alpenvorlandes und des Alpenrandes brechen nach gegenwartigem Kenntnisstand in about, einem fruhen Abschnitt der Urnenfelderstufe B, als kurz nach dem Jahr 1000 v. Chr. Phd Thesis On Performance? ab.

Man nimmt dafur ein Versiegen der leicht ausbeutbaren Kupfervorkommen der Ostalpen insgesamt an. Google Earth Copyright Thesis? Einzelne, sehr wohlhabende Graberfelder zeigen jedoch, dass auch nach der Erschopfung der Kupfervorkommen wohlhabende Gemeinwesen am Alpenrand existierten, deren Wirtschaftsgrundlage unklar ist (vielleicht gelang es ihnen vom Kupferhandel auf denjenigen mit Hallstatter Salz umzusteigen). Appraisal? [29] Aufschlusse zu diesem Fragenkomplex sind vornehmlich uber die Metallanalytik zu erwarten: Ist beispielsweise das Abbrechen der Nordtiroler Urnenfelder tatsachlich auf einen schweren Einbruch des Kupferbergbaus im Nordtiroler Unterinntal zuruck zufuhren, so musste synchron dazu oder mit einer gewissen Verzogerung in [ 119 ] Sudbayern ein massiver Ruckgang im Gebrauch des Fahlerzkupfers festzustellen sein. Noch nicht abgeklart ist ferner die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung des Kupferbergbaues im Nordtiroler Unterinntal. Sollte er lediglich regionale Bedeutung fur Nordtirol und das sudliche Oberbayern besessen haben, musste der Fahlerzkupfers trom bereits in group, der Donauregion versickern. Zeichnet er sich aber dort noch massiv ab, reichte er sicherlich auch daruber hinaus und signalisiert die uberregionale Bedeutung der Unterinntaler Kupferproduktion, die aufgrund der bisherigen Indizien fur die spate Bronze- und fruhe Urnen-felderzeit auch wahrscheinlich ist. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? Hangen aber die Hohensiedlungen des sudbayerischen Raumes von der Produktion, Distribution und Verarbeitung von Kupfer ab, so musste ihre wirtschaftliche und politische Rolle fur ganz Suddeutschland parallel verlaufen. Project Report? Mit einiger Wahrscheinlichkeit bedingte die Ausbeutung und Verarbeitung der ostalpinen Lagerstatten politisch-okonomische Systeme mit ahnlich uberregional wirksamer Rolle wie weiter im Westen diejenigen der Schweiz und Vorarlbergs. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? 1 Der hier publizierte Vortrag wurde in ahnlicher Form auf dem Niederbayerischen Archaologentag 1997 in Deggendorf gehalten und ist weitgehend gleichlautend veroffentlicht in: K. Communications? Schmotz (Flg.), Vortrage des 16.

Niederbayerischen Archaologentages . Deggendorf 1997, S. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? 99-113. 2 Ansatze der 50er Jahre, u. a. Project Report? Flans-Jurgen Flundt, «Der Bogenberg bei Bogen (Niederbayern) in vor- und fruhgeschichtlicher Zeit», in: Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblatter 21,1955, S. Phd Thesis? 31-46 und Fiermann Muller-Karpe, «Funde von bayerischen Hohensiedlungen», in: Kataloge der Prahistorischen Staatssammlung Munchen 3, Kallmunz 1954, wurden nicht konsequent weiterverfolgt und erst in essay, den letzten Jahren wieder in on performance appraisal, verstarktem Umfang auf gegriffen: Jorg Biel, Vorgeschichtliche Hohensiedlungen in report, Sudwurttemberg-Hohenzollern . Phd Thesis? Forschungen und Berichte zur Vor- und Fruhgeschichte in essay, Baden-Wurttemberg 24, Stuttgart 1987. Phd Thesis Appraisal? Albrecht Jockenhovel, «Jungerbronzezeitlicher Burgenbau in systems paper, Suddeutschland», in: Beitrage zum bronzezeitlichen Burgenbau in Mitteleuropa. Appraisal? Berlin 1984, S. 253-272. Essay? Ders., «Bronzezeitlicher Burgenbau in Mitteleuropa. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? Untersuchungen zur Struktur fruhmetallzeitlicher Gesellschaften», in: Orientalisch-agaische Einflusse in essay about democracy, der europaischen Bronzezeit . Monographien des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz, Mainz 1990, S. 209-228. Appraisal? Peter Schauer, «Befestigte Hohen der Urnenfelderzeit und der alteren Eisenzeit in google, Suddeutschland», in: Hermann Dannheimer, Rupert Gebhard (Hg.), Das keltische Jahrtausend. Mainz 1993, S. 62-74. Ders., Folke Damminger, «Der Bogenberg im Landkreis Straubing-Bogen, Niederbayern. On Performance? Vorbericht uber die archaologischen Untersuchungen der Jahre 1995-1996», in: Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt 27,1997, S. Distributed Research Paper? 423-442. Ubergreifend zum Thema der donaulandischen und suddeutschen Burgen: Stefan Winghart, «Sudbayern und der Donauraum - Aspekte zum Thema der spatbronze - und fruhurnenfelderzeitlichen Hohensiedlungen entlang der Donau», in: The Early Hall- [ 120 ] statt Period (1200-700 B. On Performance Appraisal? C.) in earth, South-Eastern Europe . Phd Thesis? Bibliotheca Musei Apulensis, Alba Iulia 1994, S. 241-253.

3 Zusammenfassend fur den siebenburgischen Raum:Tiberiu Bader, «Die befestigten bronzezeitlichen Siedlungen in notre 2012, Nordwestrumanien» in: Beitrage zum bronze zeitlichen Burgenbau in phd thesis on performance appraisal, Mitteleuropa , Berlin 1984, S. About? 47-70. Fur Ungarn: Gabor Bandi, «Bronzezeitliche befestigte Siedlungen in appraisal, Westungarn» in: Ebd. Group Project? , S. 81-95. Phd Thesis On Performance? Tibor Kemenczei, «Der spatbronzezeitliche Burgenbau in essay about democracy, Nordungarn», in: Ebd. , S. 273-278. On Performance Appraisal? Fur die Slowakei: Vaclav Furmanek, Ladislav Veliacik, Peter Romsauer, «Jungbronzezeitliche befestigte Siedlungen in der Slowakei», in: Ebd ., S. Essay On Sachin Tendulkar In Marathi? 159-175. Appraisal? Fur dieses Thema von besonderer Bedeutung: Kurt Floredt, «Befestigte Siedlungen der Spatbronzezeit im innerkarpatischen Raum», in: Symposium zu Problemen der jungeren Hallstattzeit in democracy, Mitteleuropa. Bratislava 1974, S. Phd Thesis Appraisal? 205-228. Google Earth Thesis? 4 Bis in on performance, die 70er Jahre lediglich: Fritz-Rudolf Flerrmann, «Die urnenfelderzeitliche Siedlung von Kunzing», in: Jahresberichte der bayerischen Bodendenkmalpflege 15/16, 1974/75, S. 58-107. Seitdem ist eine nahezu unubersehbare Menge metallzeitlicher Flausgrundrisse und Siedlungskontexte erschlossen worden, die derzeit im Rahmen zweier Munchner Dissertationen aufgearbeitet werden. Distributed Systems Paper? Vorberichte fur das Schotterfeld um Munchen: Stefan Winghart, «Eine Siedlung der Urnenfelder- oder Flallstattzeit von Eching, Lkr.

Freising, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in phd thesis on performance, Bayern 1983, S. Democracy? 65-67. Ingeborg von Quillfeldt, «Eine Siedlung der Spatbronzezeit in appraisal, Gauting, Lkr. About? Starnberg, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in Bayern 1988, S. Appraisal? 53-56. Fur das Schotterfeld um Ingolstadt: Marc Bankus, «Fruhe und mittlere Bronzezeit», in: Karl-Heinz Rieder, Andreas Tillmann (Hg.), Archaologie um Ingolstadt, Kipfenberg 1995, S. 53-88. Notre Essays? Cornelia Schutz-Tillmann, «Spate Bronzezeit und Urnenfelderzeit», in: Ebd. On Performance Appraisal? , S. Communications? 89-112. Fur das Lechfeld um Augsburg: Stefan Wirth, «Die Urnenfelderzeit», in: Walter Potzl, Otto Schneider (Hg.), V or- und Fruhgeschichte-Archaologie einer Landschaft. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? Der Landkreis Augsburg, Bd. Group Report? 2, Augsburg 1996, S. 11-139. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? 5 Michael Schefzik, «Neuartige Funde und Befunde endneolithisch-alterfruhbronzezeitlicher Zeitstellung von Eching, Lkr.

Freising», in: Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblatter 60,1995, S. Communications Paper? 273-287. On Performance Appraisal? Michael Schefzik und Robert Ganslmeier, «Freiham - Siedlung und Graberfeld der fruhen Bronzezeit, Landeshauptstadt Munchen, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in distributed research, Bayern 1996, S. Phd Thesis? 61-63. Im weiteren vergleiche Bankus (wie Anm. Project Report? 4). 6 Stefan Winghart, «Bemerkungen zu Genese und Struktur fruhmittelalterlicher Siedlung im Munchner Raum», in: Lothar Kollmer, Peter Segl (Hg.), Regensburg, Bayern und Europa. Festschrift fur Kurt Reindel zu seinem 70. Geburtstag, Regensburg 1995, S. 7-49. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? 7 Vgl. Copyright Thesis? Muller-Karpe (wie Anm. On Performance? 2). 8 Muller-Karpe (wie Anm.

2), S. Group Project? 7, 14 Taf. 1, S. 12-15, 20-27, 30-39. 9 Zum Nachweis vgl., Winghart 1994 (wie Anm. 2), S. On Performance Appraisal? 242 mit Anm. 13-18. 10 Tudor Soroceanu, «Hortfunde und befestigte Anlagen in google earth copyright thesis, Transsilvanien», in: Beitrage zum bronzezeitlichen Burgenbau in Mitteleuropa , Berlin 1984, S. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? 363-376. Earth Copyright Thesis? Furmanek/Veliacik/Romsauer (wie Anm. 3). Maria Novotna, Die Bronzehortfunde in der Slowakei. Spatbronzezeit. Bratislava 1970, S. 18, Karte 1. Phd Thesis On Performance? 11 Hansjorg Kuster et al., «Beitrage zur vor- und fruhgeschichtliche Hohensiedlung Rachel-burg uber dem nordlichen Alpeninntal bei Flintsbach, Lkr.

Rosenheim, Oberbayern», in: Berichte der Bayerischen Bodendenkmalpflege 38/39, 1997/98 im Druck. Communications Paper? Vorbericht: Stefan Winghart, «Halsschmuck der fruhen Mittelbronzezeit von der Hohensiedlung Rachelburg bei Flintsbach am Inn, Lkr. Rosenheim, Oberbayern» in: Das archaologische Jahr in Bayern 1993, S. 62-65. 12 Vgl. Phd Thesis Appraisal? Christin Osterwalder-Maier, «Bronzezeitliche Gesellschaft - Ein homerisches Modell», in: Gesellschaft und Bevolkerung. Schweizerische Gesellschaft fur Ur- und Fruhgeschichte , Bern 1990, S. Essay About? 85-92, bes. S. Phd Thesis? 88. Group Report? 13 Frauke Stein, «Bronzezeitliche Hortfunde in Suddeutschland», in: Saarbrucker Beitrage zur Altertumskunde 23, Bonn 1976, S. Appraisal? 66-70. [ 121 ] 14 Harald Koschik, Die Bronzezeit im sudwestlichen Oberbayern . Group Project Report? Materialhefte zur bayerischen Vorgeschichte 50, Kallmunz 1981, S. 133-143. Appraisal? 15 Fritz Moosleitner, «Vier Spangenbarrendepots aus Obereching, Land Salzburg», in: Germania 66,1988, S. 29-67. Group Report? 16 Rudolf Albert Maier, «Sicherungsgrabungen in Hugelgrabern der Mittleren Bronzezeit im Alztal», in: Neue Ausgrabungen in phd thesis, Bayern («Probleme der Zeit»), Munchen 1970, S. Google Earth Copyright Thesis? 14-17ff.

Harald Koschik, «Das bronzezeitliche Graberfeld von Unterbrunnham», in: Fuhrer zu vor- und fruhgeschichtlichen Denkmalern 19, Mainz 1971, S. 64-68. Appraisal? Stephan Moslein, Bronze- und Urnenfelderzeit im ostlichen Oberbayern. Project Report? Ungedr. On Performance? Diss., Munchen 1996 passim. Project Report? 17 Stefan Winghart, «Flachgraber der spaten Bronzezeit aus Eching und Geisenfeld-Ilmendorf, Landkreise Freising und Pfaffenhofen a. On Performance Appraisal? d. Ilm, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in Bayern 1992, S. Group Project? 54-56. Ders., «Das Wagengrab von Poing und der Beginn der Urnenfelderzeit in Sudbayern», in: Hermann Dannheimer, Rupert Gebhard (Hg.), Das keltische Jahrtausend. Mainz 1993, S. 88-93. 18 Karl-Heinz Wagner, Nordtiroler Urnenfelder.

Romisch-Germanische Forschungen 15, Berlin 1943. On Performance? Zum Thema zuletzt mit alterer Literatur Peter Hoglinger, «Die Bronzezeit im Salzburger Flachgau», in: Archaologie beiderseits der Salzach. Salzburg 1996, S. 34 -48. 19 Stefan Winghart, «Die Wagengraber von Poing und Hart a. d. Alz - Evidenz und Ursachen spatbronzezeitlicher Elitenbildung in der Zone nordwarts der Alpen», in: Eliten in der Bronzezeit. Monographien des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz , Mainz 1998 (im Druck). Operating Systems Research Paper? 20 Zuletzt ubergreifend: Christopher F. E. Phd Thesis On Performance? Pare, Wagons and on sachin tendulkar in marathi language, Wagon Graves of the appraisal Early Iron Age in Central Europe . On Sachin Language? Oxford Monographs 35, Oxford 1992, S. 19-42. Phd Thesis On Performance Appraisal? 21 Winghart 1994 (wie Anm. 2), S. About? 248 ff.

22 Eine ubergreifende Behandlung des Themas durch Christopher F. Phd Thesis? E. Notre Dame 2012? Pare ist in on performance appraisal, Vorbereitung. Notre 2012? Fur Sudbayern ein diesbezuglicher Neufund: Stefan Winghart, «Totenfolge am Lechrain? Ein reiches Doppelgrab der spaten Bronzezeit im neu entdeckten Graberfeld von Hurlach, Lkr. Landsberg am Lech, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in Bayern 1996, S. Appraisal? 69-72. Essay Tendulkar? Bisher unpubliziert sind zwei Gewichte aus der spatbronzezeitlichen Adelsnekropole von Poing. Lkr.

Ebersberg, Bayern (vgl. On Performance Appraisal? Winghart 1993, Anm. 17). 23 Winghart 1993 (wie Anm. 17). Google Copyright Thesis? Albrecht Jockenhovel, «Urnenfelderzeitliche Barren als Grabbeigabe», in: Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt 3, 1973, S. On Performance? 23-28. Communications Research Paper? Ders., «Zeugnisse primarer Metallurgie in Grabern der Bronze- und Alteisenzeit Mitteleuropas», in: Archaeologia Polski 27, 1982, 293-301. 24 Nur am Rande soll in appraisal, diesem Zusammenhang auf den uberaus komplizierten Komplex des Zinnhandels verwiesen werden: Zinn, das zur Legierung der Bronze notwendig ist, kommt nicht in communications research, selben Lagerstattenrevieren wie Kupfer vor und musste demzufolge eingehandelt werden. Nach dem aufgefuhrten Modell trafen die Kupfer- und Zinnstrome in Suddeutschland in den Wohnsitzen der voralpinen Aristokratie zusammen. 25 Hoglinger (wie Anm. On Performance Appraisal? 18).

26 Das von Dr. Group Report? L. Phd Thesis Appraisal? Sperber, Historisches Museum der Pfalz, Speyer und dem Verfasser for mulierte und beantragte Projekt wurde 1996 im Rahmen des Forschungsschwerpunktes «Archaeometallurgie» der Volkswagenstiftung genehmigt. About? Die Durchfuhrung im Bayerischen Landesamt fur Denkmalpflege, Abt. fur Archaologische Denkmalpflege, Munchen erfolgt durch Dr. Stephan Moslein, die Metallanalytik durch Prof. Dr. Ernst Pernicka, Max-Planck-Institut fur Kernphysik, Heidelberg und die lagerstattenkundlichen Unter-suchungen durch Dipl. Min. On Performance Appraisal? Klaus-Peter Martinek, Zwiesel. Die Publikation der Ergebnisse ist fur die Arbeitshefte des Bayerischen Landesamtes fur Denkmalpflege vorgesehen. About? 27 Hermann Muller-Karpe, «Das urnenfelderzeitliche Wagengrab von Hart a. Phd Thesis Appraisal? d. About Democracy? Alz», in: Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblatter 21, 1955, S. On Performance? 46-75.

28 Vgl. Group Project? hierzu etwa Walter Janssen, «Der Bullenheimer Berg», in: Hermann Dannheimer, Rupert Gebhard (Hg.), Das keltische Jahrtausend . On Performance Appraisal? Munchen 1993, S. 75-82, wo Hortfunde [ 122 ] innerhalb einer befestigten Hohensiedlung als Tempelschatze angesprochen werden. Essay Language? Ubergreifend zum Thema: Joachim Werner, «Mykenae - Siebenburgen - Skandinavien», in: Atti del primo congresso internazionale di preistoria e protostoria mediterranea . Firenze, Napoli, Roma 1950, S. 293-308. Kurt Horedt, «Siebenburgen und Mykena», in: Nouvelles Etudes d’Histoire, publiees a l’occasion du Xle congres des sciences historiques . Phd Thesis On Performance? Stockholm 1969, S. About Democracy? 31-44. 29 Fritz Moosleitner, «Rettungsgrabung in Salzburg-Maxglan», in: Archaologie Osterreichs 4/2, 1993, S. Phd Thesis Appraisal? 10-20: Ders., «Kelten in communications, Flachgau», in: Archaologie beiderseits der Salzach , Salzburg 1996, S. Phd Thesis On Performance? 60-74.

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EMail Privacy Rights In Business Essay Research. Papparizzi Rights Essay Research Paper Does the 4 . Rights Of Privacy In The Private Sector 16 . Computer Privacy Essay Research Paper Computer Privacy 8 . On Performance? Technology Vs Privacy Essay Research Paper 5 . Privacy Essay Essay Research Paper Privacy 4 . Privacy Essay Research Paper Privacy is something 12 . The Right To Privacy Essay Research Paper 2 . E-Mail Privacy Rights In Business Essay, Research Paper. E-Mail Privacy Rights In Business. E-Mail Privacy Rights in Business. How far we have come in essay democracy such a small time. When you think that the personal computer was invented in the early 1980’s and by the end of the phd thesis appraisal, millennium, several households have two PC’s, it is an astonishing growth rate. And, when you consider business, I can look around the office and see that a lot of the cubicles contain more than one PC. It is astonishing to me that such an item has taken control over the information technology arena like personal computers. Consider, however, the items that go along with personal computers: printers; modems; telephone lines for your modem; scanners; the software; online access; and lets not forget, e-mail addresses.

E-mail, or electronic messaging, has taken over the communications world as the preferred method of exchanging information. From the simple, “let’s do lunch” messages, to the ability to send a business associate anywhere in the world an report e-mail with an attached document that contains 150 megabytes of phd thesis appraisal, information, e-mail is about quickly replacing the telephone, the U.S. post-office, and even overnight delivery services as primary method of exchanging important data. With the ability to create and send this instant information, the technology has far outpaced the education of how to use this phenomena, the affects of this technology on society, and how to prevent this method of communication from growing itself out of existence. Consider the following numbers: ? There were about 23 million e-mail users in phd thesis on performance appraisal 1994. ? There will be approximately 74 millions e-mail users in notre supplement essays the year 2000. ? Employees sent approximately 263 billion e-mail messages in 1994. ? Employees will send approximately 4 trillion e-mail message in the year 2000. ? A 1993 study by MacWorld magazine found that 22% of employers have engaged in on performance appraisal searches of employer computer files, voice mail, electronic mail, or other network communications. ? The number of people subject to group project report electronic surveillance at phd thesis appraisal work has increased from approximately 8 million in 1990 to more than 20 million in 1996. ? Nearly 60% of companies that monitor e-mail or other employee communications conceal doing so. ? Less than 20% of companies have a written policy on electronic monitoring.

One of the major areas affected by this new technology is corporate America. Not only is communications research paper it struggling with how to keep pace with the growing need for fast and efficient e-mail, but also the on performance appraisal, dangers associated with it. Operating Paper? Among these dangers is privacy, in particular, what legal rights corporations and employees have in keeping their communications private. This paper will introduce the current legislation in this area, the expectation of privacy an employee should have, any court decisions that provide additional ruling, and what a corporation can do to prevent litigation in these matters. II. Employees Expectation of Privacy in e-mail. As an e-mail systems manager, I was under the impression that since the company owns the electronic messaging system, the on performance, company could view the communications paper, contents of any employees e-mail account at any time.

I was only partially right. The explanation of the current law will describe this in detail, but, the employee does have a certain right to privacy where e-mail is concerned. Arguably, a company’s most valuable asset is it’s data. In the age of technological marvels, it is phd thesis on performance easier to create more valuable data and, on the other hand, that data is more easily retrievable, especially by persons not authorized to obtain the data. Employees of companies can expect a certain right of privacy granted by essay about democracy three main sources: (1) The United States Constitution; (2) Federal Statutes (The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986); and (3) State Statutes (many of which have not addressed the issue). The United States Constitution provides a limited group of employees with privacy safeguards. The safeguards are based on appraisal guarantees in the United States Constitution’s Fourth amendment and similar state constitutions. Courts have upheld that the Fourth Amendment’s protection against “unreasonable search and seizures” applies to workplace invasions of privacy. Essays 2012? However, this Constitutional protection is limited to governmental intrusions.

Hence, it does not apply to private employers, unless an employee successfully shows “state action.” In Schowengerdt v. Appraisal? General Dynamics Corporation [823 F.2d 1328, 1332 n.3 (9th Cir. 1987).] Schowengerdt held that the employee had a reasonable expectation to privacy in work areas of exclusive use to the employee, such as the employee’s office, unless the google earth copyright, employer had previously notified the employee that the employee’s office was subject to appraisal a work-related search on a regular basis. The court concluded that despite the employee’s reasonable expectation to privacy in his office that a warrantless search of the office was permissible when it was work-related and reasonable under the circumstances. As the operating systems research paper, wording of the 4th amendment suggests. it does not protect against all searches, only unreasonable searches. Courts have defined unreasonable searches as those against a person who has an expectation of privacy which must be protected.

This can be shown in United States v. Perkins. [383 F. On Performance Appraisal? Supp. 922, 927 (N.D. About? Ohio 1974)] Employees who lack this reasonable expectation of privacy such as through awareness of publicized monitoring policies, will generally be denied any constitutional protection. The policy, to be effective, should warn employees that e-mail messages may be audited despite certain system features that give the appearance of appraisal, privacy, such as personal passwords and the employee’s ability to delete messages. III. Current Law Pertaining to E-mail Communication. The technology revolution of the e-mail address enabled businesses and private individuals to communicate in ways never before imagined. Communications Research Paper? As with anything, the easier it is, the easier it becomes to do something wrong.

With e-mail, this is on performance appraisal very evident. In order to prevent wrongdoing and to research paper protect the e-mail user, Congress enacted the on performance appraisal, Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 (EPCA). Essay Tendulkar In Marathi? [Pub. L. No. 99-508, 100 Stat. 1848 (1986)(codified at 18 U.S.C. ?? 2510-2521, 2701-2710, 3117, 3121-3126 (1988)).] The ECPA amended Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, [18 U.S.C. ?? 2510-2520 (1994).]. The ECPA was passed in response to Congress’ perception that the privacy protection of the 1968 Act was limited to narrowly defined “wire” and phd thesis appraisal, “oral” communications. This bill indicated the realization that advancing technology posed potential threats to citizen’s civil liberties and that changes were needed to update the essay on sachin tendulkar in marathi, older wiretapping laws.

The amendment expanded the scope of on performance, Title III to include the interception of “electronic communication” and operating systems research, unauthorized access of stored electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(1), (4), (12), (17) (1994).] E-mail was not specifically mentioned in the ECPA’s definition of “electronic communication”, but, was originally intended to be included. “Electronic communication” is defined as in phd thesis on performance the ECPA as the “transfer of essay on sachin tendulkar, signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature transmitted in whole or in on performance part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photooptical system that affects interstate or foreign commerce. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(12)(1994). Notre 2012? While this does not directly mention e-mail, the history of legislative statutes indicates the term includes electronic mail, digitized transmissions, and video conferences. [S. Rep. No. 99-541, at 14 (1986)]. The ECPA also outlaws the interception of electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. ?? 2511(1)(a), 2520 (1994).] The ECPA amended the appraisal, Federal Wiretap Act’s definition of “intercept” as “the aural or other aquisition of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(4) (1994).] The key to this is including “or other” in the definition, since electronic communications cannot be acquired aurally. Even though electronic communications are now included within the ECPA’s interception clause, the range of protection afforded by the prohibition against interception has been narrowly interpreted by one of the few courts to address the issue.

An example of this lies in the decision of the operating systems, 5th Circuit Court in the case of on performance appraisal, Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Service, [36 F.3d 457 (5th Cir. 1994).] In this case, the court decided whether or not the Secret Service’s seizure of a computer that was used to operate an notre dame essays electronic bulletin board system, constituted an “intercept” of the stored but unread e-mail contained on the system. Phd Thesis? Even though the court decided that e-mail can be intercepted, the court decided that the Secret Service’s seizure of the group project report, unread e-mail did not constitute an interception. The main reason for this was a distinction between e-mail in “transfer” and e-mail in electronic storage. The use of the word “transfer” in the definition of “electronic communication,” and its omission in that definition of the phrase “any electronic storage of such communication” says that Congress did not intend for “intercept” to apply to “electronic communications” when those communications are in “electronic storage.” This means that there is only a very narrow window of time during which an e-mail interception may occur. This would be the time between the time an e-mail message is phd thesis on performance sent and the time it is saved to any location designated as storage.

So, for all intents-and-purposes, interception of e-mail within the prohibition of the communications research, ECPA is virtually impossible. The next condition of the phd thesis on performance appraisal, ECPA which concerns most employers is its protection against the unauthorized access of electronic communications is electronic storage. [18 U.S.C. About? ? 2701 (1994).] E-mail in electronic storage includes e-mail which has been temporarily stored following transmission, as well as e-mail which has been stored for backup protection. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(17) (1994).] This definition would include most e-mail as existing in phd thesis on performance appraisal electronic storage. So, any protection of employee privacy found in the ECPA will be based upon the unauthorized access provision. The ECPA has built-in exemptions that will protect most employers and on sachin, protect them against on performance suit. These exemptions are: prior consent, business use, and system provider.

1. Prior Consent. The best protection against liability under the ECPA is when prior consent has been given for any interception or access of e-mail in electronic storage. Interception of electronic communication is expressly allowed by the ECPA when “one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(d) (1994).] Also, access to stored electronic communication is allowed without liability when authorization has been given “by a user of that service with respect to a communication of thesis, or intended for that user.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2701(c)(2) (1994).] An easy case to understand here is on performance appraisal American Computer Trust Leasing v. Jack Farrell Implement Co. Notre Supplement Essays 2012? [763 F. Supp. 1473, 1495 (D. Minn. 1991)]. Summary judgement was granted in this case stating that when the party consented to the access of its computer system, it “cannot now claim that such access was unauthorized.” The key to prior consent is setting policies for corporate e-mail use and notifying employees that they will be monitored. This policy should be corporate-wide and employees that use the system will be judged as giving implied consent upon reviewing the policies and agreeing to the fact that they have read and reviewed the policies. Employers should also be aware that a provision in an e-mail policy which only on performance suggests that monitoring will be done, such as one which reads, “ABC, Inc. reserves the right to monitor all e-mail communication,” may not operate to create implied consent. 2. Business Use Exemption.

Employers may use the business use exemption for copyright thesis, interceptions made within the ordinary course of business. The business use exemption is more commonly applied in telephone monitoring cases where improper use of a business telephone is in question. Therefore, the phd thesis on performance appraisal, provision upon which it is based is democracy unlikely to apply in the e-mail arena. The definition of “intercept” in the ECPA excludes interceptions captured by “telephone or telegraph instrument, equipment, or facility, or any component thereof, (i) furnished to on performance the subscriber or user by a provider of wire or electronic communication services…being used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of business.” [18 U.S.C. Paper? ? 2510(5)(a)(i) (1994).] Based on this definition, it indicates that telephone or telegraph equipment is necessary for phd thesis on performance appraisal, the exclusion to apply. 2012? It is even doubtful that the on performance, courts will consider a modem to be telephone equipment.

There is another clause within the earth copyright thesis, ECPA that allows employers to apply the business use exemption. On Performance Appraisal? Section 2511(2)(a)(i) states: It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an operator of essay about, a switchboard, or an officer, employee, or agent of a provider of wire of electronic communication service, whose facilities are used in the transmission of a wire of electronic communication, to intercept, disclose, or use that communication in the normal course of employment while engaged in any activity which is a necessary incident to on performance appraisal the rendition of his service or to the protection of the notre supplement essays 2012, rights or property of the phd thesis appraisal, provider of that service. [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(a)(i) (1994).] For this exemption to apply, the employer would have to be classified as a system provider or an agent of about democracy, a system provider. Several commentators on the subject have speculated that employers do qualify as system providers. The term provider would likely include public email networks, such as Prodigy and Compuserve, and the term agent may or may not be defined to appraisal include employers who subscribe to or use their e-mail service. Companies with their own e-mail systems on their own networks could also fall under this exception as electronic communication service providers. Assuming that an research paper employer does qualify as a system provider, any interception would still need to be made within the ordinary course of phd thesis appraisal, business. [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(a)(i) (1994).] Previous case law in telephone call monitoring provides some “stare decisis” for monitoring of employee e-mail in the ordinary course of operating systems paper, business. In both Watkins v. L.M. On Performance Appraisal? Berry #038; Co. [704 F.2d 577 (11th Cir. 1983).] and Briggs v. American Filter Co. [630 F.2d 414 (5th Cir.

1980).], the courts decided that if the employer had difficulty controlling personal use of business equipment, then a personal call could be intercepted in the ordinary course of distributed systems paper, business to phd thesis on performance determine its nature, but not its contents. Communications Research Paper? The employer should be cautious with the business use exception, as the definition of “within the ordinary course of business” is still undefined. 3. System Providers. Where employers provide their own company e-mail system there are two additional thoughts to support the non-relevance of the ECPA to them. The first theory is only available for employers with a system whose messages remain entirely intrastate, and phd thesis, is based on notre dame essays 2012 the ECPA’s applicability being limited to interstate communications. Under this theory, an intracompany e-mail system, whose messages do not cross state lines and which is phd thesis on performance appraisal not connected to an interstate network, fails to fall under the notre dame supplement essays, definition of “electronic communications service,” [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(15) (1994).] and phd thesis on performance appraisal, falls outside the protection of the ECPA. The definition of communications paper, electronic communications under the law only pertains to such communication that affects interstate or foreign commerce.

However, the action could fall under the Interstate Commerce Clause if it is determined that the activity affects interstate commerce. In Perez v. United States [402 U.S. Phd Thesis? 146, 152 (1971)] the court stated “that a class of activities can be properly regulated by Congress without proof that the particular intrastate activity against which a sanction was laid had an effect on commerce.” Also, in Wickard v. Filburn [317 U.S. 111, 125 (1942)], the observation was made that “local activity may be reached by 2012 Congress if it exerts a “substantial economic effect on interstate commerce, irrespective of phd thesis, whether such effect is indirect.” Because the Interstate Commerce Clause could pre-empt this theory, the notre dame essays, theory appears to have no basis and phd thesis on performance appraisal, would be a shaky defense in a court of communications paper, law. The second theory for exclusion rests upon on performance appraisal, the ECPA’s clear exemption of system providers from its prohibition against access and disclosure of stored electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. ? 2701(c)(1) (1994)] The exception states “Subsection (a) of this section does not apply with respect to conduct authorized (1) by the person or entity providing a wire or electronic communications service.” Although speculation provides that employers should qualify as system providers, there is little legislative history that provides clarity on whether or not Congress intended to exempt private companies who provided their own e-mail system as system providers from the ECPA.

Senate Reports on the ECPA acknowledged the existence of internal e-mail, but did not address the law’s affect on those systems. In addition, testimony during the Senate hearings reflected an overriding concern for a company’s rather than an systems research paper individual’s privacy. Some testimony during the Senate hearings even argued that the proposed legislation should cover all electronic communications. Philip Walker, Vice-Chair of the Electronic Mail Association (EMA), stated that, “electronic mail users deserve privacy regardless of phd thesis appraisal, what type of entity runs their system.” [S. Notre Dame Supplement Essays? Rep. Phd Thesis On Performance? No. 99-541 (1986) Hearing on S. Essay Tendulkar? 1667 Before the Subcommittee on Patents, Copyrights and Trademarks of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 99th Congress 42 (1986)(statement of Senator Patrick Leahy (D-Vermont)).] This uncertainty of Congress has left the door open has left the door open for courts to create a narrow definition of system providers, which could only include public, commercial providers such as America On-line, Prodigy, and Compuserve. Employers should again not depend on the system provider exception, but rather use the phd thesis appraisal, business-use or consent exceptions.

IV. Case Discussion. In examining case law concerning e-mail privacy, there are a few standard benchmark cases. Essay Democracy? Most of these cases come from California and phd thesis, it is no coincidence that this law should develop in group project report what is considered a technological center of the United States. In California, which has some of the on performance appraisal, strongest laws protecting individual privacy rights, the courts have been unwilling to enforce promises made by employers to employees that their e-mail messages would be kept confidential. In fact, the California Supreme Court refused to review the case of Alana Shoars v. Epson America Incorporated. In that case Ms. Shoars, who was the e-mail administrator, told Epson’s employees that their e-mail was confidential. A supervisor subsequently set up a gateway that allowed him to monitor all the essay about democracy, employees’ e-mail.

When Ms. Shoars learned of this practice she immediately complained to on performance appraisal her supervisors, and then was fired for essay, “gross insubordination”. The judges in Ms. Shoars case concluded that California privacy laws did not encompass the workplace or e-mail and basically left it in the hands of the legislature. The same result was found in Flanagan v. Epson. [Sup. Ct. Cal., Jan.

4, 1991] In this case, an employee brought a class action lawsuit alleging that Epson invaded the employee’s privacy by circumventing their passwords and phd thesis on performance, reading their e-mail messages while advertising a feeling which led the project, employees to phd thesis on performance appraisal believe their messages were private. The final case interpreting California’s Constitutional right to privacy was Bourke v. Essay On Sachin? Nissan Motor Company. [California Superior Court, Los Angeles County (1991)] In determining whether the right to privacy has been violated, the court said you must first determine whether the individual had a personal and objectively reasonable expectation of privacy. Nissan argued that there was no reasonable expectation because the employees had signed a Computer User Registration Form, which stated, “it is on performance company policy that employees and contractors restrict their use of company-owned computer hardware and software to company business. Bourke and Hall countered that they had a privacy expectation because they were given passwords to distributed operating research paper access the computer system and were told to safeguard these passwords. The court realized that a subjective expectation of privacy existed, however this was not objectively reasonable. As a result, since there was no reasonable expectation of privacy, there was no violation of the right to privacy.

The federal courts seem to have taken the on performance appraisal, same position. In Smyth v. Pillsbury Corporation, [914 F. Supp. 97 (E.D. Pa. 1996).] a federal court in Pennsylvania ruled this year that Pillsbury Corporation was entitled to fire a manager who had sent e-mail critical of a supervisor, even though the company had explicitly promised it would not monitor e-mail messages. The court reasoned that an employer may not be prevented from firing an employee based upon a promise, even when reliance is demonstrated. The court also quickly dismissed plaintiff’s claims of a tortious invasion of privacy under common and statutory law. On the google earth copyright, other hand, cases involving intrusion are found to not be an invasion of on performance appraisal, privacy when a legitimate business reason exists for an intrusion.

In Vernars v. Young [539 F.2d 966 (3d Cir. 1976).] an employee’s e-mail was opened and read by thesis a fellow employee. A cause of on performance appraisal, action for invasion of privacy was found in this case. This was because there was no legitimate business reason for essay democracy, the intrusion. V. Preventive Policy Measures. The ECPA signals that the most favorable method for phd thesis appraisal, employers to protect against dame supplement liability is to gain prior consent from employees before monitoring or accessing their business e-mail accounts. What this does is phd thesis on performance appraisal provides a reasonable expectation of privacy (or lack thereof) for employees regarding e-mail. The following issues should be considered when creating policies concerning e-mail practices: ? Consult a lawyer or other employment specialist with expertise in operating paper employment and privacy issues in phd thesis appraisal your state. ? Prepare a written policy.

? Include a clear description of the permissible uses of e-mail. ? Receive verification that the essay on sachin tendulkar language, employees have reviewed and agree to the policies. ? Update the policies to appraisal change with technology. ? Emphasize and impermissible content for e-mails. ? Clearly state that the e-mail administrators may unintentionally view e-mail during troubleshooting practices. ? Inform employees and independent contractors of any intent to monitor e-mails. ? State the consequences of misuse of the e-mail system. ? Show flexibility by allowing limited personal use of the e-mail system but clearly define acceptable personal uses. ? Be clear if different standards apply to different classifications of employees/managers. ? Remind employees of any confidential nature of your projects that should not be disclosed in e-mails. ? Clearly describe the distributed operating systems paper, times that the monitoring of phd thesis on performance appraisal, e-mail will take place.

? Create policies regarding the retention time of e-mails and notre essays, backups of e-mail systems. ? Do not bury the policy in phd thesis pages and pages of policies in a company handbook. ? Distribute and re-distribute the policy from time-to-time so employees remember it. ? Be consistent and essay democracy, non-discriminatory in your enforcement of the policies. Most companies are flexible and on performance, allow for employee’s limited personal use of the e-mail system. They simply trust their employees to use good judgement and get their jobs done. Others either have written policies in place or are planning them. Whether or not you decide to have a policy for research paper, your company, let the employees and phd thesis, independent contractors know if you do or do not have a policy. Clear communication is the best way to operating systems paper avoid disputes.

It also provides for a more positive working environment. VI. Future Privacy Legislation. Several attempts have been made to make the current laws regarding privacy in e-mail more clear and more in line with the technological advances of the late 20th century. In 1993, a bill was introduced by Senator Paul Simon (D-Ill.) to restrict employer monitoring of phd thesis on performance appraisal, e-mail. The bill never came up for a vote. The Privacy for Consumers and Workers Act has not been voted on either. This legislation was introduced by Representative Pat Williams (D-Mont.). The PCWA addresses from two perspectives the essay about, issue of employer monitoring of employees: electronic monitoring and telephone call accounting. Appraisal? In addressing the dame essays, issue of electronic monitoring, PCWA can be analyzed in five parts: permitted monitoring, notice of monitoring, prohibited monitoring, data obtained from monitoring, and phd thesis, penalties.

Thought has been given to allow technological organizations, such as the Electronic Messaging Association, to govern the use of e-mail and the privacy that users can expect. Notre Supplement Essays? The organization has already adopted rules for the use of e-mail as well as assisted in creating the “ten commandments for e-mail.” Those commandments (there are actually only 7) are: ? Don’t use anonymous remailers. ? Don’t look at other’s messages. ? Don’t misrepresent or lie. ? Follow EMA guidelines.

? Consider presentation of a message. In today’s technologically advanced world, new ideas and inventions are around us on a daily basis. A lot of on performance, these advances create opportunities for play or even danger. To prevent this action in the workplace, employers are using technology to monitor and keep track of employees and their actions. The level of democracy, surveillance being practiced by phd thesis appraisal employers is unprecedented.

On both sides, employer and communications research, employee, their must be efforts made to prevent over-abuse by either side. There are both ethical and social responsibilities that need to be shared to keep the technology from overwhelming us. I hope that I have shown that the current law in this area is inadequate and phd thesis on performance, needs to be reviewed. The current law in this area, the essay tendulkar, Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, does not satisfactorily address the phd thesis appraisal, many problems in connection with abuse of e-mail systems by employees or abuse of privacy issues by employers. Distributed Operating Systems Paper? The Federal Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit has commented that the ECPA is simply not clear and is too broad to be effective. One of the main reasons for this is that the ECPA is simply an amended version of the 1968 federal wiretap law which was originally adopted to deal with telephone eavesdropping. Those laws do not significantly address the changes in technology that provide the wonder of e-mail.

With the current legislation being ambiguous, and no new legislation yet passed, the next best solution is encouraging employers to implement a clear e-mail policy. All employees should receive a copy and be required to sign a form which acknowledges the fact they have read the details of the company’s policy. This should not be considered a permanent solution to the problem of e-mail privacy. It is only a temporary solution that will keep employees and employers on the same page regarding the expectation of corporate behavior as far as e-mail is involved. ACLU. Phd Thesis On Performance? (September, 1996). SURVEILLANCE INCORPORATED: American Workers Forfeit Privacy for a Paycheck. Dame Essays? [On-Line]. Available: http://aclu.org/library/wrrpt96.html. AFTAB.

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Available: http://cla.org/RuhBook/chp6.htm. Cavanaugh, M. Workplace Privacy in phd thesis an Era of New Technologies. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.ema.org/html/pubs/mmv2n3/workpriv.htm. Electronic Communications Privacy Act (1986). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.tscm.com/ecpa.htm#s2511. Entwisle, S.M. Notre 2012? E-mail and Privacy in phd thesis appraisal the Workplace. [On-Line] Available: http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/ Freibrun, E. (1994). E-mail Privacy in notre dame supplement essays the Workplace – To What Extent?. Phd Thesis On Performance? [On-Line]. Available: http://www.cl.ais.net/lawmsf/articl9.htm. Gan, M. (1996).

Employee Rights #038; Email. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.newsguild.org/d6t.htm. Lee, L. Watch Your E-Mail! Employee E-Mail Monitoring and Privacy Law in the Age of the “Electronic Sweatshop. Morris, F. E-Mail Communications: The Next Employment Law Nightmare. HR Advisor (July-August 1995). Oppedahl, C. Distributed Operating Systems? (July 3, 1995).

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