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as economics essays Specialised entry pages for. A theoretical reflection needs words, not only numbers and thesis statement, mathematics. Of Monte Cristo Thesis? Essays and papers expand the room for thesis statement, thinking by motivation case sharing an international view on the subjects in thesis order to invite the reader to co-operation with the Institute. Ethical Systems? Essay: Analysing retailing opportunities and thesis statement, threats using agent-based simulation. As a valuable supporting tool for issues essay, the marketing analysis of opportunities and bully thesis, threats on retail markets, an study agent-based simulator is proposed, providing insights to bully, answer to questions such as: - What happens in research paper the distribution landscape if we open a new outlet? Where should it be located? What profile (assortment composition, price levels, size) the new outlet should have? - What if competitors open or close outlets? What should we then change in the profile of bully thesis, our outlets? - What if the case study purchasing behaviour of consumer households changes? E.g. purchasing power and decision rules changes due to economic crisis. - What if the cost structure changes? E.g. there is easy funding of outlets in thesis statement less-favoured areas by municipalities and regional authorities.
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But people trade with each other, and thesis, not with#147;the market.#148; Some polemics in paid press followed after publication, to which the authors replied here. A further essay is here. Essay: The rich and statement, the poor. Service? This short paper presents an exploration of the differences between the rich and the poor, as they result from a formal model. Essay: European space and West-East flows of bully thesis, tourists The role of Italy. The broad concept of trajectory covers a crucial phenomenon in the contemporary reshaping of your best friend, European space. Dividing and defining European identities as they did, the traditional geographical borders are rapidly losing their role, since social, cultural and economic identities are increasingly to be defined in dynamic terms as evolution along a path. Published by the Polish Academy of Science, this short paper by Valentino Piana, underlines the meaning of statement, tourism as a symptom of the niche marketing research emergence of new stronger trajectories, provides a quantitative analysis of data on West-East bilateral flows of tourists, supplies a longer discussion of the qualitative role of statement, Italy in ethical systems these flows and in statement their deeper meaning. Essay: Integrating healthcare and microfinance. Harnessing the contemporary nursing essay strengths of bully thesis statement, two Sectors to improve health and best service, alleviate poverty.
Essay: Our Plan B for macro-economic recovery and statement, structural change (31st October 2011) EWI has been asked to sign this program to an essay about your friend, change the statement macro-economic policies to cope with the combined financial, economic, social and environmental crisis in UK and other countries. We accepted to sign a letter published by the Guardian and would like to motivation, offer to bully thesis, our readers' reflection the nursing following policy essay: Essay : Addressing a missing element in the Toledo Declaration with industrial ecology (May 2011) A landmark of urban regeneration policy for EU, the Toledo Declaration, amidst the bully thesis call for an integrated approach to count of monte cristo thesis, address sustainability challenges by bully the declaration, exhibits a predominant focus on using local actions to solve local problems. This lope-sided scope may give rise to motivation study, policies that end up shifting problems beyond the local jurisdiction. Some of bully thesis statement, these problems can be deduced using key industrial ecology concepts, such as material flow analysis and life cycle assessment. The author, a Singaporean scholar, provides a few possible strategies to count cristo, cope with the issue, after a longitudinal study showing a specific case. Statement? Paper presented to online order, the 12th Conference of the Association of bully statement, Heterodox Economics.
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A small tax levied on non-adopters can boost the niche marketing research diffusion of any new technology, including those required in bully climate change mitigation and your friend, adaptation strategies. The tool costs nothing to the policy-maker and can enjoy a fairly good opinion in the general public. Essay: Peak oil: coming soon but when? The former director of thesis statement, what is now Puerto Ricos's Energy Affairs Administration, Lewis L. Contemporary? Smith, sets forth a compelling framework for the economically-feasibile production of thesis statement, oil to peak before 2020 with a 90% of chance. Essay : Complexity meets development - A Felicitous Encounter on stanford prison experiment unethical, the Road of bully statement, Life. System Thesis? Essay : Market dynamics with firm-specific fixed and variable costs.
In this easy evolutionary model you'll find a market with a large number of firms, each characterised by a different cost structure, and you'll be able to study the bully evolution of profits over time, according to of monte, changes in demand and endogenous technology progress. A key statement will relate the way demand interacts with the kind of technological innovation approved by thesis top management. Essay : Levels of your best, product differentiation in the global mobile phones market. Essay : Consumer theory: the bully neoclassical model and online order system thesis, its opposite alternative. A new consideration or evoolutionary routines. Essay : Economic development from the perspective of evolutionary economic theory. Statement? While neoclassical theory sees the economy as at rest, or undergoing well anticipated change it has nothing to say about these kinds of conditions.
Therefore the niche marketing paper author, Richard Nelson, believes the processes of economic catch-up have to thesis, proceed under the implicit or explicit guidance of an unethical essay evolutionary economic theory. Essay: Microfinance in Ghana: an overview (2007) A sound example of vibrant and innovative economy, Ghana offers a great institutional richness of microfinance institutions, as explained in thesis statement this paper. Outlining the challenges, a Central Bank insider calls for further improvements in order system thesis the organization of the bully sector. Niche Research? From a tough scenario to bully thesis statement, policies in a key African country. Essay: Exports and their linkages to literacy. An exploration of the manyfolds relations of exports and the growth of the number of people capable to write. Ethical Systems? Essay: Survival strategies: innovate or die. To devise new modified versions earlier than expected during the product life cycle can costs you cannibalising your own product but leaves no room to competitors, thus resulting in long-term business success. Essay : The impact of thesis, market structure and irreversibility on investment under uncertainty: an an essay best empirical analysis. This paper estimates a model of thesis, investment under product price uncertainty for contemporary nursing essay, 23 French industries during the statement period 1977-1997 and represents the first empirical work that includes variables of an essay your, market structure (in terms of degree of competition) in bully statement a model of investment under uncertainty. An Essay Your Best? In the paper, Sara Maioli presents one of the very first attempts to make explicit the empirical relationship between investment and uncertainty under different degrees of irreversibility . Thesis? Essay and Software : You are a monopolist.
Essay : Who matters in a complex society? Essay : Outward foreign direct investment and technology transfer: selected results from the U.S. and motivation study, Taiwan in bully thesis statement the electronics industry. workers, and if there is a perceived danger of stanford experiment essay, allowing critical technology to be dispersed. Bully Statement? Any Inward FDI will be criticized if it is seen as allowing foreign entities to online system, own the engines of thesis, industry and gain control of critical technology. This paper focuses on the electronics industry and presents some examples of about your best, countries#8217; policies concerning technology transfers and bully statement, the effects on industry of nursing issues essay, each of the three reactions by statement policy makers and stanford experiment unethical essay, high-level managers. Essay : Profits, competition and opportunity costs: two introductory papers on statement, the flaws in neoclassical approach. Ethical Systems? In the second paper, the statement neoclassical theory of competition is critically re-examined and experiment, compared to the solutions of classical theory. Essay: The economics of ex ante coordination.
Prof. Bully Thesis? Sergio Bruno and Alessandra De Lellis present in about your this paper a few fundamental elements of a new perspective in economics, stressing complex time structures and thesis statement, co-ordination issues in investment, production, consumption. It integrates innovation theories and the earlier studies on ethical systems, the economic development of thesis statement, nations to single out overlapping issues and essay, solutions. Bully? Essay: Consumer decision rules for online system thesis, agent-based models. A clear-cut introduction to bully statement, evolutionary consumption microfoundation in agent-based models. It proposes several rules to cope with budget constraints, product differentiation, purchase repetition over time. In particular, you shall find the rules of consumer behavour used in custom essay service the freely downloadable model Race to market, which gave rise to bully thesis statement, these micro-data. Moreover, it suggests to ACE modellers a golden rule for more realistic models. Essay? Essay: The production function of bully, students' grade. A critical introduction to best essay, the neoclassical concept and bully thesis, use of the production function.
To help students understanding the prison experiment concept and its limitations, the author proposes to bully, take into consideration a particular production process that should be well known to them: the production of grades in an exams after an education course. Essay: Assessing the employment effect of motivation, FDI inflows to Egypt: Does the mode of entry matter? (2008) Egypt has attempted to attract Foreign Direct Investments since 1974 and statement, has offered generous incentives to achieve this target, motivated by low domestic savings rates accompanied by inefficient financial intermediation and motivation case study, the opportunity to benefit from the direct and bully statement, indirect effects of ethical systems, FDI on bully statement, increasing demand for labour. This is nursing issues, especially important given a chronic unemployment problem that the bully thesis statement Egyptian economy suffers from. This paper extensively assess empirically the effect of niche marketing research paper, FDI and argue about the importance of studying FDI at the most disaggregated possible level, since they are not homogeneous in their effects. Thesis? Essay: The mystery of excess trade (balances) Bilateral trade balances are an important source of frictions in international trade relations, so it is important to understand their provenance. In this papers, the author provide an custom service empirical examination of two key theories - one based on macroeconomic balances and the other based on triangular trade.
Both theories perform poorly in explaining bilateral trade balances. Actual bilateral trade balance are vastly larger than those predicted by the theory, a result that may be termed the mystery of the bully statement excess trade balances. Essay: Italy: Regional differences in cristo public health quality management systems. This short essay presents a review of the statement various approaches applied by the different Italian Regions with regard to Quality Management in health care policy. Essay: A solution for the national resource curse: should we distribute oil revenues to the citizens directly instead that to governments? Countries with an abundance of natural resources have on count of monte cristo, average lower economic growth than resource-poor countries. They also have more poverty and statement, are more likely to suffer from violent conflict. Count Thesis? These negative outcomes in resource-rich countries are called the #8216;curse of natural resources.#8217; Dr. Martin E. Sandbu proposes a policy of revenue distributions from taxable resources to individuals as a way of addressing the curse.
Instead of statement, paying resource rents in to the government treasury, they would be distributed equally to all indviduals, but the government would then be allowed to an essay your friend, tax it back. Essay: Dynamic competition with bi-directional product differentiation, bounded rational consumers, innovation, advertising, and bully statement, finance. Niche Research Paper? This paper explains and offers you a powerful software tool for understanding the thesis statement introduction of product and process innovation in niche marketing research a competitive market. Consumers are individual agents with different tastes and personal income. In terms of industrial dynamics, you'll see how product life cycles arise by bully thesis personally playing the software model or by nursing observing how artificial agents perform.
Essay: A new approach to business fluctuations: heterogeneous interacting agents, scaling laws and bully, financial fragility. Ethical Systems? Business fluctuations in thesis statement GDP, investment, etc. can be explained in a new micro-founded way. The authors present a simple agent-based model, whose core is the online system interaction of bully thesis, heterogeneous financially fragile firms and a banking sector. In their framework, the origin of experiment, business fluctuations can be traced back to the ever changing configuration of the network of heterogeneous interacting firms . Thesis Statement? Simulations of the model replicate surprisingly well an impressive set of online, stylized facts , particularly two well known universal laws. Bully Statement? Essay: Financial Fragility, asset bubbles, capital structure and real rate of count cristo thesis, growth - A study of the Indian Economy during 1970-2000. Essay series : Global value chain: governance and statement, typologies. Essay: Innovation and Growth: A Schumpeterian model of issues, innovation.
The creation of bully statement, a positive feedback loop is what makes the issues difference between sustained growth and gradual (or sudden) decline . Bully? A Positive Feedback Loop Innovation System (POLIS) is here modelled along Schumpeterian lines and applied to an essay best friend, the actual economy of Taiwan. Essays: Agriculture innovation system in bully thesis statement Australia. Essay? The papers identifies eleven broad categories of agents taking part to bully statement, the innovation system. The kind of innovation and the goals of innovation are explored and ranked by an empirical survey. Essay: Influence of research, delayed feedback on learning, performance and bully thesis statement, strategy search - revisited. Economic agents live in an uncertain environment, where they have to learn how to essay, behave and which is the performance of their actions. Strategy is bully, not given: they have to search for the right one, if exists at all.
Feedback is a crucial mechanism linking the past with the future, possibly helping the agents in cristo their tasks. In particular, the statement timing of feedback signals can deeply influence their effects. Thesis? Is immediate feedback always superior to delayed feedback? Are the bully features of the environment irrelevant? This paper offer original experimental results on the influence of delayed feedback on learning, performance and strategy search. Of Monte Thesis? Essay: Active decisions and pro-social behavior: a field experiment on blood donation. In this paper, Alois Stutzer, Lorenz Goette and Michael Zehnder propose a decision framework where people are individually asked to either actively consent or dissent to some pro-social behavior. Bully? The authors hypothesize that confronting individuals with the stanford unethical essay choice of engaging in bully a specific pro-social behavior contributes to the formation of issue-specific altruistic preferences while simultaneously involving a commitment. Online? The hypothesis is bully thesis, tested in a large-scale field experiment on blood donation. This active-decision intervention substantially increases the ethical systems stated willingness to donate blood, as well as the actual donation behavior of people who have not fully formed preferences beforehand.
Essay: Does innovation policy matter in a transition country? Prof. Statement? Attila Havas demonstrates in this paper the simultaneous need for systemic institutional changes and macroeconomic stabilisation in order to improve microeconomic performance . Whithin an evolutionary economics framework, innovation policy is cristo, examined both theoretically and empirically in bully thesis statement the case of niche marketing paper, a country currently undergoing deep structural changes: Hungary. Essay: Estimation of a dynamic discrete choice model of irreversible investment. A dataset of Spanish manufacturing firms provides an important empirical evidence that business investment - at bully thesis, micro level - is order, infrequent and lumpy.There are periods in which firms decide not to bully statement, invest and periods of large investment episodes. Rocío Sánchez-Mangas develops and tests consider a dynamic discrete choice model of irreversible investment with a general specification of adjustment costs including convex and nonconvex components. Stanford Experiment Unethical? Essay: An example of information set for bully thesis statement, the export manager. Exporters often approach new markets just by participating to ethical systems, trade fairs, meeting there potential importers and statement, building business relationships with them by trial and error . But a systematic overview of foreing markets can offer a more structured approach. Case? In this report by bully U.N.
Bhati, you'll find a good instance of what an export manager can find in niche research such documents to orient its actions and business plans. Essay: Japanese Foreign Aid, Development Expenditures and Taxation: econometric results from bully, a bounded rationality model of best custom service, fiscal behaviour. Thesis? A path-breaking methodology for assessing the behaviour of foreign aid receivers. Investment in human and physical capital has been a significant factor in custom essay service Malaysian GDP growth. Both internal and external sources of finance have been used in promoting investments as well as development expenditures. But foreign aid could have been used, by bully thesis statement a bounded rational bureaucratic policymaker, in many different ways, not all conducive to contemporary, development. Essay : Hierarchy structures in world trade.
Essay: Country concentration of Turkish exports and imports over time. Statement? Through international trade, countries develop their own net of privileged partners. Turkey is an nursing issues essay extremely interesting example of a fast changing developing country. In this paper, Prof. Güzin Erlat shows not only bully, data analysis but also a methodology to address the stanford prison issue of concentration and diversification of exports.
The Product Cycle Theory of bully thesis statement, international trade is thesis, given further data support. Bully Statement? Essay: Tax base in developing countries. How to increase the online order thesis tax revenue in developing countries? By enlarging the tax base the bully thesis statement fiscal burden would be better distributed, comprehending the large informal economy which is custom essay, so present in these countries. Unlike in statement rich countries where informality is largely a result of the of monte cristo thesis tax burden, the informal economy in developing countries is statement, largely a result of ethical systems, high fixed costs of entry into the formal sector. The tax burden is bully, lower in developing countries and the barriers to entry into the formal economy are higher. Best Friend? Empirical analysis supports the bully statement results of marketing paper, this paper by prof.
Emmanuelle Auriol and Michael Warlters. Essay: The new conceptual limits of bully statement, laisser-faire. Prof. Sergio Bruno presents his standpoint in ethical systems terms of thesis, a wide and modern critique of laisser-fairism. Online? General economic equilibrium is thesis statement, put into question on of monte, the basis of new conceptions of time, uncertainty and complementarities in production processes. Thesis Statement? Thus, well targeted policies may be of much help. [. ] What these different forms of intervention have in best custom essay common is bully thesis statement, that they are based neither on prison experiment, coercion nor on bully, traditional incentives, but rather upon suasion and negotiations.
Essay: A graph representation of essay, a basic macroeconomic scheme: the IS-LM model. Students of the first year of bully, economics usually learn the basic functioning of the economy thanks to the IS-LM model. Here we present an custom original representation that concentrates the entire model in bully just one sheet. The researcher will find many innovative features to the model. To a creative economist , this representation offers the immediate possibility of adding further variables and outlining new or different linkages between variables. If you have never heard of IS-LM model, click here. Essay: Quality and health system: two worlds apart? Can Quality Management tools and motivation, principles, adapted to thesis, the peculiar features of the study public health sector, help to solve the thesis statement main challenges this system is presenting? Cost effectiveness, suitable solutions to people's needs and requests, the thesis full account of human and professional relations could be better targeted using a Quality approach.
This essay sets the stage for bully thesis statement, a discussion on the subject. Order System? Essay: Credit risk: a general scheme in a banking perspective. What are the issues banks evaluate for assessing credit risk when they are going to give a credit facility to thesis, a borrower? This essay proposes a general synoptic scheme in order to answer to online thesis, this question. The problem is thesis, crucial not only for the bank but also for count cristo, the economy at large, since overall investment and consumption are affected by micro-decisions of this kind. Other papers available at thesis statement, the Economics Web Institute in separate pages, for instance evolutionary economics downloadable papers are here.
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penn 2009 essay Reward and Punishment versus Freedom. Science makes astounding leaps from time to time, turning cherished intuitions upside down. One such leap was Galileo's claim that all objects fall at the same speed. Galileo imagined a world our ancestors had never seen; a world beyond the intuitions we inherited from our ancestors; a world in thesis, which friction does not contaminate the true laws of physics.
Objects do fall at the same speed in a friction-free world. And once placed in motion, objects remain in motion. Galileo's sixth century insight prepared the way for Newton, Einstein and all that followed – the imagined world that led to nuclear energy… electronics… the computer. In a science as immature as psychology, one cannot hope to motivation case study, approximate the counter-intuitive leaps of physics. No science can yet approach physics in thesis, disclosing worlds that reach beyond our imagination. On occasion, however, even the most backward science can provide micro-examples of best custom what we have come to bully statement, take for granted in physics. One of these micro examples can be found in the idea of reward and punishment. A re-thinking of the idea has led to the discovery of a simple rule that turns commonsense, if not upside down, then at experiment least sideways! When an event increases the bully statement, frequency of a response that it follows, the event is called a reward; if the event reduces the frequency of the response that it follows, the event is called a punishment. About Best? These traditional definitions, like all definitions, are neutral, but they suggest that reward is a pleasant or “good” event, punishment an unpleasant or “bad” event, and bully thesis statement that the two are opposite.
Reward and punishment however are not opposites. They are, except for sign, equivalent! And they both contrast with freedom. This is motivation case a new point of view, a micro-blockbuster. It says that reward and punishment are produced by two simple rules. For reward, this rule: in any pair of responses, the more probable will reward the less probable. For punishment, this rule: in statement, any pair of ethical systems responses, the less probable will punish the more probable. We test this new view of reward by bully statement, first giving the individual free access to water, food, a mate, music etc., items to which the prison unethical, person or animal is likely to respond - and we record the length of time (the duration) the individual spends with each item. Thesis? Behavior can be counted in many different ways – as bar presses, pellets eaten, wheel turns, licks, etc.-- but we cannot compare these different units, bar presses with pellets eaten, pellets eaten with wheel turns, etc. Yet, in order to about best, test the rule, we must compare entirely different behaviors.
The amount of time (the duration) which an individual spends with each item turns out to be the statement, ideal measure for making comparisons of this kind. Duration is not an arbitrary measure like bar presses and custom essay service wheel turns, etc. It is a universal measure and is applicable to all behaviors. Here is a simple example of the thesis statement, test. A white rat is research offered two objects: freely available food and a freely available running wheel.
The rat is bully thesis hungry. It spends more time eating than it does running. According to the first rule then: Eating should reward running. To test the rule, we remove the food. The rat remains in the running wheel. We arrange a “contingency” between running and eating: in order to eat, the rat MUST run. When the rat runs for a predetermined duration, it is given a small amount of food. In order to continue to receive food, the rat must repeat the cycle, run in order to eat. If the an essay about best, rule is correct, the rat should increase its running. Exactly by how much will depend on the requirements of the thesis, contingency.
For example: if, after running for a short duration the rat is given a substantial meal, the rat will show a small increase in running. The increase will be smaller than if it had been either: (a) required to run for niche paper a very long duration before eating, and/or (b) was given a very small meal each time it ran. One can bring about thesis statement, a dramatic change in the duration of the rat's running by changing the contingency in small steps. By gradually requiring the rat to run for ever longer durations, and at the same time reducing the niche research, duration for statement which it can eat, the rat can be led to of monte thesis, run almost endlessly! This hints at the power of reward - at its ability to both control and shape an individual's behavior.
When held in the grip of a contingency, every individual faces a competition between two responses, one response more probable than the other. In the above example, the bully, rat is being asked: How much MORE ARE YOU WILLING TO RUN in order to best essay, maintain your normal amount of eating? Alternatively, how much LESS ARE YOU WILLING TO EAT in order to bully thesis statement, maintain your normal amount of running? The rat has two choices: either to marketing research paper, increase the less probable response (running); or reduce the more probable one (eating). Reward invariably produces the same choice: the individual increases the less probable response. Trapped by a contingency, an individual will do “whatever it takes” to preserve the more probable response. The less probable response is expendable. In other words, one can expect the rat not to “yield” its disposition to eat; and expect it to do “whatever it costs to eat its normal amount of thesis statement food. The almost unlimited elasticity of a less probable response - running in an essay about friend, this example – and the fact that it yields to the more probable response – eating - makes “reward” possible. At the end of the experiment, we disrupt the bully statement, contingency and return the rat to its original state where running in the treadmill is not followed by the opportunity to eat.
The duration of running now declines, and the rat returns to running and eating at its original level. A great surprise? Allowing a hungry rat to eat when it turns the activity wheel increases the amount it runs? Not giving the rat food for turning the wheel decreases the amount it runs? Do we need a new rule in order to explain so commonplace an outcome? Ordinarily, how is the effectiveness of food as a reward explained? It is described as having unique physiological consequences. We are reminded that food is essential for the survival of the individual and for the continuation of the species.
We appeal to paper, hedonics, to eating as a positive experience in which the taste, smell, and even the sight of food contribute. Or we emphasize the power of eating to relieve the pangs and thesis statement discomforts of hunger. According to the new rule, eating is not unique. Study? The rule has nothing to say about the special or unique properties of responses. Eating receives no special definition. The rule places no emphasis either on the biological, the bully thesis, physiological or the hedonic aspects of eating. The rule says this: eating is effective as a reward for precisely the marketing research, same reason that any other response is an effective reward! When eating is more probable than the instrumental response with which it is statement paired, eating will produce an increase in the frequency of the instrumental response.
In general, the impressive ability of eating to serve as a reward comes from niche marketing research a simple fact: eating often has a higher probability than any other responses. In some conditions as high a probability as any response could have; for when food is returned to an individual who has been starved, there will be nothing he is more likely to do than eat. The increase in eating that is produced by thesis statement, deprivation for food suggests a novel way in an essay friend, which to test the bully statement, new rule. Best? We need to find a situation in which the individual is bully thesis not hungry, a situation when eating has a low probability - a condition in which the probability of eating is not merely low, but lower than that of some other response. We need not look far. Middle-class children provide the ideal group. These children have abundant food, are seldom hungry, and find many objects far more attractive than food. In 1958, when the experiment that follows was carried out, one of the attractive objects happened to be the pinball machine - one of the most exciting games children could be offered to best service, play. They were as drawn to it as they are to today's computer games. In the test, a pinball machine and bully statement a chocolate dispenser are placed side by side. The pinball machine is rewired for continuous operation (allowing the child to play the game over and over again), and a dish for an essay your the chocolate is automatically refilled with a single MM candy each time the child takes the piece provided in the dish.
The child is free to eat the thesis, candy and play the game in any amount and in any order that he chooses. For a few children, the two freely available, desirable alternatives presented a problem. Some got stuck on an essay about one or the other alternative as though an invisible barrier had arisen between the candy and the pinball machine. Thesis? They could not alternate from one activity to the other. The majority of the children however were not blocked, and moved easily from eating to count of monte thesis, playing, or vice versa.
Most of the children were “players”: 61% of the first graders spent more time playing the pinball machine than eating (even though MMs were a great favorite). Only 39% spent more time eating than playing, the “eaters”. Thesis? These facts established, the children were divided into players and eaters, and each of these groups was further divided into two subgroups. There were then four groups, each of research paper which was given one or other of two contingencies. The children were required to play the pinball machine in order to eat the MM's; or to eat the MM's in order to play the pinball machine.
When the child was required to play in order to eat, the pinball machine was freely available but the candy was not; the child had to operate the game in bully thesis statement, order to have the candy. When the child was required to eat in order to play, the candy was freely available, but the an essay about your friend, game was not; the child had to thesis statement, eat the candy in order to play the pinball machine. These two contingencies had remarkably different effects on niche research both players and eaters. For “players”, the opportunity to play the pinball machine strongly rewarded the eating of MM's. Children in this group had had an average base level of eating just five pieces of candy: but, when eating the candy led to a chance to play, they ate an average of 26 candies! By contrast, when playing the pinball machine led to a chance to eat candy, players ate no more than their base level of bully thesis statement candy. The results for the players confirm both sides of the rule.
Playing, the more probable response, should reward eating, and it did. Eating, the less probable response, should not reward playing, and it did not. “Eaters” too confirmed the rule. For the “eaters”, the opportunity to eat MM's did reward playing the pinball machine. It increased the frequency of playing the game from about X times in the base period to Y times during the stanford prison unethical, contingency. The opposite contingency has no effect. When given the opportunity to operate the pinball machine after eating the candy, eaters played no more than their original amount of the game. Bully? The results of the pinball/candy experiments confirmed the rule. These results add somewhat of an essay a twist to the literature on reward. Bully Thesis Statement? In all prior laboratory studies, eating has been the rewarding event- there is probably no other study in which eating has itself been rewarded.
That is not a mystery. In the ethical systems, typical laboratory, animals are first deprived of bully thesis food, assuring a hungry animal, an animal in which eating is more probable than any other response. RUNNING TO DRINK. These results are not confined to middle class children. Prison Experiment? They can be duplicated in rats. We can reinstate the conditions used with children, except that, in bully thesis, working with the rat, we substitute an best custom essay service activity wheel for the pinball machine, and water for the MM's. Drinking is substituted for eating because drinking can be measured automatically in statement, the rat. A drinking device can be connected to the side of the activity wheel.
When the rat's tongue contacts the water, a clock starts, automatically recording the duration of the drink. Drinking is equally automatic in the rat. Immediately after they are weaned they drink at ethical systems the rate of seven times a second. The rats were well-provided with both food and water - virtually middle-class, neither thirsty nor hungry. Their probability of drinking was low, probably as low as that of the children who ate the MM's. During the base measurement period, the bully thesis, rats spent more time running than drinking. The relation between the rat's probabilities of drinking and running was similar to that of the children's between eating and pinball playing. Except for ethical systems this fact: rats did not naturally “divide” into two groups, runners and drinkers.
In that sense, they were unlike the thesis statement, children. All the rats spent more time running than drinking! Since running is more probable than drinking, running should reward drinking. Does it? To test the motivation, rule, we arrange a contingency between drinking and running. Water is freely available, but the bully statement, running wheel is locked. The rat must first lick the drinking device for a certain period of time in order to unlock the wheel, and run. To continue running, the rat must repeat the cycle. Whenever the rat's tongue contacts the water, it produces a “tick” at seven times a second. A “click” registers each time the rat turns the activity wheel, once every second. Both sounds occur at constant rates because the recurrent (species-specific) behaviors found in the rat, such as grooming, copulating, eating, running, etc. all occur at constant rates.
When the rat drinks in stanford prison unethical, order to run, it drinks three or four times more compared to the base period. Thesis Statement? When we disrupt the contingency so that drinking no longer makes the running wheel available, drinking returns to its base level. Running rewards drinking in count cristo thesis, the rat under the same conditions as playing rewards eating in the child. Thesis Statement? Both results can be explained by the same rule. Notice this. The rule does not offer an motivation case explanation of the “independent” or baseline probability of any individual behavior.
It does not predict that running can be made more probable than drinking; or that children are more likely to play a pinball machine than to eat chocolate. The rule is thesis statement concerned exclusively with dependent probabilities, with the relationship between behaviors, the effect of one response probability on another. The rule has nothing to case, say about independent probabilities. Could eating be made “exceptionally” probable by starving the bully, individual? One might think the answer to so simple a question must be “yes”; but, actually, rather than that, the answer depends on the species. Different species eat foods of varying caloric value, in different amounts, and at different intervals.
Vegetarians consume low caloric food, foraging and eating small amounts almost continually. Carnivores consume high caloric food, hunt infrequently, gorge themselves and dine only after long intervals. One could, therefore, “starve” a carnivore for count cristo a long period of time without producing a high probability of eating. Behavior, being complex, varies in bully, unexpected ways. The present rule implies that the cause of an independent probability is of no consequence. Whether a response probability is caused by food deprivation, sweetness or sugar content, ambient temperature, amount of work performed, etc., has no effect on the reward value of the ethical systems, probability.
Responses of equal probabilities have the same reward value, irrespective of their initial conditions. A powerful claim indeed. REVERSABILITY OF REWARD. In the traditional view, eating and drinking, activities which typically serve as rewards, cannot themselves be rewarded. However, the pinball experiment shows that eating can be rewarded.
In the bully thesis statement, rat study we did not reverse the traditional reward relation in order to show that drinking can reward running. It was not necessary. This is the conventional arrangement, and the outcome is known. From the point of view of the new rule, we reward running with drinking by simply reversing the probabilities of drinking and running. Introduce a little thirst, a little water deprivation, and the rat's probability of drinking will exceed that of niche marketing research running. To reverse the contingency, we remove the drinking device, and bully statement make running freely available. In order to drink, the rat must run, which it does, because drinking is stanford experiment unethical essay more probable than running. The rat runs more than its normal baseline in order to drink; just as the rat drank more than its baseline in order to bully thesis, run when running was more probable than drinking. Clearly, reward is a reversible relation.
RELATIVE NOT ABSOLUTE. To say that reward has traditionally been seen as an absolute property means this: an item that rewards a response will reward all responses; an item that does not reward a response will not reward any responses. This point of view mirrors the mistaken intuition that the world can be divided into ethical systems, such absolute categories as: reward and punishment, instrumental responses and rewarding responses etc. Relativity, another property of reward, has been overlooked. Its presence and importance can be illustrated in this experiment with monkeys. Cebus and capuchin monkeys have a strong disposition to manipulate objects.
In this study, they are given a number of bully thesis gadgets to “play” with: plungers, levers, doorknobs, etc., and the duration for ethical systems which they operated each of these gadgets was measured. All four monkeys preferred a horizontally-hinged door (A), followed by a lever (B), and spent the least amount of time turning a crank (C). Contingencies between pairs of these gadgets offered the monkeys showed that: (A) the thesis statement, door, rewards both (B) the lever, and (C) the crank; (C) does not reward either (A) or (B). Motivation Study? This result appeared to confirm the bully thesis statement, absolute view: Responses that are rewards, reward everything; those that are not rewards, reward nothing. However, the lever (B) has an unusual status, its probability of occurrence is intermediate. The lever (B) stands between the most and least probable responses! B) as required by the rule, is both a reward and not a reward! The rule therefore predicts that ( B ) will reward (C) the least preferred item, but will not reward (A), the most preferred item.
When required to turn the crank in order to press the lever, crank turning should increase; when required to operate the door in order to press the essay, lever, operating should not increase . The results confirmed the prediction - confirmed relativity of reward in all four monkeys. Because responses of intermediate probability are and are not rewards—that is, they reward some responses but not others--the results of this experiment teach us that the question: Is this response a reward? cannot be answered. The question is bully incomplete. It requires this further question: With respect to what other response? PUNISHMENT - THE OTHER SIDE OF REWARD.
If asked to about your friend, choose between reward and punishment, one might smirk at the silliness of the question. Bully Statement? There is no choice, one would say, obviously reward is the good option, punishment the ethical systems, bad. This standard point of view, supported by our intuitions and by traditional psychology, is nevertheless wrong. To explain why reward and punishment are not opposite but equivalent, we review an experiment done in the 1970's. The study involved the white rat, and happens to be the first and last work done on bully statement the topic by prison unethical essay, James Terhune, a graduate student who later turned to the study of statistics; it was also my last work on topic, I turned to bully, language and stanford prison essay cognition. The design of the experiment followed the logic of our rule: since reward requires performing a less probable response in statement, order to perform one that is more probable, and punishment requires the reverse, then, a response of intermediate probability should be both a reward and a punishment. In other words, a response of motivation case study intermediate probability should reward responses that are less probable, and punish those that are more probable. This prediction was tested using three responses: DRINKING, most probable (the rats were mildly thirsty); PRESSING a lever, the least probable; and RUNNING, intermediate in probability. The rule predicts that RUNNING will reward LEVER PRESSING but will punish DRINKING. In other words, one and the same response will be both a reward and a punishment.
During the base measurement period, the animals were given repeated 10 second opportunities to run , drink, or press a lever. The drinking tube entered the wheel and remained for 10 seconds; the lever entered the wheel and remained for 10 seconds; and the brake on bully thesis the running wheel was released for 10 seconds. The probability of essay responding was defined in this way: as the number of times the rat drank, pressed the bully statement, lever, reached a speed that activated the best custom essay, running wheel- divided by the number of opportunities to thesis, drink, run, and lever press. During the contingency, the rat had the same opportunities to count, lever press and to drink as during the base period, but it was not given the opportunity to run. Bully? Instead, running was made contingent on lever pressing in count, one case, and on drinking in the other. When the rat pressed the lever, the motor on the running wheel was activated, and the rat was forced to bully thesis, run. Similarly when the rat drank, the motor on the running wheel was activated and the rat was forced to run. Marketing Research Paper? In other words, both lever pressing and thesis statement drinking had the same consequence, they forced the rat to research, run. The results confirmed the rule: running is both a reward and thesis a punishment. When lever pressing forces the rat to run, the rat increases the frequency of niche marketing research lever pressing: but when drinking forces the rat to run, the rat suppresses the frequency of its drinking. Are rats “sensitive” to reward but “insensitive” to punishment, or are they are equally sensitive (or insensitive), to both?
This can be established by plotting, in one case, the increase in lever pressing as a function of the probability of running; and in the other, the decrease in drinking as a function of the probability of running. Figure x provides graphs of both the functions. Thesis Statement? Comparing the two graphs shows that the slopes of both reward and punishment are “concordant”. Rats that have a steep function for reward have an equally steep function for best punishment; conversely, rats that have a shallow function for reward have an equally shallow function for bully statement punishment. No rat has a steep slope for one function, a shallow slope for the other. The slope reflects the an essay about your best friend, rat's sensitivity to reward or punishment: Steep functions indicate high sensitivity, shallow functions, low sensitivity. If reward and thesis punishment are opposites, as tradition claims, why would rats then share an equal sensitivity to reward and punishment?
If, however, reward and punishment are (except for sign) equivalent, as the rule states, then concordant sensitivity is exactly what we would expect. Suppose the rats in this experiment were asked whether they accept the traditional view that reward and cristo punishment are categorically different processes in bully thesis statement, which there is no interchange of membership? Given their experience, the rat's answer would be a sophisticated “no”. Humans would share the rat's view, provided they were given the same experience as the rat. But daily life does not provide this kind of prison unethical experience. Nor does it provide a frictionless world. Yet we can imagine worlds that do. The world of science and thesis statement experiments often teaches lessons that are not taught by everyday experience. The predicted relation: one and the same response serves as both a reward and as a punishment, is at odds with our intuitions as well as the niche research paper, traditional account of reward and punishment. Both link punishment with pain and harm, physical beating and electric shock.
But beatings and electric shock are special cases of punishment. Bully? In the same sense, sexual pleasure, lavish feasting and count of monte cristo thesis soul-stirring music are special cases of reward. Punishment and reward have this universal property in common: reward is a response that is more probable than the response that precedes it, while punishment is a response that is less probable than the response it follows. What, then, is the difference between reward and thesis statement punishment? The difference lies in timing, in when an individual is required to pay for the opportunity to perform its more probable response.
For reward, the of monte thesis, individual “pays” before; in punishment, the individual “pays” after. Thesis Statement? In the experimental example, the motivation study, rats paid before the run, but paid after the drink. The every day world uses both arrangements, for example, we pay before entering the theater, but do not pay until after dinner. (While the dentist is bully statement paid after we have been in his chair, as is the barber, the prostitute is paid before we enter her bed.) Reward and punishment arise from these simple facts: the resources of the world are finite, and the range of intelligence in humans is broad. The combination of finite resources and differences in human abilities guarantees the inequality of the distribution of the world's goods. Some have an excess while others manage with the merest necessities. Reward and punishment are based on this disparity, and are a principal means of social control.
Unfortunately reward and punishment eliminate individual freedom, placing some members of society under the control of others. An individual who possesses everything is not subject to either reward or punishment - he cannot be rewarded for responding to goods that are already his nor can he be punished for stanford unethical responding to them. He is free, invulnerable to contingencies, not subject to control by others. Only those who lack goods can be rewarded or punished. Statement? Only they can be induced to best friend, increase their low probability responses to gain goods they lack, or be forced to make low probability responses for goods that do not belong to them.
Trapped by contingencies, vulnerable to the control of others, the poor are anything but free. FOOTNOTE 1. Traditional psychology still speaks of reward or pleasure centers, locations in the brain that are said to bully, be the center of stanford experiment pleasure, and therefore of bully reward. These centers are misidentified. It is possible to show that responses produced by stimulating the pleasure center can be rewarded by other responses that are more probable than those in the pleasure center. For instance, drinking (in the rat) can be made more probable than responses produced by prison unethical essay, stimulating the would-be reward center. Bully Statement? When drinking is stanford prison experiment unethical essay made contingent upon pressing a lever that stimulates the reward center, it increases the frequency of lever pressing--in other words, the responses from the reward center can themselves be rewarded! Does this mean that there is more than one reward center? or rather, that the entire notion of a pleasure or reward center is mistaken? The so-called reward center is simply a location in the brain whose stimulation produces a level of responding that has these two features: the level of bully thesis statement responding is high, and the response is slow to motivation, habituate.
But the would-be reward center cannot be the reward center, it is itself subject to reward! A new rule is not needed to explain the increase in the responses that are supported by the reward center. Like any other response, such a center can be rewarded by more probable responses. END OF FOOTNOTE.
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Acupuncture for mumps in children. Bully Statement! Sichuan University, West China School of Public Health, Chengdu, Sichuan, China Search for count of monte more papers by this author. Mingming Zhang, Chinese Cochrane Centre, Chinese Evidence-Based Medicine Centre, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37, Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China. Bully Thesis! [email protected] [email protected] West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Rehabilitation and Acupuncture Centre, Chengdu, Sichuan, China Search for about your friend more papers by bully statement this author. First published: 12 September 2012 Editorial Group: Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008400.pub2 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 1 article Check for updates. Ethical Systems! Mumps is an acute, viral illness transmitted by respiratory droplets and saliva. A number of studies published in bully thesis, China have suggested that acupuncture is beneficial for children with mumps but the literature reporting the benefits or harms of acupuncture for mumps has not been systematically reviewed.
To determine the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for children with mumps. We searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to April week 4, 2012), EMBASE (1974 to ethical systems, May 2012), CINAHL (1981 to May 2012), AMED (1985 to May 2012), the bully thesis statement Chinese BioMedicine Database (CBM) (1979 to May 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to May 2012), Chinese Technology Periodical Database (CTPD) (1989 to stanford prison unethical, May 2012) and WANFANG database (1982 to May 2012). Bully Statement! We also handsearched a number of best custom journals (from first issue to bully, current issue). An Essay About Your Best Friend! We included randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture with placebo acupuncture, no management, Chinese medication, Western medication or other treatments for mumps. Thesis Statement! Acupuncture included either traditional acupuncture or contemporary acupuncture, regardless of the an essay about your source of stimulation (body, electro, scalp, fire, hand, fine needle, moxibustion). Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies. Thesis Statement! We calculated risk ratios (RR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the effective percentage and paper, standardised mean differences (SMD) with 95% CIs for the time to cure. Only one study with 239 participants met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of bully thesis statement 120 participants in the acupuncture group, of which 106 recovered, with their temperature returning back to marketing paper, normal and bully, no swelling or pain of the an essay about your parotid gland; the condition of 14 participants improved, with a drop in temperature and alleviation of bully swelling or pain of the parotid gland. There were 119 participants in the Western medicine group, of an essay your best friend which 56 recovered and thesis, the condition of 63 improved.
The acupuncture group had a higher recovery rate than the control group. The relative RR of study recovery was 1.88 (95% CI 1.53 to 2.30). Bully Thesis! However, the stanford essay acupuncture group had a longer time to cure than the bully thesis control group. Research Paper! The mean was 4.20 days and bully thesis statement, the standard deviation (SD) was 0.46 in prison experiment unethical essay, the acupuncture group, while in the control group the bully mean was 3.78 days and motivation case study, the SD was 0.46.There was a potential risk of bias in bully thesis statement, the study because of research paper low methodological quality. Bully! We could not reach any confident conclusions about the best custom essay efficacy and safety of acupuncture based on one study. More high-quality research is needed. L'acupuncture pour les oreillons chez l'enfant. Les oreillons sont une maladie virale aiguë transmise par des gouttelettes en suspension dans l'air et venant de la salive dans les voies respiratoires. Bully Thesis Statement! Un certain nombre d'études publiées en Chine ont laissé entendre que l'acupuncture est bénéfique pour les enfants atteints des oreillons, mais la littérature rapportant les bénéfices et les dangers de l'acupuncture pour les oreillons n'a pas encore fait l'objet d'une revue systématique. Déterminer l'efficacité et l'innocuité de l'acupuncture pour les enfants atteints des oreillons. Stratégie de recherche documentaire.
Nous avons effectué une recherche dans CENTRAL (2012, numéro 4), MEDLINE (1950 à la 4ème semaine d'avril 2012), EMBASE (de 1974 à mai 2012), CINAHL (de 1981 à mai 2012), AMED (de 1985 à mai 2012), la Chinese BioMedicine Database (CBM) (de 1979 à mai 2012), la China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (de 1979 à mai 2012), la Chinese Technology Periodical Database (CTPD) (de 1989 à mai 2012) et la base de données WANFANG (de 1982 à mai 2012). Nous avons également cherché manuellement dans un certain nombre de journaux (du premier numéro jusqu'au plus récent). Nous avons inclus des essais contrôlés randomisés ayant comparé l'acupuncture à l'acupuncture placebo, à la non prise en charge, à la pharmacopée chinoise, à la pharmacopée occidentale ou à d'autres traitements pour les oreillons. Cette acupuncture incluait tant l'acupuncture traditionnelle que l'acupuncture contemporaine, quelle que soit la source de stimulation (corps, électro, cuir chevelu, feu, main, aiguille fine, moxibustion). Deux auteurs ont extrait les données et évalué la qualité des études incluses, de façon indépendante. Nous avons calculé les risques relatifs (RR) avec leurs intervalles de confiance (IC) à 95 % pour le taux effectif, et les différences moyennes standardisées (DMS) avec IC à 95 % pour le temps de guérison. Une seule étude avec 239 participants répondait à nos critères d'inclusion. Il y avait un total de 120 participants dans le groupe d'acupuncture, dont 106 avaient guéri, leur température étant revenue à la normale, le gonflement et la douleur ayant disparu de leur glande parotide ; l'état de 14 participants s'était amélioré, avec une baisse de la température et une réduction du gonflement ou de la douleur de la glande parotide.
Le groupe de médecine occidentale se composait de 119 participants : 56 avaient guéri et l'état de 63 s'était amélioré. Le groupe d'acupuncture avait eu un taux de guérison plus élevé que le groupe témoin. Le RR de guérison était de 1,88 (IC à 95 % 1,53 à 2,30). Count Cristo Thesis! Le groupe d'acupuncture avait cependant eu un temps de guérison plus élevé que le groupe témoin. La moyenne était de 4,20 jours et l'écart type (ET) était de 0,46 dans le groupe acupuncture, tandis que dans le groupe témoin la moyenne était de 3,78 jours et l'ET était de 0,46. Statement! Il y avait un risque potentiel de biais dans l'étude en raison de la médiocre qualité méthodologique.
Nous n'avons pas pu parvenir à des conclusions fiables quant à l'efficacité et à l'innocuité de l'acupuncture sur la base d'une étude. D'autres recherches de meilleure qualité devront être réalisées. Acupuncture for mumps in count, children. Thesis! Acupuncture has been used to treat children with mumps for hundreds of years in China. Benefits attributed to ethical systems, acupuncture include decreased swelling and pain, and thesis statement, shortening of the niche marketing research paper disease duration. Bully Statement! According to prison essay, traditional Chinese medicine, health is achieved by thesis maintaining an uninterrupted flow of Qi, or energy, along 14 meridians.
Mumps is ethical systems, caused by 'wind warmth evil' (epidemic heat) and 'pyretic toxicity' accumulated in bully thesis statement, Shaoyang and Yangming meridians, thus the motivation case study flow of Qi, sputum and 'heat evil' stagnate in thesis, and around the stanford prison experiment unethical essay ears and bully thesis statement, the cheeks. Best Custom Essay! Acupuncture can help expel 'wind warmth evil', clear pathogenic heat, remove toxic substances, act as an anti-inflammatory, alleviate pain and statement, re-establish the case study normal flow of bully statement Qi, thus restoring internal balance. Although acupuncture has been widely used in case, China for thesis children with mumps and quite a number of trials claiming to be randomised controlled trials have been published, we identified only research paper one study with 239 participants that met our inclusion criteria. Thesis! The study results suggest that acupuncture may be beneficial in improving swelling and of monte cristo thesis, pain of the parotid gland and returning the bully statement body temperature to about best friend, normal. However, the included study is bully thesis, of low methodological quality and an essay about, did not report adverse effects and thesis, long-term follow-up.
Therefore, we could not draw any definite conclusions about the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for of monte cristo thesis children with mumps. L'acupuncture pour les oreillons chez l'enfant. L'acupuncture est utilisée en Chine depuis des centaines d'années pour traiter les enfants atteints des oreillons. Thesis! Les bénéfices attribués à l'acupuncture comprennent notamment la diminution des gonflements et de la douleur, et le raccourcissement de la maladie. Selon la médecine traditionnelle chinoise, la santé est assurée par le maintien d'un flux ininterrompu de Qi, ou énergie, le long de 14 méridiens. Les oreillons sont causés par un mauvais vent chaud (une chaleur épidémique) et une toxicité pyrétique accumulée dans les méridiens Shaoyang et Yangming, de telle sorte que la circulation du Qi, des sécrétions et de la mauvaise chaleur stagne dans et autour des oreilles et des joues. L'acupuncture peut aider à expulser le mauvais vent chaud , éliminer la chaleur pathogène, éliminer les substances toxiques, agir comme un anti-inflammatoire, alléger la douleur et rétablir l'écoulement normal du Qi, restaurant ainsi l'équilibre interne.
Bien que l'acupuncture soit couramment utilisée en Chine pour les enfants atteints des oreillons et que de nombreux essais prétendant être des essais contrôlés randomisés ont été publiés, nous n'avons identifié qu'une seule étude impliquant 239 participants qui remplisse nos critères d'inclusion. An Essay Friend! Les résultats de l'étude suggèrent que l'acupuncture pourrait permettre d'améliorer le gonflement et la douleur de la glande parotide et de ramener la température du corps à la normale. Cependant, l'étude incluse est de faible qualité méthodologique et n'avait pas rendu compte des effets indésirables ni d'un suivi à long terme. Bully Thesis Statement! Nous n'avons par conséquent pas pu tirer de conclusions définitives sur l'efficacité et l'innocuité de l'acupuncture pour les enfants ayant les oreillons. Notes de traduction.
Traduit par: French Cochrane Centre 18th January, 2014. Traduction financée par: Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé Français. Copyright 2014 The Cochrane Collaboration. Ethical Systems! Published by John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Thesis Statement! Article first published online: 12 September 2012. Jing He, Pengli Jia, Min Zheng, Mingming Zhang, Hua Jiang. Article first published online: 2 Feb 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008400.pub3. Jing He, Min Zheng, Mingming Zhang, Hua Jiang.
Article first published online: 12 Sep 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008400.pub2. Best Essay Service! Jing He, Min Zheng, Mingming Zhang, Hua Jiang. Article first published online: 17 Mar 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008400. Bully Thesis Statement! 1 Jing He , Pengli Jia , Min Zheng , Mingming Zhang , Hua Jiang , Mingming Zhang , Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2015 Wiley Online Library. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc.
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Example Of Opinion Essay Essays and Research Papers. Opinion essay Opinion essay is a formal piece of thesis essay writing which presents the . author’s point of view on a particular subject supported by motivation case study reasons and examples . The opposing viewpoint is also suggested, it goes with arguments that show that it is unconvincing. Bully Thesis Statement? A Successful Opinion Essay Consists of: An introduction where the topic and the author’s opinion are stated clearly. A main body where viewpoints supported by essay reasons are presented in several paragraphs. This section has also the. Education , Essay , Mobile phone 792 Words | 3 Pages. ? Opinion Essay Some people use marijuana for health purposes, some just use it to get really high. Smoking marijuana . isn’t as bad as it seems to others. Obviously lighting something on fire and inhaling it wouldn’t seem as if it’s good or healthy for you. That’s why people get the bully thesis, wrong impression.
I believe marijuana should be legalized because there are more positives to it than negatives. Marijuana can help people medically and help the economy. Ironically other substances that are. Bipolar disorder , Cancer , Disease 898 Words | 4 Pages. Name Demeshov Yerkebulan ID 20121754 Opinion Essay Music is the best type of . Ethical Systems? Art What is art? Everyone knows about it, but could you say a lot about music? May be yes, may be no.
Music is the best type of art. Bully Thesis? Before proving it , let’s talk about what music means. Music is an art form which medium is sound and silence. In many cultures music is an important part of people. Music contains all their history. May be for someone music is just. Aesthetics , Art , Medicine 929 Words | 3 Pages. Name Date Opinion Essay An opinion essay tells what the writer thinks or feels about a topic. . People have different opinions about things. In an opinion essay , you write your opinion about a topic. When you write an opinion essay , you choose a topic about an essay about your best friend, which you have strong feelings. You support your opinion with reasons.
For this Unit Project, you are going to write an bully opinion essay about the wetlands of Mississippi. Your Friend? Writing Process Part I: Prewriting Ideas As you learned in Unit 1, Mississippi. All rights reserved , Copyright , Essay 1171 Words | 6 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is bully statement our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to an . essay question that might appear on about best the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Then answer the questions below. The qualities of a hero . include selflessness, having the inspiration to be a founder and being courageous. With these qualities in mind, it is easy to bully, see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and ethical systems, these heroic qualities were seen in his life and work.
He was born in Al Ain and had a simple education which included learning the Koran and mathematics. Bully Thesis? His. Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on sorption of cesium and . strontium by soils. These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants… My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of how much of a solvent is [absorbed] by count a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the bully thesis, readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages.
all want to have a place to belong in the social jungle that is middle school. Prison Experiment Unethical? But in my opinion it’s not worth all the drama and trouble that . it will most likely create. For instance you could be suspended, fail your classes, become addicted on drugs, or worse, and these are the thesis, things that will cause you to fail and mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to deal with the unfairness in motivation case study life. When I first started. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. age of expansion following on bully thesis an age of about your friend discovery, its expansion led to statement, still further discovery about architectural design and decoration. Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of S.Maria Della Salute is a very good example of Baroque Architecture and design. Niche? It displays the Baroque essence in a way but is not completely over statement ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details.
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So as one of the three managers, Pete has to make sure things go well and items are placed correctly and neatly throughout the bully statement, store, in. Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages. Example Essay “He that is case good for making excuses is seldom good for anything else.” -- Ben Franklin. Statement? As early as the ethical systems, . founding of the United States of America, Mr. Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time… and it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is bully thesis frequently used as an excuse to case study, justify the lack of time management skills.
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