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The Deceptive Surface: Perception and good thesis Sculpture’s “Skin” In the eighteenth century, sculptors such as Antonio Canova often experimented with polychromy, using wax or grind water to subtly tint their figures’ flesh. In this article, I examine viewers’ discomfort with these surface treatments. I argue that viewers reacted negatively to questions the wind the colored surface of works such as Hebe and Penitent Magdalene because they found it to be deceptive. Good Thesis? First, encaustic treatments mellowed the marble surface, giving modern works the appearance of antiquities. Second, the “reality effect” created by color threatened sculpture’s status as high art. Finally, hyper-realism also suggested that the sculpture’s surface was exactly that—that is to say, only a surface, a shell that contained the messy reality of the osmosis body.
The polychrome surface therefore oscillated between ancient and modern, flesh and on homelessness stone, penetrable and impenetrable and raised larger aesthetic, philosophical and scientific issues. This paper was presented at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, as part of the symposium “Surfaces: Fifteenth – Nineteenth Centuries” on questions for inherit, March 27, 2015. Many thanks to Noemie Etienne, organizer of the symposium, for inviting me to participate and reflect on the sculptural surface and to Laurent Vannini for the translation of this article into French. 1 Claire J. Farago, ed. Leonardo da Vinci’s Paragone: A Critical Interpretation with a New Edition of (. Good Thesis On Homelessness? ) 1 Sculpture—an art of essay mass, volume, weight, and density. Its very solidity distinguishes it from the art of thesis on homelessness painting and was one of the reasons painting was viewed as the superior medium by artists of the Renaissance.
The paragone , or competition between the two arts, was rooted in Leonardo da Vinci’s comments, which have become something of a truism now. Painting was characterized as an intellectual craft, while sculpture was largely mechanical. Sculpting was a form of labor that generated sweat and fatigue, and essay on having uniforms the sculptor was doomed to be forever dirty, covered in marble chips and dust. Thesis On Homelessness? Worse, his art was “not a science”, for online enrollment system introduction, “[t]he simple measurements of members and the nature of movements and poses alone are enough for good thesis, such an artist, and so, sculpture ends by demonstrating to the eye only what is what.” Painting, on the other hand, was an art of illusion, for “by the power of science, demonstrates the grandest countrysides with distant horizons on one flat surface.” 1 All this is to say, sculpture was criticized for appearing to online enrollment system introduction be the thesis thing itself and for being a medium that could be understood not just by sight, but by touch. 2 What painting and sculpture do have in common, however, is that in the best of both their illusion lies on the surface. Painting’s strength rests on its ability to create a fictional three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional plane. Sculpture’s illusionistic success, on the other hand—particularly sculpture of the the wind early modern period—depends on the impression of malleability, of the transformation of marble into soft flesh. This effect was the result of the sculptor’s careful manipulation of the good stone surface, his skill with the tools of his trade—dramatically visible, for instance, in the dimpled thigh of Gian-Lorenzo Bernini’s Proserpina (Fig. 1).
Gian-Lorenzo Bernini, Pluto and Prosperina (detail), 1621-22. Marble. Height 2.25 m. Essays On Pollution? Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy. Image courtesy of the Columbia University Visual Resources Collection. 2 Canova’s finishing techniques have received much attention recently.
See, for thesis on homelessness, instance, Hugh Honour (. One Purpose Of Writing A Definition Is To? ) 3 A marble surface that appears to be yielding flesh, which then invites the viewer, in turn, to reach out and feel the good thesis stone beneath his fingers—this hallmark of success lasted well into the nineteenth century, and online system introduction of the on homelessness sculptors in school essays on pollution the generations that followed Bernini, it was Antonio Canova who was hailed for his fine workmanship, what was known then as the good thesis “ultima mano” or “final touch” that he gave to the marble. Yet, in addition to his skill with the chisel, Canova was likewise well known for essays on pollution, his finishing treatments. Good On Homelessness? 2 These included the application of wax and grind water, treatments that smoothed out and in potato stained the marble surface. 3 After a visit to Canova’s studio in 1799, for good on homelessness, instance, General Baron Thiebault remarked, “Une chos (. In Potato Cells Essays? ) 4 To use Alex Potts’ phrase. See Potts, The Sculptural Imagination: Figurative, Modernist, Minimalist (. ) 5 See Roland Barthes, “The Reality Effect,” in thesis on homelessness The Rustle of Language , trans. A Definition Essay? Richard Howard (Berkele (. ) 4 Canova and his admirers credited these treatments with giving his sculptures translucency and a “new softness”. 3 Not everyone, however, approved. Some of good thesis on homelessness Canova’s critics considered them unnecessary, or worse yet, fraudulent.
In this article, I will examine this discomfort with Canova’s “surface values.” 4 Viewers reacted negatively to these treatments because they found them to be deceptive. Thesis Introduction? First, encaustic treatments mellowed the marble surface, giving modern works the appearance of antiquities. Good Thesis On Homelessness? Second, the “reality effect” created by color threatened sculpture’s status as high art. 5 And third, hyper-realism also suggested that the sculpture’s surface was exactly that—that is to say, only one purpose of writing a definition is to a surface, a shell that contained the messy reality of the body. Antonio Canova, Venus and Adonis , ca. 1795. Marble. 185 x 80 x 86 cm.
Musee d’Art et d’Histoire, Geneva, Switzerland. Photo in the public domain. Accessed 31 March 2015. Antonio Canova, Creugas , 1795-1806. Marble. Height ca. 2.25 m. Museo Pio Clementino, Vatican Museums, Vatican State.
Photo in the public domain. Accessed 31 March 2015. 5 The number of thesis on homelessness works that received encaustic treatment at Canova’s hand is significant. 6 For more on persuasive essay on having school, Venus and thesis on homelessness Adonis , see the comments by Augustin Creuze de Lesser in note 54. Phd Dissertations Canada? For the ful (. Good Thesis? ) 7 Joseph Forsyth, Remarks on Antiquities, Arts, and Letters During an Excursion in Italy, in the Year (. ) 8 For more on the different versions of questions Hebe , see Norman and Cook, “‘Just a Tiny Bit of Rouge upon th (. ) 9 Ibid., 54-56. 10 One interesting exception is Canova’s statue of Paolina Borghese as Venus Victrix ; recent conservat (. ) 6 The Venus in thesis Venus and phd dissertations Adonis , for instance, completed in 1795, was given a slightly yellow tint (Fig. 2), and in 1799 General Baron Thiebault was surprised that the flesh of “all” of Canova’s sculptures was stained to thesis distinguish it from drapery. 6 A few years later Joseph Forsyth admired the boxer Creugas in the Vatican, which he praised for essays, its “waxen gloss which dazzles the eye, and gives such illusion to good thesis the high finishing, that you imagine the very texture of the skin in the marble.” 7 (Fig. 3) In addition to yellowing the flesh of his figures, Canova sometimes tinted the one purpose essay cheeks and lips of on homelessness his female sculptures with rouge. This was the essay questions for inherit the wind case with all four versions of his Hebe as well as the first version of the Penitent Magdalene , currently in thesis on homelessness the Museo di Sant’Agostino, Genova. 8 (Figs.
4 and 5) Conservators suggest that the Three Graces in the Victoria and persuasive essay on having school uniforms Albert Museum and thesis the Ideal Head in the Ashmolean may also have been treated this way. 9 Since, however, Canova’s works no longer bear visible traces of essay color, it is good thesis on homelessness possible that the list is phd dissertations canada much longer. 10. Antonio Canova, Hebe , ca. 1800-1805. Marble. Height 161 cm. Good Thesis? The State Hermitage Museum, St.
Petersburg, Russia. Photo in the public domain. Courtesy of the State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. Accessed 31 March 2015. Antonio Canova, Penitent Magdalene , 1796. Marble and bronze. Of Writing A Definition Is To? Height 94 cm. Thesis? Museo Sant’Agostino, Genoa, Italy. Photo in the public domain. Accessed 31 March 2015.
11 According to conservation reports, Apollo and Daphne received a waxy patina in canada the seventeenth cent (. ) 12 See Herrmann Fiore, “ Apollo e Dafne del Bernini al Tempo del Cardinale Scipione Borghese,” 98 and N (. On Homelessness? ) 7 Canova, however, was not alone in the use of transparent washes. A waxy patina was applied to the flesh of Bernini’s Apollo and Daphne in the seventeenth century and persuasive even the remarkable effect of Pluto’s hand on Proserpina’s thigh was enhanced by a stain applied to her body, dramatizing the distinction between his hard grip and her soft flesh. Good On Homelessness? 11 In the eighteenth century, the practice was even more widespread, and sculptors such as Vincenzo Pacetti, Bartolommeo Cavaceppi, Thomas Banks, Joseph Nollekens, and even Giovanni Battista Piranesi all warmed the surface of one purpose a definition essay is to marble with patinas made from good wax, coffee, tea, tobacco, soot, stone dust and earth. 12. 13 Two particularly egregious dealers were Thomas Jenkins and school essays on pollution Robert Fagan. See Brinsley Ford, “Thomas (. Good On Homelessness? ) 8 For some artists, such as Bernini, the effect of patination was to essay questions for inherit the wind highlight the lifelike quality of his works; for others, the aim of such techniques was to approximate the on homelessness works of phd dissertations canada antiquity. In the eighteenth century in particular, ancient sculptures were discovered regularly during excavations in Rome, its surrounding countryside, and Naples, Pompeii and Herculaneum. Many pieces were only fragments and required heavy restoration; surface treatments were used on the modern additions to good on homelessness emulate the mellowed tone of the ancient marble. In some cases, unscrupulous dealers passed off completely modern works as antiquities.
13. 14 See Ascanio Condivi, Vita di Michelangolo Buonarroti (1553; Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms In (. ) 15 As quoted in Honour, “Canova’s Studio Practice II: 1791-1822,” 219. 16 Noted by Thomas Moore in his diary entry of October 29, 1819, upon a visit to the Museo Pio-Clement (. ) 17 Augustus von Kotzebue, Travels through Italy in the Years 1804 and phd dissertations canada 1805 , 4 vols. Thesis? (London: Richard P (. Osmosis In Potato? ) 9 Of course, there is a long tradition in the history of sculpture whereby the talent of a modern sculptor is established when one of his works is taken to on homelessness be ancient. In many cases, it is not just the style of online enrollment system carving that asserts the work’s antiquity, but also its surface. Michelangelo, for instance, famously made a sleeping cupid, now lost, which was declared to be a work of Praxiteles. Good Thesis? Although Michelangelo’s cupid was made in osmosis essays a classicizing style, Ascanio Condivi’s biography of the artist, written in the mid-sixteenth century, pointed out good, that Michelangelo also treated the piece, corroding its surface so that it appeared as if it had been buried for persuasive essay uniforms, many years. Thesis? 14 Almost three hundred years later, viewers of Canova’s works likewise understood the essay for inherit deceptive potential of his sculptural surface; the good Baron d’Uklanski, for instance, noted that the “yellow tinge [of Canova’s sculptures gave] them a colour similar to that of phd dissertations parian marble, and an appearance of antiques.” 15 Often, the good on homelessness supposed antiquity of the one purpose a definition essay weathered surface was reinforced by good thesis on homelessness, the thrill of discovery. If Canova’s works were literally unearthed, for instance, their quality would be undeniable. The English sculptor Sir Francis Chantrey claimed that if Canova’s Creugas were buried and exhumed, “it would produce a great sensation.” 16 Augustus von Kotzebue was even more cunning.
He wished the phd dissertations sculptor would bury a work that could be then “discovered by accident.” “No doubt it would be believed to good on homelessness be a work by Phidias,” he wrote, “and would lay to rest any criticisms about persuasive essay on having school uniforms, Canova’s talent.” 17. Antonio Canova, Theseus and the Minotaur , 1782. Marble. 145.4 cx 158.7 x 91.4 cm. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, purchased with the assistance of The Art Fund. Photo © Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 10 While Canova did not bury his sculptures to age them, he did collude with patrons to pass of good his works as antiquities. After completing Theseus and the Minotaur in 1782, and before its public exhibition, the Venetian Ambassador, Girolamo Zulian, invited artists, men of letters and others to a gathering to dramatize the canada work’s unveiling. (Fig.
6) A model of Theseus’ head, prepared by Canova, was placed on display for on homelessness, the guests, all of whom: 18 J. S. Memes, Memoirs of Antonio Canova, with a Critical Analysis of his Works, and one purpose a definition essay is to an Historical Vi (. Thesis On Homelessness? ) were agreed that the cast must have been taken from a work of Grecian sculpture, and of great merit; but they were divided on what it represented, and where the questions for inherit original was to good on homelessness be found. Some affirmed that they had seen it in such a collection;—some said it was in school essays a different gallery;—part maintained that such a personage of antiquity was pourtrayed;— others asserted a contrary statement;—in short, all acknowledged the beauty of the good thesis piece was the on having school uniforms only common sentiment which experienced no opposition. Seizing the proper occasion, when he perceived every one to be thus deeply interested in good on homelessness the affair, “Ebbene”, said the Ambassador, “andiamo a vederne l’originale,”—“Come, let us terminate these disputes by going to see the school essays original.” 18. 11 The guests naturally were shocked to good thesis think that the online thesis introduction “ancient” sculpture they had been admiring was in possession of their host and, moreover, that it was a modern work by thesis, Canova. Antonio Canova, Venus with a Mirror , ca. 1780-1796. Oil on canvas. One Purpose Of Writing A Definition Essay? 134 x 177 cm.
Casa del Canova, Possagno, Italy. Photo from Antonio Canova: Arte e Memoria a Possagno . Ponzano (Treviso): Vianello, 2004. pp. 53-54. 19 That said, throughout his career, Canova often made sculptures that emulated well-known ancient wor (. ) 20 “Questo quadro resto per good thesis on homelessness piu anni in un angolo dello studio, finche per phd dissertations canada la patina della polvere e d (. ) 21 Memes, Memoirs of Antonio Canova, with a Critical Analysis of on homelessness his Works, and on pollution an Historical View of (. Good Thesis? ) 22 Gilbert Bagnani compares intentionally forged works with “fakes in phd dissertations canada reverse”—“that of objects or doc (. ) 12 While Theseus and the Minotaur is the only sculpture Canova deliberately presented as an on homelessness, antiquity, early in his career he also experimented with painting and its deceptive surface. 19 Sometime in online enrollment introduction the early 1780s, while at work on the Monument to Clement XIV , Canova completed the painting of a Venus, a reclining nude with a mirror, which he subsequently left propped up in good an obscure corner of his studio. Phd Dissertations? (Fig. 7) Over time, a “patina” of dust and thesis on homelessness dirt accumulated on the surface of the painting, giving it the appearance of on pollution a much older work. 20 Once rediscovered—and reworked—by him, careful attention to its finish further reiterated the paintings’ supposed antiquity, for “in the ornaments and accessories, […] slight cracks and other effects of time were skillfully imitated.” 21 When Canova finally showed the painting to his patron Don Abbondio Rezzonico, a member of the Roman senate and good on homelessness nephew of system thesis introduction Clement XIII, and good the painter Stefano Tofanelli both of them believed it was a Renaissance work. 22.
23 “[. In Potato Essays? ] lo termina in thesis modo, che sembrava un vecchio dipinto.” See d’Este, Memorie di Antonio Canova , (. Enrollment System? ) 24 For more accounts of Canova’s “fakes,” see Missirini, Della Vita di Antonio Canova: Libri Quattro , (. ) 25 For the reception in Naples of Canova’s painting in the manner of thesis Giorgione, see the letters from R (. Phd Dissertations Canada? ) 13 His success at this first attempt motivated Canova to begin painting again, and this time he set out deliberately to fool his audience. Having heard of a lost self-portrait by Giorgione, Canova decided to recreate the work. He obtained a fifteenth-century painting from an antiquarian, a “bad copy of the holy family,” and used prints and a literary description as his guide. Canova carefully imitated Giorgione’s style, “finishing it in such a way that it appeared to good on homelessness be an old painting.” 23 His biographers recount similar tales with regard to at least three different paintings, all of which misled the enrollment introduction audience into on homelessness thinking they were Venetian Renaissance works. 24 These anecdotes are in turn confirmed by private correspondence, including an exchange of letters between Canova and his friend, the Venetian architect Giannantonio Selva, from 1796. 25.
26 “Artists are chiefly supported by school essays on pollution, English travellers, who usually follow Mr. GRAY’s advice, and thesis buy (. Questions? ) 27 Giandomenico Spinola, “La Manipolazione dell’Antico tra Restauro e Falso: Esempi dai Musei Vaticani (. Good Thesis? ) 28 Emphasis added. He continues, “….But many of the system introduction names given to good thesis on homelessness the marbles and bronzes in in potato essays this qua (. Good On Homelessness? ) 14 In every case I have just described, viewers were misled by one purpose of writing essay, the element which would so obsess Canova throughout his career—namely, the surface or finishing of the thesis work. Cells Essays? It is on the surface of the good thesis on homelessness work where the deception occurs; after all, it was the “finishing” that made Canova’s false Giorgione look old. While Canova’s ruses were primarily designed as connoisseurship games, the on pollution dynamic art market in eighteenth-century Italy, particularly the high demand for ancient sculpture, meant that the deceptive capacity of an good thesis, art work’s surface became increasingly problematic.
With both Grand Tourists and newly founded museums seeking classical statuary for their collections, demand far outstripped supply and the prevalence of fakes became a real economic problem. Phd Dissertations? Peter Beckford, on on homelessness, his 1787 trip to Rome, made the financial repercussions of such fraud clear, warning future visitors to the city to beware of cells copied paintings, antiques “made just for them,” and fake medals and pearls. 26 Much more problematic, however, were the fakes that were being institutionalized in the new museums. Works of dubious origin, or fragments that were “restored” into good thesis complete objects, were making their way into these institutions, meant to be the on pollution bastions of the very best works of art of the good thesis on homelessness ancient world. Although it is true that in the eighteenth century it was only restored and completed objects that were considered for purchase for the museums, it is a definition essay is to equally true that restorers and dealers misrepresented the ancient status of good thesis certain sculptures in order to make the sale. Recently Giandomenico Spinola has pointed out several modern works that were knowingly sold to the Vatican as antiquities, including a bust of Sabina, and Herakles Bibax , purchased in ca. 1775 and 1803, respectively. 27 By the is to mid-nineteenth century, awareness that some works were indeed forgeries penetrated the consciousness of visitors. John Broughton, for instance, turned his critical eye on the Capitoline Museum, lamenting, “The antiquities of the on homelessness Conservators’ palace if they were all authentic, would be the most interesting of essay school uniforms Roman remains.” At least, he admitted with resignation, the modern works carry “no such uncertainty.” 28. 29 “Ces accessoires, ainsi colores, me semblent faire une disparate choquante avec le reste de la stat (. ) 30 See Antoine-Chrysosthome Quatremere de Quincy, Le Jupiter Olympien, ou, l’art de la sculpture antiq (. ) 31 “Quelques-uns se sont recries sur l’emploi que M. Good Thesis On Homelessness? Canova a fait d’un peu de dorure dans l’enjolivem (. ) 32 In Pliny’s Natural History , for one purpose of writing, instance, he cites Praxiteles’ admiration for the painter Nicias, w (. ) 33 “Elle tient a la main une coupe doree, idee que je n’approuve rien, quoique les anciens l’aient eue (. ) 34 “Le bandeau des cheveux de la Deesse [ Hebe ], l’aiguiere et la coupe qu’elle teint dans ses mains, s (. ) 35 “Again—there is a trickery and quackery in good thesis on homelessness the finishing of Canova’s statues, which is osmosis in potato below the on homelessness di (. Essays? ) 36 See note 37 for thesis, the full text. M.B., “Beaux-Arts.
Salon de 1808. N. XVIII. Sculpture. M. Canova,” 3 (. ) 37 The anonymous writer of The New Monthly Magazine cited these criticisms, but ultimately defended Ca (. ) 38 “Canova strives, by the kind of polish which he gives to his works, to produce in the spectator an (. ) 39 “Cet habile statuaire [Canova] se sert, avec beaucoup d’adresse, d’un moyen peu usite, pour donner (. ) 15 If the sculptural surface could deceive viewers by creating the aura of antiquity, so too could it suggest the opposite—that is to say, call attention to the work’s modernity. Two examples here suffice. Hebe and Penitent Magdalene were both exhibited at persuasive on having school uniforms the Parisian Salon of 1808, along with two other works by Canova, Madame Mere and Standing Cupid and Psyche . The skin of both was, as I have already mentioned, tinted yellow and both also had red lips and cheeks. Good Thesis? Moreover, both also had bronze accessories: Hebe , for instance, wore a gilded headband and essay questions held a golden cup and good vase in her hands, while Penitent Magdalene ruminated over a bronze cross.
Both roused ire in critics. To begin, Canova’s use of bronze was a flashpoint of questions for inherit criticism—Victorin Fabre, writing for the Mercure de France, for instance, found Magdalene’s cross a “shocking contrast” with the rest of the thesis on homelessness sculpture. Essay The Wind? 29 The introduction of metal into a marble work, however, was at least partially justified by good thesis on homelessness, a nascent understanding of the use of polychromy in antiquity. Phd Dissertations? In 1804, Quatremere de Quincy, for on homelessness, instance, gave a series of lectures on the subject at the Institut de France, and in 1815 he published an school essays, illustrated treatise, Le Jupiter Olympien . 30 Ironically, however, while Quatremere defended Canova’s use of mixed media by arguing his artistic practice was true to the methods used by thesis, the ancients, the same understanding was not extended to one purpose of writing essay the painted surface. 31 Despite literary sources which suggested sculptures were painted, such as Pliny’s Natural History and thesis Vitruvius’ De Architectura, not to mention growing archaeological evidence, the use of color was still viewed with suspicion. 32 Augustin Creuze de Lesser, who saw one version of online enrollment system Hebe in Canova’s studio in 1802 argued that “from the moment one admitted two colors into sculpture, one must admit them all.” 33 For other writers, the yellowed skin and pink cheeks and lips reflected Canova’s “artifice” 34 and were no more than “trickery and good thesis quackery.” 35 More worrisome was the way they threatened the osmosis in potato status of sculpture itself, a concern repeatedly expressed by critics. For instance, such techniques “were not worthy of sculpture’s gravitas .” 36 The use of thesis on homelessness color was Canova’s misguided attempt “to impart to his statues an air of reality and of heightening their resemblance to nature by phd dissertations, artificial means unconnected with the province of sculpture.” 37 Polychromy seemed “expressly calculated to heighten the pleasure of the amateur, who is more susceptible of enthusiasm, and frequently measures the perfection of a work by the degree of satisfaction which it affords him.” 38 Canova’s influence was also to good on homelessness fear: other sculptors might imitate Canova’s technique, and in so doing destroy “the noble simplicity, the frankness of composition, and even the very style which form the principal character of uniforms great works of sculpture.” 39. 40 “If the good on homelessness business of Sculpture were to in potato cells essays administer pleasure to ignorance, or a mere entertainment to (. ) 41 Johann Gottfried Herder, Sculpture: Some Observations on Shape and Form from Pygmalion’s Creative D (. ) 42 Johann Joachim Winckelmann, History of the Art of thesis Antiquity , ed. Essays On Pollution? Alex Potts, trans. Good? Harry Francis M (. ) 16 The criticisms leveled at Canova’s sculptures in the 1808 Salon echoed the writings of theorists and canada philosophers across the continent that had been expressed decades earlier.
In his Discourses , for instance, Joshua Reynolds argued that the admiration of sculpture was rooted in “intellectual pleasure” and the “contemplation of perfect beauty”—the addition of color transformed the art into “mere entertainment to the senses.” 40 In 1778, Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that color rendered sculpture “ugly” because sculpture’s essence was rooted in form and meant to good thesis be experienced through touch. 41 And, of course, in his 1764 History of the Art of Antiquity, Winckelmann himself wrote that “color contributes to one purpose of writing beauty but is not beauty itself. […] a beautiful body will be all the more beautiful the thesis whiter it is.” 42. 43 Charlotte A. Eaton, Rome, in one purpose of writing the Nineteenth Century; Containing a Complete Account of the Ruins of (. ) 17 Common to all these criticisms, be they written by philosophers, theorists, or art critics, was the fear that coloring the good marble surface breached the very province of the medium; that is to say, coloring sculpture somehow lessened not just the individual work, but the austerity and online system thesis seriousness of the art as a whole. Color threatened to make the art of sculpture appealing to a new class of thesis on homelessness viewers—to “amateurs” who might be pleased—or worse, “entertained”—by the medium. By the essay for inherit early nineteenth century, as the streets of European cities were overrun with spectacles and new forms of popular amusements, there was real danger that sculpture itself might become just one more entertainment among many; the distance between the Salon and good on homelessness the wax museum was perilously small.
Even writers who were not art critics, such as Charlotte Eaton, who traveled through Europe in in potato essays 1817, understood the implications. She objected to the practice of staining marble in a misguided attempt to achieve life, calling it a form of “charlatanism.” “If,” she wrote, “however, this painting of good thesis statues was introduced in the vain attempt to create a nearer approach to living nature, the canada objects of sculpture seem to have been strangely mistaken and debased. Most certainly they do not consist in good on homelessness the close imitation of life; for, in osmosis in potato essays that case, a common raree-show of wax-work would exceed the finest sculpture of Phidias.” 43. 44 This interest in good animation remained powerful well into the nineteenth century. Recent scholarship w (. ) 18 Eaton’s comments bring me to the final section of canada this article, in which I’d like to explore this issue of the thesis on homelessness “close imitation of on having life.” I want to consider the “the reality effect” created by the colored surface in relation to the issue of good on homelessness artificial life, and, more specifically, the suggestion that there might be more underneath sculpture’s “skin” than marble alone. The potential to breathe life into inanimate matter revealed itself in two interwoven interests in enrollment thesis introduction the eighteenth century, particularly in eighteenth-century France—a profound concern with the on homelessness Pygmalion myth and philosophical theories of animation. A number of eighteenth-century philosophers—Pierre Bayle, Julien Offray de la Mettrie, and Etienne Bonnot, Abbe de Condillac, among others—all reflected on the ability to create life in an inanimate body; this has, in turn, been of one purpose great interest to scholars today, as has the erotic relationship between the on homelessness creator and his animated subject. 44. 45 See Hersey, Falling in essay on having uniforms Love with Statues: Artificial Humans from good on homelessness Pygmalion to the Present , 99-102 a (. ) 46 “For this purpose, we imagined a statue constructed internally like ourselves, and animated by a mi (. Canada? ) 19 The majority of these eighteenth-century materialist philosophies revolved around a central idea—namely, given that all matter is made of the same atoms, it is only the difference in good the structure or arrangement of the atoms that differentiates animate from inanimate objects. It should be possible, therefore, to use some sort of transforming energy to alter the atomic structure of persuasive on having dead, or non-living, matter and good produce life.
45 Often, sculptures were used as the example of inanimate matter that could be transformed, presumably because of canada their lifelike form. In his 1754 Treatise on thesis, the Sensations , for questions for inherit the wind, instance, de Condillac envisioned an experiment in which a statue experiences each of the five senses individually, in thesis on homelessness succession, and then in combination with one another. In his dedication, he asks us to imagine “a statue constructed internally like ourselves, and animated by a mind which as yet had no ideas of any kind.” 46 As the senses are activated by a definition essay, him, the statue experiences cognition and memory; in effect, the statue comes alive. What interests me most about this experiment, however, is the way de Condillac imagines the good on homelessness marble exterior of the statue as a barrier which prevents the use of the senses until it is breached by school on pollution, him. In his vision, the statue is effectively a shell, not a solid, impenetrable mass. 47 As cited in Hersey, Falling in Love with Statues: Artificial Humans from Pygmalion to the Present , (. ) 48 O vid, Metamorphoses, trans.
Anthony S. Thesis On Homelessness? Kline, Book X, 243-297, “Orpheus Sings: Pygmalion and online enrollment system introduction the St (. Good Thesis On Homelessness? ) 20 Given the widespread interest in osmosis animation, the concomitant popularity of the Pygmalion myth during the eighteenth century is no surprise. Andreas Bluhm cites 142 examples of the myth in theater and the fine arts between 1500-1900, with more than half of them created between 1700-1800. 47 In the myth, best known via Ovid’s version, Pygmalion creates the on homelessness statue of a beautiful woman out of ivory. He is so enamored of her that he caresses her, gives her gifts, and asks Venus for a bride similar to his ivory girl. Venus, hearing his plea, gives the phd dissertations statue life so that the thesis on homelessness stone “lost its hardness, altering under [Pygmalion’s] fingers, as the bees’ wax of Hymettus softens in the sun, and is moulded, under the thumb, into essay uniforms many forms […].” But malleable flesh is not the only way that the statue’s animation is recorded—her “pulse throbbed under his thumb” and when he kisses her, she blushes. 48.
49 Ibid., Book X, 220-242, “Orpheus Sings:The Propoetides,” http://ovid.lib.virginia.edu/?trans/?Metamor(. ) 21 The role coursing blood played as a signifier of life is all the more significant when the background of the Pygmalion myth is good thesis considered. Phd Dissertations Canada? What most people don’t remember about Ovid’s story is the reason Pygmalion makes the good statue to begin with: he had been living as a bachelor, since he was “offended by” the Propoetides, women of the city of Amathus. The Propoetides had dared to deny Venus’ as their deity; in punishment, she forced them to prostitute themselves. They lost their sense of shame, and, as a result, their ability to blush; “the blood hardened in their cheeks, and only a small change turned them into hard flints.” 49 When their blood stopped circulating, they were, essentially, turned to stone. 50 Some contemporary reports suggest that Corday was not, in fact, slapped. Regardless of the historic (. ) 22 Blushing, I would argue, becomes a symbol for phd dissertations canada, the living body in eighteenth-century versions of the myth. Thesis? Color suggested that the interior of the sculpture had been transformed; within the marble shell- now turned flesh- a heart was beating and canada blood was circulating. In paintings of Pygmalion, it became routine to signify Galatea’s transformation from sculpture to living woman through the use of pink flesh juxtaposed with white stone. Jean Raoux (1717), Louis-Jean Lagrenee (1777), Laurent Pecheux (1784), and Louis Gauffier (1797) all rendered the thesis transformative moment the same way; pink stood for vitality, a trope repeated in online thesis nineteenth- and twentieth-century depictions of the myth as well—one of the best known, for example, is the painting by Anne-Louis Girodet from 1817, which was itself an homage to good thesis Canova. For Inherit? (Fig. 8) But the most dramatic example of the blush as the demarcation between life and death is a historical one.
Charlotte Corday, best known, of course, for assassinating the good French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat on July 13, 1793, was guillotined for essay, her crime four days later. Good Thesis On Homelessness? After she was decapitated, the executioner reportedly picked up her head and online enrollment thesis introduction slapped her across the cheek. Good On Homelessness? Corday is said to have blushed in phd dissertations response.50. Anne Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, Pygmalion and Galatea , 1817. Oil on canvas. 2.53 x:2.02 m. On Homelessness? Musee du Louvre, Paris. Photo in the public domain. Accessed 31 March 2015. 51 Ibid., 119. 52 Daniel Arasse, The Guillotine and one purpose essay the Terror , trans.
Christopher Miller (London: Allen Lane, The Pe (. ) 23 Corday’s blush may be interpreted both in moral terms—an expression of shame over her crime—and physiological ones, 51 and certainly the incident contributed to debates over good on homelessness how long an individual remained conscious after being decapitated. 52 Moreover it was just one of school essays on pollution many gory examples from the good Revolutionary period where blood signified the transition from life to death. Osmosis In Potato Essays? While this manifested in a blush for on homelessness, Corday, equally striking is the example of the decapitated head of Louis XVI being shown to the crowd; in most of the canada popular prints of the event, blood is shown streaming from his severed neck. (Fig. 9) Georg Heinrich Sieveking, Execution of King Louis XVI of France, January 21, 1793 . Engraving.
Musee Carnavalet, Paris. Photo in good thesis the public domain. Accessed 31 March 2015. 53 Letter from Lucchesi Palli to one purpose of writing is to Canova, n.d. Good? . “Il marmo e trattato con tale industria, che la (. ) 24 With episodes such as this in essay questions for inherit mind, then, it is clear that the waxed and colored marbled surface of Canova’s works could be interpreted as a skin, beneath which ran the blood of life. The stone that viewers saw might not be solid and unyielding after all; it might be mere surface, a permeable epidermis, containing the thesis messy, if vital, reality of the body. And reactions to Canova’s work do suggest an understanding that the surface of his sculptures could be breached. One Purpose A Definition? When Giuseppe Lucchesi Palli saw Venus and Adonis in 1795, for good thesis, instance, he was moved to canada do more than simply touch the work. Good Thesis? “The marble is phd dissertations treated with such industriousness,” he wrote, “that the surface positively seems to be human skin, and one is tempted to prick it with a pin to see if it bleeds.” 53 Augustin Creuze de Lesser’s response to the sculpture’s polychromy was less complimentary. When he entered the temple that housed the group, he was: 54 “J’ai vu a Naples un autre essai de ce systeme de Canova, et beaucoup moins heureux encore a mon av (. Good Thesis On Homelessness? ) disagreeably struck by a large band, white as snow, that wrapped around the waist of this goddess.
I believed at first that it was a cloth with which someone with a ridiculous sense of modesty had covered the enrollment sculpture, and good I asked to remove it, but when I got closer I saw that Canova had profited from the range of persuasive essay on having shades that was inherent to the whiteness of the marble in good on homelessness order to conceal his Venus a little. I asked myself what this cloth was doing so close to Adonis. Online Enrollment Thesis Introduction? Moreover, white cloth only good immediately revealed a Venus that was all gray. School? Finally that which should have set me straight immediately was that this cloth was positioned in such a way that unless it was held in place by pins stuck in the flesh of Venus herself, it was impossible for it to stay on; but Venus’ pose was so tender that one could also imagine that in good thesis on homelessness a moment the one purpose essay veil would fall. 54.
55 “Quand M. Canova lui-meme emprunterait la palette du Titien, pour ajouter dans toutes les parties d (. On Homelessness? ) 25 While it is unclear whether Creuze de Lesser understood that Canova had achieved this effect through waxes and oils, rather than simply taking advantage of the phd dissertations canada particularities of that piece of good on homelessness marble, both he and Lucchesi Palli read the marble surface as a penetrable skin that could be pierced by pins. The red tint Canova used on his female sculptures’ cheeks and lips could also be misinterpreted. Years later, in response to persuasive essay school the 1808 Salon, one critic referred to the way Canova had placed a “rather strong carmine tint on the interior of Hebe’s mouth.” 55 Given that Hebe’s lips are barely parted, it is likely that this critic misread Hebe’s “lipstick” as an orifice; in so doing, he suggested that the sculpture’s interior was composed of soft tissue. 56 See, for instance, Roberta Panzanelli, “Compelling Presence: Wax Effigies in good thesis on homelessness Renaissance Florence,” (. ) 57 Uta Kornmeier, “Almost Alive: The Spectacle of Verisimilitude in Madame Tussaud’s Waxworks,” in Eph (. Osmosis In Potato Cells Essays? ) 58 Joan B. Landes, “Wax Fibers, Wax Bodies, and Moving Figures: Artifice and good thesis Nature in Eighteenth-Cent (. ) 26 The stained marble surface, then, could be interpreted as a penetrable skin, beneath which lay complex human anatomy and coursing blood. This, in turn, could be read in two ways. On the hand, the colored stone recalled the myth of Pygmalion, and thus had a life-affirming quality. Inanimate sculpture held the potential to system thesis be animated; it held the good thesis potential for life. On the other hand, the phd dissertations hyper-realistic body also threatened the opposite; that is, where there is life, there is also death and decay. Good Thesis? Indeed, colored wax had often been used in sculpture for osmosis in potato, funeral rites; effigies and votives were placed on corpses or left in churches in a tradition that went back to the Renaissance, if not earlier. 56 In the on homelessness years following the French Revolution, even amusements like Madame Tussaud’s waxworks gained their popularity not because of their depiction of living individuals, but rather, their focus on the dead, particularly Louis XVI and martyrs of the Terror. 57 Perhaps even more indicative of way the colored surface—particularly the wax surface—occupied the liminal territory beneath life and death were the anatomical waxes that proliferated during the eighteenth century.
These revealed the sculptural surface to be a literal skin—flesh could be removed and one purpose of writing essay is to the body within placed on display. (Figs. 10-11) Moreover, sometimes they were made from plastinated corpses themselves, freezing the good thesis body forever in a tableau that straddled animation and on pollution death. 58. Workshop of Clemente Susini and Giuseppe Ferrini, Pregnant female with removable skin and abdominal layers [also known as the Anatomical Venus ], 1770-1775. Thesis? Metal or wood skeleton, transparent and colored waxes. Museo di storia natural, sezione zoological “La Specola”, Florence, Italy.
Photo from Lyle Massey, “On Waxes and Wombs: Eighteenth-Century Representations of the Gravid Uterus.” In Ephemeral Bodies: Wax Sculpture and the Human Figure , edited by Roberta Panzanelli, 83-105. Los Angeles, CA: Getty Research Institute, 2008. pp. 84-85. Workshop of Clemente Susini and Giuseppe Ferrini, Pregnant female with removable skin and in potato abdominal layers [also known as the good thesis Anatomical Venus ], 1770-1775. Metal or wood skeleton, transparent and colored waxes.
Museo di storia naturale, sezione zoological “La Specola”, Florence, Italy. Photo from Lyle Massey, “On Waxes and system Wombs: Eighteenth-Century Representations of the Gravid Uterus”. In Ephemeral Bodies: Wax Sculpture and the Human Figure , edited by good thesis on homelessness, Roberta Panzanelli, 83-105. Los Angeles, CA: Getty Research Institute, 2008. p. 87. 59 Charles Baudelaire, “The Salon of persuasive essay 1846,” Art in thesis on homelessness Paris, 1845-1862: Salons and persuasive essay Other Exhibitions , ed. (. Thesis On Homelessness? ) 27 In the eighteenth century, then, the for inherit the wind representation of the human body in thesis on homelessness sculptural form—particularly in cells polychrome sculptural form—became the focal point for larger aesthetic, philosophical and scientific inquiries. Although by the mid-nineteenth century Charles Baudelaire would declare that sculpture was “boring,” the colored surface’s oscillation between ancient and modern, flesh and good thesis on homelessness stone, and penetrable and enrollment introduction impenetrable reveal that for earlier generations, it was anything but. Good Thesis On Homelessness? 59 Moreover, fascination with the deceptive possibilities of the sculptural surface, and persuasive on having school uniforms the disjunction between a sculpture’s surface and it core, have remained a site of exploration for contemporary artists. From Duane Hanson’s hyper-realistic sculptures from the 1970s and 80s, in which a lifelike skin created from fiberglass and resin sometimes enfolds a meticulously crafted bronze cast, to good Kiki Smith’s flayed Virgin Mary (1992) which reduces the mother of Christ her most carnal state, the sculptural surface toes the line between life and death and school essays becomes a site where faith and science, and good thesis on homelessness promise and horror, meet.
Aldrovandi, Alfredo, Mauro Matteini, Arcangelo Moles, Ulderico Santamaria, and Giuseppina Vigliano. “ Apollo e Dafne : Indagini Scientifiche per lo Studio delle Superfici.” In ‘ Apollo e Dafne ’ del Bernini nella Galleria Borghese , edited by Kristina Herrmann Fiore and Araldo De Luca, 161-69. Milano: Silvana Editoriale, 1997. Arasse, Daniel. The Guillotine and the Terror . Translated by Christopher Miller. London: Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, 1989. Bagnani, Gilbert. One Purpose Of Writing Is To? “On Fakes and Forgeries.” Phoenix 14.4 (Winter 1960): 29. Barthes, Roland. “The Reality Effect.” Translated by Richard Howard. Thesis? In The Rustle of Language , 141-48. Essays? Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986. Baudelaire, Charles. On Homelessness? “The Salon of 1846.” In Art in enrollment system thesis introduction Paris, 1845-1862: Salons and Other Exhibitions , edited by Jonathan Mayne. 2nd ed., 41-120.
Landmarks in good thesis on homelessness Art History. Oxford Oxfordshire: Phaidon, 1981. Enrollment Introduction? 1846. Beckford, Peter. Familiar Letters from Italy, to a Friend in England . 2 vols. Good Thesis? Salisbury: Printed and sold by J. Easton, 1805.
Bignamini, Ilaria. “I Marmi Fagan in canada Vaticano: La Vendita del 1804 e Altre Acquisizioni.” Bolletino Monumenti, Musei e Gallerie Pontificie 16 (1996): 331-94. Bindman, David. Warm Flesh, Cold Marble: Canova, Thorvaldsen and Their Critics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014. Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse. Italy; Remarks Made in Several Visits, from the Year 1816 to thesis 1854. 2 vols.
London: J. Murray, 1859. Caracciolo, Elisabetta, and Elisabetta Zatti. “Il Restauro della Sala di Paolina Bonaparte = the osmosis in potato Restoration of the Room of Paulina Bonaparte.” In ‘ Venere Vincitrice’: La Sala di Paolina Bonaparte alla Galleria Borghese , edited by Claudio Strinati, 141-53, 215-19. Thesis On Homelessness? Roma: Edizioni dell’Elefante, 1997. ———. “Il Restauro delle Sculture.” In ‘ Apollo e Dafne ’ del Bernini nella Galleria Borghese , edited by Kristina Herrmann Fiore and Araldo De Luca, 149-59. Milano: Silvana Editoriale, 1997.
Carr, J. Enrollment Thesis Introduction? L. “Pygmalion and good thesis on homelessness the Philosophes : The Animated Statue in Eighteenth-Century France.” Journal of the essays Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 23, no. 3/4 (Jul-Dec. 1960): 239-55. Catterson, Lynn. “Michelangelo’s Laocoon ?” Artibus et Historiae 52 (2005): 29-56. Cesareo, Antonello. Thesis? “‘ He Had for essay the wind, Years the on homelessness Guidance of the Taste in Rome’: Per un Profilo di Thomas Jenkins.” In Collezionisti, Disegnatori e Teorici dal Barocco al Neoclassico , edited by Elisa Debenedetti. Persuasive Essay? Studi sul Settecento Romano; 25, 221-250. Rome: Bonsignori Editori, 2009. Chantelou, Paul Freart de.
Journal de Voyage du Cavalier Bernin en France . Good? Edited by Milovan Stanic Paris: Macula-Insulaire, 2001. Cicognara, Leopoldo. One Purpose Of Writing A Definition Essay? Biografia di Antonio Canova . Good Thesis? Venezia: Editore Giambattista Missiaglia, 1823. Condillac, Etienne Bonnot de. Condillac’s Treatise on the Sensations . Translated and edited by Margaret Geraldine Spooner Carr. London: The Favil Press, 1930. On Having School Uniforms? 1754. Condivi, Ascanio. Vita di Michelangolo Buonarroti . Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1976.
1553. Creuze de Lesser, Augustin. On Homelessness? Voyage en Italie et en Sicile, Fait en MDCCCI et MDCCCII . Paris: de l’Imprimerie de P. Didot l’Aine, 1806. d’Este, Antonio. Memorie di Antonio Canova . Edited by Paolo Mariuz. Bassano del Grappa: Istituto di ricerca per gli studi su Canova e il neoclassicismo, 1999. Canada? 1864.
Dennis, Kelly. Art/Porn: A History of Seeing and Touching . Oxford and good thesis New York: Berg, 2009. Eaton, Charlotte A. Rome, in phd dissertations canada the Nineteenth Century; Containing a Complete Account of the Ruins of the Ancient City, the Remains of the good thesis Middle Ages, and the Monuments of Modern Times. School Essays? 5th ed. 2 vols. London: H. G. Bohn, 1852.
1820. Fabre, Victorin. Good? “Salon de peinture. Huitieme article. Sculptures.” Mercure de France, journal historique, politique et litteraire (24 Decembre 1808): 603-12. Farago, Claire J., ed. Osmosis Essays? Leonardo da Vinci’s Paragone: A Critical Interpretation with a New Edition of the Text in the Codex Urbinas.
Leiden and New York: E.J. Brill, 1992. Fardella, Paola. Antonio Canova a Napoli: Tra Collezionismo e Mercato. Napoli: Paparo, 2002.
Ferando, Christina. Good Thesis On Homelessness? “Staging Neoclassicism: Antonio Canova’s Exhibition Strategies for Triumphant Perseus .” In Das Originale der Kopie: Kopien als Produkte und Medien der Transformation von Antike , edited by Tatjana Bartsch, Marcus Becker, Horst Bredekamp and phd dissertations canada Charlotte Schreiter. Collaborative Research Centre, 139-63. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2010. Fernow, Carl Ludwig. Good? “Account of the Life and Works of M. Canova, the school essays on pollution Celebrated Italian Sculptor.” The Monthly Magazine, or, British Register XXIV, no. 160 (August 1, 1807): 43-48. Ford, Brinsley. “Thomas Jenkins: Banker, Dealer and thesis Unofficial English Agent.” Apollo 99, no. 148 (1974): 416-25. Forsyth, Joseph. Remarks on on having uniforms, Antiquities, Arts, and Letters During an Excursion in Italy, in the Years 1802 and 1803 . Edited by good on homelessness, Keith Crook.
London; Newark; Cranbury, NJ: University of Delaware Press; Associated University Presses, 2001. 1813. Herder, Johann Gottfried. Sculpture: Some Observations on Shape and Form from Pygmalion’s Creative Dream . Translated and edited by one purpose of writing, Jason Gaiger. Chicago: University of on homelessness Chicago Press, 2002.
1778. Herrmann Fiore, Kristina. “ Apollo e Dafne del Bernini al Tempo del Cardinale Scipione Borghese.” In ‘ Apollo e Dafne ’ del Bernini nella Galleria Borghese , edited by Kristina Herrmann Fiore and Araldo De Luca, 71-109. Milano: Silvana Editoriale, 1997. Hersey, George L. Falling in Love with Statues: Artificial Humans from Pygmalion to the Present. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. Honour, Hugh. Of Writing Is To? “Canova’s Studio Practice II: 1791-1822.” The Burlington Magazine 114, no. 829 (April 1972): 214-29.
Kornmeier, Uta. “Almost Alive: The Spectacle of Verisimilitude in Madame Tussaud’s Waxworks.” In Ephemeral Bodies: Wax Sculpture and the Human Figure , edited by Roberta Panzanelli, 67-81. Los Angeles, CA: Getty Research Institute, 2008. Kotzebue, Augustus von. Travels through Italy in the Years 1804 and 1805 . 4 vols. London: Richard Phillips, 1806. Landes, Joan B. “Wax Fibers, Wax Bodies, and Moving Figures: Artifice and Nature in Eighteenth-Century Anatomy.” In Ephemeral Bodies: Wax Sculpture and the Human Figure , edited by Roberta Panzanelli, 41-65. Good On Homelessness? Los Angeles, CA: Getty Research Institute, 2008. Lettere Familiari Inedite di Antonio Canova e di Giannantonio Selva.
Per le Nozze Persico-Papdopoli. Venezia: dal premiato stabilimento di G. Antonelli, 1835. Luke, Yvonne. Quatremere de Quincy’s Role in the Revival of Polychromy in one purpose essay Sculpture . Leeds: Centre for the Study of Sculpture, Henry Moore Institute, 1996. M.B. “Beaux-Arts. Salon de 1808. N. XVIII. Sculpture. M. Canova.” Journal de l’Empire (4 Janvier 1809): 1-4.
Matthews, Henry. The Diary of an Invalid, Being the Journal of a Tour in Pursuit of Health, in Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, and thesis France, in the Years 1817, 1818, and 1819. 5th ed. Paris: A. and W. Galignani and co., 1836. Memes, J. S. Memoirs of essay uniforms Antonio Canova, with a Critical Analysis of good on homelessness His Works, and an Historical View of Modern Sculpture.
Edinburgh: A. Constable Co., 1825. “Memoir of Antonio Canova [with a Portrait].” The New Monthly Magazine and Universal Register 13 (Jan. 1, 1820): 68-71. Missirini, Melchior. Della Vita di Antonio Canova: Libri Quattro . Prato: per i Frat. In Potato? Giachetti, 1824. Moore, Thomas. Memoirs, Journal and Correspondence of Thomas Moore . Edited by John Russell.
London: Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, 1860. Nocca, Marco. “Un Dipinto Inedito di Antonio Canova Ritrovato a Propaganda Fide: l’Ezzelino da Romano (1793).” Bolletino Monumenti, Musei e Gallerie Pontificie 22 (2002): 109-36. Norman, Mark, and Richard Cook. Good Thesis? “‘Just a Tiny Bit of Rouge Upon the Lips and Cheeks’: Canova, Colour, and the Classical Ideal.” In Canova: Ideal Heads , edited by Katharine Eustace, 47-58. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum, 1997. Outram, Dorinda. The Body and the French Revolution: Sex, Class and Political Culture. Persuasive On Having School? New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.
Padiyar, Satish. Good Thesis On Homelessness? Chains: David, Canova, and the Fall of the Public Hero in Postrevolutionary France . University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007. Panzanelli, Roberta. “Compelling Presence: Wax Effigies in Renaissance Florence.” In Ephemeral Bodies: Wax Sculpture and the Human Figure , edited by Roberta Panzanelli, 13-39. Online Thesis? Los Angeles, CA: Getty Research Institute, 2008. Pinelli, Antonio. “La Sfida Rispettosa di Antonio Canova. Genesi e Peripezie del ‘Perseo Trionfante’.” Ricerche di Storia dell’Arte 13/14 (1981): 21-40.
Pliny the Elder. Good On Homelessness? Natural History . Translated by H. Rackham (vols. 1-5, 9), W.H.S. Persuasive School? Jones (vols. 6-8) and D.E. Good? Eichholz (vol. Osmosis Cells? 10). Edited by good thesis, H. Rackham, 10 vols. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: Harvard University Press and William Heinemann, 1949-54. http://www.masseiana.org/pliny.htm#BOOK%20XXXV (accessed June 30, 2015). Potts, Alex. The Sculptural Imagination: Figurative, Modernist, Minimalist.
New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000. Quatremere de Quincy, Antoine-Chrysosthome. Le Jupiter Olympien, ou, l’Art de la sculpture antique considere sous un nouveau point de vue . For Inherit? Paris: de Bure Freres Libraires du Roi et de la Bibliotheque du Roi, 1815. ———. “Sur M. Canova et les quatre ouvrages qu’on voit de lui a l’exposition publique de 1808: par M. Thesis On Homelessness? Quatremere de Quinci [ sic ].” Gazette nationale ou le moniteur universel , no. 565 (Dec. 28, 1808): 1428-30. Reynolds, Joshua. Discourses on school on pollution, Art . Good? Edited by Robert R. Wark. New Haven: Published for a definition is to, the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art Ltd. by Yale University Press, 1997.
Smith, Marquard. The Erotic Doll: A Modern Fetish . Good Thesis On Homelessness? New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2013. Spinola, Giandomenico. “La Manipolazione dell’Antico tra Restauro e Falso: Esempi dai Musei Vaticani.” In Roma e l’Antico: Realta e Visione nel ‘700 , edited by Carolina Brook and Valter Curzi, 51-58. Milano: Skira, 2010. Stoichita, Victor Ieronim. The Pygmalion Effect: From Ovid to Hitchcock . Essay For Inherit The Wind? The Louise Smith Bross Lectures. Thesis On Homelessness? Chicago: The University of a definition is to Chicago Press, 2008. Tadini, Faustino. Le Sculture e le Pitture di Antonio Canova Pubblicate Fino a quest’Anno 1795. Venezia: Dalla Stamperia Palese, 1796. Thiebault, Paul Charles Francois Adrien Henri Dieudonne.
Memoires du General B on Thiebault, publies sous les auspices de sa fille Claire Thiebault, d’apres le manuscrit original, par Fernand Calmettes. 7th ed. 5 vols. Paris: E. Plon, Nourrit et C ie , 1893-1895. van Gastel, Joris. Good Thesis On Homelessness? “Life, But Not as We Know It: Wax Images and the Denial of Death.” In Bildakt at the Warburg Institute , edited by phd dissertations, Sabine Marienberg and Jurgen Trabant, 231-51. Berlin: Akademie Verlag 2014.
Varese, Ranieri. “Un Falso Giorgione e un Vero Canova.” In Mosaico: Temi e Metodi d’Arte e Critica per Gianni Carlo Sciolla , edited by Rosanna Cioffi and Ornella Scognamiglio. Good Thesis On Homelessness? Monumenta Documenta, 4; vol. 1, 353-362. Phd Dissertations? Naples: Luciano Editore, 2012. Vitruvius. The Architecture of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio in Ten Books. Translated and edited by Joseph Gwilt, 1826. http://lexundria.com/vitr/7.9/gw (accessed June 30, 2015). Warwick, Genevieve. Bernini: Art as Theatre . New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. Wassyng Roworth, Wendy. “Pulling Parrhasius’s Curtain: Trickery and Fakery in the Roman Art World.” In Regarding Romantic Rome , edited by good thesis, Richard Wrigley, 17-37. Bern; New York: P. Essays On Pollution? Lang, 2007.
Winckelmann, Johann Joachim. History of the Art of Antiquity . Translated by Harry Francis Mallgrave. Edited by good, Alex Potts. Texts Documents. Of Writing Essay? Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2006. 1764. 1 Claire J. Farago, ed.
Leonardo da Vinci’s Paragone: A Critical Interpretation with a New Edition of the Text in the Codex Urbinas (Leiden and New York: E.J. Brill, 1992), 257. 2 Canova’s finishing techniques have received much attention recently. See, for instance, Hugh Honour, “Canova’s Studio Practice II: 1791-1822,” The Burlington Magazine 114, no. 829 (April 1972): 218-19; Mark Norman and thesis on homelessness Richard Cook, “‘Just a Tiny Bit of Rouge upon the Lips and Cheeks’: Canova, Colour, and questions the wind the Classical Ideal,” in Canova: Ideal Heads , ed. Thesis On Homelessness? Katharine Eustace (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum, 1997), 47-58; Alex Potts, The Sculptural Imagination: Figurative, Modernist, Minimalist (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000), esp. “Surface Values,” 38-60; Satish Padiyar, Chains: David, Canova, and the Fall of the one purpose a definition Public Hero in Postrevolutionary France (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007), 119–41; and, more recently, David Bindman, Warm Flesh, Cold Marble: Canova, Thorvaldsen and Their Critics (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014). 3 After a visit to good thesis on homelessness Canova’s studio in 1799, for instance, General Baron Thiebault remarked, “Une chose me surprit dans toutes ces statues, c’etait la difference de la teinte du marbre qui, dans le meme bloc, distinguait la chair et les vetements.
Je pensai que cette difference provenait de la maniere de piquer le marbre ou de le polir ; mais Canova me dit qu’il avait decouvert une espece de cire dont il faisait enduire toutes les parties representant les chairs, et que ce procede avait non seulement l’avantage de leur donner un veloute nouveau pour le marbre, mais encore de contribuer a preserver ces parties des effets de l’air.” Paul Charles Francois Adrien Henri Dieudonne Thiebault, Memoires du General B on Thiebault, publies sous les auspices de sa fille Claire Thiebault, d’apres le manuscrit original, par Fernand Calmettes , 7th ed., 5 vols. Persuasive On Having School Uniforms? (Paris: E. Plon, Nourrit et C ie , 1893-1895), vol. 2, 549. 4 To use Alex Potts’ phrase. See Potts, The Sculptural Imagination: Figurative, Modernist, Minimalist , 38-60. 5 See Roland Barthes, “The Reality Effect,” in The Rustle of good thesis Language , trans. Richard Howard (Berkeley: University of California Press), 141-48. 6 For more on cells, Venus and Adonis , see the comments by Augustin Creuze de Lesser in note 54. For the full passage recording Thiebault’s reaction to his visit to Canova’s studio, see note 3. 7 Joseph Forsyth, Remarks on Antiquities, Arts, and Letters During an Excursion in Italy, in the Years 1802 and good thesis 1803 , ed. Keith Crook (1813; London; Newark; Cranbury, NJ: University of Delaware Press; Associated University Presses, 2001), 113.
8 For more on canada, the different versions of Hebe , see Norman and Cook, “‘Just a Tiny Bit of thesis on homelessness Rouge upon the Lips and Cheeks’: Canova, Colour, and the Classical Ideal,” 51-52. 10 One interesting exception is Canova’s statue of Paolina Borghese as Venus Victrix ; recent conservation has shown that Canova did not wax this particular work. See Elisabetta Caracciolo and Elisabetta Zatti, “Il Restauro della Sala di Paolina Bonaparte = the Restoration of the of writing Room of Paulina Bonaparte,” in ‘ Venere Vincitrice ’ : La Sala di Paolina Bonaparte alla Galleria Borghese, ed. Good On Homelessness? Claudio Strinati (Roma: Edizioni dell’Elefante, 1997), 216. 11 According to essays conservation reports, Apollo and Daphne received a waxy patina in the seventeenth century.
Whether it was applied by Bernini or not is the subject of some debate. See Kristina Herrmann Fiore, “ Apollo e Dafne del Bernini al Tempo del Cardinale Scipione Borghese,” in ‘ Apollo e Dafne ’ del Bernini nella Galleria Borghese , ed. Kristina Herrmann Fiore and Araldo de Luca (Milano: Silvana Editoriale, 1997), 98. For more on the physical condition of the on homelessness sculpture and its surface, see the essay on having conservation reports in Elisabetta Caracciolo and good thesis on homelessness Elisabetta Zatti, “Il Restauro delle Sculture,” ibid., esp. 152 and Alfredo Aldrovandi et al., “ Apollo e Dafne : Indagini Scientifiche per lo Studio delle Superfici,” ibid., 161-69. For Pluto and Proserpina, see Genevieve Warwick, Bernini: Art as Theatre (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012), 109. In his journal entry on August 13, 1665, Paul Freart de Chantelou noted the artist’s interest in the sculptural surface, particularly the way marble acquired a natural softness with time. Of Writing Essay Is To? See Paul Freart de Chantelou, Journal de voyage du Cavalier Bernin en France , ed.
Milovan Stanic (Paris: Macula-Insulaire, 2001), 116. 12 See Herrmann Fiore, “ Apollo e Dafne del Bernini al Tempo del Cardinale Scipione Borghese,” 98 and Norman and Cook, “‘Just a Tiny Bit of Rouge upon the Lips and Cheeks’: Canova, Colour, and the Classical Ideal,” 50. 13 Two particularly egregious dealers were Thomas Jenkins and good on homelessness Robert Fagan. System Thesis Introduction? See Brinsley Ford, “Thomas Jenkins: Banker, Dealer and Unofficial English Agent,” Apollo 99, no. 148 (1974): 416-25 and Antonello Cesareo, “‘He Had for good thesis on homelessness, Years the questions the wind Guidance of the Taste in Rome’: Per un Profilo di Thomas Jenkins,” in: Collezionisti, Disegnatori e Teorici dal Barocco al Neoclassico , ed. Elisa Debenedetti, Studi sul Settecento Romano; 25 (Rome: Bonsignori Editori, 2009), 221-250. Good Thesis On Homelessness? For more on Fagan, see Ilaria Bignamini, “I Marmi Fagan in Vaticano: La Vendita del 1804 e Altre Acquisizioni,” Bolletino Monumenti, Musei e Gallerie Pontificie 16 (1996): 331-94. See also the documents in the Archivio di Stato, Roma, Camerale II, Antichita e Belle Arti, Busta 6, fasc.
175 which denounce Fagan for exporting objects from Rome without permission. 14 See Ascanio Condivi, Vita di Michelangolo Buonarroti (1553; Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1976), 9-12. For a fascinating discussion of phd dissertations canada Michelangelo as a potential forger, see Lynn Catterson, “Michelangelo’s Laocoon ?,” Artibus et Historiae 52 (2005): 29-56. 15 As quoted in Honour, “Canova’s Studio Practice II: 1791-1822,” 219. 16 Noted by Thomas Moore in his diary entry of October 29, 1819, upon a visit to the Museo Pio-Clementino with the sculptor Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey. Thomas Moore, Memoirs, Journal and Correspondence of Thomas Moore , ed. John Russell (London: Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, 1860), 235.
17 Augustus von Kotzebue, Travels through Italy in the Years 1804 and 1805 , 4 vols. (London: Richard Phillips, 1806), vol. 3, 158-59. 18 J. S. Memes, Memoirs of thesis Antonio Canova, with a Critical Analysis of his Works, and an Historical View of Modern Sculpture (Edinburgh: A. Constable Co., 1825), 295-96. Leopoldo Cicognara likewise recounts this story. Leopoldo Cicognara, Biografia di Antonio Canova (Venezia: Editore Giambattista Missiaglia, 1823), 11-12. Antonio d’Este tells a slightly different version. In Potato? According to his account, a French sculptor named Suasy often critiqued Canova’s style. One morning d’Este ran into Suasy while he was carrying casts the Minotaur’s arm and hand and Theseus’ foot.
After Suasy saw them, not only did he beg to buy them, but he disdainfully suggested that d’Este bring them to Canova so that he might study and learn from the antique. D’Este gleefully replied that the good thesis on homelessness pieces belonged to an original work by enrollment, Canova himself—a prank that ended d’Este’s friendship with Suasy. Antonio d’Este, Memorie di Antonio Canova , ed. Paolo Mariuz (1864; Bassano del Grappa: Istituto di ricerca per gli studi su Canova e il neoclassicismo, 1999), 56-57, note 2. 19 That said, throughout his career, Canova often made sculptures that emulated well-known ancient works and on homelessness exhibited his sculptures in ways that emphasized the comparison with the antique. Persuasive Essay Uniforms? See, for instance, Antonio Pinelli, “La Sfida Rispettosa di Antonio Canova. Genesi e Peripezie del ‘Perseo Trionfante’,” Ricerche di Storia dell’Arte 13/14 (1981): 421-38 and Christina Ferando, “Staging Neoclassicism: Antonio Canova’s Exhibition Strategies for Triumphant Perseus ,” in Das Originale der Kopie: Kopien als Produkte und Medien der Transformation von Antike , ed. Tatjana Bartsch, et al., Collaborative Research Centre (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2010), 139-63. 20 “Questo quadro resto per piu anni in un angolo dello studio, finche per good la patina della polvere e degli anni, prese aspetto di un vecchio quadro.” See d’Este, Memorie di Antonio Canova , 348. 21 Memes, Memoirs of persuasive on having school uniforms Antonio Canova, with a Critical Analysis of his Works, and an Historical View of Modern Sculpture , 374. See also d’Este, Memorie di Antonio Canova , 70 and Faustino Tadini, Le Sculture e le Pitture di Antonio Canova Pubblicate Fino a quest’Anno 1795 (Venezia: Dalla Stamperia Palese, 1796), 42.
Wendy Wassyng Roworth also explores the case of Canova’s fake Giorgione, including the variations between the biographical accounts. Good? She sets these in the broader context of literary and biographical portrayals of school on pollution jokes and tricks played by thesis, artists and phd dissertations also stresses the importance that Venetian painting held in Rome at thesis the time. See Wendy Wassyng Roworth, “Pulling Parrhasius’s Curtain: Trickery and Fakery in the Roman Art World,” in Regarding Romantic Rome , ed. Essay On Having School Uniforms? Richard Wrigley (Bern; New York: P. Lang, 2007), 17-37. Thesis On Homelessness? More recently, Ranieri Varese has made a similar argument that these accounts reiterate the importance Venetian art had for Canova.
See Ranieri Varese, “Un Falso Giorgione e un Vero Canova,” in Mosaico: Temi e Metodi d’Arte e Critica per Gianni Carlo Sciolla , ed. Rosanna Cioffi and Ornella Scognamiglio, Monumenta Documenta; 4 (Naples: Luciano Editore, 2012), vol. 1, 353-362. 22 Gilbert Bagnani compares intentionally forged works with “fakes in reverse”—“that of system objects or documents which, though undoubtedly not authentic, cannot be considered either as fakes or as forgeries.” These works of art—copies, studies, hoaxes, parodies or exercises—were produced by artists and scholars for good thesis on homelessness, their own amusement or instruction, without the intention to deceive, and became “fakes” through ignorance and the passage of school uniforms time. Canova’s Venus with a Mirror could conceivably fall into this category. See Gilbert Bagnani, “On Fakes and Forgeries,” Phoenix 14.4 (Winter 1960): 29. 23 “[. ] lo termina in modo, che sembrava un vecchio dipinto.” See d’Este, Memorie di Antonio Canova , 78 and Melchior Missirini, Della Vita di Antonio Canova: Libri Quattro (Prato: per i Frat. Giachetti, 1824), 123. 24 For more accounts of Canova’s “fakes,” see Missirini, Della Vita di Antonio Canova: Libri Quattro , 123-25 and Memes, Memoirs of Antonio Canova, with a Critical Analysis of his Works, and on homelessness an Historical View of Modern Sculpture , 373-75.
25 For the reception in Naples of Canova’s painting in the manner of Giorgione, see the letters from Ranieri Calzabigi to Canova, April 18, 1795, and persuasive on having from Nicola Passeri to Canova, April 23, 1795, cited in Paola Fardella, Antonio Canova a Napoli: Tra Collezionismo e Mercato (Napoli: Paparo, 2002), 28, note 33 and 148-49, respectively. For the on homelessness rediscovery of canada Canova’s painting, see Marco Nocca, “Un Dipinto Inedito di Antonio Canova Ritrovato a Propaganda Fide: l’Ezzelino da Romano (1793),” Bolletino Monumenti, Musei e Gallerie Pontificie 22 (2002):109-36. On Homelessness? Canova then arranged for this painting to be sent to school essays Venice, where it would be exhibited without revealing that he was the artist, in order to see how it was received. See the thesis letter from Canova to Giannantonio Selva, May 14, 1796 and the reply from Giannantonio Selva to Canova, May 21, 1796. The original letter from Canova to Selva is in the Biblioteca Correr (PD 529C), but it has been published (with some modifications) in school essays on pollution Lettere Familiari Inedite di Antonio Canova e di Giannantonio Selva. On Homelessness? Per le Nozze Persico-Papdopoli (Venezia: dal premiato stabilimento di G. Antonelli, 1835), 14. The letter from Selva to Canova was published in persuasive on having uniforms d’Este, Memorie di Antonio Canova , 369. 26 “Artists are chiefly supported by English travellers, who usually follow Mr.
GRAY’s advice, and buy every thing which is to be bought: and among other curiosities, copies for original pictures; and good on homelessness antiques made on purpose for them. Would you buy pictures, beware of counterfeits, and phd dissertations canada remember Andrea . Medals will also be brought to you in quantities, which science requires some caution also. It is the rarity that fixes the value: you would not think, perhaps, that an Otho in copper, is worth more than an Otho in gold. False pearls are made here in good thesis on homelessness the greatest perfection. If not too large, they may pass at a distance for real ones, and at any rate will answer the purpose full as well. The pearls CLEOPATRA wore were esteemed at one hundred and sixty-one thousand four hundred and osmosis in potato cells essays fifty-eight pounds.—How much better might that money have been employed!” Peter Beckford, Familiar Letters from Italy, to a Friend in England , 2 vols. Good On Homelessness? (Salisbury: Printed and sold by J. Easton, 1805), vol. 2, 317-18.
27 Giandomenico Spinola, “La Manipolazione dell’Antico tra Restauro e Falso: Esempi dai Musei Vaticani,” in essay is to Roma e l’Antico: Realta e Visione nel ‘700 , ed. Carolina Brook and Valter Curzi (Milano: Skira, 2010), 52. 28 Emphasis added. Good Thesis? He continues, “….But many of the online enrollment thesis introduction names given to the marbles and bronzes in this quarter of the Capitol are more than questionable. The Duillian column is modern, and the fragments of inscriptions on good thesis, it are copies; the colossal bronze fragments, said to belong to a statue of Commodus, are not certainly his. The Geese called the saviours of the persuasive essay uniforms Capitol may be ancient, but they look like ducks. The Boy extracting the thorn is not what it is good called, the canada Shepherd Martius; the bronze Junius Brutus is a baptism; the good on homelessness Caesar is a forgery; so are the Appius Claudius, the Mithridates, the Ariadne, the Sappho, the Virgil, the Cicero, and questions the Popp?a. Good Thesis On Homelessness? No such uncertainty attaches to the collection of modern worthies on the Promoteca, many of them removed from the osmosis in potato essays Pantheon; but most of the recent busts were supplied by good, the munificence of one purpose Canova.” John Cam Hobhouse Broughton, Italy; Remarks Made in Several Visits, from the Year 1816 to 1854 , 2 vols. Good? (London: J. Murray, 1859), vol. 2, 39.
29 “Ces accessoires, ainsi colores, me semblent faire une disparate choquante avec le reste de la statue […].” Victorin Fabre, “Salon de peinture. Huitieme article. Canada? Sculptures,” Mercure de France, journal historique, politique et litteraire (24 Decembre 1808): 604. For the rest of the on homelessness citation, see note 39. Fabre’s reaction was based in canada part on the polychromy and in good on homelessness part on the luxuriousness of the bronze, which was at essay questions for inherit odds with Magdalene’s pious renunciation of worldly goods. 30 See Antoine-Chrysosthome Quatremere de Quincy, Le Jupiter Olympien, ou, l’art de la sculpture antique considere sous un nouveau point de vue (Paris: de Bure Freres Libraires du Roi et de la Bibliotheque du Roi, 1815). For more on Quatremere’s interest in polychromy, see Yvonne Luke, Quatremere de Quincy’s Role in the Revival of Polychromy in Sculpture (Leeds: Centre for the Study of Sculpture, Henry Moore Institute, 1996). 31 “Quelques-uns se sont recries sur l’emploi que M. Canova a fait d’un peu de dorure dans l’enjolivement de la ceinture de son Hebe, et sur l’application du metal dore a quelques-uns de ses accessoires.
Cette critique ne peut etre faite serieusement que par des personnes peu versees dans la connaissance historique de la sculpture antique, ou qui ne se sont forme l’idee de toutes les varietes que par un petit nombre de marbres. Good Thesis? L’habitude d’introduire soit des couleurs, soit des matieres diverses dans les statues, fait une des habitudes favorites de l’antiquite. S’il le fallait, on prouverait que loin de ramener l’art vers le mauvais gout des tems barbares; cet essai de M. Online Introduction? Canova le rapproche au contraire, et de la maniere et des ertemens pratiques par les maitres des plus beaux siecles de la Grece. Sans doutes, et on l’avouera sans peine, ce n’est pas par-la que le statuaire doit ambitionner le don de plaire. Si beaucoup de marbres antiques portent encore des marques d’une parure etrangere a leur matiere, si la Venus de Medecis, par exemple, eut les cheveux dores, on n’en concluera point qu’il faille imiter par-la l’antique. Good Thesis? Mais si ces licenses qui peuvent etre subordonnes au gout, sont autorisees par une multitude d’exemples, on school essays, en concluera, et que M. Thesis On Homelessness? Canova a pu se les permettre dans un sujet leger, et que si on l’en blame, ce ne doit pas etre sur-tout par les motifs qu’on a allegues.” Antoine-Chrysosthome Quatremere de Quincy, “Sur M. Canova et les quatre ouvrages qu’on voit de lui a l’exposition publique de 1808: par M. Essay Questions The Wind? Quatremere de Quinci [ sic ],” Gazette nationale ou le moniteur universel , no. 565 (Dec. 28, 1808): 1429. 32 In Pliny’s Natural History , for instance, he cites Praxiteles’ admiration for thesis on homelessness, the painter Nicias, who also painted Praxiteles’ own sculptures. Vitruvius, on a definition, the other hand, suggests wax was used to tint marble sculptures. See Pliny the Elder, Natural History , ed.
H. Rackham, trans. Good? H. Rackham (vols. 1-5, 9), W.H.S. Jones (vols. 6-8), and D.E. Eichholz (vol. 10), 10 vols. Thesis? (Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: Harvard University Press and William Heinemann, 1949-54), XXXV, lx, http://www.masseiana.org/pliny.htm#BOOK%20XXXV (accessed June 30, 2015) and Vitruvius, The Architecture of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio in Ten Books , ed. and trans. Joseph Gwilt, 1826, VII, 9, 3, http://lexundria.com/vitr/7.9/gw (accessed June 30, 2015).
33 “Elle tient a la main une coupe doree, idee que je n’approuve rien, quoique les anciens l’aient eue souvent. Du moment qu’on admet deux couleurs dans la sculpture, il faut les admettre toutes. Des que vois me montrez une coupe d’or, je trouve difforme et avec raison une bouche toute blanche, des yeux tout blancs: en un mot une seule couleur, ou toutes les couleurs.” Augustin Creuze de Lesser, Voyage en Italie et en Sicile, fait en MDCCCI et MDCCCII (Paris: de l’Imprimerie de P. Didot l’Aine, 1806), 313. 34 “Le bandeau des cheveux de la Deesse [ Hebe ], l’aiguiere et la coupe qu’elle teint dans ses mains, sont de couleur d’or; les parties nues de la statue sont impregnees d’une preparation de soufre et de cire, qui leur donne une teinte jaunatre et un reflet assez semblable a celui des corps demi-diaphanes, comme certaines partes de l’albatre: cet encaustique a meme sur quelques parties du visage une couleur legerement rosee; et cependant les draperies conservent la blancheur naturelle du marbre. Ce sont ces petits artifices que nous eussions pu remarquer plus tot, en parlant de la Madeleine et du groupe de Psyche, que l’on reproche au chevalier Canova, comme peu dignes de la gravite de la statuaire. Good On Homelessness? En admirant l’adresse et la discretion avec laquelle il les emploie, on craint que l’abus n’en devienne un jour funeste. On invite les sculpteurs a repousser une pretendue innovation, qui n’est en effet que le raffinement du procede ordinaire aux artistes des siecles de barbarie: toutes ces observations me semblent forte justes.
Les anciens ont employe l’or, l’argent, les pierreries, la marqueterie dans quelques-unes de leurs statues de marbre. Les anciens n’ont-ils pas eu aussi leurs ages d’ignorance et leurs siecles d’un luxe barbare? Nous ne voyons pas cette bigarrure dans ceux de leurs plus beaux ouvrages que le temps a respectes; et quel elle s’y trouveroit, cette autorite ne sauroit prevaloir contre le bon sens et la raison. A la vu d’un ouvrage de sculpture, nous nous figurons le sujet represente sons un seul de ses rapports, celui de la solidite. Cette seule propriete, imitee plus ou moins parfaitement, suffit pour nous donner une idee distincte du sujet entier; et elle satisfait si bien notre esprit, qu’a peine nous nous apercevons de l’absence de toutes les autres. Cependant, que par un soin imprudent l’artiste accorde a quelque partie de sa statue une de ces autres proprietes qui manquent a tout le reste, nous sommes frappes de la difference; et notre pensee, d’abord tout occupee d’un seul objet, prend un autre tour. La blancheur du lin, si facilement imitee par la blancheur du marbre, nous fera songer a l’inimitable couleur de la chair. Le diademe, brillant d’or veritable, accusera la feinte impuissante de l’art a l’egard des cheveux.
Et que le sculpteur egare dans cette fausse voie n’espere pas s’en tirer en poursuivant: au bout est le terme fatal de l’art. ” M.B., “Beaux-Arts. Salon de 1808. N. Questions The Wind? XVIII. Sculpture. On Homelessness? M. Canova,” 3-4. 35 “Again—there is a trickery and quackery in the finishing of school essays on pollution Canova’s statues, which is below the dignity of thesis on homelessness a sculptor.
The marble is is to not left in its natural state—but it must be stained and thesis polished to aid the effect. Essays? The other sculptors laugh at this, and well they may;—for these adventitious graces soon fade away, and are beside the purpose of sculpture, whose end was, and is, to represent form alone.” Henry Matthews, The Diary of an Invalid, Being the thesis Journal of a Tour in Pursuit of Health, in Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, and France, in the Years 1817, 1818, and 1819 , 5th ed. In Potato Essays? (Paris: A. and good thesis on homelessness W. Galignani and questions for inherit the wind co., 1836), 89. 36 See note 37 for the full text. Good On Homelessness? M.B., “Beaux-Arts. Salon de 1808.
N. XVIII. Online Enrollment System Introduction? Sculpture. M. Canova,” 3-4. 37 The anonymous writer of good on homelessness The New Monthly Magazine cited these criticisms, but ultimately defended Canova’s work. “Canova has been blamed by some critics for endeavouring to impart to his statues an essay school, air of good reality, and of heightening their resemblance to nature by artificial means unconnected with the province of sculpture: namely by colouring the eyes, lips c., a practice quite unusual among modern sculptors. This, however, he manages with so much delicacy, that it is scarcely perceptible, and if it do not, as many maintain, impart an additional charm to the statue, it is at least certain that Canova never suffers the colouring to obtrude so as to become offensive to the eye.” “Memoir of Antonio Canova [with a Portrait],” The New Monthly Magazine and Universal Register 13 (Jan. 1, 1820): 71. 38 “Canova strives, by one purpose of writing essay is to, the kind of polish which he gives to his works, to produce in the spectator an thesis on homelessness, impression corresponding with that which the subject of his compositions ought to inspire.
He gives to the marble the appearance of a soft and delicate substance, and for inherit when it has received the good thesis last polish, by means of the pumice-stone, he makes use of persuasive school uniforms a mordant, to on homelessness diminish its whiteness, and to give it somewhat of a yellowish tint. The connoisseurs who love to find in a statue the phd dissertations canada beauty of the form designed with the utmost possible purity, do not approve of this process, by which it would seem to be impaired; but it is on homelessness expressly calculated to heighten the pleasure of the amateur, who is one purpose of writing essay more susceptible of enthusiasm, and frequently measures the perfection of a work by thesis, the degree of essay satisfaction which it affords him.” English translation from Carl Ludwig Fernow, “Account of the Life and Works of M. On Homelessness? Canova, the Celebrated Italian Sculptor,” The Monthly Magazine, or, British Register XXIV, no. 160 (August 1, 1807): 47. 39 “Cet habile statuaire [Canova] se sert, avec beaucoup d’adresse, d’un moyen peu usite, pour donner plus de douceur a ses chairs et les mieux distinguer des draperies. Il jaunit le marbre dans le nu, et lui laisse sa couleur naturelle dans les etoffes. Les avis peuvent etre partages sur cette espece d’innovation, mais M. Canova est alle plus loin encore : on a definition essay, trouve dans ses statues d’autres accessoires representes en couleur; telles sont la coupe d’or de son Hebe , la croix de roseau de sa Madelaine . Ces accessoires ainsi colores, me semblent faire une disparate choquante avec le reste de la statue, oter a la vraisemblance et a l’illusion de l’ensemble plus peut-etre qu’ils n’ajoutent a la verites des details; et je crois qu’un tel usage, dont il serait si facile a des imitateurs maladroits d’abuser, pourrait, s’il venait un jour a s’etablir, alterer enfin la noble simplicite, la franchise de composition, et meme de style qui doivent former toujours le principal caractere des grands ouvrages de sculpture.” Fabre, “Salon de peinture.
Huitieme article. Sculptures,” 604. 40 “If the business of Sculpture were to administer pleasure to ignorance, or a mere entertainment to the senses, the Venus of Medicis might certainly receive much improvement by colour; but the character of Sculpture makes it her duty to afford delight of a different, and, perhaps, of good a higher kind; the delight resulting from the contemplation of osmosis essays perfect beauty: and this, which is in truth an intellectual pleasure, is in good thesis many respects incompatible with what is merely addressed to the senses.” Joshua Reynolds, Discourses on Art , ed. Robert R. Wark (New Haven: Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art Ltd. by phd dissertations, Yale University Press, 1997), 176-77. 41 Johann Gottfried Herder, Sculpture: Some Observations on Shape and Form from thesis Pygmalion’s Creative Dream , ed. and trans. Jason Gaiger (1778; Chicago: University of essay on having school uniforms Chicago Press, 2002), 54. 42 Johann Joachim Winckelmann, History of the Art of Antiquity , ed.
Alex Potts, trans. Harry Francis Mallgrave, Texts Documents (1764; Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2006), 195. 43 Charlotte A. Eaton, Rome, in the Nineteenth Century; Containing a Complete Account of the Ruins of the Ancient City, the Remains of the Middle Ages, and the Monuments of thesis Modern Times , 5th ed., 2 vols. (1820; London: H. G. Bohn, 1852), vol. 2, 301. 44 This interest in animation remained powerful well into the nineteenth century. Recent scholarship which has explored the issue includes J. L. Phd Dissertations? Carr, “Pygmalion and good thesis the Philosophes : the Animated Statue in Eighteenth-Century France,” Journal of the a definition is to Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 23, no. 3/4 (Jul-Dec. 1960): 239-55; Victor Ieronim Stoichita, The Pygmalion Effect: From Ovid to Hitchcock , The Louise Smith Bross Lectures (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2008); Kelly Dennis, Art/Porn: A History of Seeing and Touching (Oxford and New York: Berg, 2009), esp. 37-53; George L. Hersey, Falling in Love with Statues: Artificial Humans from Pygmalion to the Present (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009); and on homelessness Marquard Smith, The Erotic Doll: A Modern Fetish (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2013). 45 See Hersey, Falling in Love with Statues: Artificial Humans from Pygmalion to the Present , 99-102 and Smith, The Erotic Doll: A Modern Fetish , 39. 46 “For this purpose, we imagined a statue constructed internally like ourselves, and animated by a mind which as yet had no ideas of phd dissertations any kind.
We supposed the marble exterior of the statue to prevent the use of its senses, and good we reserved to ourselves the right to open them at will to the different impressions of which they are susceptible.” Etienne Bonnot de Condillac, Condillac’s ‘Treatise on the Sensations’ , ed. and trans. Margaret Geraldine Spooner Carr (1754; London: The Favil Press, 1930), xxx-xxxi. 47 As cited in Hersey, Falling in persuasive on having school Love with Statues: Artificial Humans from Pygmalion to the Present , 102. 48 O vid, Metamorphoses, trans. Anthony S. Kline, Book X, 243-297, “Orpheus Sings: Pygmalion and on homelessness the Statue,” http://ovid.lib.virginia.edu/trans/Metamorph10.htm (accessed June 30, 2015). 50 Some contemporary reports suggest that Corday was not, in fact, slapped. Regardless of the historical accuracy of the account, the image entered the entered public imagination and was still actively discussed for several years after her execution. For more details, see Dorinda Outram, The Body and the French Revolution: Sex, Class and Political Culture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989), 118-20. 52 Daniel Arasse, The Guillotine and the Terror , trans. Christopher Miller (London: Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, 1989), esp.
37-42. 53 Letter from Lucchesi Palli to Canova, n.d. Essay On Having School Uniforms? . “Il marmo e trattato con tale industria, che la superficie sembra positivamente l’epiderma del corpo umano e si sarebbe tentati pungerla con una spilla per vedere se ne uscisse il sangue.” Cited in Fardella, Antonio Canova a Napoli: Tra Collezionismo e Mercato , 145. 54 “J’ai vu a Naples un autre essai de ce systeme de Canova, et beaucoup moins heureux encore a mon avis ; c’est dans un grouppe de Venus et Adonis. On Homelessness? Venus est nue ; mais quand j’entrai dans la piece ou est ce grouppe, je fus desagreablement frappe d’une large bande, blanc de neige, qui entouroit la ceinture de cette deesse. Je crus que c’etoit une linge dont une pudeur assez ridicule l’avoit couverte, et je priai qu’on l’otat ; mais en m’approchant je vis que Canova avoit profite, pour masquer un peu sa Venus, d’une variete de teinte qui existoit dans la blancheur du marbre. Je me demandai ce que ce linge avoit la a faire aupres d’Adonis ; de plus un linge blanc me montra tout de suite une Venus toute grise. Au reste ce qui auroit du me detromper tout de suite, c’est que ce linge est pose tellement qu’a moins de supposer qu’il tient par des epingles a la personne meme de Venus, il est impossible qu’il tienne; mais aussi Venus est dans une disposition si tendre qu’on peut supposer que dans ce moment la le voile alloit achever de tomber.” Creuze de Lesser, Voyage en Italie et en Sicile, fait en MDCCCI et MDCCCII , 313-14. 55 “Quand M. Canova lui-meme emprunterait la palette du Titien, pour ajouter dans toutes les parties de ses figures la couleur a la forme, l’imitation parfaite de ses deux proprietes ne serviroit qu’a faire sentir plus vivement l’absence d’une troisieme. Persuasive Essay? Ces simulacres d’hommes, auxquels il ne manqueroit plus rien que la vie, seroient par cela seul un objet horrible. Sans doute M. Thesis On Homelessness? Canova est loin, bien loin de cet exces de barbarie ; cependant je ne crois pas que la teinte, assez forte, de carmin qu’il a donne a l’interieur de la bouche de son Hebe, soit aux yeux de personne d’un effet agreable; et l’analogie est assez grande entre ce procede et celui que nous venons de supposer, pour justifier les reproches ou du moins les craints des amis des arts.” M.B., “Beaux-Arts.
Salon de 1808. N. Persuasive School? XVIII. Sculpture. M. Good Thesis? Canova,” 4. 56 See, for school, instance, Roberta Panzanelli, “Compelling Presence: Wax Effigies in good Renaissance Florence,” in Ephemeral Bodies: Wax Sculpture and the Human Figure , ed. Roberta Panzanelli (Los Angeles, CA: Getty Research Institute, 2008), 13-39 and Joris van Gastel, “Life, But Not as We Know It: Wax Images and the Denial of Death,” in Bildakt at essay for inherit the wind the Warburg Institute , ed. Sabine Marienberg and Jurgen Trabant (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2014), 231-51. 57 Uta Kornmeier, “Almost Alive: The Spectacle of Verisimilitude in Madame Tussaud’s Waxworks,” in Ephemeral Bodies: Wax Sculpture and the Human Figure , ed. Roberta Panzanelli (Los Angeles, CA: Getty Research Institute, 2008), 67-81. 58 Joan B. Thesis On Homelessness? Landes, “Wax Fibers, Wax Bodies, and Moving Figures: Artifice and Nature in Eighteenth-Century Anatomy,” ibid., 41-65.
59 Charles Baudelaire, “The Salon of 1846,” Art in Paris, 1845-1862: Salons and Other Exhibitions , ed. Jonathan Mayne, 2nd ed., Landmarks in Art History (1846; Oxford Oxfordshire: Phaidon, 1981) 111. Christina Ferando , « The Deceptive Surface: Perception and Sculpture’s “Skin” », Images Re-vues [En ligne], 13 | 2016, mis en ligne le 15 janvier 2017, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. URL : http://imagesrevues.revues.org/3931. Christina Ferando is the persuasive school uniforms Dean of Jonathan Edwards College at good Yale University. School Essays? A specialist in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century art, she has held teaching positions at good thesis on homelessness Williams College and Columbia University, where she received her Ph.D. Her research has been funded by grants and on having fellowships from institutions such as The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Harvard University, the good thesis on homelessness Center for Advanced Study in phd dissertations the Visual Arts, and the American Academy in Rome, among others.
She has published extensively on the artist Antonio Canova in edited volumes and journals including Word Image , The Burlington Magazine , and The Journal of Art Historiography . Good On Homelessness? She is currently completing a book-length manuscript on the sculptor, tentatively titled Canova in Conversation: Sculpture, Dialogue and Display in the Early Nineteenth Century. Chargement des illustrations. Supports Hors-serie 5 | 2016. Apres le tournant iconique 12 | 2014. Arts de l'oubli 11 | 2013.
Des categories a l'?uvre Hors-serie 4 | 2013. Survivance d'Aby Warburg 10 | 2012. Inactualite de l'ornement Hors-serie 3 | 2012. “Iter” et “locus”. Lieu rituel et agencement du decor sculpte dans les eglises romanes d'Auvergne 9 | 2011. Parente en images 8 | 2011. Figurer les invisibles Hors-serie 2 | 2010. L'histoire de l'art depuis Walter Benjamin 7 | 2009.
Paysages sonores 6 | 2009. Devenir-animal 5 | 2008. L'image-evenement Hors-serie 1 | 2008. Traditions et temporalites des images 4 | 2007. Objets mis en signe 3 | 2006. Hommage a Daniel Arasse 2 | 2006. L'image abimee 1 | 2005. ISSN electronique 1778-3801.
Informations Titre : Images re-vues Histoire, anthropologie et theorie de l'art En bref : Revue consacree a l'histoire, l'anthropologie, la theorie des arts et des images.
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Alexandra Levit's Water Cooler Wisdom. Thesis! Employment Digest has an interesting post on the qualities that potential employers want to see, and how these qualities can be translated on a resume. Among them: · Communication Skills: For example, the online introduction, phrase “Ability to thesis be persuasive when interacting with clients, junior colleagues and CEO both in person and via telephone and e-mail” or “Wrote clear, informative and effective guidelines to ensure successful project execution.” · Motivation/Initiative: For example, the phrase “Set and achieved challenging goals while demonstrating persistence, commitment and dedication” or “Identified and implemented ways to improve and essay for inherit the wind promote quality through accuracy and thoroughness.” · Leadership: For example, the phrase “Inspired, motivated and incentivized a team of talented professionals performance” or “Monitored, evaluated and enhanced individual and team performance.” · Flexibility/Adaptability: For example, the phrase “Adapted to changing needs of individual business units” or “Followed company guidelines and instructions and adapted rapidly to management directional changes.” · Organizational Skills: For example, the phrase “Planned and prioritized to ensure that set deadlines are met” or “Coordinated and scheduled colleagues’ work.” I appreciate the spirit of this post, because it’s always important to consider the point of view of the on homelessness, employer when crafting a resume, and these are qualities that most, if not all employers, would look for. One Purpose Essay! However, I do feel that these examples are a bit vague. What challenging goals did you set, and how exactly did you achieve them? What specific things did you do to motivate your team to good perform? What was involved in scheduling your team’s work? Remember that employers want to see concrete examples of how you were able to contribute to a former company, and how the organization was better off as a result of the persuasive on having uniforms, work that you performed. This means that in addition to describing attractive qualities and good on homelessness skills, you will want to use hard numbers and statistics that show quantitative change. The Employment Digest post hits the target, but I wholeheartedly agree with you that words - even those eye-catching verbs that should be in osmosis in potato cells essays every resume - are not enough. You need to on homelessness quantify wherever you can, but in many cases, dropping in numbers may be tough to accomplish if you#39;re not sure of the impact your work had on efficiency, productivity, revenue growth, or market share.
What to do? Keep a running work diary of your roles, and find a way to gauge the phd dissertations canada, impact of each role. If it#39;s hard to attach a number, talk with a colleague who might keep better tabs so that, when you want to on homelessness update your resume, you don#39;t have to struggle to on pollution piece together the complete story. Great idea, Rick! I#39;ve found that writing case studies on your projects is also a great way of forcing yourself to quantify results, and good thesis on homelessness if you can get your boss to include those as part of your regular job responsibilities, so much the better! Remember that not all industries value the same kind of information on a resume. When looking for an I.T. job, technical skills are, by far, more important than leadership or initiative.
Scott: That is indeed true about the importance of osmosis in potato essays, technical skills in IT jobs. May I also add that in many IT jobs, especially in good thesis on homelessness corporate IT organizations, communication skills are just as important - if not more - to keep the IT systems running and for gathering end-user requirements for application development. Just wanted to jump in and thank everyone for the great discussion on phd dissertations, this topic. On Homelessness! It#39;s important to note that resume requirements vary by industry, which is why I always recommend that people obtain several sample resumes from their field before attempting to of writing essay is to craft their own. Good On Homelessness! A resume is an enticing story document emphasizing accomplishments, providing the reader with a snap shot of you. It should knock them dead!
The Employment Digest is school, correct in portraying the attributes or qualities potential employers are seeking. Good! However, they are also looking for performers, people who consistently excel. As a highly experienced and school essays respected Resume Writer, my job is to make my clients stand out from the good thesis on homelessness, competition. Accomplishments speak volumes about a person. I always can only of writing essay is to, make my clients look seductive based on the information they provide me during a probing interview.
The more detail on the impact you made, the more interviews will be obtained. A diary or brag book can be of great value when it comes to the time to prepare a resume. Great discussion about resumes and how to good improve them. I discuss resumes on my blog - http://www.phcconsulting.com/WordPress/. Check it out of writing essay when you get a chance!
I take this chancce to thank all those who have contributed their views on resume writing.It comes out very clear that,resume writing helps to a greater extent in c.v writing.Keep on e-trainig. Fantastic Article and discussion. Thesis! Really helpful. Questions The Wind! I have been following this for some days now and found it very good. Great Job. This is only a preview. Good Thesis On Homelessness! Your comment has not yet been posted. The letters and numbers you entered did not match the image. In Potato Essays! Please try again. As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below. This prevents automated programs from posting comments.
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Custom War is a Necessary Evil Essay. War is a situation that engages a fight between two or more participants, which can be individuals, groups or nations, for a period of time. War may end up with destruction whose magnitude depends on the type of fights, the weapons involved and the time period the war takes. Any war has causes that the thesis on homelessness, fight aims at solving. However, the reason for any war is essay questions for inherit the wind not a mutually exclusive aim for the participants. Therefore, despite of the destruction that war brings, the attainment of the objectives of either of the participating sides seems to thesis satisfy their feelings. This develops an argument that is in school existence since the on homelessness, beginning of World War I, whether war is on pollution beneficial or non-beneficial. This brought about this debate, war is a necessary evil. According to good Karl von Clausewitz in his book “On War,” war is the continuation of peace policy with means of using force. He argues that the political stands of online enrollment system thesis, a country should continue to exist during the good, war because the insecurity that rises during the the wind, wartime is another form of reaction to on homelessness the situation.
He insists on regarding war composed of separate campaigns with linked engagements, one leading to the other (Alexander Marsha 2003). If this is ignored, then the war engagement may ultimately lead to only disadvantages. War is immeasurable, but only exists in canada magnitudes. It has varying scales with the participants striving with their physical forces against each other with the aims of throwing the good, adversary. The defeated will be rendered incapable of resisting. Osmosis In Potato Cells. Therefore, in war is a situation to set a compulsory surrender of the enemy with disarmament. War involves the thesis on homelessness, use of skills and equipment that suits the participants at a particular time of the fight. Arguments and debates over war as a necessary evil traces its ways from long time ago, World War I where the crisis started by hitting Central Europe in 1914. The war came following a long series of clashes between Italy, Austria-Hungarian Empire, France, Germany, the British Empire and Russia.
The clashes were over European balance in the power. The war tension became highest out of the Balkan territory and canada, great power between Austria-Hungary and Russia. The winners in the war credited the war to their take over good thesis on homelessness of the territory. Despite the destruction that included life and property losses (the evil part), they fulfilled their mission (necessity). Another incident that raises such arguments is the for inherit the wind, war that went over in Libya last year. The wars in Libya rose as a result of the people’s desire for democracy under his ruling, Muammar Gadaffi. The Libyan people went through the war, with a necessity to democracy in their state. The war saw the civilians suffer deaths and encounter the many towns’ bombings (the evil) with a hope for democracy in their ruling. The international coalitions with the lead of NATO left a bloodshed in the West African country, but winning at the end of the war.
The killing of good, Muammar Gadaffi and the fall of his governance was the long awaited war necessity by the Libyans and the whole international community. The views in the debate on the holocaust suffering by the Jews under the leadership of on having, Adolf Hitler ascribe the base of the debate, Is War a necessary Evil? It is certain that the beneficiaries of the war (including Hitler) would find it necessary. The evil the on homelessness, war carried is the mass destruction of osmosis cells essays, Jews. The evil of the war is that the holocaust claimed about six million lives.
A consideration of the good, slavery abolition in the northern states is also a ground base for the debate on war, a necessary evil. Osmosis Essays. In late 18 th and 19 th century, enlighten against slavery shore light following human sentiments. This was the time when Jean Rousseau started spreading enlightening against slavery in good thesis on homelessness the course of democracy upsurge. Online Enrollment Thesis Introduction. The revolution war against the slave trade hit trade following enlighten. Thesis On Homelessness. It was also the enlighten that caused the fight for independence in on having uniforms Haiti state.
This was the time slave trade was on the course in the United States. This essay discusses the debate that lies in the minds of good thesis, many scholars and philosophers across the world. The debate, War a Necessary Evil, has had controversial issues of social consequences. A rise in a fight has objectives in the minds of the participants. For instance, an enemy with an aim to essay on having school uniforms capture another party’s property would wish to thesis on homelessness benefit form the capture, while the opponent would be to resist the capture for their own good.
As war happen leaving destructions, the winner always feels the necessity of the fight. Therefore, this essay predicted and school on pollution, supported that it is good truth worth that war is a necessary evil. The sources of essays, information in good thesis on homelessness this essay were reliable enough. They were relevant to my area of study, stating the historical perspectives on my topic, War, a Necessary Evil. Enrollment Thesis Introduction. The sources verified earlier findings and researches on the topic. The essay used secondary materials for information sources. The sources consisted of journals, books, reviews on articles, and former writings on the debate topic on the internet. The sources contained references and enabled me to read further on their writings. The sources had reviews with criticisms and support from various researchers. The reviews ensured accuracy hence kept my credibility with the sources. The internet source on on homelessness, a topic ‘Evaluating Web Resources’ by Jan Alexander and Marsha Ann Tala of essay questions, April 2003 has several links to Garfield library, student classes, professors, institutional researchers, government sources and other further readings.
The source has citations in text, footnotes, endnotes for clarity and follow up on new words and further explanations. The publishers of the thesis on homelessness, work, Mc-Graw Hill, and for inherit, the scrutiny he discussed in the traditional styling methods reviews, all proved the credibility of the work. The debate, Is War a Necessary Evil, is taking new phase each day. The continuing incidences in wars among the undemocratic nations, especially in Africa, are a contribution to the debate. Consideration of the last year’s wars on Libya against then president Muammar Gaddafi is a good example in this debate. Muammar Gaddafi ruled with violence of human rights and with undemocratic dictatorship. The followed Libyans demonstrations did not earn them any good but instead, it saw them the Gaddafi soldiers beat them up in on homelessness the streets.
The Libyans did not give up with the fights with hopes for phd dissertations canada a future, democratic Libya (Finkelman, 2006). In fact, the good, demonstrations now are looked at, as the ones to bring transformations in the Arab world. The war in the name of ‘Protecting Civilians’ left much destructions in the country as a follow up of the on having school, people’s rights and humanity from the ‘greedy’ president, Muammar Gadaffi. With all measures underlain, it is a story of thesis, unique account. The coalitions of the international community against the rigid Muammar Gaddafi earned him death at the end of the day. Phd Dissertations. Security Council resolutions authorized all that it pertained to ensure the safety and democracy of the Libyans. The whole of the story is aimed at the fulfillment of the desires of the people of Libya and the international community.
This is the ‘necessity’ in the debate ‘War is a Necessary Evil.’ The war earned Muammar Gaddafi death. While he thought he would please the west at the expense of the public at home, he never knew of the rage he was cultivating in the people. In 1996, his actions against religious practices left some 1,270 prisoners killed at Tripoli's Abu Salim jail. The situation led to a reversal of American foreign policy to help the Islamists finish Gaddafi. Rodan (2011) writes ‘as days pass by, it remains apparent that assistance the US and NATO give Islamic Imperialists aims at doing away with Col. Muammar Gaddafi.’ Gaddafi was a vocal against thesis on homelessness the interests of imperial power of the people of the independent Libya, and Africa as whole. Gadaffi kept Islamic religion far away from politics. He seemed to follow the modern philosophy of governance. This earned him a death price, which is termed as a necessity of the war in for inherit this debate, while the people earned the initially denied dignity. Despite the participation, of the international community in the war, the victory of the results belongs to the Libyans.
Consideration of the United States about war in good Iraq has significant contributions to the debate: War is a Necessary Evil. The military action for America against the stringent and persistent Iraq under the presidency of Saddam Hussein served the whole world with peace against terrorism. The argument that tried to oppose the fact of American war in Iraq, suggested for containment that did not work for over ten years. The weapons of mass destruction (WMD) of Iraq risked the cells essays, security of United States. This convinced the good thesis on homelessness, United States on links of Iraq with the Al Qaeda terrorists under the leadership of on having, Osama bin Laden. The decision of the United States to change the insecurity regime in Iraq was to good destroy the WMD capabilities of Iraq. The effort of United States to curb the menace by containment was failing, hence the school essays, plans on war. The plans included elimination of Saddam Hussein and Osama bin Laden (Hammond, John Matthew, 2011). The allegations that turned out to be true that Al Qaeda terrorists were in Iraq pushed United States for war in Iraq.
Iraq had planned to thesis on homelessness use the WMD weapons in school essays favor of their terrorism across the world. The need for security improvement was the cause of the good thesis, American war in essays on pollution Iraq. The combination of WMD weapons and the Al-Qaeda posed insecurity cases across the world including the 1998 Kenyan bombing. Good On Homelessness. It cost the United States political and strategic expertise to clear the in potato essays, foreseen mess, for the well-being of the whole world the necessity of the American war in Iraq. Most supporters of the war strategies strongly debated on the decisions. Influential Senators and Congressmen in the United States supported the war plans against Iraq. Thesis On Homelessness. They argued that the US president had a right to initiate war in Iraq. They had no doubts in the president over the war declaration to safeguard the endangered US national security from Iraq with its WMD weapons and association with Al-Qaeda. However, the support, which involved both the persuasive essay, Republicans and the Democrats, suggested a move on war in Iraq with consultations from the United Nations. The international support for the Kenyan war against the Somalia’s Al-Shabaab today is support for the debate. The war is the base on fight for peace and security I, the Kenyan territory and the boundaries.
The Al-Shabaab attacked the Kenyan coast infringing fear into good on homelessness the people of Kenya and their tourists. The attacks were significant, leading to the tourism sector hinge. The illegal terrorism Al-Shabaab group in Somalia was interfering with international trade through capture and seizure of the ships in the Indian Ocean (Mohammed, 2012). The activities of the Al-Shabaab posed a security crisis, not only to in potato cells Kenya, but also to the states that use the Indian Ocean for good thesis either trade or any other economic activity around and in online thesis the Indian Ocean. This became an issue to the Kenyan government and since Somalia had no central government, Kenya as a state had only alternative of declaring war against the Al-Shabaab. The United Nations is currently supporting the war as a ‘necessity’ to the whole of East and central region.
In fact, United States of America is thesis on homelessness today giving in help on attack of the Al-Shabaab group. The whole world is for the mission for the well-being of the many innocent people that suffered attacks by Al-Shabaab. Although Al-Shabaab is trying to resist by organizing abrupt grenade attacks in Kenya as revenge, the phd dissertations, planned war with them is bearing fruits. The notorious illegal group was a stumbling block to the formation of central government in Somalia. This is evident from the re-engineered progress in Somalia after the Kenya war began against the group. There exist arguments against the debate in war a necessary evil.
Criticisms are evolving around the world on situations where countries are deciding on war as the best alternative to bring the good on homelessness, necessity it requires. The war in Libya last year came with other undesired destructions. Cells. Common people paid prices beyond articulation during the war on Muammar Gadaffi. Libya witnessed more of the NATO destructions than the good thesis on homelessness, Gaddafi government itself. The destruction left over phd dissertations canada 50,000 people killed in the conflict as per the National Transitional Council of Libya. The NATO operations in thesis on homelessness Libya scheduled over 25,000 sorties leaving more than 9,500 hitting the targets. The NATO bombings were beyond the aim of protecting the Libyans. The bombings hit the whole of the country in search for the colonel Gadaffi. In Benghazi, the west passed the United Nations 1973 resolution to punish Gaddafi. This finally led to one purpose a definition essay is to his death with severe destructions at his place of birth, Sirte. Gaddafi’s ouster left Sirte, which once had ‘brilliant look of hospitals and university, with a shinning entrance and a conference centre that hosted world leaders,’ is now ‘a squalid ruin.’ (The BritishTelegraph, 15 Oct 2011).
Despite the war’s good intention, it brought misery and suffering the Libyans. The deaths and destructions experienced were out good thesis on homelessness of the intention of the war. All these effects sum up to persuasive essay on having school the ‘evil’ in the war. Regarding the United States war in Iraq, the debate decisions on the way forward was not justified. The United States had not proved that Iraq hosted the Al Qaeda terrorists and that they had plans to attack America.
Questions lingered over the legality of United States proceeding war against Iraq under international law. This would drive wrong implications over the precedents of international law. The United States war necessity did not inspire confidence on installation of peace back to Iraq after the war. The war would bear significant implications on minorities in Iraq. Good Thesis. After the war, the online system introduction, minorities would not participate in the Iraq elections as part of the country. The United States War against Iraq destroyed infrastructure through bombings, and rebuilding in the post Saddam phase would be a huge cost to the US. This is also an ‘evil’ face of the war in this debate. I am of the good thesis, view that war is indeed a necessary evil. I feel that some conflicts exist and cannot be resolved any other way. The situations that fall in support for war a necessary evil puts the participants at a critical moment of no or little range of options.
Lack of other option apart from going to war using force, would do to restore the security and well-being of the affected party. This especially applies in cases of rights infringement against the allies. For instance, the Battle of the Passchendaele in Ypres City, Belgium in 1917 that left numbers of deaths and casualties for both the allies and questions for inherit the wind, the enemies running into thousands. The battle that started in July 31, 1917, and continued to good on homelessness early 1918, involved war between Canadian Soldiers (allies) and German Soldiers (enemies) who had captured the Passchendaele Ridges. The enemies forcefully captured the Passchendaele Ridges located in the land of importance to the City of Ypres, and wanted to remain the occupants of the City. The war was the most horrific, with death or casualty numbers of 260,000 and 15,000 for the enemies and the allies respectively. This happened at the time the First World War is in its course leading to a hard shudder across the world. Despite the phd dissertations, destructions and losses experienced, the good thesis on homelessness, win in the war by the allies (Canadian soldiers) satisfied the necessity of the war against the intruders (Subhash, 2002). The debate is true for the necessity of the war. A situation that leaves the essay for inherit, involved party with war as a last resort to clear a conflict embraces war itself. The incidence of the United States and Iraq over the use of unlawful nuclear weapons, and Iraq’s threats to attack US through Al-Qaeda, gave the US an option of war declaration.
If US would not use war, the necessity part of the on homelessness, argument, then it would suffer the essays, Iraq’s attacks. A violent group is best stopped with violet reactions, despite the consequences. This event clearly draws to the importance of the war in a way to protect oneself. The events of slavery abortion in the USA that led to thesis differences in the opinion between the north and school essays, the south escalated to wars as the best way to resolve the on homelessness, matter. The win by the northern states finally embraced the abolition that had caused the war. War as a necessary evil shore light to the southern states to relegate into the abolition system, despite leaving several deaths like that of Lovejoy, in 1837. Such are the arguments in the debate that moved me to the position of support of online, war, a necessary evil. Thesis On Homelessness. This is with the reasons tat in every situation that left the war participants with the only option of war; it resulted to a fruitful end (The Canadian Journal, 2005). The opposing side of the debate bases argument on the immediate results of the war. The war sufferings face the whole group with no exceptions of the innocent.
The USA declaration to essay the wind engage has war in Iraq led to several deaths of the good, innocent people through the bombings to essays stop the terrorism by Iraq and the Al-Qaeda. There are also arguments that USA used war as a political tool to gain influence in the Middle East. The aftermath of the war of USA in Iraq is undesirable, with several soldiers crippled during the war. War breeds destruction to mankind infrastructure and the environment. The environmental destruction during war ranges from air pollution to deforestation. I feel such arguments are for the short-term and immediate effects with a blindfold of the future. The reasons for opposing war; a necessary evil, are true, but have their nature only in good thesis the short-term perspective of development, peace and democracy as it pertains the social consequences. This essay described the views on the debate: War a necessary evil. The discussions and essay the wind, examples defend my stand for the debate.
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