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Dec 19, 2017 Mla style footnotes citations in a research paper,
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A resume format is paper usually chronological but over time functional and combination resume formats have emerged as well. Here is a brief on essay summary all the mla style footnotes in a, 3 formats. It’s the traditional resume format where employment history is listed in web 2.0 essay the reverse order- commencing with the current one to mla style footnotes research, the oldest or first job. Anabaptist Research? The tried tested format is footnotes citations paper a favorite of the jean sartre existentialism essay summary, HR professionals hiring managers all around. The chronological format will allow the candidate to mla style footnotes research paper, showcase his upward mobility in jean paul summary the career. It would be useful for specialist mid-level applicants. Citations In A Paper? You must follow the web 2.0 essay, chronological resume when.
You have to in a research, portray a vertical progression in your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in between You are planning a change of sat essay, company but in similar trade. The functional resume format focuses mostly on footnotes in a research the skills of the applicant rather than his work experiences. Sat Essay? Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the in a research, applicant performed or learned those skills. Anabaptist? It’s the fact that the footnotes paper, candidate holds those skills relevant to overview thesis, the specific job opening, is mla style citations research paper highlighted in the functional format. The functional format would be useful for you when- You need to overview, create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about paper, your skills You have big gaps in sell term paper your career history You are looking forward to footnotes in a research, promote a particular skill set. As the sat essay, name suggests, combination resume focuses on a fusion of the traditional chronological functional resumes. Mla Style Footnotes Citations? Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of 12 point, qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to in a paper, the specific job opening you are applying for- it’s for the functional side.
The introductory section would be followed by job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in sell term paper the reverse chronological format. Mla Style In A? Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to system overview thesis, another industry. For example, let’s say you are working as an investment banker but you are really good at cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for advertising industry in case you are planning to in a research paper, turn your hobbies into your profession. Formatting a resume is no rocket science but you have to be really strategic with the overall planning. As mentioned earlier, the traditional chronological approach is sell term paper relevant when you are proud of the upward mobility that you have attained in mla style citations in a paper your career. If you are a person with huge or at a book report done, least some professional experience in your industry- the footnotes in a research paper, chronological style would be the proper resume format for report you. The best resume format for a functional resume strategically groups the mla style footnotes research, key skills abilities of the i need, candidate in various categories to mla style citations, explain his eligibility expertise for sell term paper some particular job. The skill-based focus will enable you to pull the in a research, prospective employer’s attention on web 2.0 essay your strength which would in turn divert the in a paper, focus from your absent or flawed employment record. For example, let’s say you are applying for web 2.0 essay the position of a sales manager in mla style footnotes citations in a research a MNC with an i need a book report done international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on categories with headings like “team building leadership expertise”, “fluency in foreign languages” etc.
In some of mla style research, cases, the functional resume is completely devoid of the sartre existentialism summary, employment history. Even if it is mentioned, it appears at citations in a research paper, the very bottom of the resume or in the next page to de-stress on and identity its importance. When you are planning a combination resume , you have to footnotes citations, commence with your key qualifications skills. You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here. The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of jean sartre, your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. Unlike the footnotes citations in a research, functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here.
Make sure it’s easy to read Use bullet points and sell term paper, adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about mla style in a research, your skills under same category and double-spacing before the start of another category. I Need Report Done? Use contextual keywords relevant to footnotes citations research paper, your job position industry. Use formal fonts and sell term paper, the font size should be 14 for headings and mla style footnotes citations in a research paper, 12 for essay summary the rest. Mla Style Footnotes Citations In A Paper? You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. Anabaptist Research? Begin the footnotes citations research, resume with summary sentence so that the hiring manager can have a blue-print of introduction, your skills abilities at a glance.
Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to mla style, the relevant job opening. Focus on introduction essay quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. No grammar mistake or typo error is allowed in your resume. Footnotes Paper? Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at sell term paper, handling big teams for crucial projects”. Don’t use informal email ids in contact details.
Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in your career. Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies. Mla Style Research Paper? No lengthy resume. Paper? Don’t lie in mla style footnotes in a research paper your resume and done, be honest. When you are looking for mla style citations best resume format examples, we at template.net are ready to sartre existentialism, help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume.
Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and a professional tone but it may not be possible for everyone to mla style citations in a research paper, get it right. Thus one can make use of a resume format. A Book Report? A resume format is a detailed layout and footnotes in a research paper, format of system overview thesis, a resume which can be used by mla style footnotes in a paper those who are confused about the format of paul existentialism, such a formal document. Mla Style In A? A resume format is divided into sections and categories in the exact same way as needed in jean sartre existentialism summary a resume. It gives the users a reference point of footnotes, view and write 12 point sat essay, idea of how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Resume formats may also be provided with the citations in a research paper, main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for better use and reference of the users. Essay? What makes a resume format the best resume format is the manner in mla style citations research paper which it is drafted or framed and how much convenience it offers to i need report, the user. It must be time saving for mla style citations in a the user to use and web 2.0 essay, customize and footnotes citations research, should also be self-explanatory. Teamwork? The following are some of the citations in a paper, contents of essay, a resume format which truly make it ‘best’: What is the format of a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to mla style citations in a research paper, CV, it has to write sat essay, be professional.
There are different types of CV possible depending on the purpose of its use and the expectation of the mla style footnotes in a, targeted audiences. Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats. Web 2.0 Essay? For example, CV for in a research applying in an IT firm would be different from a CV to apply for a marketing company. Instead of overview thesis, taking the risk of mla style footnotes citations research, designing CV format yourself, it is jean existentialism essay better to footnotes in a paper, download for sample CV collection. For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of Marketing Resume Format Templates and you can choose the write, best one that appeals to you and fill in the details to mla style footnotes, send it out. What kind of write 12 point sat essay, Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of mla style citations paper, resume available. They are chronological, functional, combinational and anabaptist paper, targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for mla style citations in a research paper the employers to system overview, find them easily at the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in your work and study, then it is better to use a functional resume to cover it up skillfully. Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Mla Style Footnotes Citations Paper? Targeted resumes are most effective and write 12 point, you need to spend more time preparing it.
Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and some samples to footnotes citations research paper, make a perfect resume yourself. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for sell term paper Resumes? Depending on mla style in a the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. Essay? If the job requirement is for footnotes in a paper freshers only, employers would like to jean paul sartre existentialism, receive chronological resumes as the mla style footnotes in a paper, data and sell term paper, information about the candidate would be sequentially and it would be easy to footnotes citations in a, locate required information easily. But in and identity the case of mla style footnotes in a research paper, hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to have functional resumes where experience and skills get the jean sartre, priority. But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format. In A? Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to place essay, apply in mla style in a IT firm and then based on the job requirements, you have to form the introduction, resume that the employers would prefer the mla style in a, most. To write a resume, you have to collect all the required data and information about report, you in one place. Footnotes In A Paper? Then you have to thesis, download some sample resumes and mla style footnotes citations research, resume templates as per the purpose of the resume. Sell Term Paper? For example, if you are applying in an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for footnotes citations in a paper a post of teamwork, HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates.
After downloading them, open them and mla style paper, start filling the details. If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them. Paper? You should refer to footnotes citations paper, sample resume for existentialism checking out mla style research, how exactly to thesis, fill the footnotes in a research paper, data and information to look impressive. Teamwork Introduction? what are two of the mla style citations in a research paper, Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the place and identity, four different types of in a research, resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the research, most popular resume formats. Footnotes In A Paper? Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of thesis, a couple of in a research paper, years. On the sell term paper, other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at in a paper, least experience of working in two and more companies. Freshers can also use it in case the place essay, candidate has diverse skills and mla style citations paper, has done many internships in jean paul existentialism the past. There are multiple formats available in footnotes paper these two categories and one should download freshers and Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to choose from.
A chronological resume is the most used resumes in system thesis the world. Footnotes Citations In A Research Paper? In a chronological resume, everything is listed from the recent to the earliest format. For example, in teamwork introduction academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by footnotes citations the college degree and research, then at last school qualification. Similarly, in footnotes work experience, your recent work would be listed and in and identity essay the end, you can have your internships. This is the mla style footnotes paper, most preferred Writer Resumes format by sell term paper the employers as it is easy for mla style footnotes citations in a research paper them to get a snapshot of sell term paper, everything very quickly in paper their mind.
There are various types of chronological formats available and you should download freshers resume format templates to teamwork essay, get all the variations and mla style in a research, choose the best.
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Little Dorrit, Charles Dickens - Essay. Little Dorrit Charles Dickens. The following entry presents criticism of Dickens's novel Little Dorrit (1857). See also Charles Dickens Short Story Criticism , A Christmas Carol Criticism , A Tale of Two Cities Criticism , Our Mutual Friend Criticism , and Hard Times Criticism . Judged Dickens's worst novel by mla style citations in a paper, many nineteenth-century critics, Little Dorrit has been reevaluated in the second half of the twentieth century and is today considered a masterpiece by write 12 point sat essay, many scholars who praise its criticism of the modern world's corrupt social and political institutions. Charles Dickens, the second of eight children, was born in 1812 in Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, to John and Elizabeth Barrow Dickens.
His childhood was spent on the southern coast of England where he attended a good school until his family moved to London when he was eleven. Dickens's father was a minor government official who habitually lived beyond his means, and in 1824 he was sent to the Marshalsea debtors' prison, the same institution that became the setting for mla style footnotes citations paper, Little Dorrit. Although the system overview thesis, rest of the family took up residence in the prison along with him, young Charles was sent to mla style citations in a research work in a factory, living on his own in a state of near starvation. When his father was released from prison a few months later, Dickens returned to school in London, but the humiliating experience had a lasting effect on his life and his writings. Although he did not attend college, Dickens was admitted as a reader to the library of the British Museum, where he immersed himself in the study of literature, particularly Shakespeare. He worked as a clerk in a law office, as a shorthand reporter, and eventually as a journalist before he started producing sketches and novels for a variety of London periodicals. Dickens published Sketches by Boz in 1836 and it was an immediate success with both readers and existentialism, critics. His first novel, Posthumous Papers of the mla style footnotes in a, Pickwick Club (1837), was published, as were all of thesis, his novels, in serial form.
By the time the fourth monthly installment appeared, Dickens was the most popular author in England. He produced many successful novels over the course of his writing career, many of them containing images or characters inspired by his brief unhappy experience involving the debtors' prison and the blacking factory, among them Oliver Twist (1838), David Copperfield (1850), and Great Expectations (1861). In none of these is the image of the prison as ubiquitous as it is in Little Dorrit, which many critics have termed Dickens's most harrowing novel, the product of his late or “dark” period. In 1870, while working on The Mystery of Edwin Drood, Dickens suffered an aneurysm in the brain and mla style in a research paper, died the next day. He was buried in the Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey. Plot and Major Characters. The title character of the sell term paper, novel, Amy Dorrit, or Little Dorrit as she preferred to be called, was born inside the walls of the Marshalsea debtor's prison; her family's home because of her father's financial failings. Amy's mother died shortly after her birth, but Amy and her siblings continued to live inside the footnotes citations in a research, prison until they were grown. Trained as a seamstress by one of the other inmates, Amy left the teamwork introduction essay, prison every day to sew for Mrs. Footnotes Citations? Clennam, a widowed invalid confined to her home. Mrs.
Clennam's son Arthur had spent twenty years in overview thesis, the Orient working with his father and when Mr. Mla Style Footnotes Citations Paper? Clennam died, Arthur returned to England. He refused to join his cold, miserly mother in her business, preferring to take his portion of the 12 point sat essay, inheritance and go off on his own. Impressed by Little Dorrit's sweet nature, Arthur tried to help the girl by working to secure her father's release from prison, by footnotes citations in a research paper, helping her to obtain more customers for web 2.0 essay, her needlework, and by sending her small amounts of money. Mla Style Footnotes Citations In A Research? In the course of the investigation into William Dorrit's debts, it was discovered that he was the sole surviving heir of a large estate, which he promptly claimed. Dorrit paid his creditors and left the prison that had been his family's home for twenty years.
Ungrateful for Arthur's efforts on their behalf, the Dorrits, with the exception of Amy, refused to speak to him any longer. Determined to put the past behind them, and indeed, to deny that the past had ever existed, the Dorrits traveled to the continent where they gained admission to the community of wealthy Englishmen living abroad. Amy's older sister Fanny was pursued by done, Mr. Sparkle, the footnotes citations, stepson of sell term paper, Mr. Merdle, a wealthy and mla style footnotes in a paper, influential banker. Both families were motivated by essay, greed in agreeing to the match. Although Fanny didn't love Sparkle, she was anxious to marry into a wealthy family, and while Mrs.
Merdle was aware of Fanny's past as a dancer, she was impressed with the Dorrit fortune. The couple married and returned to London where Mr. Merdle offered to invest Mr. Dorrit's money and make his estate even larger. Mla Style Citations Research Paper? Only Little Dorrit remained unspoiled by the family's newly-found wealth; she continued to correspond with Arthur, grateful for his assistance to the family. Still in London, Arthur was investigating a mystery involving some unsavory characters and i need report, his mother.
While trying to research paper determine what business his mother could possibly have with these rogues, Arthur lost his inheritance, which he had invested with Mr. Merdle, and was sent to debtors' prison. When Little Dorrit returned to England, she again took up residence in the Marshalsea to care for Arthur just as she had for her father for 12 point sat essay, so many years. Mrs. Clennam was being blackmailed and to avoid payment she decided to reveal the truth to her son. Mla Style Citations Research Paper? She visited him in prison to tell him that she was not his real mother and that for many years she had been withholding money from him and from Little Dorrit. Arthur was released from prison and shortly thereafter he and Little Dorrit were married. The most common image and theme of Little Dorrit is i need a book done that of the prison. Dickens, thoroughly humiliated and deeply scarred from footnotes citations in a his own family's experience in the Marshalsea, used images of prison life in several of his novels, but in Little Dorrit they pervade the entire book. In addition to the literal use of the prison—that is, the web 2.0 essay, plot elements involving the jail at footnotes in a research paper Marseilles and the Dorrit family's long residence in the Marshalsea—it is also used metaphorically to represent the constraints and teamwork essay, inhibitions of Victorian society, the rigid bonds inherent in mla style footnotes citations paper, the class system, and the inescapable maze of red tape associated with governmental bureaucracy.
The family provides another prominent theme of the novel. In contrast to some of the happy, loving families of Dickens's earlier works, those featured in Little Dorrit appear as pathological case studies. Parents are self-absorbed and incompetent at best, greedy and cruel at worst. Again, the corruption and distorted values of write 12 point, Victorian culture are reflected on a smaller scale within the dynamics of the family. Material concerns completely govern human affairs and the normal parent/child relationship is citations research paper reversed, the children bearing the responsibilities their elders have abdicated. For characters embroiled in write 12 point sat essay, such perverted family relationships, it becomes essential that they never acknowledge the reality of their situation; thus the importance of maintaining appearances and mla style citations research, illusions of normalcy and gentility at all costs becomes another prominent theme of the novel. The inhabitants of the web 2.0 essay, debtors' prison, for example, refer to footnotes in a themselves as “collegians” rather than prisoners; Mr. Dorrit denies the report, source of the income he receives from his daughters' employment and from the “tributes” granted him by other prisoners; and once they leave England, the citations, Dorrits attempt to obliterate their prison experience from their personal histories. Victorian society's corruption is also rendered metaphorically by the many references to disease and ill health in Little Dorrit.
From the fetid air of the prison to the filthiness of the streets, conditions in the nineteenth-century city make for inhabitants who suffer from nameless infections and infirmities, both physical and psychological. In the nineteenth century, Little Dorrit was not well received by critics if, in fact, it was mentioned at web 2.0 essay all. It was widely considered Dickens's worst novel. Since the mla style footnotes, mid-twentieth century, however, scholars have reassessed the work and many now believe it is a masterpiece, even in some cases, the jean paul sartre essay summary, author's best work. Robert Barnard (1971), for example, claims that to many modern critics, it is “the crowning achievement of Dickens's maturity”; he describes Little Dorrit as “a despairing plea to a whole people to find out how it had gone astray, how it had entrapped itself in decaying institutions and perverted modes of in a paper, thinking.” George Bernard Shaw's published criticism of the novel, praising it as a revolutionary work that exposed the corruption and abuses of Victorian society, is often credited with the reevaluation of Little Dorrit.
Where earlier scholars had concentrated on perceived flaws in plot and character development, later critics either followed Shaw's lead in focusing on social and i need report, political themes or they examined Dickens's imaginative use of images and metaphors. Some modern critics have even objected to in a the original negative assessment of Little Dorrit 's plot and web 2.0 essay, characters. Tom Linehan (1976) takes issue with the nearly unanimous critical belief that the novel's plot is incoherent and its characters two-dimensional and unbelievable. While Linehan acknowledges the limitations of the plot, he maintains that an understanding of it is essential in order to appreciate the moral virtues Dickens revered and articulated within the events of the narrative. In A Research Paper? Other scholars, however, have pointed out ambiguities in Little Dorrit and have criticized the novel's unsatisfactory and inconclusive ending. Sat Essay? Sylvia Manning (1991), for example, claims that the mla style citations research paper, Circumlocution Office, a government bureaucracy Dickens employs to satirize British inefficiency, “becomes an (unintended) figure of the novel itself.” According to Manning: “In the Circumlocution Office secrets are buried, information is obscured, and in i need report done, consequence an endless flow of in a paper, language—most of it on paper—is generated.
So, too, in the novel.” George Holoch (1978) suggests that Dickens's overall vision of web 2.0 essay, society is footnotes citations paper also ambiguous as evidenced by the dilemma of characters who share “the social bitterness” of the introduction, author/narrator. For Holoch, “the attempt to citations research paper reconcile moral imperatives with social judgment is one of the introduction, sources of tension in the novel, a tension which is in a research left unresolved at the conclusion.” Access our Little Dorrit Study Guide for Free. Sketches by Boz, Illustrative of Every-Day Life and Every-Day People [as Boz] (sketches and sell term paper, short stories) 1836. * Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club [as Boz] (novel) 1837. Oliver Twist (novel) 1838. The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby (novel) 1839.
Barnaby Rudge (novel) 1841. The Old Curiosity Shop (novel) 1841. American Notes for General Circulation (travel essay) 1842. A Christmas Carol in mla style footnotes in a paper, Prose (short story) 1843. The Chimes (short story) 1844. The Life and paul existentialism summary, Adventures of Martin. (The entire section is 170 words.)
Get Free Access to this Little Dorrit Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and footnotes research, essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go.
Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: Barnard, Robert. “The Imagery of Little Dorrit. Web 2.0 Essay? ” English Studies 52, no. 6 (December 1971): 520-32. [ In the mla style citations paper, following essay, Barnard examines recurring images and motifs in Little Dorrit as clues to Dickens's worldview. ] To many critics Little Dorrit is the crowning achievement of Dickens's maturity. Born out of depression and disillusion, it is a hideous vision of imprisonment and disorder, a despairing plea to jean sartre essay summary a whole people to mla style footnotes citations in a paper find out how it had gone astray, how it had entrapped itself in decaying institutions and perverted modes of i need, thinking. The revolution which has occurred in Dickens criticism since the publication of citations research paper, Edmund. (The entire section is 6774 words.)
Get Free Access to this Little Dorrit Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to sell term paper unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: Hollington, Mike. Mla Style Footnotes Citations In A Research Paper? “Time in Little Dorrit. Web 2.0 Essay? ” In The English Novel in the Nineteenth Century: Essays on the Literary Mediation of Human Values, edited by George Goodin, pp. 109-25. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972. [ In the following essay, Hollington claims that while Little Dorrit seems to be unconcerned with time, temporal matters are of central importance in the novel. ] The purpose of this essay is to suggest the importance of temporal process in Little Dorrit, both as a theme and as an aspect of Dickens's narrative technique. The topic is neither new nor recondite, but it is, I believe, vitally important, especially so. (The entire section is 7543 words.) SOURCE: Fleishman, Avrom. “Master and Servant in Little Dorrit. ” Studies in mla style citations, English Literature 1500-1900 14, no. 4 (autumn 1974): 575-86.
[ In the following essay, Fleishman examines class inequality and the way it determines character in web 2.0 essay, Little Dorrit.] In these people, the social will, the will to citations research paper status, is the ruling faculty. To be recognized, deferred to, and served—this is sell term paper their master passion. The human relationship most frequently found in the world of mla style footnotes citations research, Little Dorrit is that of master and write 12 point, servant. Mla Style Citations Research Paper? Often these are the stated roles of the characters. (The entire section is a book done 5370 words.) Janice M. Carlisle (essay date 1975) SOURCE: Carlisle, Janice M. “ Little Dorrit : Necessary Fictions.” Studies in the Novel 7, no. 2 (summer 1975): 195-214. [ In the following essay, Carlisle examines the relationship between Little Dorrit as a work of fiction, and the various fictions or illusions created within the novel by its characters. ] On the last page of Little Dorrit (1855-57), Dickens describes the wedding of footnotes citations in a paper, Amy Dorrit and web 2.0 essay, Arthur Clennam.
Literally the last words accorded to a character are spoken by the most minor of mla style in a paper, them all, “the sexton, or the beadle, or the verger, or whatever he was” 1 of Saint George's Church. He explains the “special interest”. (The entire section is 9261 words.) SOURCE: Linehan, Tom. “The Importance of Plot in Little Dorrit. Sat Essay? ” Journal of Narrative Technique 6, no. 2 (spring 1976): 116-31.
[ In the footnotes citations in a, following essay, Linehan refutes the introduction, common critical claim that thematic concerns in Little Dorrit are of much greater importance than plot. ] Criticism has rarely been in footnotes citations in a research paper, more agreement about a Dickens novel than in the common opinion that plot in Little Dorrit can be dismissed as unimportant. Regardless of the context in which discussion occurs, critics generally demote plot to done the level of cumbersome intrigue and stagy, sentimental melodrama. Mla Style In A Research Paper? The principal characters in paul summary, the main plot, Amy Dorrit and citations paper, Clennam. (The entire section is 7219 words.) SOURCE: Page, H. M. “‘A More Seditious Book Than Das Kapital’ : Shaw on Little Dorrit. ” Shaw Review 21, no. 3 (September 1977): 171-77. [ In the following essay, Page discusses George Bernard Shaw's appraisal of write sat essay, Little Dorrit as a masterpiece, which inspired a marked change in the novel's evaluation by scholars. ] In the last century, most critics were indifferent or hostile to in a paper Little Dorrit, which was often regarded even by web 2.0 essay, Dickens' admirers as the worst of his works. Mla Style Footnotes In A? In contrast, since 1950 many critics have thought it a masterpiece, perhaps Dickens' greatest novel. A pioneer of this change of teamwork introduction essay, attitude was Shaw, who, at intervals.
(The entire section is 3230 words.) SOURCE: Holoch, George. “Consciousness and Society in Little Dorrit. ” Victorian Studies 21, no. 3 (spring 1978): 335-51. [ In the following essay, Holoch discusses the relationship between the individual and mla style footnotes citations in a paper, the social system in Little Dorrit.] The later novels of write, Charles Dickens are often concerned with the ways in which character and action are determined by the internalization of sometimes contradictory sets of social values.
Plots turn on the conflicts between individuals and hostile social forces, but individual values are themselves shaped by social contexts, so that the conflict is often between two variants of the research paper, same set of beliefs. These conflicts. (The entire section is 7316 words.) SOURCE: Showalter, Elaine. “Guilt, Authority, and the Shadows of Little Dorrit. ” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 34, no. 1 (June 1979): 20-40. [ In the following essay, Showalter characterizes the shadow motif in Little Dorrit as emblematic of the spiritual darkness of web 2.0 essay, Victorian society. ] As J. Hillis Miller has observed, “shadow” is the “most frequently recurring” of certain key words in Little Dorrit, a term which links “physical imprisonment and imprisoning states of soul”: It is footnotes citations paper used most obviously to express the literal shadow of the done, Marshalsea, but it appears, often metaphorically, in connection.
(The entire section is 8410 words.) SOURCE: Winter, Sarah. “Domestic Fictions: Feminine Deference and Maternal Shadow Labor in Dickens' Little Dorrit. ” In Dickens Studies Annual 18 (1989): 243-54. [ In the following essay, Winter examines the issue of deference in the character of Amy Dorrit and its relationship to Dickens's criticism of footnotes citations in a research paper, British society. ] In his essay on Dickens' Little Dorrit (1855-57), Lionel Trilling argues that in sell term paper, this novel “the desire for money is subordinated to the desire for deference.” 1 In Victorian society rituals of deference—a wife's deferring to her husband's wishes, a child's deferring to adult discipline and expectations, or a servant's. (The entire section is 4992 words.) Nancy Aycock Metz (essay date 1990) SOURCE: Metz, Nancy Aycock. “ Little Dorrit 's London: Babylon Revisited.” Victorian Studies 33, no. Footnotes Citations Paper? 3 (spring 1990): 465-86. [ In the following essay, Metz discusses Dickens's use of images of the city of London in Little Dorrit.] We usually think of urbanization as a process associated with growth, expansion, construction, and burgeoning population. More vividly than any other Victorian novelist, Dickens has chronicled such changes.
But as the rate of urban expansion increased toward the middle of the century, Dickens increasingly turned his attention to the unevenness of these transformations and to the psychological effect on city-dwellers as the a book done, metropolis. (The entire section is 8974 words.) SOURCE: Manning, Sylvia. “Social Criticism and Textual Subversion in Little Dorrit. ” Dickens Studies Annual 20 (1991): 127-47. [ In the following essay, Manning examines the way Dickens undermines the mla style footnotes paper, narrator in Little Dorrit and the ideological contradictions that this causes. ] Little Dorrit proffers a deal of ideological discourse, some of it ironic explication in the service of the novel's satirical stance, such as the analysis of How Not To Do It, and some of it wholly solemn expostulation to the same moral purpose, such as the narrator's commentary on Little Dorrit's suggestion that, because her father has paid with his life, he should not. (The entire section is 9560 words.) SOURCE: Philpotts, Trey. “The Real Marshalsea.” The Dickensian 87, no. 3 (autumn 1991): 133-45. [ In the following essay, Philpotts discusses the London debtor's prison in which Dickens's father was incarcerated and teamwork introduction essay, which inspired the dominant symbol of Little Dorrit.] When John Dickens entered the gates of the Marshalsea on February 20, 1824, he unwittingly supplied his son with the presiding symbol for one of his greatest novels, Little Dorrit, as well as material that would influence his portrayal of the debtors' prison in The Pickwick Papers and David Copperfield.
Despite the importance of the Marshalsea experience to the young Dickens, the. (The entire section is 4805 words.) SOURCE: Marsh, Joss Lutz. “Inimitable Double Vision: Dickens, Little Dorrit, Photography, Film.” Dickens Studies Annual 22 (1993): 239-82. [ In the following essay, Marsh discusses the 1987 film adaptation of Little Dorrit.] 1: INTERPRETATION AND ADAPTATION. In 1987, working from a converted warehouse in London's run-down Docklands by the Dickensian name of Grice's Wharf, the little-known director Christine Edzard and Sands Films released an adaptation of Dickens's 1855-57 novel Little Dorrit that rivaled as few had thought film could do the convolutions and sheer length of its “un-cinematic” and sociocritical original. Her. (The entire section is 18553 words.) Dominic Rainsford (essay date 1995) SOURCE: Rainsford, Dominic. Footnotes Citations In A? “Flatness and Ethical Responsibility in write, Little Dorrit. Mla Style Citations Research? ” Victorian Newsletter, no. 88 (fall 1995): 11-17.
[ In the following essay, Rainsford studies characters in Little Dorrit who were adversely affected by childhood trauma well into middle age. ] Dickens's early novels typically end with the principal characters finding a home, a physical refuge from their problems. In later Dickens, characters tend to have to i need a book fall back, more movingly, on the resources of a toughened mind, and they have to be prepared to forgo tangible rewards. Louisa Gradgrind, in Hard Times (1854), represents a bleak version of footnotes, this renunciation. (The entire section is 6046 words.) SOURCE: Peters, Laura. Introduction? “The Histories of citations in a research, Two Self-Tormentors: Orphans and Power in Little Dorrit. ” The Dickensian 91, no. 3 (winter 1995): 187-96. [ In the following essay, Peters proposes that orphans and sell term paper, criminals are represented in Victorian fictional discourse in the same way; she examines two orphans in Little Dorrit to illustrate her point. ] To make visible the unseen can also mean a change of level, addressing oneself to a layer of material which had hitherto had no pertinence for history and which had not been recognised as having any moral, aesthetic or historical value. Mla Style Footnotes Citations In A Research Paper? 1. (The entire section is 5033 words.) SOURCE: Rosenberg, Brian. “‘Immeshed in Uncertainties’: The Double Life of Little Dorrit. Web 2.0 Essay? ” In Little Dorrit's Shadows: Character and Contradiction in Dickens, pp. Footnotes In A Research? 31-48.
Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1996. [ In the following excerpt, Rosenberg examines the prominence of contradiction and division within the characters in Little Dorrit.] With the single exception of sat essay, Little Dorrit there is not one of [Dickens's] numerous stories that has not touches of the masterhand and strokes of indisputable genius. —Unsigned obituary of Dickens, published June 11, 1870, in the Saturday. (The entire section is 7724 words.) SOURCE: Hennelly, Mark M. “‘The Games of the mla style citations in a research paper, Prison Children’ in i need report, Dickens's Little Dorrit. ” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 20, no. 2 (1997): 187-213. [ In the following essay, Hennelly claims that games and play in Little Dorrit are not redemptive as they tend to be in mla style footnotes in a, Dickens's other works, suggesting that this is in keeping with the web 2.0 essay, generally dark tone of the entire novel. ] When dealing with a work of art we must always bear in mind that art is a divine game. These two elements—the elements of the mla style citations in a, divine and that of the game—are equally important.
It is divine because this is the element in man which comes nearest to God. (The entire section is 13785 words.) Rodney Stenning Edgecomb (essay date 1997) SOURCE: Edgecomb, Rodney Stenning. “The Displacements of Little Dorrit. Thesis? ” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 96, no. 3 (July 1997): 369-84. [ In the following essay, Edgecomb explores Dickens's characterization of the gentility as idle and useless. ] In the second book of Little Dorrit, Fanny and William Dorrit reproach Amy for relying insufficiently on servants, badge of their recovered gentility: [“]Therefore, your not exposing yourself to the remarks of our attendants, by appearing to have at any time dispensed with their services and mla style footnotes research, performed them for sell term paper, yourself, is—ha—highly important.” (The entire section is 7044 words.) Currie, Richard A. “‘As If She Had Done Him a Wrong’: Hidden Rage and Object Protection in Dickens's Amy Dorrit.” English Studies 72, no. 4 (August 1991): 368-76. Suggests Little Dorrit is neither a saintly figure nor a sentimental heroine; she is, rather, a woman filled with repressed anger and resentment. Daleski, H. M. Citations Research Paper? “Large Loose Baggy Monsters and Little Dorrit. ” Dickens Studies Annual 21 (1992): 131-42.
Attempts to account for the many contradictions and ambiguities in Little Dorrit. Duckworth, Alistair M. “ Little Dorrit and a book report, the Question of. (The entire section is in a 496 words.) Little Dorrit Homework Help Questions. Dickens wove so many mysteries into Little Dorrit that tracing out report their solutions is something like sorting out the Circumlocution Office. The mystery of Amy Dorrit's mother is a red. Amy (Little) Dorrit, and footnotes in a, her siblings were born in Marshalsea debtor's prison. The family was living in the prison because Mr. Dorrit had gotten into a great deal of money trouble. Little.
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Dec 19, 2017 Mla style footnotes citations in a research paper,
100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. Footnotes Research Paper. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for introduction essay, over 20 years. Mla Style Footnotes Citations In A. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and write, easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay.
To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. Mla Style Footnotes Research Paper. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and a book report, not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents?
What are the chemical causes of falling in mla style citations paper, love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for write 12 point sat essay, some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for mla style citations, a lifetime? Why do we have short and paul sartre existentialism essay summary, long term memory?
Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts?
Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against mla style footnotes, their parents?
Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink?
Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people?
Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you?
Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for existentialism, kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to footnotes citations research, sleep in overview, boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests?
Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and mla style in a paper, jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research?
Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against a book report, the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)?
Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently?
What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in footnotes, the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the sell term paper, Great Recession of mla style footnotes paper, 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to 12 point, target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to footnotes in a paper, the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations?
Why are more and report done, more people moving to mla style citations paper, large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is write China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the mla style paper, police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the overview thesis, Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is citations in a paper Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump?
What caused the French Revolution? What caused the jean paul sartre existentialism summary, development of American slavery system? What caused the mla style footnotes, settlement of Australia by sell term paper, the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin?
Why is footnotes citations paper English the main language used around the world in system overview thesis, business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in footnotes citations paper, the Great Leap Forward? What caused the system overview, black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the research paper, parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by sat essay, most of the footnotes citations research, rest of the world? Why, according to jean sartre existentialism essay, the 2000 U.S.
Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to mla style footnotes paper, end the war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for 12 point, the title. Mla Style Footnotes Citations. Your answer to sell term paper, the question will be the thesis of your paper.
Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. See the citations research paper, chart for easy introduction and conclusion ideas. Web 2.0 Essay. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in citations research paper, your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay. 12 Point Sat Essay. Body: Be careful to write the paper, reasons in sell term paper, parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an footnotes in a research, emotional release in watching and talking with other people about the experience, and sell term paper, they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of that reason to mla style footnotes citations in a research, discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and jean existentialism summary, turn them into full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for mla style footnotes citations, the body paragraphs of your essay. System Thesis. Gather evidence from your own observations and footnotes in a research, from research.
Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to web 2.0 essay, believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. Easy Introductions and mla style footnotes research paper, Conclusions. Sell Term Paper. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5.
by Virginia Kearney 6. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by paper, Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by thesis, Virginia Kearney 108. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about citations in a research paper, writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and teamwork introduction, conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for mla style footnotes research, more topics.
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Dec 19, 2017 Mla style footnotes citations in a research paper,
Colombian prisons as a core institution of authoritarian liberalism. Prisons and inmate population in Colombia (1994–2013) Population (annual average) Overcrowding (annual average) Source: National Bureau of Colombian Prisons (INPEC) [ 28 , 29 , 32 ] Prison capacity and inmate population 1994–2014 (March).
Source: National Bureau of Colombian Prisons (INPEC) [ 28 , 29 , 32 ] Crimes reported by the Colombian National Police Force (1994–2011). Source: Colombian National Police Force [ 7 , 8 , 9 ] Prison population per 100,000 inhabitants (and total inmate population) in Latin American countries (1992–2013) Source: International Centre for Prison Studies (2013) Imprisonment rates (per 100,000 inhabitants) in paper Latin America (1992–2013). Source: International Centre for Prison Studies [ 33 ] The problem of incarceration in Colombia, which is similar to that in web 2.0 essay other countries, is neither passing nor confined behind prison walls; it affects Colombian society as a whole because it mirrors its problems and internal conflicts.
Colombian prisons dramatically underscore how vast sectors within an exclusionary and footnotes research, unequal society are further marginalized through stigmatization and rejection as they are placed in the roles of jean paul summary, dangerous delinquents. Prisons, in Colombia and elsewhere, also exemplify how modern societies prefer to face their structural problems and social instability by means of repressive criminal policies; thus further contributing to what Simon calls governing through crime [ 57 , 58 ]. The feelings of fear and defenselessness that permeate many societies are channeled by governments into strategies which augment and intensify the tools and techniques for control and security. This combination of factors, especially during the past three decades, has given rise to a Culture of Control [ 20 : 175] which affects the lives of every citizen and which inspires governmental policy at the global level in a wide diversity of countries, in the Global North as well as in the Global South. It may be inaccurate to state that international homogeneity exists for punishment; in mla style citations fact, a wide variety of tendencies can be found worldwide- as authors such as Lacey [ 40 , 41 ], Whitman [ 64 ], Lappi-Seppala [ 42 ], Melossi et al. [ 43 ], Nelken [ 45 , 46 ] and introduction, Sozzo [ 59 ] have pointed out. There is, however, in many countries both of the Global North and South a trend towards penal convergence [ 5 : 438, 441], as witnessed by mla style footnotes citations research, the overall growth of the inmate population brought about by web 2.0 essay, increasingly harsh penal laws. The study, therefore, of the ‘crisis’ in citations research paper Colombia’s prisons, as a paradigmatic example of a global tendency, cannot be approached from a reductionist viewpoint that attempts to be explained in its own terms. On the contrary, it must be based upon a wider perspective, one which includes understanding the penal system as the paul sartre existentialism way state and society perceive crime and its respective forms of punishment. Footnotes? Punishment is not merely the way delinquents are treated; it is an authentic social institution which helps to define, and which at the same time reflects, the nature of a given society, and the relationships and conflicts of web 2.0 essay, which it is made up [ 18 : 287].
Thus, the current management of prisons and the penal system provide a key to understanding the transformation of Colombian society, along with its conflicts, during the past three decades, as well as to how social and power relationships have led diverse administrations into marginalizing an extensive sector of the population with the in a argument that by doing so they are protecting society. From a sociological standpoint on punishment and existentialism essay, prisons -both to be understood as complex social institutions-, this article aims to provide a critical diagnosis of Colombian prisons, and of their political and cultural uses and mla style paper, meanings in Colombian society over the past 30 years. Towards this end, in teamwork essay the first part of the article (made up of the first two sections) I will present a critical analysis, based mainly upon citations research, official statistics, of the major features and transformations in Colombian corrections facilities and in their inmate populations, and a book report done, of the criminal policies which legitimize their workings and existence. In the second part (which is made up of the mla style footnotes in a research two following sections), by introduction, referring to aspects and changes in Colombian prisons, I will explain the political and mla style citations in a paper, cultural meanings and uses of sell term paper, prisons in contemporary Colombian society. The central thesis of this essay is that prisons have been turned into core symbols and institutions of mla style footnotes research paper, authoritarian liberalism . This refers to a form of government, which has consolidated in the past three decades to a great degree due to its overlapping with a neoliberal political economy, but that nevertheless may not be reduced to a worldwide expansion of neoliberalism -as some authors, like Wacquant [ 63 ], claim, since it predates the arrival of introduction essay, neoliberalism to Colombia and Latin America during the eighties, and has features and dynamics of its own [ 35 , 36 , 38 ]. Authoritarian liberalism as a form of government protects the interests of the footnotes in a status quo -even if violence must be used- by sacrificing the rights of society’s poorest and most vulnerable groups (which in Colombia is half the introduction essay population). Mla Style Footnotes In A Research? This state-sponsored defense of the predominant powers in jean sartre essay Colombia has created a conspicuously exclusionary and unequal society, which, in large part, justifies the use and expansion of the footnotes citations in a research prison system as a reaction to feelings of jean paul sartre essay summary, fear and vengeance. I will also show how this situation is not limited solely to Colombia (despite the fact that here it takes place in an extreme fashion), for in numerous democratic nations (in Latin America and elsewhere), similar situations occur. Hence, I assess, particularly for the Colombian case, the thesis which claims that the globalization of the neoliberal economic and political model is footnotes citations in a research, accompanied by a specific punitive model that excludes the poorest social groups through the use of punishment with the 12 point aim of consolidating a new form of government [ 63 : xviii]. In the citations research paper conclusion, I propose an alternative approach to this trend in criminal justice along with more inclusive modes for dealing with it, which implies redefining (and reducing) the political and symbolic roles that prisons play in contemporary societies.
Colombian prisons during the sell term paper past three decades: a history of mla style footnotes research, failure. In 1989, overcrowding in sat essay Colombian prisons was not excessively high: 166 corrections facilities, with capacity for 26,307 inmates, held 26,715 prisoners, which came to a 1.55 % overcrowding rate [ 6 : 230–231]. But, during the past twenty years the overcrowding rate has noticeably increased. Whereas, during the first part of the nineties prison capacity had increased by 6000 places, during the same period the inmate population rose by citations in a paper, 18,000: in just six years the overcrowding rate in prisons went from 10 % (in 1993) to 40 % (in 1999) [ 27 ]. Percent of 12 point sat essay, overcrowding in Colombian prisons (1994–2013). Source: INPEC [ 28 ] Over the past two decades, excessive overcrowding, combined with the growing number of prisoners, has overwhelmed Colombia’s obsolete corrections system and aggravated what have always been deficient prison conditions; at the same time, widespread chaos and violence have taken hold inside these facilities where the Colombian government has never really been in control [See 17 ]. Index of occupations and education programs among the Colombian inmate population 2002–2012.
Inmate occupations (2002–2012). Mla Style Footnotes In A Research? Source: INPEC [ 28 , 31 ] A sizeable number of inmates occupy themselves with informal jobs, that is to say, with practically any kind of work -from selling food to cleaning floors- which prison authorities recognize as meriting reduced prison terms. However, prisoners carry out these activities on their own and with their own resources, and receive no worthwhile support or training from the system institution [See 17 ]. In fact, according to a report from the National Office of the Comptroller ( Contraloria General de la Republica ), in 2006, the National Bureau of Colombian Prisons (INPEC) earmarked a mere 1.4 % of its overall budget for rehabilitation programs (including education), which was even less than what had been assigned the footnotes citations research year before [ 50 : 4]. In so far as education is concerned, the other central pillar of rehabilitation, the panorama is jean sartre, similar: in 1999, 25 % of the inmate population participated in educational programs; in December 2005, the in a percentage stood at 39.56 %, and in September 2008 it had reached 39.83 %; Nevertheless, from December 2010 it has significantly decreased –to 33.84 % in that year and to 33.45 % in December 2012. The average percentage of inmates who participated in educational programs between 2002 and 2012 was 37.99 % [ 25 , 27 ] (See Table 3 , Chart 5 ). Educational programs are mainly focused on basic levels, primary education above all; whereas secondary and university education programs, which could have significant demand considering the system thesis educational profile of the prison population (as will be shown in the following section), are hardly available. Subsequently, between 2004 and 2007, only 1.5 % of the inmate population officially certified their studies through the Colombian Institute for mla style footnotes citations research paper Higher Education (ICFES), and web 2.0 essay, only 1 % took the requisite state exams that would allow them to mla style, enroll in university programs [ 50 : 4]. As is often the jean paul existentialism essay case with occupational activities, educational programs serve primarily as the means to shorten prison stays rather than serving as the mla style in a paper foundation for rehabilitating inmates so that they may become productive members of society. The most worrying trend is the increasing number of prisoners who are neither working nor studying in the past decade (particularly from 2007), becoming the teamwork majority of the mla style footnotes citations in a paper prison population in 2012: in 1999, 34 % of the inmate population did not participate in any rehabilitation programs; the teamwork percentage of which dropped to 25.97 % in 2005, and to footnotes in a paper, 19.65 % in December, 2005. But from December, 2007 the number of not occupied inmates has increased steadily from done 24.77 to 38.67 % in December 2012.
The average percentage of footnotes, unoccupied inmate population between 2002 and paul sartre existentialism essay summary, 2012 was 28.98 % [ 25 , 27 , 31 ] (See Table 3 , Chart 5 ). Therefore, the statistics cited above clearly indicate that the rehabilitation programs proclaimed as institutional pillars of the penitentiary system from the time of its creation, have failed. Mla Style Citations? Prison neither reforms nor educates. We may ask then: What kind of person and crimes does the Colombian penal system tend to punish? Does it operate in a selective manner, affecting certain social groups and specific illegal activities more severely? These questions will be answered in the following section. Personal profiles and crimes committed by those who go to system thesis, prison. Length of inmates’ prisons sentences (number of mla style in a research paper, prisoners) (1999–2013-April). Source: INPEC [ 26 , 30 , 31 ] Length of inmates’ prisons sentences (percentages) (1999–2013-April). Source: INPEC [ 26 , 30 , 31 ] In April, 2013, out of a total inmate population of paul sartre existentialism, 117,015, when grouped by gender, 92.42 % were men and 7.58 % were women.
Even though there has been an increase of the proportion of women inmates (in 2008 94 % were men and 6 % women), this proportion has remained constant over mla style footnotes citations in a research, time: between 1989 and 12 point, 2008 there was practically no variation [ 6 : 41; 27 ]. Inmate education levels (1989–2013). Source: INPEC [ 31 ] Lastly, the percentage of repeat offenders has stayed relatively stable during the last decade (where data is available). According to INPEC data the average percentage of repeat offenders among the Colombian inmate population between 2002 and 2013 stands at 15.02 %. The foregoing data confirm a worldwide tendency regarding the demographic features of the prison population: in the overwhelming majority of mla style research, contemporary capitalist societies, those who end up in prison are almost always young men, who often come from introduction urban centers and marginalized environments, with scant education, and, as a rule, are unemployed or working in the informal economic sector [See 19 : 1160–1161; 20 : 90–93; 21 : 5; 60 , 61 , 63 , 66 ; for the case of Latin America, See 14 , 15 , 39 , 62 ]. Crime statistics, prisoners’ profiles and footnotes citations in a research paper, the crimes for which they are imprisoned are useful in understanding the selective manner in which the criminal justice system works, and for sell term paper which the penitentiary provides the final phase and receptacle. Statistics serve to identify which crimes are the in a most likely to be prosecuted by the state and what kind of individuals will most probably end up in prison. Total number of crimes reported per 100,000 inhabitants (1994–2011). Source: Colombian National Police Force [ 9 ] Prison population per jean paul sartre essay summary 100,000 inhabitants (1994–2011). Mla Style Footnotes Citations? Source: INPEC [ 30 ] Percentage break-down of crimes committed by Colombian prisoners (1977–2013). Sell Term Paper? Source: Colombian Ministry of Justice [ 6 ], INPEC [ 27 , 31 ] By 1989, 33.75 % of the inmate population had been imprisoned for crimes against property and 30.75 % for footnotes citations paper homicide and aggravated assault; 1.5 % was being held on summary a combination of both types of crime.
Consequently, in 1989, 66 % of mla style in a paper, Colombian prisoners were behind bars for homicide, aggravated assault and crimes against property (Ibid.: 83, 84). Drug-trafficking accounted for 15.5 %, followed by overview thesis, crimes against footnotes citations research, state security forces (such as terrorism and related offenses, and the illegal possession of weapons) at 3.25 %; sexual assaults made up 2.5 %, and crimes against web 2.0 essay, the rule of constitutional law (particularly rebellion and sedition) comprised 0.25 % of the total (Ibid.: 87) (See Chart 11 ). In December, 1999, the majority of prisoners in Colombian corrections facilities had been accused or sentenced for homicide, aggravated assault (31.09 %), or crimes against property (28.59 %), which came to a combined total of 59.68 % [ 27 ]. Next, were those crimes related to drug-trafficking (10.2 %), those committed against state security forces- -which include terrorism and mla style footnotes citations research, related offenses- (7.08 %), sexual assaults (5.45 %), crimes against individual liberty -mainly kidnapping- (5.33 %), and crimes against the rule of 12 point, constitutional law -especially, rebellion-(2.33 %). (Ibid.) (See Chart 11 ). In 2008, homicides and aggravated assault along with crimes against footnotes citations paper, property continued to rank first and second at 26.66 %, and 24.82 % of the total, respectively. Subsequently, when added together they represented more than half (51.48 %) of sartre essay, all crimes that had been committed by inmates in Colombia in that year [ 27 ]. The list continued with drug-trafficking (17.18 %), sexual assault (9.54 %), crimes against public security forces -including terrorism and related offenses- (8.45 %), crimes against individual liberty -including kidnapping and forced disappearance- (5.59 %), and crimes against the constitutional rule of mla style citations in a research paper, law -in particular, the overview crime of affiliation with illegal armed groups (3.03 %) [ 27 ] (See Chart 11 ).
By April 2013, the same pattern continued -crimes against mla style footnotes in a, property (22.16 %) together with homicide and assault (17.34 %) made up the majority of sell term paper, crimes that ended up in prison (39,50 %), even though is worth noting that they no longer make up more than half of crimes. This is due to the important increase of drug-trafficking (which doubled with respect to 2008, with 14.50 %) and footnotes paper, the larger proportion of offenses against individual liberty (7,98 %) [ 31 ] (See Chart 11 ). As the abovementioned numbers reveal, starting in 1989 the 12 point sat essay proportion of inmates being held for mla style citations in a paper homicide and assault as well as for drug-trafficking and terrorism went up conspicuously as a result of the country’s armed conflict and the war on drugs, most notably against the Medellin cartel -from the i need report done latter part of the eighties until the first part of the mla style footnotes research paper nineties- a group notorious for i need report violent and terrorist acts, and which was in the throes of footnotes, its demise [ 36 ]. The growth of cocaine-trafficking has also intensified the armed conflict in Colombia as it provides immense capital resources which both the guerrilla and paramilitary militias use to procure arms for their troops, to battle one another and to i need report, maintain control over most of the research paper coca growing regions in the country [See 4 , 48 , 54 ]. On the basis of the foregoing, it can be concluded that, in general terms, the intensification of violence and armed conflict coupled with the introduction social and economic crisis that held sway during the decade of the mla style footnotes citations in a research nineties is reflected in Colombia’s prison statistics, made up primarily of individuals indicted on and sentenced for crimes related to these calamities (crimes against property, homicide and aggravated assault, drug-trafficking and offenses against law enforcement). The abovementioned data, which cover three different decades, reveal the fact that those imprisoned for homicide and aggravated assault, as well as for i need a book report crimes against property, constantly comprise the largest portion of the Colombian inmate population (between 39.50 and 75 %). Mla Style Footnotes Citations Research? These categories are persistently followed by that which includes individuals accused of or sentenced for drug-trafficking (nearly 15 % of the total inmate population), whose numbers doubled during the eighties -precisely when all-out war was declared on drugs- going from 6.91 % of the total inmate population in introduction essay 1977 to 15.5 % in 1989, and in a research, again between 2008 and 2013, and web 2.0 essay, which rose as a consequence of the mla style footnotes repressive criminal justice policy upon which the state instituted its war on drugs, organized crime and the various illegal militias operating within the country [See 36 ]. It is also worth noting the significant increase of inmate held for sex crimes (which increased from 2.50 % in 1989 to paul, 7,65 % in 2013 -the proportion trebled). Footnotes Research? Sex Crimes, in a book Colombia as elsewhere, have become a common target of penal populism [see 63 : 209–239]. The selectivity of the Colombian penal system and its relation to authoritarian liberalism. On the basis of the statistics analyzed in in a research the section above, it may be concluded that the Colombian inmate population has not significantly varied during the past three decades, neither its basic features: it is a relatively young population, overwhelmingly masculine, with scant education and unemployed or working at low-paying jobs before entering prison. Hence, it is apparent that the write sat essay majority of the inmate population comes from marginalized sectors of Colombian society, where high levels of exclusion and poverty prevail. Government policies directed towards that part of the populace deemed delinquent, which Feeley and Simon [ 16 ] label as the New Penology , aim not to reduce crime and eliminate its causes, but rather to manage and control social groups looked upon as problematic.
Additionally, this approach to paper, government has tended to be associated during the past two decades, in the Global North as well as in the Global South, with the neoliberal agenda. Overview? That is to say, it is based upon the free market and deregulation of the economy, along with the downsizing of the welfare state which provides social benefits to marginal social sectors, and the broadening of the prison state, which through a system of punishment, maintains control over these same sectors [ 63 : xviii]. 3. Some authors, particularly from the Global North, as Lacey [ 41 : 789], suspect that, since Latin American countries are more economically dependent upon and share closer political ties with the mla style footnotes in a United States, they are probably more susceptible to being pressed into implementing the thesis same corrections policies as those in use in mla style in a research paper the United States. More detailed research on particular Latin American countries, such as Sozzo’s analysis of the introduction Argentinian case [ 59 ], show that, even though the influence of neoliberalism in mla style in a paper political, cultural and economic aspects of Latin American societies is a book report, undeniable, the features and transformation of their crime control fields respond to the particular and local dynamics of each society, rather than the influence or pressure exerted by the United States. Furthermore, the footnotes citations research last two decades have witnessed important transformations in Latin America, particularly in web 2.0 essay the political landscape, the most important being the political realignment of Latin American countries between left and right. Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua are undergoing intense political processes under the lead of mla style footnotes citations in a research paper, leftist governments, which, at least at the discursive level, defend socialism in radical terms. On the other hand, countries like Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and El Salvador have been led mostly by sell term paper, right-wing governments with a neoliberal tendency and a with a political and economic interest in mla style footnotes citations paper having close ties with the sell term paper United States.
At the centre of the political spectrum there are countries like Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile that have been ruled by footnotes citations research, leftist governments that have accepted market capitalism rules and i need report done, principles as part of citations research, their political and economic agenda [ 37 ]. Considering all these important transformations, it is very likely that crime control fields have undergone important changes in countries like Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua, which are experiencing intense social and political conflicts that affect violence and crime rates, 4 as well as penal policies and imprisonment rates. Actually, in many of the countries that are undertaking structural leftist reforms, imprisonment rates have increased, even though official data has become hard to get in many of these (like Venezuela, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and overview, Bolivia). 5. Even if most of Latin American countries share a common history and display cultural, economic, political and social similarities, they also have their own historical trajectories, which merit a detailed and mla style footnotes in a, nuanced analysis in order to establish resemblances as well as differences. Thus, compared and case study analyses on Latin American crime control fields 6 are needed in order to assess the similarities of these fields (such as high crime –and particularly homicide- rates, increasing imprisonment rates, the hardening of criminal policies), how they came into being, their connections, as well as an explanation of their differences and divergent trajectories [ 37 ]. For the same reasons, though it may be reasonable to say that there is a certain drift towards penal convergence –and a harsh one, in many of the jean paul existentialism essay summary Latin American countries, regardless their political leaning to mla style citations paper, the right or left, there remains the task to explain to which degree such convergence is sell term paper, due to shared or different political and footnotes citations in a, economic processes, or maybe to sell term paper, a combination of both. Mla Style Footnotes In A Research? Regarding the global debate on the expansion of neoliberalism, the previous thoughts should warn us against the notion that, because of the influence of neoliberalism in political, cultural and i need, economic aspects of Latin American societies, the features and transformations of their crime control fields respond exclusively or mainly to the influence or pressure exerted by mla style citations in a research, neoliberal policies and doxa -US style. Such caution is of special interest for the analysis of the Colombian case, for Colombia has had close political and economic ties to the United States, something that is evident in the configuration of the Colombian crime control field during the last three decades, in great measure due to the US led war against drugs [ 36 ]. Thus, it is jean sartre, not surprising that neoliberal technologies and discourses regarding crime control have influenced the mla style footnotes research paper Colombian crime control field [ 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 52 , 53 , 56 ]. Jean Paul Sartre Essay Summary? But, at the same time, one should bear in mind that Colombia, like every other Latin American country, has its own historical trajectory, and that the configuration of its crime control field, even though influenced by neoliberalism and close cooperation with the United States, predates it and presents its own features and processes. Elsewhere [ 35 , 36 , 38 ] I have used the term authoritarian liberalism as a concept that synthetizes the main features of the Colombian crime control field during the mla style citations in a research paper second half of the Twentieth century and the first two decades of the Twentieth First century. These basically point to the intensive use of punishment discourses and technologies to uphold, through violent means, a highly exclusive political and economic order to the benefit of elite groups of web 2.0 essay, Colombian society.
Although this may be regarded as a long-lasting feature of the Colombian crime control field, authoritarian liberalism strategies, discourses and practices have changed over the years and have not been left untouched by the changes experienced by an increasingly globalized world. Authoritarian liberalism has changed and adapted to different political, economic, and social circumstances throughout late modernity, just as the Colombian political system and society have undergone fundamental transformations. Though positive changes have occurred during this period of time, authoritarian liberalism stubbornly remains. Governments of footnotes citations research paper, different political persuasions, be they conservative or liberal, have resorted insistently to punishment and penal institutions to defend the establishment from what it perceives as threats to its interests, and even to system thesis, its very existence. Nevertheless, the politics of penal institutions have responded through time to citations in a paper, different social, economic, and political contexts, as well as framing different enemies.
For explanatory purposes the politics of the Colombian crime control filed during the last three decades shall be organized in three distinct historical periods – the eighties, the nineties and the new millennium [ 35 , 36 ]. The eighties in web 2.0 essay Colombia were marked by the war against drugs. The virulence of drug cartels -as well as US pressure- persuaded Colombian governments to mla style citations in a research, concentrate their efforts on fighting the illegal drugs trade [ 36 : 80–87]. The Colombian and US governments regarded narcotrafficking as a serious criminal problem that also threatened the national security of jean sartre summary, both countries. Mla Style Footnotes In A Research? According to such a view, ruthless criminal organizations were the cause of the drugs problem and they had to introduction essay, be neutralized through repressive means. This interpretation of narcotrafficking as both a criminal issue and a matter of national security, led to the war on drugs rhetoric, and the consequent conflation of penal and military technologies to fight it. The crime control field was the site where both techniques blended, resulting in a highly repressive penal system where the citations subjugation of the enemy, rather than the establishment of penal responsibility under the rule of law, was the main objective. Nevertheless, most of the people who ended up in prison under drug trafficking offences, were the rank and file of drug cartels or minor scale dealers, mostly young men from urban ghettos, hardly connected to drug kingpins, and who most of the times resorted to drug dealing as a way of survival in an informal market.
During the late eighties and write, early nineties Colombia experienced important political and mla style footnotes citations in a research, economic transformations. On the one hand, legal and teamwork, constitutional reforms, spearheaded by the 1991 Constitution, led to the strengthening of mla style footnotes citations paper, democratic institutions and the rule of law. On the other hand, the Barco (1986–1990) and Gaviria (1990–1994) administrations undertook economic reforms that liberalized the essay Colombian economy and mla style footnotes paper, placed it in the sphere of 12 point sat essay, globalization and neoliberalism. The democratization of Colombian politics and the adoption of the neoliberal model intensified the fractures and struggles of Colombian society. For one thing, alternative political parties and social movements that entered the footnotes citations in a paper political scene and clamored for their rights, enshrined in the new Constitution, threatened the introduction essay political hegemony, particularly of local and mla style footnotes, regional elites. For another, the new economic model mainly benefited the upper classes while excluding the a book report done most vulnerable and footnotes paper, marginalized social groups, which in Colombia make up almost half of the population. Thus, poverty remained unchallenged and social inequality increased [ 36 : 115–153]. During the system last two decades the Andres Pastrana (1998–2002), Alvaro Uribe (2002–2010) and citations in a research paper, Juan Manuel Santos (2010–2014) administrations have embraced neoliberalism, though with different political and ideological leanings, as the prevailing political and economic model of the new global order.
Furthermore, they may be seen as the peak in the development of such a model in Colombia’s late modern history. Pastrana’s Plan Colombia to fight narcotrafficking, which included drug cartels, guerrillas and web 2.0 essay, paramilitaries [ 36 : 179–227], Uribe’s Democratic Security to citations paper, defeat the guerrillas, narcotrafficking and terrorism (ibid: 229–304), and Santos Democratic Prosperity, as he called his plan to web 2.0 essay, consolidate the previous government’s achievements on mla style research paper security (while reaching for peace and the post-conflict), though supposed to be democratic in the sense of protecting all citizens without distinction, are actually different policies with a similar aim: protecting investment, wealth, and web 2.0 essay, economic growth, which mainly favor a minority of the population. Reported Robbery Acts 2004–2013. Footnotes Citations Research? Source: Ministry of Defence [ 44 ] Murder rates per 100,000 inhabitants (2004–2013). Source: Ministry of Defence [ 44 ] Both the Uribe and Santos administrations have used very similar measures, which rely on zero tolerance and the hardening of the penal system through the criminalization of conducts, the increase of prisons sentences, and teamwork introduction essay, the reduction of penal benefits, particularly access to alternative measures to prison, such as probation and parole, house detention, and electronic surveillance. Regarding law and order ( seguridad ciudadana ) policies, the Uribe government passed to Congress two main proposals, which became Law 890 of 2004 and Law 1142 of 2007.
Law 890 of 2004 raised minimum sentences by mla style citations, one third and maximum sentences by half for sell term paper all kinds of legal offences. Research Paper? Thus, the maximum prison sentence in Colombia went from 40 to 50 years, and to 60 years for multiple crimes. Law 1142 of 2007 ( Ley de Convivencia y Seguridad Ciudadana ) granted greater flexibility in overview determining what constituted sufficient grounds for preventive detention. All that may be necessary is for the presiding judge to take into account the gravity ( gravedad ) and means ( modalidad ) by which the punishable conduct was carried out when determining the presumptive danger of the accused, independent of mla style footnotes paper, any extenuating circumstances or of the defendant’s profile and sell term paper, background [ 24 : 245]. This law also restricted the mla style footnotes research paper possibility of substituting prison detention for jean paul sartre other forms of mla style footnotes citations in a paper, detention, such as house arrest, with the argument that the jean paul 21 offences for which such alternatives were prohibited (including among others domestic violence, theft and grand larceny, and fraud) “gravely affected the foundations of coexistence and public safety” [ 24 : 239–240]. Similarly, Law 1098 of 2006 declared that for any person accused of citations research, committing sexual crimes against a minor, the only detention measure permitted would be that of preventive imprisonment. The same measure was included in Law 1474 of 2001 (the Anticorruption Statute) to be applied to teamwork essay, a number of mla style citations in a research, offences, particularly those related to public administration. Law 1142 of 2007 also raised minimum sentences for twelve offences for which there had formerly been no preventive detention (including domestic violence, usury, threats and voting fraud).
As to Santos, after taking office in sell term paper 2010, he claimed that his criminal and security policies would make a special emphasis on fighting urban common criminality, which was a main concern of urban voters, whose perception was that security levels were decreasing in the main cities, especially in regards to crimes against property and personal integrity (robbery, assault, injuries). Thus, the Santos government passed a law through Congress, which became Law 1453 0f 2011 ( Ley de Seguridad Ciudadana ). Following on the steps of Law 1142 of 2007, this statute also eased the requirements to impose prison detention and limited the mla style citations in a access to penal benefits for several offences and for individuals with previous convictions. For instance, sex offenders, people convicted for jean paul essay drug related offences, aggravated conspiracy to commit a crime, terrorism, illegal possession of weapons, and citations paper, money laundering, were completely excluded from parole (they would have to jean paul sartre summary, serve the full prison sentence). Simultaneously, the mla style in a law established that parole could be granted only after serving two thirds of the prison sentence, instead of the three fifths previously established, which means longer periods of incarceration for write all the mla style footnotes citations sentenced population. According to INPEC, between June 2011 (when the introduction essay law was enacted) and February 2014, the prison population under Law 1453 of 2011 increased 13.4 % (5632 inmates), mainly for mla style footnotes citations in a drug related offences (2701 inmates) and illegal possession of weapons (2457 inmates) (INPEC [ 32 ]). According to a report by the Grupo de Derecho de Interes Publico (Public Interest Law Group) –G-DIP, of the Law Department of sell term paper, Universidad de los Andes, the changes introduced by Law 1453 of 2011 meant that approximately 21 % of the prison population (25,058 inmates) sentenced for four different types of offences, would have to serve their full prison sentences, for they were excluded from parole and electronic surveillance. (G-DIP 2013). These policies have led to a spectacular increase of the prison population and overcrowding levels during the last 12 years; a situation that is due not only to the fact that inmates spend longer terms in prison, but also to the fact that criminal suspects are more frequently held under preventive detention.
In 2002, when Uribe took office, the prison population was 51,276 inmates (overcrowding was 15.6 %); by mla style footnotes citations in a, the end of Uribe government, the prison population was 79.730 -an increase of report done, 55,5 % (28,454 new inmates), and an overcrowding level of 40 %, even though this administration built 10 new prisons which created around 12,597 new places (INPEC [ 32 ]). Footnotes Citations Paper? After four years of the Santos administration, the Colombian prison population is made of 118,968 inmates, with an historic peak in the overcrowding level of 56.16 %. Thus, under the Santos administration, prison population in Colombia increased 49.2 % (39,238 more inmates) in just four years -very similar figures to those of the Uribe government. All these things considered, it may be said that a closer scrutiny of the crime control policies of the Santos administration places it, in the best of cases, as a center- right government, compared to the extreme right-wing stance that Uribe embodies. Therefore, authoritarian liberalism, though it has undergone important changes over a book report done, the last twenty years, is still a key feature of the Colombian crime control field and has expanded its scope for its rhetoric and mla style footnotes citations paper, methods are no longer restricted to fighting organized crime and illegal armed groups but also common urban criminality, under a zero tolerance stance akin to that imposed in other countries with a neoliberal political economy. In the Colombian case, it may be claimed that the establishment of a political economy with a neoliberal leaning during the last 25 years has had a negative impact on social and economic equality and its crime control field, which has become even more punitive and exclusionary, particularly towards the urban poor young males, who have become a prime target of law and order policies [ 13 , 35 , 36 , 38 , 51 , 52 , 53 ]. The social and political policies, as well as the neoliberal state models that have tended to take hold in sartre essay Colombia and significant parts of footnotes research, Latin America with the aid of hegemonic capitalistic globalization, have heightened exclusion and reduced opportunities for specific social groups, particularly for the very poor, who are the most vulnerable. The opening up of the Colombian economy to international markets has affected its social structure [See 34 : 100–116]. The impact of these policies, which were instituted during the nineties, is very telling: the country’s political and economic elite has benefitted from market liberalization, whereas poverty, inequality, social instability, and economic crisis have hit the system overview thesis most vulnerable social classes the footnotes citations in a paper hardest -precisely those social groups who are excluded from financial and labor markets, as well as from public assistance programs [See 2 ].
During the first decade of the new millennium, the poorest 20 % of the population received 2.5 % of national income, whereas 20 % of the a book richest received 61 % [ 65 ]. Out of a total population of 41.2 million inhabitants (10.3 million of whom lived in rural areas), 2313 individuals (around 1.08 % of the total number of citations in a, property owners) possessed 53 % of rural land [ 49 : 16], and some 300 stockholders own 74 % of shares traded on the Colombian stock market [ 3 ]; the ten largest companies in the country consumed 75 % of financial market resources, which constitutes a Gini equity coefficient (which measures the concentration of sat essay, equity ownership) of 0.93 [ 49 : 17]. Footnotes In A Paper? Inequality, which has always been pronounced in Colombia, has gone up even more during the recent past: between 2002 and 2005, the percentage of the i need a book done national income for the poorest 40 % fell from mla style in a research 12.3 to teamwork, 12.1 %; meanwhile, over the same period, the percentage for the richest 10 % rose from 38.8 to 41 % [ 3 ]. The traits listed above show that key aspects of the neoliberal model were introduced in Colombia from the nineties and that such model fitted well with the political economy of research paper, authoritarian liberalism. The neoliberal agenda, like authoritarian liberalism, pursues the development of free markets and system overview, protects financial capital by implementing, among other institutional tenets, an expansive and footnotes citations, intrusive penal system which employs drastic disciplinarian power over these social sectors marginalized from labor and financial markets. It follows under this authoritarian penal dogma, that those who belong to marginalized groups should be given harsh treatment, since they alone are presumed to done, be responsible for their criminal acts, independent of the context and motives [ 63 : 306–309]. Such tropos of footnotes paper, individual responsibility has become the dominant viewpoint in criminal policy as well as in a significant part of Colombian scholarship. During the eighties, the sociological perspective, defended by teamwork essay, scholars leaning towards a leftist ideology, explained violent acts (political and common), and the crime associated with them, as the result of the high levels of poverty, inequality and exclusion that typified Colombia [See 10 , 23 : 22]. Starting in citations the late nineteen eighties, this theoretical model came under fire, particularly on the part of those who advocated analyzing crime and sell term paper, violence from the economic standpoint. According to this latter group of footnotes citations in a, economists –many of them educated in US elite universities during the nineties, the sociological point of view made claims that were not sufficiently backed by 12 point sat essay, empirical data, and which therefore did not provide a realistic picture of the situation.
Subsequently, they stressed that the equation: ‘the greater the poverty, the greater the crime’, is misleading when the pertinent variables are scrutinized. The rational economic-actor model is commonly applied to these kinds of studies; according to which an individual decides to commit an unlawful act based upon a cost/benefit analysis. Such studies come to the conclusion that the mla style footnotes citations research paper high rates of crime and violence in Colombia are primarily due to the state’s weak response (by law enforcement and the criminal justice system) to lawlessness; therefore, these responses should be tougher and/or more efficient, meaning that, the price for crime should go up [See 55 : 111; 22 : 14, 15]. More of the same: the expansion of the corrections system. As it has been shown in previous pages, the configuration of the Colombian crime control field, under the spell of authoritarian liberalism and a book done, its upgraded version of neoliberalism during the last 25 years, has resulted in the vertiginous increase of the prison population. In order to confront such critical condition of the corrections system, Colombian governments have opted to increase prison quotas, by enlarging those facilities now in service and by building new ones, for which $523.5 billion Colombian pesos (approximately $US242.5 million dollars) were allocated in the national budget between 1998 and 2003, and with which 16,443 new places for prisoners were created (See National Council on Social and footnotes citations in a paper, Economic Planning—CONPES—2004: 8,12). Although the corrections system has expanded significantly, it is still unable to house a large number of prisoners (as witnessed by the high percentage of overcrowding which in 1998 was 31.1 % and in 2010 had reached 40 %), whose ranks have constantly swollen during the past ten years (from 43,259 prisoners in 1998 to write 12 point sat essay, 79,730 in mla style paper 2009--an increase of system, 84.3 % in just one decade) (See Table 1 and Chart 1 ). Faced with high rates of prison overcrowding, in 2006 the Colombian government was forced to reassess its strategy. Under the new plan, 24,731 new places for mla style in a research inmates (3131 in existing facilities and 21,600 in eleven new penitentiaries) were created [ 11 : 19; 12 : 6–7] at system overview a lower cost. Mla Style? However, the funds allocated for the plan were reduced in jean summary 2004 7 since it was felt that it would be cheaper to commission prison construction under public works rather than through concession to mla style, private contractors [ 12 : 6–7].
The most questionable aspect of this situation is that the expanded corrections facilities have not alleviated (not even in terms of space) the living conditions of the great majority of inmates; due to the fact that the new places have arrived too late and have been too few to house the multiplying prison population. As of December, 2006, only 5992 new places of which “5046 (84.2 %) were built in existing facilities and the remaining 946 (15.8 %) in system overview thesis new complexes included in previous expansion plans (Apartado in Antioquia) or as part of the Justice and mla style footnotes citations paper, Peace Program (Tierra Alta in existentialism essay Cordoba)” [ 50 : 7]. Mla Style Citations In A Research? Additionally, out jean sartre existentialism, of the new places created in 2008, 3441 had not been adequately used “due to a lack of requisite foresight, planning, and budgeting to put them in mla style citations service” (Ibid). Of the existentialism summary nine new prisons planned for 2004, only mla style footnotes citations, six were under construction in 2007 and in thesis September of that same year, the mla style in a research paper average progress on sell term paper construction was at 4.66 % (Ibid: 8). In the mla style in a research paper plan’s final stage, the Uribe administration promised to construct 10 new prisons that would create 23,000 new inmate places.
In March, 2010, President Uribe presided over the opening of two of these prisons (in Yopal and Cucuta, which added up to 2222 new places) and he promised to finish construction of the others before the end of his term (in August, 2010). Existentialism? 8. The expanding penitentiary program, which dominates the rhetoric on footnotes research paper corrections policy, pushes firmly ahead, despite its inefficiency and detriment to sell term paper, prisoners’ basic rights. As Ariza points out [ 1 ], in Colombia this program has been dubbed the new penitentiary culture , whose guiding ideological principles and financial backing are provided by the US government, whose main objective is to base the mla style growth of corrections facilities on administrative efficiency. Consequently, instead of endeavoring to sell term paper, ensure inmates’ basic rights, such a system strives to enhance the availability of citations in a research paper, resources and i need a book report, training for prison personnel and to comply with international ISO quality standards (which apparently correspond to market dictated parameters).
These efforts, in turn, lead to the efficient and economical control of footnotes in a research, prisoners. In light of the foregoing, and in spite of the fact that the Uribe administration promised a sweeping reform of the Colombian corrections system by constructing new prisons and bringing overcrowding down to 0 %, the future of Colombia’s prisons and their inhabitants is none too promising. Colombia’s criminal justice system seems not only to be enraptured by sat essay, the need to punish, but with the idea that incarceration should rule (for those accused as well as those tried and sentenced) as the means to incapacitate prisoners and extract social revenge on them, instead of collectively rehabilitating and pardoning them. As long as the number of mla style in a research paper, individuals behind bars continues to constantly rise, there will not be enough prisons in teamwork introduction which to lock them up. Such a policy is shallow and expensive both in social and economic terms. What is more, even though the number of prisons may someday be sufficient, they would still be illegitimate and unjust since, given the characteristics of Colombian society, punishment will continue to mla style citations research paper, be heaped upon the poor who are excluded in a disproportionate and vengeful way.
While social and economic status, or race and ethnic origin, remain factors that ratchet up the probability of being sent to prison, punishment based on sell term paper such factor will never be morally or politically justified. So that this situation may change, first, society’s economic relations must change, along with its power structure, not just simply the corrections system. Although the latter is a fundamental social institution it alone cannot be changed without also changing the environment wherein it is planted. According to INPEC (National Bureau of Colombian Prisons) statistics, the average number of inmates during the eighties came to 28,000; the footnotes in a paper average number in the nineties was 38,391; from the year 2000 to 2014 (March) the average was 72,906. See, INPEC [ 25 , 27 , 32 ].
For example, while imprisonment rates have quadrupled in the United States during the past three decades, crime rates have tended to go down during the past twenty years. In England, the inmate population has gone up considerably, by paul existentialism essay, some 60 % over the past three decades; however, crime rates have tended to go down since 1990 [See 20 : 208–209]. Considerable discussion is taking place in the fields of criminology and sociology on the neoliberal state and its relationship to highly punitive and exclusionary corrections systems. Loic Wacquant’s book, Punishing the Poor: the Neoliberal Government of in a research, Social Insecurity [ 63 ] has provoked international debate on the subject. For example, an issue of the journal, Theoretical Criminology 14 (1), 2010, was dedicated to critical analysis of Wacquant’s writings by writers from several different countries. Venezuela is a case in system overview point.
The murder rate has increased from 8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1996, to 33 in 2000, 44 in mla style footnotes in a paper 2003, 45 in 2006, and 79 in 2013 (the third highest in the world after Honduras and El Salvador). Between 1998 (when Chavez rose to jean existentialism essay, power) and 2013, the murder rate in Venezuela quadrupled [ 47 ]. Since the rise of mla style footnotes in a research, Chavismo , the imprisonment rate also increased notably, from sell term paper 97 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants in footnotes citations research 1998, to 169 in 2011 -the latest official data available. In Nicaragua it increased from 85 in introduction 1992 to footnotes in a, 119 in 2007; in Ecuador, from 75 in 1992 to 127 in 2007; in Uruguay from system overview thesis 100 in 1992 to 257 in 2010; in citations Brazil from 107 in 1995 to 253 in 2010; in Argentina from 62 in system 1992 to 153 in 2011; in Bolivia from 69 in 1996 to 92 in 2010 [see Table 2 and 33 ]. Sozzo’s analysis of the Argentinian case [ 59 ] is a good example. From Col$1,456,448 billion pesos (nearly US$675 million dollars) to Col$972,293 million pesos (nearly US$450.5 million dollars) [ 12 : 6–7]. See “Uribe Opens New Prisons in Yopal and Cucuta”, in El Tiempo (01-04-2010). I would like to extend special thanks to Steve Bayless who translated a previous version of this article from Spanish into English, and to footnotes citations in a research, Leonardo Martinez who helped me gathering the data included in system overview thesis this paper. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in mla style citations research any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Manuel Iturralde 1 Email author 1. Law Department Universidad de los Andes Bogota Colombia. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.
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