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artwork essays This is an example of a first year essay which was given a distinction. Click on apa the highlights to read the comments. Certain words may be unfamiliar to you. Daughters Of The American Good Citizen? Click on them to body of a research read their definitions in the glossary. In this essay, the Rococo and da vinci Romanticism periods have been selected to of a paper apa demonstrate how two art periods can have many similarities yet still hold true to their own beliefs, values and essays on javascript principles to create a definitive style . Antoine Watteau#039;s painting, L#039;Indifferent , 1716, oil on of a research paper canvas, 25cm x 18cm and Eugene Delacroix#039;s Paganini , 1831, oil on poetry cardboard on wood panel, approx. 43cm x 28cm have been selected to represent the body of a paper Rococo and Romanticism periods respectively . Rococo was a style of art that followed on from the Baroque period in the early 18th century. The artists of this style typically depicted themes of love, artfully and archly pursued through erotic frivolity and playful intrigue . 1 Both the art and interior design of the time displayed a sense of of the american good rhythm in apa which [e]verything seemed organic, growing, and in motion, an ultimate refinement of middle east illusion. 2 The artists of apa this period were also starting to express themselves and their feelings about their themes in their work. Some of the living abroad essay works seem to body research paper apa be edging toward the ideals of the Romanticism period, even though they were at opposite ends of the 18th century . Romanticism in capital in canada the late 18th century was a revolt against the sober restraint of the Enlightenment period that had preceded it. 3 This was a period encompassing the desire for body paper, freedom - not only political freedom but also freedom of thought, of dickinson poetry feeling, of action, of body paper worship, of speech and of taste. Essays On Javascript? 4 Artists wanted only to produce pure, truthful art that was based on the predominance of of a research paper apa feeling and introduction essay imagination.

5 Works in the Romantic period depict not only the Romantic ideal of love but also #039;Gothic#039; horror, as this too could be explored to discover the #039;sublime#039; . The works discussed in this essay share obvious similarities. They are both portraits of performers in body apa full, in on javascript the context of their performing environment. In Watteau#039;s L#039;Indifferent , there is a sense of the body of a apa subject posing for statement middle east, the portrait in a very festive manner which is characteristic of the Rococo period. By contrast, in research paper Delacroix#039;s Paganini the essays on javascript performer seems to carry himself with a much more intrinsic purpose, perhaps enacting a more truthful value that is typical of the Romantic ideal. There is, nevertheless, a similarity in the two poses that suggests motion, as both performers seem to of a be caught in mid movement. This dynamic quality was not typical of the other art movements prior to or during the 18th century, where portraits tended to capital punishment essay depict people in staid, sober poses . Watteau#039;s painting of the dancer seems soft and flouncy, yet it is obvious that it is body of a a well thought out apparel production letter, work.

The writer#039;s choice of language have indicated the conditional nature of the body of a apa observations. The colours are used to compliment and support the painting#039;s composition, with the hue of the foliage seemingly reflected in the velvet of the dancer#039;s clothes . The colour used in capital in canada the cape has also been added to the accessories on the shoe and hat. Body Of A Paper Apa? Both of in canada these examples of the use of colour show how the clever composition of the painting successfully draws the body of a research paper viewer#039;s eye around it. When expressing the difference between the Baroque and Rococo periods, one art critic noted that [Rococo] aimed no longer at astounding the of the revolution good citizen essay spectator with the marvellous, but rather at research amusing him with the ingenious. 6 This statement demonstrates that the thesis middle attention to compositional detail is body of a research apa both a necessary element of the da vinci introduction Rococo period and research apa also of mormon essay this work by Watteau . Research Paper Apa? Delacroix#039;s painting Paganini also displays a strong attention to colour . However , in this case, it is apparel manager cover not just a compositional element, but also contributes to the highly emotive nature of the painting. Body Of A Research? The colours could be seen to suggest the way the artist felt about the scene before him. This portrayal of the dancer#039;s performance, using the essays poignant yet subtle blends of body research dark earthy background colours which contrast with the smooth deep black tones in essays on javascript the figure, enhances the body of a apa feeling of balance and melody . This combination of art, music, theatre and dance was of high interest to the Romantic artists as it was a great source of the #039;true#039; or #039;pure#039; emotion which they sought to represent . The seemingly fast, fluent brushstrokes indicate and on javascript portray the motion and body apa spirit within the performer. The colour and in canada form seem to apa be of utmost importance, above the capital punishment essay need for of a apa, line.

Indeed, a stronger use of line would have contained and daughters of the revolution good citizen possibly even restricted the emotive values in the artwork . This style did not go unnoticed by critics. Both Delacroix and of a Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres were referred to thesis middle as Rubenistes and Poussinistes respectively, due to their use of the #039;academic#039; style of line or the #039;romantic#039; truth of apa colour as the main element in their works, although both are now recognised as Romantic artists. 7. The composition in leonardo introduction essay Paganini is flowing and melodious and is greatly enhanced by of a research the aforementioned use of colour and the form of the performer. The posture has been exaggerated to american enhance the Romantic principles within the composition by expressing the emotion roused by the scene. Although there were evident stylistic differences between Rococo and Romanticism, artists in body apa both periods were beginning to leonardo da vinci introduction express what they wanted to see in the scenes before them. Where Rococo was a time of idealising the frivolity of the upper classes, Romanticism idealised the of a paper world around the upper classes, depicting the good, the apparel production letter bad, and the ugly equally by looking for the sublime in research paper everything. Both paintings discussed in essay dickinson poetry this essay provide great insight into body of a research, their own periods but also into the foundation of the Expressionist movement of the 20th century . Letter? Brookner, A. Romanticism and body of a research paper apa its discontents , London: Penguin, 2000. Mormon Essay? Honour, H. Romanticism , London: Penguin, 1979. Body Of A Apa? Kleiner, F., Mamiya C. and Tansey, R., Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001.

Minor, V. Capital Punishment In Canada Essay? Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture , New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999. Peckham, M. Of A Apa? The birth of Romanticism 1790-1815 , Florida: Penkevill Publishing Company, 1986. #039;Rococo#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , accessed 7.8.2006. #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ,, accessed 7.8.06. 1 F. Cover? Kleiner, C. Mamiya and body paper R. Living Abroad Essay? Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed., (Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001), p. 785. 2 F. Kleiner, C. Of A? Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 783. Da Vinci Essay? 3 #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ,, accessed 7.8.06. 4 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and body research apa R. Essays? Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. 5 F. Of A Research Apa? Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. Good Essay? 6 V. Minor, Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture, (New York: Harry N. Of A Apa? Abrams, 1999), p 14. 7 F. Kleiner, C. Daughters Of The American Revolution Citizen? Mamiya and R. Body Research Apa? Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 870. Problems?

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Legal Issues in Academic Research (2003) Legal Issues in Higher Education. 13th Annual Conference. Donna Euben, Staff Counsel. A variety of policy and legal concerns are triggered as industry becomes ever more involved in academic research. Federal government regulation of academic research is also an issue, including how such laws apply post-September 11. In addition, there are concerns about the scope of institutional review boards (IRBs), and conflict-of-interest policies. I. Body Of A Research Apa? Corporations and Academic Research. The involvement of corporations in daughters american revolution good, higher education has led to of a research paper apa, threats to academic freedom in research when corporate interests clash with the unfettered pursuit of truth. As Johns Hopkins University general counsel Estelle Fishbein predicted in 1985: During the leonardo da vinci essay next twenty-five years, the lure of the corporate dollar may just as insidiously lead to the surrender of important academic freedoms to big business. . . [and] there may be no satisfactory mechanism to obtain relief from provisions of of a paper apa, contracts with industrial giants which prove destructive to thesis statement middle east, academic freedom.

Strings on the Ivory Tower: The Growth of Accountability in Colleges and Universities, 12 J.C. U.L. 381, 398 (1985). As AAUP declared in 1915, The distinctive social function of the of a research paper scholar's trade cannot be fulfilled if those who pay the living abroad piper are permitted to call the tune. AAUP, 1915 Declaration of Principles on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure , Policy Documents Reports (hereafter Redbook) 291 (2001). Of A Research Paper Apa? See generally Donna R. Euben, Corporate Interference in apparel manager, Research, Academe (Nov.-Dec. 2000). A. Some Background on Corporate Funding Issues. Some administrations and faculty have raised concerns about the increased reliance of higher education institutions on corporate sources of funding. There is body apa concern that research will focus more on the commercial benefits to the sponsoring companies than on the advancement of knowledge and the pursuit of truth. There is also escalating concern about the suppression of research results with which corporate funders are displeased.

As one scholar noted, these outside funds often come with strings attached, and such externally funded academic research can threaten academic values by distorting the viewpoints, claims, and research agendas of scholars and by living abroad essay insisting that research results be kept secret. Rebecca S. Body Research Apa? Eisenberg, Academic Freedom and on emily, Academic Values, 66 Tex. L. Research? Rev. 1363 (1988) (hereafter Academic Freedom and Academic Values). The American Council on Education and the National Alliance of Business, in a 1998 report, estimated that corporate funding of university research was nearly 9 percent (nearly $2 billion). Leonardo Da Vinci Introduction? Seventy percent of funding for clinical drug trials now comes from industry.

Virginia Ashby Sharpe, Oversight, Disclosure, and Integrity in Science, in AAAS Science And Technology Policy Year Book 2003. . The need for industry funding must be considered within the context of the mission of body research paper, a college and university. One researcher summarizes some of the institutional considerations: In seeking support from industrial and corporate sponsors, the institution needs to be aware of the range of significant issues that must be addressed relative to such sponsorship. For example, support from industrial sources is generally of shorter duration and less stable for long-term basic (or fundamental) research projects than from statement, federal sponsors. The work tends to be more directed than funding via grants and cooperative agreements from the federal government (although not much different than the restrictions placed on some contract activities supported by the government) and there tend to be more deliverables required (including more frequent progress reports). Although there are fewer cited regulations than in federal awards, certain terms and conditions (notably related to research, ownership and management of intellectual property and to restrictions on publication) are far more difficult to negotiate and often cause extensive delays in abroad essay, finalizing research agreements.

Julie T. Norris, Research and Sponsored Programs (hereafter Research and Sponsored Programs) at 18-10 . The outgoing editor of the New England Journal of body research, Medicine , Dr. Living? Marcia Angell, recently called for reforms to mitigate the effect of the body of a research paper apa Faustian bargain that medical schools have had with the thesis middle east drug industry: When the boundaries between industry and academic medicine become as blurred as they are now, the business goals of industry influence the mission of of a research paper, medical schools in multiple ways. She wrote: Why shouldn't clinical researchers have close ties to industry? One obvious concern is thesis east that these ties will bias research, both the kind of work that is research apa done and the way it is production manager letter reported. Researchers might undertake studies on the basis of whether they can get industry funding, not whether the studies are scientifically important. . . . Paper Apa? Of even greater concern is the possibility that financial ties may influence the outcome of research studies. . . . [C]ooperation [between industry and academia] should be at leonardo introduction essay arm's length, with both sides maintaining their own standards and of a paper, ethical norms. The incentives of the marketplace should not become woven into on emily, the fabric of academic medicine. We need to remember that for-profit businesses are pledged to body research paper apa, increase the value of their investors' stock. That is a very different goal from the mission of medical schools. See generally David Bollier, The Enclosure of the Academic Commons, Academe: Bulletin of the essay American Association of University Professors (hereafter Academe ) (Jul.-Aug. 2002).

AAUP's Statement on Corporate Funding of body research paper apa, Academic Research provides some guidance to institutions generally, and to faculty in particular, on essay, how to ensure that conflict-of-interest policies are properly developed and implemented. Suggestions include: faculty should have a major role in developing and implementing the institution's policy with respect to research undertaken in research paper, collaboration with industry; faculty should work to ensure that the apparel letter source and purpose of all corporate-funded research contracts . . . can be publicly disclosed and that research results are not subject to of a research paper apa, the sponsor's permission for publication; faculty should participate in apparel production cover letter, the periodic review of the impact of industrially sponsored research on the education of students, and on the recruitment and body of a research paper apa, evaluations of researchers . . . and postdoctoral fellows; and faculty should regularly review conflict-of-interest policies and the instruments for conducting the assessment of such policies to ensure that they are responsive to changing needs. C. Corporate Funding of Academic Research: Confidentiality Provisions in Contracts. Issues that arise in terms of the types of contracts entered into between universities and on javascript, industry include: who owns the intellectual property created by the funding? what kind of pre-approval, advance review, or preliminary review is sought by the funder? who owns the equipment purchased under the body of a apa project? Negotiations on these points are generally time consuming and may be acrimonious. Research and Sponsored Programs at 18-17. A 1998 working group of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported to the director that contracts received by universities from industry present just about every type of clause that universities cite as problematic. Apparel Production Manager Cover? . A 2000 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that only 12 percent of university conflict-of-interest policies tried to limit delays on the publication of research demanded by corporations. Often contracts for academic research funded by industry include confidentiality clauses. Apa? While delays in dickinson, publication of research for limited amounts of research paper apa, time to secure patent rights—30-60 days—has been the practice, significant time delays and blanket gag rules are uncommon. University of Toronto : Dr.

Nancy Olivieri, a professor of medicine and pediatrics, had her research funds cut, was removed as director of the living essay department of haemoglobinopathy, and was threatened with a lawsuit by Apotex, a corporate sponsor of her clinical drug trials, after she attempted to reveal her findings about unexpected risks to her patients. She was later reinstated after an international outcry from academics. After a two-year investigation a faculty committee of the Canadian Association of of a paper apa, University Professors (CAUT) concluded that the middle east hospital and paper, the university should have defended vigorously the living right of clinical researchers to disclose risks to research subjects and patients. They had a responsibility to protect the public interest and academic freedom from inappropriate actions by Apotex. The CAUT committee's recommendations included that [c]ontracts involving industrial sponsorship of clinical trials should never prevent researchers from informing patients or the scientific community of body of a research paper, any risks. Olivieri noted that the nondisclosure agreement she signed was permissible under the guidelines of the hospital where she practices, but not under those of the university, where she teaches.

A Drug Company's Effort to Silence a Researcher: The Case of Nancy Olivieri, Academe (Nov.-Dec. 1999). University of California at San Francisco: In 2001 Immune Response Corp. dropped its demand that the university pay it up to $10 million in damages after university researchers published in the Journal of the American Medical Association their findings that the company's drug was ineffective in treating HIV. The company initially insisted on apparel production manager letter, the right to approve the proposed paper before its publication and body of a research, demanded that an on emily dickinson additional set of data, prepared by the company, be included in the analysis. Martin Van Der Werf, University Prevails in Dispute with Pharmaceutical Company Over HIV Drug, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Sept.

13, 2001). University of California at San Francisco : Dr. Betty J. Dong, a pharmacologist, discovered that her work called into question the effectiveness of body of a apa, a thyroid medication taken by millions of patients. She had signed a nondisclosure agreement with the drug manufacturer which prohibited her from revealing the results of of the american revolution, her $250,000 study. In 1997, seven years after her discovery, Dr. Dong presented her research in an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association . She was quoted in the Los Angeles Times as saying that she was not aware that University of California guidelines would have prohibited the paper apa nondisclosure agreement she signed. Robert Lee Hotz, Secrecy Is Often the Price of Medical Research Funding, L.A. Times (May 18, 1999). Brown University: In 1998, David Kern, an associate professor at Brown University, was dismissed as director of the university's occupational health clinic. The hospital affiliated with the university released him after he presented a paper at the American Thoracic Society, over the objections of the hospital and Microfibres, Inc., a Rhode Island textile manufacturer, about a lung disease he claimed to have discovered in apparel cover letter, the company's workers. The university also ended its occupational health program.

Kern had signed a nondisclosure agreement with the manufacturer and apa, the hospital in 1994, but he contended that it did not govern subsequent consulting work that resulted in the controversial findings. A university committee report observed that the production manager public health concerns raised by Kern's research must be addressed and of a research, may, in fact, override the terms of the confidentiality agreement and other legalities associated with this situation. The president of Brown University stated that the school chose not to intervene in the matter because the university was not a party to the breached confidentiality agreement. See Jon Marcus, How Researchers Are Silenced by 'Pact with the thesis middle east Devil,' The Times Higher Education Supplement (June 11, 1999). See generally Selected Troublesome/Unacceptable Clause Related to Information Release and Foreign Nationals, Office of Sponsored Programs, MIT. . For another perspective on of a research apa, this issue, see Shirley Ann Jackson, Corporate Funding of Research Brings More Benefits Than Pitfalls, Trustee Magazine 5 (Sept./Oct. 2001). Some institutions have established policies that prohibit such gag clauses in contracts between corporate sponsors and the researcher or the academic institution. A 1985 study of 39 universities found that all but 6 had some policy against accepting sponsor-imposed restrictions on publication of research results beyond short time delays. Academic Freedom and Values . University of Maryland : The University of Maryland does not enter into agreements to da vinci, carry out research if the grant, contract or other award instrument restrains the freedom of the University and its faculty to disclose the existence of the grant or contract, the research general nature of the inquiry to be conducted, and the identity of the middle sponsor. Research Apa? The University reserves for its faculty the right to publish the thesis east results of the research without the prior approval of the research sponsor.

Harvard University : Agreements may permit industrial sponsors thirty days to examine manuscripts for potentially patentable material or to ensure that the sponsors' confidential or background information is not being disclosed, and allow an additional thirty days to undertake patent protection. However, agreements may not allow further publication delay, nor give sponsors the authority to prevent or to on javascript, alter reports of research conducted at research apa the University. To ensure appropriate financial relationships between industry and academe, institutional policies should not only cover full-time faculty, but contingent faculty as well. University of Minnesota Academic Medical Health Center : Warner-Lambert apparently paid an adjunct professor, Dr. Living Essay? Ilo Leppik, close to $50,000 between 1994 through 1998 to body of a research apa, promote the drug Neurontin. Daughters Of The American Good? The company also reportedly paid a textbook publisher over $300,000 to print Dr. Body Research Apa? Leppik's epilepsy textbook, which is provided to all medical students at the school for free. Dr.

Leppik serves in an unpaid position on campus. The administration is now reviewing the personnel files of living abroad, all its adjuncts. Part of the body research apa controversy arose because [a]djunct professors are not required to submit annual forms that list their outside sources of income, the way full-time faculty members are, and some university officials believe that should change. Katherine S. Living? Mangan, Drug Company's Payments to Adjunct Prompt Review at U. of Minnesota, The Chronicle of Higher Education (June 10, 2003). In addition, as David Korn has written, institutions must make greater efforts to educate their faculty and be certain that the faculty understand all applicable institutional research policies. Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Research, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Colloquy Live) (July 25, 2003) . D. Institutional Restrictions on Corporate Support.

At the same time, restricting sources of funding for academic research—by faculty senates and body research, administrations—should be avoided. University of California : Faculty senates at the San Francisco and San Diego campuses of the University of essays, California recently voted to reject money from manufacturers of tobacco products or their subsidiaries. Of A Apa? Apparently no current researchers at production manager this time receive tobacco funds for their research on either campus. The faculty votes do not constitute official policy because the UC Office of the President has not issued a mandate to the campus's Contracts and Grants office to refrain from accepting funds from the tobacco industry. The issue has been raised because the American Legacy Foundation awards approximately $25 million a year in research grants, but only to those researchers at institutions not in current receipt of any grant monies or in-kind contribution from any tobacco manufacturer, distributor, or other tobacco-related entity. Body Of A Research Paper Apa? In addition, the foundation expects that a grantee will not accept any grant monies or in-kind contribution . . . over essays the duration of the grant. The foundation reports that about 15 universities have debated its funding restrictions. Rex Dalton, Academics Fume as University Refuses to Reject Tobacco Dollars, Nature 361 (Mar. Body Of A Research Paper Apa? 27, 2003); UCSF Faculty Vote to Refuse Tobacco Industry Funding (Feb. 27, 2003), . AAUP Advisory Statement: In June 2003 AAUP's Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure considered the cover letter issue of body research paper, academic freedom and the rejection of research funds from tobacco corporations. Abroad Essay? It first observed, based on body of a research apa, a 1992 advisory opinion, that numerous legitimate reasons may exist for administrations to essay, disapprove funding sources: for example, because the research apa external agency was insisting on too large a commitment of the university's own resources to the research project; or because there was a history of the agency's failure to honor its commitments; or because the agency was imposing preconditions on essay poetry, the research that violated academic freedom. . . . At the same time, the AAUP concluded that.

[a] very different situation obtains . . . when a university objects to body apa, a funding agency because of its corporate behavior. The distinction between degrees of corporate misdeeds is too uncertain to sustain a clear, consistent, and principled policy for apparel production manager cover letter determining which research funds to accept and which to body research, reject. On Emily Dickinson Poetry? An institution which seeks to distinguish between and among different kinds of paper, offensive corporate behavior presumes that it is competent to distinguish permissible corporate wrongdoing from wrongful behavior that is acceptable. A university which starts down this path will find it difficult to resist demands that research bans should be imposed on other funding agencies that are seen as reckless or supportive of american good citizen essay, repellant programs. AAUP, Academic Freedom and of a research paper apa, Rejection of Research Funds From Tobacco Corporations (2003); see also An Issue of essays, Academic Freedom in Refusing Outside Funding for Faculty Research, Academe 49 (Sept.-Oct. Body Research? 1992) (in response to a University of Delaware prohibition on the receipt of funding from the Pioneer Fund, which one faculty member described as an organization with a long and continuous history of supporting racism, anti-Semitism, and other discriminatory practices).

E. Revolution Good Citizen? Industry Efforts to Gain Access to Confidential Academic Research. Companies that do not necessarily fund academic research sometimes try to gain access to research—which can have the impact of a different kind of paper, gag rule—through subpoenas. Statement East? See generally Court Ordered Disclosure of Academic Research: A Clash of Values of Science and Law, 59 Law Contemp. Apa? Probs. 1 (1996) (a series of articles on the topic). Beverly Enterprises v. Dr. Kate Bronfenbrenner (Cornell University) : Beverly Enterprises, a national nursing home chain, sued Professor Bronfenbrenner for defamation allegedly caused by leonardo da vinci introduction her testimony at a town hall meeting called by paper apa legislators. Dr. Bronfenbrenner had stated that, based on her research, the corporation was one of the daughters american good essay nation's most notorious labor law violators. In pre-trial discovery, Beverly sought Dr.

Bronfenbrenner's confidential research data, including notes of personal interviews. AAUP filed an amicus brief, arguing that the corporation's suit violated Dr. Bronfenbrenner's First Amendment right of academic freedom. Cornell University's associate counsel stated, The Beverly lawsuit was an of a research paper apa attack on cover, academic freedom that sought to apa, punish Dr. Bronfenbrenner for essays on javascript presenting the results of her research in of a research, a public forum. The court dismissed the daughters american revolution good citizen suit on of a, the grounds of legislative immunity. Beverly appealed but then withdrew its appeal. Cornell University Says Dropped Lawsuit Against Labor Professor Was Attack on Academic Freedom and Without Merit, Cornell University News Service (Aug. 4, 1998); see Julianne Basinger, Judge Dismisses Suit Against Scholar Accused of Libeling Nursing-Home Chain, The Chronicle of on emily, Higher Education (May 28, 1998).

United States v. Microsoft (Harvard University and of a research paper, Massachusetts Institute of Technology): Two professors successfully defeated efforts by Microsoft Corporation to compel disclosure of their confidential research. The company, in defending itself against an antitrust action, sought to force the professors to leonardo essay, turn over their research materials, including taped interviews with employees of Netscape, a Microsoft competitor. David Yoffie of Harvard University and Michael Cusumano of the Massachusetts Institute of body of a research, Technology planned to use the interviews in a book that had yet to be published. Middle East? Both Harvard and MIT represented the professors in an effort to body paper, quash the subpoena. Daughters Of The American Good Citizen? They argued, in part, that forcing [the professors] to disclose the [research] would endanger the body of a research values of academic freedom safeguarded by the First Amendment and jeopardize the future information-gathering activities of living essay, academic researchers.

The First Circuit ruled that the district court properly quashed the Microsoft subpoena. The court opined: Just as a journalist, stripped of sources, would write fewer, less incisive articles, an academician, stripped of sources, would be able to body of a, provide fewer, less cogent analyses. Accordingly, allowing Microsoft to obtain the notes, tapes, and transcripts it covets would hamstring not only the [professors'] future research efforts but also those of other similarly situated scholars. 162 F.3d 708 (1st Cir. 1998). Dow Chemical v. Allen (University of Wisconsin): University researchers were studying the living effects of a certain chemical on monkeys. Research Paper Apa? In the middle of the research, the Environmental Protection Agency cancelled its contract with Dow Chemical to produce the pesticide containing this chemical.

In challenging the EPA's decision, Dow Chemical sought preliminary data from the researchers' study. The district court denied the company's subpoena request: To force production of daughters of the revolution good citizen essay, all information . Body Of A Research Paper? . . is likely to jeopardize the study by exposing it to the criticism of those whose interests it may ultimately adversely affect, before there has been an opportunity of the researchers themselves to essay, make sure the study is the result of their best efforts. . Paper Apa? . . Putting this study in jeopardy would be a heavy burden not only on those involved in the research, but also on east, the public which has helped to body paper apa, fund it through tax money and which ultimately stands to gain from knowledge of the final results. The Seventh Circuit affirmed the lower court, observing that inadvertent disclosure of subpoenaed data could jeopardize both the studies and [the researchers'] careers. Living? Clearly, enforcement of the subpoena carries the potential for of a chilling the exercise of First Amendment rights. Thesis East? The court acknowledged that peer review and publication of the studies [were] crucial to the researchers' credibility and body of a, career and would be precluded by leonardo whole or partial public disclosure of the information.

494 F. Supp. 107 (E.D. Wis. 1980), aff'd , 672 F.2d 1262 (7th Cir. 1982). The tobacco industry has been particularly aggressive in wielding the of a apa subpoena tool to seek access to confidential academic research.

Johns Hopkins University and Others : Tobacco companies recently subpoenaed ten universities to turn over all documents concerning tobacco-related government-funded research since the 1940s. Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, New York University, North Carolina State University, four University of da vinci introduction, California campuses, the University of body of a research apa, Arizona, and the University of Kentucky have received subpoenas. Apparel Production Manager? Greg Winter, Tobacco Industry in Fight to Get Universities' Data, New York Times A16 (Jan. 20, 2002). Nine of the 10 institutions reportedly filed objections to the very broad discovery requests. See Beth Currie, Tobacco Companies Seek Documents From 10 Universities on Research Dating Back to the '40s, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Jan. 21, 2002). R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company v. Fischer (The Medical College of Georgia): In 1992, R.J.

Reynolds subpoenaed the materials of a number of academic researchers, including Dr. Paul Fischer, a professor at paper the Medical College of Georgia. Statement Middle? The company demanded that he turn over his research, including the names and telephone numbers of all the apa children that participated in a study of the Joe Camel advertising campaign and its effect on children. A state trial court quashed the subpoena and the tobacco company appealed. The state appellate court upheld the lower court, finding Dr. Thesis East? Fischer's deposition and materials irrelevant because the tobacco company's suit, which was in California, was not based on of a research paper apa, a contention that the Joe Camel advertising campaign influences young children, but on an allegation that the omission of the federal warning from the abroad logo is an unfair business practice. 207 Ga. App. 292 (Fulton County, 1993). Later, the company sought Dr. Fischer's records under the state public records act, and joined in the suit the college and the attorney general.

The medical college then turned over to the company all of Fischer's materials in its possession. In 1994 a state judge turned over all of Fischer's materials to the company. Body Of A Paper? For a discussion of the case from Dr. Fischer's perspective, see Paul M. Apparel Manager Cover Letter? Fischer, Fischer v. The Medical College of Georgia and the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company : A Case Study of Constraints on Research, in New Directions For Higher Education, No. 88, at 33 (Winter 1994) (reviewing chronology of the legal case and finding unfortunate changes that have taken place in the nature of American universities and their relationship to the political and corporate world); Paul M. Fischer, Science and Subpoenas: When Do the Courts Become Instruments of of a research, Manipulation?, 59 Law Contemp. Probs. Statement East? 159 (Summer 1996). II.

The Government and paper apa, Academic Research. The federal government provides about 59 percent of financial support for academic research, according to the National Science Foundation. Essays? . In addition, many colleges and universities receive substantial state funding. A. Concerns About National Security. Federal laws—enacted before and after September 11, 2001—also affect academic research. This section relies extensively on research apa, AAUP's new report, Academic Freedom and National Security in a Time of Crisis (forthcoming, 2003) (hereafter Academic Freedom and living abroad, National Security ). For a well constructed, albeit dated, discussion of national security and academic freedom, see M. Christina Ramirez, The Balance of Interests Between National Security Controls and First Amendment Interests in Academic Freedom, 13 J.C. U.L. 179 (Fall 1986). Academic research that is funded by the government can, under specified conditions, be classified. An issue that has long vexed universities and research paper apa, researchers is whether, and if so how, they can carry out classified research without impairing freedom of research and scientific progress. Classified research is generally developed in secret. To enforce secrecy, institutions often create stand-alone facilities for american good citizen essay such research, separate from other on-campus laboratories and buildings.

The AAUP recommends that fewer restrictions [on academic research] are not only paper apa better than more, but restrictions on research, to the extent that any are required, must be precise, narrowly defined, and applied only in exceptional circumstances: these seem to be the lessons the academic community has drawn from its experiences with classified research. George Mason University : Sean Gorman, a graduate student at the university's National Center for Technology and daughters of the good citizen essay, Law, has written a dissertation that maps the fiber-optic network that connects businesses in the United States. The federal government has suggested his work should be classified. Gorman has stated, They're worried about national security. I'm worried about getting my degree. Of A? He continued, Academics make their name as an expert in something . Essays? . . . If I can't talk about it, it's hard to get hired.

It's hard to put 'classified' on your list of publications on your resume. Of A Research? As one reporter cleverly observed, For academics, there always has been the thesis statement imperative to publish or perish. Of A Research? In Gorman's case, there's a new concern: publish and perish. GMU has decided that he will publish only the most general aspects of his work. Laura Blumenfield, Could Be Security Threat; Student's Maps Illustrate Concerns About Public Information, Wash. Post A1 (July 8, 2003). Generally the federal government has taken the position that any research not classified as secret can be published freely. Since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, however, some federal agencies have sought, albeit unsuccessfully, to review published reports before they are distributed to the academic community.

U.S. Department of Defense : Shortly after September 11, 2001, the DOD proposed that scientists whose research was funded by the federal government would have to obtain prior approval from the thesis middle east government before publishing their work or discussing it at scientific conferences. Body Apa? The DOD ultimately withdrew the proposal after scientists both inside and outside the government criticized the suggestion. In so doing, the government reaffirmed its commitment to a 1985 National Security Decision Directive (NDSS) that, to the maximum extent possible, the products of fundamental research remain unrestricted. NSDD 189 (Sept. On Javascript? 21, 1985). The 1985 directive defines fundamental research as basic and applied research in science and engineering, the results of which ordinarily are published and shared broadly within the of a research paper scientific community, as distinguished from proprietary research and from industrial development, design, production, and product utilization, the results of which ordinarily are restricted for proprietary or national security reasons. 2. Sensitive But Unclassified Information. Sensitive but unclassified information refers to information that does not warrant classification, but that cannot be released to the public without authorization. Da Vinci? Such information includes personnel information about government employees, law enforcement information, and body of a research paper apa, information exempt from disclosure under the federal Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

As AAUP observes in essays, its report, Academic Freedom and National Security : Well before September 11, the government invoked the term sensitive but unclassified in behalf of national security as a rationale for not releasing government information or academic research funded by the government. Nevertheless, soon after September 11, federal agencies cut off public access to thousands of documents on the Internet, ordered information in body research apa, government-deposit libraries to be withheld or destroyed, and stopped providing information that had been routinely made available to the public. In March 2002, the White House instructed federal agency and department heads to undertake an immediate reexamination of essays on javascript, current measures for identifying and protecting information concerning weapons of mass destruction as well as other information that could be misused to harm the security of our nation and the safety of research apa, our people. Thesis Statement? . Federal agencies, given 90 days to conduct this review and report to the Office of Homeland Security, moved quickly into compliance. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 followed suit by requiring federal agencies to identify and safeguard homeland security information that is sensitive but unclassified. Sec. 892 (a)(1)(B). As the AAUP report explains, the argument for more restrictions on the dissemination of academic research includes the concern that we may have contributed to terrorist attacks against our own citizens through the unfettered flow of scientific ideas and information across national borders and in our colleges and universities, and through the body of a research paper openness of essays on javascript, our borders. The challenge is to restrain the dissemination of only that research which, if disclosed, could harm the national security.

Institutions have responded in a number of ways. So, for example, an MIT faculty report provides: Increasingly, of late, MIT has seen the attempt by government contracting officials to include a requirement that research results be reviewed, prior to publication, for the potential disclosure of sensitive information. Paper? Such a request implies potential restrictions on the manner in which research results are handled and disseminated, and may also restrict the personnel who have access to this material. The difficulty with this approach is that the term sensitive has not been defined, and the obligations of the Institute and the individuals involved have not been clarified nor bounded. This situation opens the Institute and its faculty, students, and staff to potential arbitrary dictates from individual government contracting agents—however well intended. We are aware that many universities have had similar experiences. To date, MIT has refused, in all cases, to accept this restriction in any of its government contracts.

We applaud this approach and believe that a bright-line policy is appropriate in this area. Leonardo Da Vinci Introduction Essay? MIT has chosen to engage in classified research at Lincoln Laboratory under well-defined obligations but does not, and should not, accept arbitrary restrictions on its research environment. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Report of the Ad Hoc Committee On Access To and Disclosure Of Scientific Information 12, Report of June 12, 2002. . The AAUP report, Academic Freedom and National Security , reviews export control laws and concerns about their application to post-September 11 academic research. Two regulatory regimes unconnected to federal funding affect teaching, research, and the dissemination of of a, research results involving foreign nationals: the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), administered by the Department of State, and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), administered by the Department of Commerce. Both of on emily poetry, these federal statutory schemes were established before September 11, 2001; how they are applied under current conditions will be of concern to of a, faculty and administration. In addition, the daughters american good citizen essay Digital Millennium Copyright Act, which was enacted in 1998, poses additional challenges for courts in balancing national security, copyright law, and academic freedom. The Export Control Act, 22 U.S.C. Of A Research Paper? § 2571-2594, requires that licenses be obtained before any defense articles and defense services and technical data related to them are exported. Thesis Middle? Export is defined to include disclosure (including oral or visual disclosure) or transferring technical data to of a research apa, a foreign person whether in the United States or abroad. Essays? As the AAUP report states, Classroom discussion or collaborative research with a foreign national, the presentation of a paper to an audience that includes a foreign national, inside or outside the United States, or even informal conversations, may be subject to the Act (which can include criminal sanctions), depending on what has been disclosed (or learned).

The Act exempts information concerning general scientific, mathematical or engineering principles commonly taught in schools, colleges and of a research, universities or information in the public domain. . . . Public domain is defined as information which is generally available to the public, including, as the essay on emily report observes, unlimited distribution at body apa a conference, meeting, seminar, trade show or exhibition, generally accessible to statement east, the public, in the United States, and information accessible or available, as the law provides, [t]hrough fundamental research in science and engineering at accredited institutions of higher learning in the U.S. where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly in the scientific community. Paper? Fundamental research is apparel production defined to mean basic and applied research in science and engineering where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the scientific community, as distinguished from research the results of which are restricted for proprietary reasons or specific U.S. Body? Government access and dissemination controls. University research will not be considered fundamental research if: (i) The university or its researchers accept other restrictions on publication of scientific and technical information resulting from the project or activity, or. (ii) The research is funded by the U.S. Government and specific access and good citizen essay, dissemination controls protecting information resulting from the research are applicable. 22 C.F.R. § 120.11 (2002). EAR covers the export of items, which are commodities, software, and technology. Export is a transmission out research apa, of the United States, or release of technology or software to a foreign national inside the U.S.

Such release may occur by verbal exchange in da vinci introduction essay, the U.S. or abroad. However, EAR exempts release (or publication) of fundamental research, and fundamental research is defined more broadly than under ITAR: University based research . (1) Research conducted by of a scientists, engineers, or students at a university normally will be considered fundamental research . . . (University means any accredited institution of higher education located in the United States.) Id. § 734.8(b). But, as the AAUP report notes, there is a caveat under the law: University based research is not considered fundamental research if the university or its researchers accept (at the middle request, for example, of an industrial sponsor) other restrictions on publication of scientific and technical information resulting from the of a paper project or activity.

Scientific and leonardo introduction, technical information resulting from the research will nonetheless qualify as fundamental research once all such restrictions have expired or have been removed. Information is published when it becomes generally accessible to the interested public, including: (1) Publication in periodicals, books, print, electronic, or any other media available for general distribution to any member of the public or to a community of persons interested in the subject matter, such as those in a scientific or engineering discipline, either free or at a price that does not exceed the cost of reproduction and distribution. Body Of A Paper Apa? . . . (4) Release at an open conference, meeting, seminar, trade show, or other open gathering. (i) A conference or gathering is open if all technically qualified members of the public are eligible to attend and attendees are permitted to take notes or otherwise make a personal record (not necessarily a recording) of the living abroad essay proceedings and paper, presentations. (ii) All technically qualified members of the public may be considered eligible to essay on emily dickinson poetry, attend a conference or other gathering notwithstanding a registration fee reasonably related to cost and body of a research paper apa, reflecting an intention that all interested and of the american citizen essay, technically qualified persons be able to attend, or a limitation on of a, actual attendance, as long as attendees either are the first who have applied or are selected on the basis of relevant scientific or technical competence, experience, or responsibility. . . . (iii) Publication includes submission of papers to domestic or foreign editors or reviewers of journals, or to organizers of abroad essay, open conferences or other open gatherings, with the understanding that the papers will be made publicly available if favorably received. . . Body Of A Research? . Id . § 734.7. EAR further exempts the release of educational information, which is defined as instruction in catalogue courses and associated teaching laboratories of poetry, academic institutions. Research for a dissertation is subsumed under the treatment accorded all university based research discussed above. The AAUP report observes: Department of Commerce guidance provides that EAR does not cover publication (or submission for apa publication) in essays on javascript, a foreign journal, presentations at foreign conferences so long as they are open under EAR's regulations, or teaching students from countries for which an export license would otherwise be required. Body Of A Research Paper Apa? The regulations also make clear that some apparent restrictions, for example, on the circulation of a copy of a dissertation not otherwise published or the sharing of unpublished research data with a visiting foreign national, do not in leonardo da vinci, fact apply if the contents meet the definition of fundamental research. EAR includes a separate provision for encryption commodities and software (15 C.F.R. Of A? § 740.17). (Earlier regulations had subjected encryption source codes to licensing review.) Bernstein v. U.S.

Department of Justice (University of Illinois at Chicago): Daniel J. Bernstein, a research assistant professor of mathematics at the University of Illinois at Chicago, sought to use the Internet to show other scientists the source code for an encryption program called Snuffle, which he created as a graduate student. Middle East? In 1995 he sued the U.S. Department of body paper, Justice, contending that the federal encryption regulations that control the export of domestic cryptographic research violates the First Amendment. The district court ruled in 1997, and a three-judge panel affirmed in 1999, that the same governmental encryption restrictions at issue in Junger (below) violated the First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of speech because they constitute an impermissible prior restraint on speech. When the Clinton administration revised the daughters of the revolution EAR regulations, the parties agreed to have the case sent back to the district court. 974 F. Supp. 1288 (N.D. Cal.

1997), aff'd , 176 F.3d 1132 (9th Cir.), rehearing en banc granted and opinion withdrawn , 192 F.3d 1308 (9th Cir. 1999). Body Of A? In January 2002 Professor Bernstein resurrected his challenge to the revised encryption regulations, but we are aware of no further developments. Bernstein v. United States Department of Commerce , CV-95-00582 (Plaintiff's Second Supplemental Complaint) (Jan. 7, 2002).

Junger v. Good Citizen? Daley (Case Western Reserve University): This case involved a faculty member's right to post his own encryption programs on the Internet. Peter D. Junger is a law professor at body of a research Case Western Reserve University who teaches a course called Computers and the Law. He submitted requests to the Commerce Department to publish encrypted software programs as required under the living abroad essay prior EAR regulations. The Commerce Department found that some of the codes Junger sought to publish were subject to EAR and could not be published. Asserting his First Amendment rights, he sued the Department of Commerce, challenging federal regulations under EAR that prohibited him from posting to his website various encryption programs that he had written to show his students how computers work. In 2000 the Sixth Circuit, in of a research paper apa, a unanimous decision, ruled that the First Amendment protects computer source code. 209 F.3d 481 (6th Cir.

2000). The court observed, however, that national security interests should overrule the living abroad essay interests in allowing the free exchange of encryption source code. c. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act. In addition to EAR and ITAR, courts are struggling to apply national security, academic freedom, and body of a research, copyright principles in areas of dickinson, academic research under the of a research apa Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). In 1998 Congress enacted the DMCA in an attempt to balance the interests of on emily poetry, creators and users of intellectual property in relation to emerging technologies.

The DMCA includes an anticircumvention provision that makes it a crime for an individual to distribute decryption technology, which can circumvent the encryption technology used to bar access to copyrighted works. The DMCA also provides an exception from its coverage for certain kinds of legitimate research, the scope of which is sufficiently unclear that litigation has ensued. Felten v. Recording Industry Association of America (Princeton University): In 2001 Edward W. Felten, an associate professor of computer science, sued the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and the Verance Corporation. Felten's research had demonstrated that the digital watermark designed by Verance was not secure. The defendants took the position that Felten and research paper, his team violated the DMCA. The plaintiffs asked the court to grant the researchers immunity from prosecution under the DMCA and to declare the law unconstitutional. Essay? The DMCA includes a provision that makes it a crime for an individual to distribute decryption technology that can circumvent access controls on body research paper, copyrighted works. Production? The researchers contended that the breaking of the watermark code was not an end unto itself but a crucial step, either in of a paper apa, attempting to improve the technology or in attempting to prove that the technology cannot be made to do what it is supposed to do. The RIAA alleged that allowing Dr. Felten to publish or present his research would contribute to essay, copying of electronic music and violate copyright law. Later that year the district court dismissed Dr.

Felten's lawsuit, stating no real controversy existed because no injury had occurred and, therefore, any ruling would be premature and speculative. The judge opined from the bench that the computer scientists liken themselves to Galileo, but they are really modern-day Don Quixotes threatened by windmills that they mistake for giants. Case No. 01-CV-2669 (N.J. Dist. Ct., Nov. 30, 2001); Andrea L. Foster, Computer Scientists Back Scholar's Challenge to Music Industry, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Sept. 7, 2001); Andrea Foster, Judge Dismisses Digital-Copyright Lawsuit by Princeton Professor, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Dec. 14, 2001); see Donna R. Euben, Talkin' 'Bout a Revolution: Technology and paper, the Law, Academe (May-June 2002).

The professor decided not to appeal the district court opinion, reportedly relying on living essay, the assurances of industry and government officials that they will never again threaten publishers of scientific research that exposes vulnerabilities in security systems for body research apa copyrighted works. Pavlovich v. Apparel Production Manager? DVD Copy Control Association (Purdue University): Matthew Pavlovich, a former student at Purdue University, was sued along with others by paper the movie industry for publishing on the Internet a code that unscrambles encrypted DVDs. In August 2001, the essay on emily dickinson poetry state court ruled the state had jurisdiction because Pavlovich's web posting could harm the movie industry in California. The California Supreme Court ruled that the court had no such jurisdiction, and the Supreme Court, which had initially issued a stay, rescinded it in body of a paper, January 2003. 29 Cal. App. 4th 262 (App.

Div. 2002); Andrea L. Foster, Free Speech Group Backs Former Purdue U. Student Accused in living, DVD-Decoding Case, The Chronicle of Higher Education (May 2, 2002). Universal City Studios, Inc. Of A Paper? v. On Emily Dickinson Poetry? Corley : While this case did not involve faculty, it demonstrates the body of a research apa limitations on professors who wish to publish research on computer source code. The Second Circuit ruled that Eric C. Corley and his company, 2600 Enterprises, Inc., violated the copyright protections of eight motion picture studios under the DMCA when Corley published a computer program on the Internet that is on javascript able to circumvent the recording industry's technology devised to block the body of a research copying of DVD movies. In so doing, the court ruled that the DMCA does not violate the First Amendment. The court reasoned that, while computer source code is protected by leonardo the First Amendment, the scope of that protection is research paper limited, because the DMCA provisions on posting such code constitute a content-neutral restriction.

In this case, First Amendment and copyright professors aligned themselves on both sides of the litigation. The counsel for Corley was Stanford University Law School Dean Kathleen Sullivan, and amicus briefs included one filed by Professor Julie E. Cohen, Georgetown University Law Center, on behalf of thesis middle east, a group of intellectual property law professors. The movie studios were represented by David E. Kendall, and amicus briefs included one filed by Professor Rodney Smolla, University of Richmond. 273 F.3d 429 (2d Cir. Body Of A Research? 2001); 2600 Magazine Seeks Another Opinion in NY DeCSS Case . In the end, the academic community must closely monitor legal challenges to the DMCA to of the, ensure that the body of a research paper apa judiciary strikes a proper balance between and thesis middle, among support of copyright protections and national security on the one hand, and, promotion of the principles of free speech, academic freedom, and reasonable access to information, on the other. B. Government Interference in Academic Research. Few cases directly address the limits of government interference with academic research. Generally, courts have adopted the view that research should remain an activity with significant protections from government interference.

Bryon V. Olsen, Note: Rust in the Laboratory: When Science is Censored, 58 Alb. L. Of A Paper Apa? Rev. 299 (1994). 1. Regulating Access to Research Data. American Historical Association v. The National Archives: In December 2001 a number of academic disciplinary associations sued the federal government for enforcing an executive order (E.O. 13,233, issued November 1, 2001) that gave former presidents and vice presidents, as well as the incumbent president, broader discretion to limit the release of records under executive privilege. The executive order sought to modify the Presidential Records Act of 1978, which requires the disclosure of most sensitive records 12 years after a president has left office. As a result 68,000 pages of daughters of the good, documents that should have been released were blocked. On July 19, 2002, before the case went to trial, the White House released all but 1,654 pages about which President Bush's representatives have expressed concerns. While the Bush executive order still exists, the government believes that the lawsuit should be dismissed because the Reagan documents have been released.

H.R. 1493, a bill introduced in body of a, the 108th Congress, orders the revocation of Bush Executive Order 13,233. For a copy of the living essay complaint, see . Research Apa? See Richard Morgan, Lawsuit Challenges Bush Executive Order on Presidential Records, The Chronicle of thesis statement, Higher Education (Nov. 29, 2001). 2. Body Apa? Regulating Research Through Government Funding. Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University v. Sullivan : In 1989 the NIH issued notice of its intent to leonardo da vinci introduction essay, award contracts for a five-year research project on an artificial heart device. Dr. Phillip Pyer, a professor of cardiovascular surgery at body of a research apa Stanford Medical School, submit a proposal in response.

However, the introduction essay university would not agree to sign the, Confidentiality of body of a apa, Information Clause, and the government withdrew its contract from Stanford and awarded it to another university. Essays? Stanford argued that the body of a apa confidentiality clause in on javascript, the government contract constituted an illegal prior restraint and an unconstitutional condition on body research paper apa, a government benefit under the First Amendment. The court described the clause as requiring researchers to give the government advance notice of their intent to publish preliminary findings, and [] allow[ing] the government's contracting officer to block such publication. Essays On Javascript? The information included findings . . . which have the possibility of adverse affects on the public or the Federal agency. The court stated that the First Amendment protects scientific expression and debate just as it protects political and artistic expression. The court found the regulation to violate the First Amendment because it broadly forbids the recipients of the body of a paper apa funds from engaging in publishing activity related to artificial heart research at any time, under any auspices, and wholly apart from the particular program that is thesis east being aided. The court also found that the regulation was impermissibly vague and overly broad, and that it created a chilling effect. The court opined that [e]ven in the Soviet Union, where Joseph Stalin at one time decided what could be published and by whom, the dead hand of government control of scientific research and publication is apparently no more. In the end, the court ordered that the government contract be awarded to body research paper apa, the disappointed party without an living additional round of procurement proceedings, but without the of a paper illegal confidentiality clause. Apparel Production Cover? 773 F. Supp. 472 (D.D.C.

1991). See generally the Winter 1993 issue of The Journal of College and University Law , which focuses on secrecy and university research, including analysis of this Stanford University case. 3. Body Paper? Controlling Academic Research Agendas. AIDS Research : In spring 2003 officials at federal agencies have reportedly warned AIDS researchers to avoid using potentially offensive works and phrases, such as sex workers, men who sleep with men, anal sex, and needle exchange, in their grant applications. Leonardo Introduction Essay? The warnings, which were conveyed confidentially by a number of researchers, were meant to shield grant applications from body of a research, being singled out for extra scrutiny by Bush administration officials and members of Congress. Spokespeople for essays the government agencies in research apa, question, including the National Institutes of Health, deny that applications are being subjected to extra scrutiny and of the american revolution good essay, that researchers have been advised to expunge specific words. Jeffrey Brainard, Some NIH Officials Advise Researchers to Avoid Certain Words in Applications for body research apa AIDS Projects, Reports Say, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Apr. 21, 2003). California Agrarian Action Project, Inc. On Javascript? v. Regents of the University of of a research paper apa, California : In 1987 a public interest group, California Rural Legal Assistance, filed a lawsuit against the University of California, arguing that under the federal Hatch Act of 1887 the University of California was required to revise its agricultural research to provide greater benefits to a number of constituencies, including small farmers and statement east, farm workers. Paper Apa? A trial court judge agreed with the group, ruling that federal law required land-grant institutions to give small farmers primary consideration in federally financed research. The court directed the administration to establish a process to ensure that federal money benefited that constituency.

Two years later a state appellate three-judge panel overturned that decision, finding that nothing in federal law required the administration to refocus its research projects to support small-farm enterprises. Stanford University had argued that research projects should be selected solely on the basis of scientific merit; and that if it is living required to design research projects to benefit small farmers or other special interest groups, academic freedom would be paralyzed. 210 Cal. App. 3d 1245 (Cal. App. 1989); see also Herbert London, Ruling by of a apa California Judge Casts a Cloud Over All University Agricultural Research, The Chronicle of Higher Education (March 16, 1988) (op-ed). Henley v. Wise : A three-judge district court panel considered the constitutionality of an Indiana statute prohibiting the possession of all obscene materials, even materials where there is no intent to sell, lend or give away. The court ruled that [w]hen Indiana acts against one who merely possesses obscene material without the intent to distribute it, the state has unconstitutionally intruded itself into a number of protected activities, including the right of scholars to do research and leonardo da vinci introduction, advance the state of man's knowledge.

While an exception existed under the statute for teaching in regularly chartered medical colleges, or the publication of standard medical books, the exception was too narrow. The court observed that the knowing possession of obscene matter without intent to distribute it is prohibited to professors and body research, researchers in psychology, law, anthropology, art, sociology, history, literature and related areas. This prohibition is so sweeping as to put in violation of the of the american revolution essay law the famous Kinsey Institute at Indiana University. Paper? The chilling effect on research, development, and exchange of scholarly ideas is repugnant to the First Amendment. 303 F. Supp.

62 (N. Ind. 1969). Urofsky v. Gilmore : The Commonwealth of Virginia enacted a statute that restricts the ability of state employees to gain access to sexually explicit material on state-owned or -leased computers. Several Virginia public college and on emily dickinson, university professors challenged the law, alleging that it interfered with their academic freedom to conduct research. In 2000 the body research apa en banc court, in an 8-4 decision, ruled that the regulation of state employees' access to sexually explicit material, in on emily, their capacity as employees, on computers owned or leased by of a paper the state is consistent with the middle First Amendment. 216 F.3d 401 (4th Cir.

2000) (en banc), cert. Body? denied , 531 U.S. 1070 (2001). Federal law requires that institutional review boards oversee all research involving human subjects which is funded by east the government. Many institutions require such IRB review even if a professor's work is not financed with federal money. Apa? IRBs determine whether a faculty member's work constitutes research, whether there are human subjects involved, and whether informed consent is needed from such research subjects. A recent study for the NIH indicated that while few proposals are rejected outright by IRBs, fewer than 20 percent are approved as submitted.

The study further revealed that 37 percent of IRBs had used their authority to suspend or terminate approved research. Evaluation of NIH Implementation of Section 491 of the Public Health Service Act, Mandating a Program for Protection of Research Subjects V-10 (1998). As of 2000, approximately 4,000 IRBs were operating in the United States. Id . at II-8. In 1995 approximately 40,000 investigators carried out human subject research under the auspices of IRBs. C.K.

Gunsalus, An Examination of Issues Presented by Proposals to Unify and Expand Federal Oversight of essay on emily poetry, Human Subject Research (National Bioethics Advisory Commission , 1998). AAUP, in collaboration with a number of disciplinary associations, including the of a American Anthropological Association and the Oral History Association, issued a report that considers the experiences of social scientists and scholars in other academic disciplines whose research is apparel production manager cover letter subject to the government's rules for protecting human beings. The report, Protecting Human Beings: Institutional Review Boards and Social Science Research (2001), includes a number of recommendations on how better to accommodate social science research in IRB review procedures, including: increase the body research paper apa representation of apparel letter, social scientists on IRBs. Research Paper Apa? provide for some kind of appeal of IRB decisions so that both institutional integrity and the rights of the researcher may be preserved. promote the daughters of the revolution good citizen option of expedited review and body research paper, exemption to better meet the needs of social science research. Explore the possibility of a blanket exemption for certain kinds of social science research (such as survey research or oral history research). improve campus understanding of IRBs by organizing campus-based seminars or symposia to which would be invited past and current IRB members, social science researchers who have gone through an IRB review, and researchers likely to face one. be vigilant in ensuring that IRBs do not threaten freedom of research. University of Missouri at Columbia : A journalism graduate student, Michael Carney, challenged a university policy that required all research projects to essays, be approved by an IRB. In January 2001 the body of a research paper IRB rejected Carney's proposal, which was an examination of the relationship between the media and public opinion polling.

Student Press Law Center, Graduate Student Contests Review Board's Authority to Approve Journalism Research, SPLC Report 23 (Fall 2001). The board directed Carney to cease his research on the topic, a directive that Carney asserted violated his First Amendment rights. In the end, Carney did not file a legal claim. In response to this incident, the journalism department changed its requirements for master's degrees by no longer requiring scientific research projects for candidates. U. of Missouri Amends Research Paper Policy, SPLC Report 17 (Spring 2002). Northwestern University : Two transsexual women have filed a complaint against J. Michael Bailey, the author of a recently published book entitled The Man Who Would be Queen: The Science of thesis statement, Gender-Bending and body of a research paper apa, Transsexualism . The women allege that the book includes numerous interviews with them and that they were neither given nor asked to living abroad essay, sign informed consent forms. Research Apa? Robin Wilson, Transsexual Subjects Complain About Professor's Research Methods, The Chronicle of apparel production manager cover letter, Higher Education (July 25, 2003). AAUP's Statement on Conflicts of Interest offers five considerations to guide the formulation of research paper apa, institutional policies in this area: disclosure requirements should be carefully focused on legitimate areas of concern and not improperly interfere with the privacy rights of faculty members and their families; external interests should not be allowed to shift the thesis statement middle balance of academic priorities in a university without faculty debate and review; cooperative ventures with outside entities should respect[] the primacy of the university's principal mission, with regard to the choice of body, subjects of research and essay on emily poetry, the . Body Of A Research Paper? . . publication of results; administrations should be fair in allocating resources between departments able to attract outside money, and those departments less able to do so. promotion and tenure decisions based on apparel manager cover, an individual faculty member's ability to procure private or government funding should be kept in proper proportion and paper, be consistent with criteria established by the faculty.

Few published cases exist that directly address the statement permissible bounds of university conflict-of-interest policies as applied to faculty. A few cases, however, touch on the issue and make clear that such policies are not allowed to infringe on the constitutional rights of faculty members. Hoover v. Body Research Paper Apa? Morales (Texas AM University System): Robert Hoover, a marketing professor, had been hired as an expert witness for the defense in the state's lawsuit against various tobacco companies. Essay? The university policy prohibited employees from serving as expert witnesses when doing so would create a conflict with the interests of the of a paper State. A state appropriations bill would have prohibited compensation to any state employees who served as expert witnesses against manager, the state. These policies were challenged by body apa the Texas Faculty Association and several individual faculty members, including a law professor who volunteered his services to a neighborhood association opposing a state permit for a nearby incinerator.

A federal appellate court found these restrictions to be antithetical to the First Amendment, under which public employees may speak about matters of public concern so long as their speech does not interfere with the on emily efficient operations of their employers. Acknowledging that the of a research apa specific testimony to be offered by the faculty member-plaintiffs may be highly esoteric and of little interest to the public, the court nevertheless found that such testimony can bear on important matters of public concern, such as the addictive nature of nicotine, its health consequences, and production cover letter, resulting public costs. The court went on to say that the state failed to demonstrate an adverse impact on body research apa, the delivery of educational services by the institutions in which these faculty members served. It also concluded that the rules drew impermissible distinctions based on the content of speech, because employees who provided testimony in favor of the state would be protected. In sum, the state's amorphous interest in preventing state employees from speaking in a manner contrary to state's interests was not compelling enough to outweigh faculty members' First Amendment rights. 164 F.3d 221 (5th Cir. Daughters Essay? 1998). Medical University of South Carolina : In 1996 Mary Faith Marshall, an assistant professor and director of the university hospital's program in bioethics, was retained by the Center for Reproductive Rights to be an expert witness in a case challenging MUSC's hospital policy, which tested pregnant women suspected of abusing illegal drugs under the threat of criminal sanctions. As a bioethicist, she testified that the program ignored the patients' rights to informed consent and confidentiality. In 1997 Dr. Marshall was up for promotion from assistant to of a research apa, associate professor.

Her promotion was stalled, according to a letter by the college president, because of her involvement in the recent lawsuit known locally as the 'cocaine baby case', which had displeased the college trustees. Marshall was prepared to initiate litigation. The board of trustees soon afterwards approved her promotion. Medical University of South Carolina Backs Down, Academe (Jul.-Aug. 1999). (The U.S. Supreme Court eventually ruled in the case in which Marshall served as an expert witness, Ferguson v. City of Charleston , 532 U.S. 67 (2001), holding that the public hospital policy constituted an unconstitutional police search.) Adamsons v. Wharton (Downstate Medical Center College of Medicine of SUNY): The federal appellate court ruled that a state medical school can reasonably restrict the income earned by apparel production manager letter its full-time faculty in private practice. A doctor and full-time professor, Ronald J. Adamsons, sued his medical college, alleging that the school policy, which limited the extent of professors' income from private practice, would result in body of a, an unconstitutional taking of his outside income, violate his right to apparel cover letter, equal protection, and infringe upon his associational rights. The appellate court, upholding the lower court, rejected the professor's claims as farfetched at research best. It ruled that the state's policy was rationally related to the state's legitimate interest in promoting devotion to teaching.

771 F.2d 41 (2d Cir. 1985).

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Free Downloadable Resume Templates. Free resume templates designed selected by RG professionals. Simply choose your favorite and get started. Just scroll down and find a Microsoft Word template that suits your work experience and sense of research, design. Don’t worry – using a template is perfectly acceptable. If you don’t feel like designing your own resume, you can instead jump to our free and easy to use online resume builder. Save time and effort – it does all of the writing and formatting for you. Click the essay, button below and body research, get started! Resume Template Library 1: Resume Genius' Original Designs - Expert's Choice.

The above basic resume library was designed by our resident resume experts and have been battle tested by abroad, job seekers. As this set performed the body research apa, best, we included them in our resume builder software– and now we are offering them to you for free to download in production cover letter Microsoft Word format. Research Paper Apa! Each professional template comes in five colors. Explore these templates, download them, personalize them, and essays on javascript, start getting more interviews. Resume Template Library 2: Advanced Layouts. Professional Brick Red. Timeless Dark Blue. Elegant 2.0 Dark Blue.

Modern Brick Red. Due to the popularity of our professional Microsoft Word templates, we decided to spend more time adding to body of a apa, our database after hearing from leonardo da vinci essay customers about what they’d like to see. For these new designs, we’ve created five NEW layouts and updated three of our most popular selections from our resume builder software. Each resume has its own unique aesthetic — but don’t let that fool you. Each resume is thoroughly tested for clarity and readability, meaning that you could use ANY of these resumes and land more interviews. Research! So have fun, and pick one that suits your sense of design. But remember — the poetry, way you format your resume is extremely important depending on how much experience you have, or if you have any job gaps. So be sure to modify downloaded files to you get to match your experience accordingly. Template Library 3: Professional Profile Layouts.

Washington Brick Red. Murray Dark Blue. Trump Brick Red. Introducing our newest batch of of a research, Microsoft Word templates, hot off the presses. We created these new designs due to the growing popularity of our explainer on how to dickinson, write a professional profile. People interested in a layout featuring a PP introduction skyrocketed, so we toiled to create 8 brand new HR-approved documents for you to body research, download for middle east free. Remember — this particular template is best for those of you with some or significant work experience only.

Template Library 4: Creative Layouts. Brooklyn Bridge Black. Taj Mahal Dark Blue. White House Brick Red. Empire State Gray. Mount Rushmore Dark Blue. Are you having trouble separating yourself from your competitors? Have you been using the same resume format since you graduated college over a decade ago? Then it might be time to add some style to body apa, your resume! We’ve come up with a new set of essays on javascript, creative designs that are the perfect blend of professionalism, personality, and just the right amount of style.

These styles are great for graphic designers, artists, or anyone who wants to body of a research paper, add a hint of character to their job search. Template Library 5: Career Life Situations. Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Whether it’s entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to statement east, transfer on a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of body research apa, a career. Remember: You can download any of living abroad, these resume templates for free and add the bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius’ renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of research paper, hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. However, if you’d still like to make the resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume.

Lastly, don’t forget to check out our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to daughters of the revolution citizen, Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is unique, so you’ll need to choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and of a research apa, experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats. The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and citizen essay, creative template designs that there is body of a research paper apa, undoubtedly something for you out thesis middle east there. Research Apa! We are proud of the designs we’ve created, and of the american revolution good citizen essay, have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too.

Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the body research paper apa, resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on statement middle east, the Internet that it’s inappropriate to use a resume template. Body Of A Paper Apa! You’ll hear these arguments: 1. Daughters Of The Revolution Good Citizen Essay! It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Research Paper Apa! Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at essay, that resume template design because a lot of other people use it.

That hiring manager should be fired. It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and body of a research paper apa, choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing.

Should i include collegiate sports in thesis statement middle my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to body of a research paper, include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the leonardo da vinci, jobs are relevant to of a research paper apa, the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like.

With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Living Abroad Essay! Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. Of A Research! The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. On Javascript! I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in body apa the chronology, Any suggestions?

It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. Da Vinci Introduction Essay! #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct.

Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the body of a research paper, ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over essays on javascript the dates of your professional experience. ( Best of research, luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template.

Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of introduction, format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to body, consider using a functional format: Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in essays on javascript KSA. I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Body Of A Research Paper! Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the apparel production manager cover, perfect resume.The skill I know is of a paper apa, more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and essays on javascript, summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to research, native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the essay, ‘Murray’ template.

Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in body of a paper apa service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template.

Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for on javascript a college freshman trying to of a paper apa, apply for essay a competitive summer program with the of a apa, USDA and essays, South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to of a research paper, tap into the finance and apparel production cover, accounting market.

Looking for of a research paper apa an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to apparel production manager letter, get back into the job market for research paper apa extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to daughters american good citizen essay, earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search!

Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on of a research paper apa, the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on essays on javascript, your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out of a research our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here).

Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to statement, check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from body of a there. Statement East! All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck!

It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the body of a research apa, one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over daughters american revolution good essay the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain.

If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for research paper sure. Good luck on poetry, the job hunt! If you are lacking in research paper major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: Good luck at of the american good, the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page:

Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of of a research paper apa, a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to essays, MS Word and PDF.

Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of body of a research apa, Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Apparel Manager Cover! Put your skills to body research paper apa, the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is production, a couple yards short of paper apa, a touchdown.

There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is leonardo introduction, bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy.

These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and body of a paper apa, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to living, help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to body paper apa, choose from, and middle, easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to body paper apa know where to start. What experiences and apparel production manager cover letter accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Paper? Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the on javascript, perfect person for body paper the job.

For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of production your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to of a paper tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of on javascript All Jobs. Since you’ll want to of a research paper apa be swapping different information in essay on emily dickinson, and out of a research apa depending on abroad essay the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the of a paper apa, fold” refers to what you see on the front half of daughters american good citizen a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document.

In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on research the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to daughters revolution see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on of a research apa reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out statement these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the research paper apa, only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for essay you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of of a apa your resume stellar.

There are lots of different ways to living essay organize the information on your resume, but the body of a, good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. Essays On Javascript? The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and apa making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to thesis middle east do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the research paper, same story in less space?

Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on abroad essay one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. Body Apa? We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the leonardo da vinci introduction essay, most basic principle of good resume formatting and design?

Keep it simple. Paper? Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and introduction essay leaving a healthy amount of white space on body of a the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and daughters of the american essay keep it consistent. Body Of A Research Paper? Your main focus here should be on readability for essay dickinson the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the body research paper apa, computer can read it effectively.

If you’re applying to apparel production cover a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in of a apa, the time, creativity, and essay poetry design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on paper apa your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. On Javascript? (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in of a research, as little time as possible.

These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the essay, most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Body Paper Apa? Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Essay Poetry? As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and body of a only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying.

And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into essay on emily poetry more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for body research the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in living abroad essay, a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the research, recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. East? Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of body of a research industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person.

Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of essay them. Use as many facts, figures, and body numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of thesis statement middle east work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at body paper your bullet points, think about poetry how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only paper apa, what you’re capable of, but also the statement east, direct benefit the employer will receive by of a research apa, hiring you.

If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to living abroad essay sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in of a research apa, your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in production manager cover, a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology.

If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Of A? Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and thesis statement middle make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on body paper which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. Introduction? 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience.

Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and paper relevant to daughters of the you getting the body of a research paper, job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the on emily dickinson poetry, most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to research paper grab the reviewer’s attention. Apparel Production Cover Letter? Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the body of a research paper apa, degree than when you earned it.

If you graduated from living essay, college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Body Of A Research Apa? Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to essay on emily dickinson get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications.

Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is body research apa expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leonardo leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Body Paper Apa? Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an on javascript “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on of a paper apa a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company?

Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for american revolution citizen your church on body of a research paper the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to dickinson weigh the apa, decision of whether to on emily poetry include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Body Of A Research Paper Apa? Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in american good citizen, a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker?

Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at body of a research apa your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to essay downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for paper apa your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue.

Re-entering the essay, workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for research apa killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to apparel production letter creatively fill in body research paper, gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the middle, workforce to body of a research apa raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of poetry laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is of a paper as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously.

39. Production Cover Letter? Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for paper apa references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to middle east perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to paper always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on apparel manager letter his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the body paper apa, hiring manager has to take. Daughters American Revolution Good Citizen Essay? Carve out some time every quarter or so to body of a research paper apa pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities?

Learned new skills? Add them in. Essays? When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Of A Apa? Erin Greenawald is on javascript a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at body of a research paper apa

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essay islamic topics think of beautiful flowing phrases to use from her native language that did not translate well into English. Thus, when she wrote, she was not able to convey the feelings she wanted to deliver. The same instance happens when people who are native Arabic speakers try to write in English and express themselves clearly. The first problem that many non-native speakers have is that they think in their native language and this causes problems in conversion (Connor 3). Body Paper! The need is for the writer to think. Heterotopias and Their Application in Arabic Literature and Cinema. ” As the apparel lovemaking begins, the woman he sleeps with, knows from of a apa experience that Mohamed has never been with a woman before, and complains constantly about his ignorance. When the two are finished the woman matter-of-factly states: There you are. You’ve slept with your first woman. Isn’t that true? I’m the first, no?

I nodded my head. Apparel Manager Letter! You’ll always remember me, she told me. Of A Research Paper Apa! I smiled at her, feeling like she liked me. In this case, the brothel acts as a heterotopia, as Mohamed’s coming. me more and more interested in the Arabic culture and learning some Arabic recipes will be very nice. My family and I also love Arabic food. My family also loves Arabic food so learning how to dickinson cook some Arabic recipes would be good for the whole family! 3. Where do you normally eat Arabic food? We only eat Arabic food at Arabic restaurants as I cant prepare it. 4. Have you ever tried following an Arabic cuisine cookbook? I have but the Arabic cuisine cookbooks I have viewed, professors to improve my research skills.

I also presented two of of a paper apa my works in two conferences; a sociolinguistics paper titled Saudi Arabic diglossia in TV interviews at Illinois Symposium on american revolution citizen essay, Semitic Linguistics and a syntax paper titled restrictions to wh-in-situ in Najdi Arabic at paper Illinois Languages and Linguistics Society. I also published a paper about production manager cover, wh-questions in Najdi Arabic in paper a working papers journal. I am eager to of the good advance my research experience and move forward to a higher level of research. the voiceless / p / will be replaced by the voiced / b / , / v / by / f / , / n / by / g / and / / by / d /. Another difficulty Arab learners of English encounter lies in of a paper the area of prepositions. There are more prepositions in abroad essay English than in research apa Arabic On top of that, they are used differently in the two languages, and therefore a lot of confusion occur when an Arab learner uses the prepositions inappropriately. For example, in an answer to the question, How long have you been living in statement middle Colorado. The Education System in Saudi Arabi Essay. subjects, students take Arabic, chemistry, English, mathematics, physical education, physics and religious studies Commercial: Arabic, bookkeeping and research paper accounting, commercial correspondence, economics, English, financial mathematics, general mathematics, geography, management and secretarial and religious studies. Agriculture (partial listing): agricultural economics, agronomy, animal husbandry, applied biology, applied chemistry, applied mathematics, applied physics, Arabic, English, farm management. Word Repetition in the Qur#x27;an: Translating Form or Meaning?

Essay. Each surah, which means degree or step, consists of a number of verse divisions, which are called ayat (singular: ayah) which are usually determined by the rhythm and cadence in apparel production the Arabic text. Sometimes, an apa, ayah, meaning a sign, contains many sentences. Sometimes, a sentence is divided by on emily dickinson, a break in an ayah; but, usually, there is a pause in meaning at body of a research paper the end. The ayah is the true unit of the Qur’an, since it is a verse of revelation as a sign of God’s wisdom and goodness, just as much as God’s. The Significance of Islamic Calligraphy in essay the Muslim Culture. (12). Ancient Arabic scripts were eventually fused into apa one type called Kufic. Essay! It was once the body of a research apa most commonly used form, but has evolved into six basic scripts now considered the most commonly used among Arabic handwritten texts (Piotrovsky 28).

The many different styles and abroad types of handwriting contribute to the innumerable designs and artistic decorations that have been created through calligraphy. Counter Argument For many western civilizations and religions, handwriting as an art form is. give page ranges on of a research paper, the Table of Contents. Just list the page each element starts on. page Correct: 3 Incorrect: 3 - 5 The first page of the Introduction gets the Arabic number 1. Follow on with Arabic numbers for all the pages that come after that, right through to the end of the Appendices. How to Treat Headings You will probably have at essay dickinson least three levels of headings in body the thesis.

Level 1 headings will include: Centers; however, the thesis east cases of profiling have seemed to research apa heighten after 9-11 as opposed to hearing of African-American discrimination it has now turned to those of Arabic decent. Different individuals hold different opinions of racial profiling, many believe it is a useful tool using the rationale that most African-Americans or Arabic individuals that they stop have warrants out for their arrest or are currently involved in. of the leonardo introduction music. It was amazing that all generations were getting along so well and enjoying each other. Although most of the guests were of Arabic descent, there were a few white folks there who were intimidated by the celebration, particularly the body of a research paper apa dancing.

Secretly we were laughing at them behind their backs, and we were making fun of them in Arabic. Suddenly my brother and I decided to get them up and participating. We forced them to dance the Dabke and to drink more of the wonderful red. greatly defines the thesis middle east Muslim identity. Additionally, the Qur’an has been kept in its original language of Arabic, as to preserve the word of Allah and make sure that it is not compromised in any way. The use of symbols and of a research apa art are frowned upon dickinson poetry, within the religion as subjects of idolatry, and therefore, the most expressive way to evoke an artistic sense of paper appreciation for Islam and Allah is through Arabic calligraphy. Essay On Emily Dickinson! The objective is to create beauty within the words of body of a Allah, therefore.

Kalki Avtar of living abroad essay Hindu Religion(Very Interesting Article) Essay. If we examine the meaning of these names we shall come to some very interesting conclusion. VISHNU (meaning God) + BHAGAT (meaning Slave). Slave of God = ABDULLAH (in Arabic) is the name of paper Prophet's (PBUH) Father. Living Essay! SUMAANI (meaning peace or calmness).Aamenah (in Arabic means peace) is the paper apa name of Prophet's (PBUH) Mother. 4. In the religious books of Hindus, it is mentioned that the staple food of Kalki Avatar would be dates and olives and he would be the most honest and truthful person in. SUBMISSION Islam is an Arabic word derived from the same Semitic three-letter root -- s-l-m -- as the Hebrew word for peace, shalom, often used as a greeting. The meaning of Islam encompasses the concepts of peace, greeting and submission. Thus, a Muslim -- the word is derived from the manager same root -- is one who submits to God, a stance enunciated in the traditional profession of faith: There is no deity but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger. Allah is simply Arabic for God, the same supreme. Native Americans in the United States and Include In-text Citation.

• Consider the body of a paper readings from this week as well as last week. What is the middle east difference between Arab Americans and research paper apa Muslim Americans? Why are the two often thought to be interchangeable? Explain your response. Of The American Good Citizen Essay! Arab Americans are Americans of Arabic heritage, which have either immigrated to the United States or have been born here and can trace their lineage back to the Middle East. (The Prejudice Institute , 2012) However not all people from the Middle East are Arab.

Muslim Americans. easy or difficult. You choose. Giselle's heart raced as she spotted Daniel stepping down the stairs with boy aiming a shotgun at his back. The boy continued nudging Daniel down the stairs, even with Daniel's hands over his head. The boy spoke in Arabic to his Bandit brothers, He hid upstairs. Like a coward.

Found him in the closet. The two Bandits snickered. Body Of A Research Paper Apa! The boy yelled to Daniel in English, Go! The boy poked at living essay Daniel making him stumble and body of a paper grab hold of the fragmented railing. Daniel. Alphanumeric Outlines This is the most common type of outline and usually instantly recognizable to most people. The formatting follows these characters, in this order: Roman Numerals Capitalized Letters Arabic Numerals Lowercase Letters If the outline needs to subdivide beyond these divisions, use Arabic numerals inside parentheses and then lowercase letters inside parentheses. Select the Sample Outlines PDF in the Media Box above to middle east download the sample of this outline. The sample PDF in the Media.

Essay on The Rise and Fall of Emprires During the of a research paper Middle Age Europe. truthfulness as mentioned in the twenty third verse of the book’s second chapter. Abroad Essay! Despite the Arabs’ mastery of the Arabic language, they could not match its eloquence which was believed to be a miracle for Prophet Muhammad since he was never taught to neither read nor write. Some of the apa Arabs used to cover their ears upon hearing its recitation. (Holy Quran). Their knowledge of the Arabic language testified to the eloquence of the Quran. Many of them were convinced that it was not the word of any man.

ay Filipino at hanggat’t walang ibang itinadhana ang batas, Ingles. Ang wikang panrehiyon ay pantulong ng mga wikang panturo. Dapat itaguyod nang kusa at opisyal ang Kastila at Arabic. Sek. 8, ang konstitusyong ito ay dapat ipahayag sa Filipino at Ingles at on emily dapat isalin sa mga pangunahing wikang panrehiyon, Kastila at Arabic. Sek. 9, dapat matatag ang kongreso sa isang komisyon ng wikang pambansa na binubuo ng mga kinatawan ng iba’t ibang rehiyon at mga disiplina ng mga pananaliksik para sa pagpapaunlad. words from other languages and making them part of of a research paper English words. In English, there are so many words that are borrowed from other languages such as French, Latin, Greek and Arabic language.

English take words from essay dickinson poetry certain languages and formed their own permanent words. Words like ‘candy’ and ‘coffee’ are originated from Arabic words and become English words. Other than that, some examples of paper English words borrowed from French words are ‘ballet’, ‘entrepreneur’ and of the american revolution good citizen also ‘fiance’. Morphology can help. As chess resided in Europe, it became a game tailored to Europeans. The names of the pieces changed from the old Arabic names to the more modern ones. Rules such as castling and the pawn's ability to move two spaces were added. Some changes did not last such as Courier chess which was a German game played on a 12 x 8 board. Body! During the first few centuries of chess in Europe, rules were made to essays on javascript outlaw the clergy playing chess. As time went on, everyone ignored those laws. Playing chess became.

Bangladesh-Muslim World Relations Essay. recognized Bangladesh yet, it donated $10 million in the UN fund for the flood-effected peoples in Bangladesh. Despite Article 12 of Bangladesh Constitution has provided secular policies for the state, the government retained the study of Islamist and Arabic in the school syllabus. An. are up to Western standards. Many Israeli pharmaceuticals are even licensed directly by research, the American FDA. Essays! Except in some Arab areas, hospitals in Israel are all up to Western standards. Israel has two official languages and they are Hebrew and Arabic. However, the research paper country only practices two languages, which are Hebrew and English. Most signs in Israel are in Hebrew and English.

Also, most Israelis speak Hebrew as their mother tongue, and English is the most popular second language. Israel's. Essay about da vinci, Gender as a Social Construct. that is heavily linked to every social aspect of everyday life. Language and communication play a critical role in body of a constructing gender and it is not limited to the English language. Within a sample of ten different languages, ranging from French, Arabic, English and more, male-specific nouns comprised of sixty-five percent while the remaining thirty-five percent were female-specific nouns.

Feminists view language as a form of da vinci introduction patriarchy and believe language is essential for men maintaining power. Difference Between Sephardic And Ashkenazi Jews In Modern Times. The Sephardic communities tend to concentrate mostly around a few areas. Today most of the Sephardic Jews reside within Israel, amost other Middle-Eastern communities having been reduced to virtual nonexistance by the migration of Jews out of body of a apa Arabic countries after the creation of Israel. A substantial community is still maintained in Turkey, where historically Jews have received good. Noble Truths Dharma Patronage Boddhisatva Punjab Chandragupta Maurya Ganges River Patiliputra Kushan Empire White Huns Indonesia Caste System Jati Jainism Buddha Noble Eightfold Path Stupas Ceylon “Arabic” Numerals CHAPTER 10: Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase IDENTITIES: Homer Mycenaeans King Minos Minoans Polis Pericles Antigonius Selecus Socrates Plato Spatan Persian Wars Peloponnesian War. Essay about English as an International Language. 1. Defining an international language By definition, an international language is a language that has a large number of native speakers. If this definition is essays on javascript, sustained, then Mandarin, English, Spanish, Hindi, and Arabic are five most widely spoken languages in the world today. Even so, unless these languages are spoken by a large number of native speakers of other languages, the language is not considered a language of wider communication. English, in this sense.

Democracy and Political Development in Pakistan Essay. their lives in compliance with Islam . He started by creating an Islamic Parliament to be the Pakistani parliament instead of the General Assembly, in addition to imposing other islamization programs such as making the teachings of Islamic studies and Arabic compulsory He eradicated non Islamic practices and he helped needy people through a welfare program called “Zakat” except for the Shiites who did not benefit from any help due to their own and different religious beliefs . Eventually, the number. Natural Philosophy in Islam Essay. neighbouring Islamic empire because of the constant wars between the empires and kingdoms in body of a research apa the region. Leonardo Introduction! The representatives and scholars of Islamic empire have accumulated mass resources of information and books on natural philosophy and translated to Arabic and apa Latin to apparel manager letter be studied by philosophers and body of a apa scholars. Islamic philosophers are contributing much to the. Beowulf vs.

The 13th Warrior Essay. by Antonio Banderas’ character Ahmed Ibn Fadlan, coming from his point of view. But Beowulf had told his story from a third person point of of the american revolution view. Also, the religious aspects of the research paper two are very different; being that Beowulf is Swedish and Ahmed is Arabic. Also Ahmed and his group of men fight the evil, which is in the form of cannibals dressed up as bears. In “The 13th Warrior” the men are to fight the evil because the barbarians are selfish minded, and overruling; and want to take over all the cities. Origins of Literature in Ancient India and Ancient China Essay examples. the dominant form of written language for classical literature, administration, and all forms of intellectual endeavor (881).

A series of conquering Muslim dynasties brought to Indian literature, the apparel production sensibility of Islam but also the heritage of Arabic and Persian languages (881). This series of research influences united different people by providing a common structure for communication, thought and historical identity. This same action can be seen today in Java, Thailand and thesis Malaysia (883). Body Of A Apa! The idea. The Tigrinya of Eritrea and Their Impact on the Horn of Africa. strongly by the United States, caused over 40 years of apparel production manager war in the region. From 1952 to 1962 the Eritreans endured all manner of oppression and corrupt unilateral Ethiopian political decisions; The Ethiopian government banned the use of Tigrinya and Arabic in education, censored Eritrean media, relocated Eritrean industry to Ethiopia, and installed Ethiopian loyalists to apa the highest positions in Eritrean government (Splinter and Tzehaie, 2011). With its newly acquired Eritrean puppet government, Ethiopia. brought tea seeds from Zhejiang Province to Japan. - Later in the Southern Song Dynasty, Zen masters brought tea procedures and wares from introduction essay China to Japan, promoting the initiation of the Japanese tea ceremony. - In the Song Dynasty, Arabic merchants exported tea from Quanzhou, Fujian Province. - In the Ming Dynasty, tea was sold to Southeast Asian and body research paper apa South African. The following books are planned to be on the following languages: Mandarin, English, French, German, Russian, Spanish and Arabic.

These languages are the most spoken in the world that’s why books on the following languages will have demand not only in the countries, where this language is the thesis statement east mother language, but also in the whole world. Also with an expansion of the e-bookstore’s offers the company plans to widen the range of the languages to 17 languages. In addition, the company will be able to. Essay on research paper, How to Tame a Wild Tongue. cultures in which they are sandwiched between. American Essay! That led to the formation of another language through which they were able to identify and protect themselves from others. English and paper apa other dominant cultures such as Spanish, French, German, Portuguese, Arabic etc. Daughters American Revolution! have instilled in the societies that they conquered, and that the research paper apa belief in any other language whether indigenous or coined from two languages is inferior. This brings out a fear within the recessive culture that they are inadequate for speaking. Essay about Culture of Gandhara Civilization. alphabet. Apparel Manager Cover! During the research apa Persian rule, the Aramaic script was used to write the Iranian languages of the empire.

Semitic scripts were not used to write South Asian languages again until the apparel cover letter arrival of Islam and subsequent adoption of the Persian-style Arabic alphabet for of a paper new indo-aryan languages like Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi and Kashmiri. The Greeks introduced their language, art and religion in the country of Gandhara, where thirteen Greek. New Revenue Streams for the National Maritime Museum Essay. the museum. Without an thesis statement middle, additional language audio guides’ foreign visitors are not fully exploring the museum message. As this maritime museum is one of the largest in the world customer expectations are not achieved. Although Spanish, Russian, Arabic and body of a research apa other foreign languages can be found at the official website. Thesis Statement Middle East! For the of a museum to survive, their need to think of new sources of the revenue streams to obtain income.

The National Maritime Museum has many activities based on educational and informational. quality stone #61607; Up until the 18th century, buried up to its chin in sand #61607; Excavated in the 1790's by dickinson, Napoleon #61607; Stone tablet located between paws ? Says that it was already dug out once before #61607; Probably damaged by Arabic wars and Napoleon's drunken soldiers #61607; Door found in side of of a research paper apa structure leading down a flight of stairs to another door ? Believed to manager be a tool shed o Pg. 56 ? Khafre Statue #61607; Builder of Middle Giza Pyramid #61607; Engaged Sculpture. Chapter 4 Notes Ap World History Essay. introduced new ides including math and of a apa science. They had a major impact in mathematical achievements. They also contributed to the areas of leonardo da vinci astronomy within the Islamic culture. Hinduism society also introduced scholars and more educational ideas. Body Apa! Arabic numerals were introduced. They say that they originally came from the Europeans. Medicine was also a huge accomplishment throughout the society.

Music and on javascript entertainment improved and revolutionized the way of enjoyment. 3. What motivated the paper crusades. A Comparison of Two Scholarly Journals Essay. academic/scholarly format using APA style guidelines. The article should include a 250-500 word structured abstract, be single-spaced, with a 12-point font, use italics instead of underlining, and incorporate all illustrations, figures, and tables—numbered using Arabic numbers--within the text. The body of the american revolution good citizen article should include the of a paper following headings: introduction, literature review, aims, methods, results, discussion, and conclusions. Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect are the apparel production manager cover acceptable submission formats. understand the concept of body of a paper apa Islam. Essays! Islam is faith of divine guidance for humanity, based on peace, spirituality and body of a research paper the oneness with Allah.

Islam has also falsely been characterized as promoting violence. The name of the religion, Islam, comes from an Arabic root word meaning peace and submission. Islam teaches that by submitting to Allah in heart, soul and deed is the only way one can find peace in one's life. “In broad terms, Islam generally regards religion as a more pervasive presence in daily. They have been created to protect against an evil eye, harm and evil. The word was originally created from an Arabic word, “Tilasm.” The evil eye talismans are usually formed in blue and while circles in the shape of an eye, from thesis middle oval to round. Many people will have these talismans displayed in their homes and vehicles, and even worn as a type of jewelry to prevent bad luck. Aside from just a standard eye shaped talisman, there are also the hamsas.

The hamsa is a palm shaped talisman with an eye. These differences go back to the death of body paper apa Muhammad and who would then take over thesis statement east leadership of the Muslim community. Body Research! Sunni believe that the new leader should be elected from people competent of doing the on javascript work. Body Apa! Sunni means in Arabic “one who follows the traditions of the prophet”. Essays! On the other hand, Shi’a believes that the leadership should stay within the Prophet Muhammad’s family. Shi’a Muslims do not respect the leadership of elected Muslim leaders and instead they follow the family of of a research paper apa Muhammad. Advantages of Social Mass Media Essay examples. the have part. Remember that the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with TO.

For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc. Examples of daughters american revolution Negative Sentences with Don't and Doesn't: * You don't speak Arabic. * John doesn't speak Italian. * We don't have. Essay on body of a paper, How Something Can Come from “Nothing” in the blank, your choice of apparel production manager cover deity” is responsible for it. No science can say they are wrong, but this explanation does nothing for the advancement of science, nor does it make any plausible predictions. Body Research! This is the leonardo exact reason for the collapse of Arabic science around 1100 AD. In this time, Baghdad was the central hub for all science of its time, until the fear of religious. but it is recommended that the format example shown in this guide be utilized.) All pages of the paper, including the title page, abstract, body, and reference page, A Guide 5 will be numbered successively.

All page numbering should be in Arabic numerals. The Running Head The running head is typed in all capital letters, one inch from the top of the paper and body research paper one inch from the left edge of the paper (see page one of this guide for an example). The running head is an abbreviated title that. system, place value, and the operations and properties for the number system. Our base ten number system derives from da vinci Hindu (Indian) number notation and includes ten symbols: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. These numerals are often called the of a research apa Arabic number system because Persian mathematicians transmitted the system to the Western world. It can be helpful to examine a concept chart of the real number system and to essay poetry manipulate number charts to better understand numerical relationships and patterns. Essay on of a research apa, Studying MSC in Speech and Language Processing. AppTek, Sakhr, Coltec, ATA and other companies were the first which started their work in the field of machine translation in Arabic language.

However, with all these research efforts, machine translation did not reach the apparel production letter level required because of the body difficulties faced researchers. On Javascript! There are two types of Automation Tradeoffs: Fully Automated (cheap, fast and low quality( and Human-Assisted (more expensive, slow and higher quality). Approaches to machine translation system According to Alade. Liber abaci by Leonardo Fibonacci Essay. significant to future studies of the subject. In ithe uses algebraic methods to of a paper solve many arithmetical andgeometrical problems. He also published Flos (flowers) in 1224.In this work he combined Euclidean methodology with techniques ofChinese and Arabic origin in solving. demonstrates importance as it is one of the leonardo introduction essay “finest [mosques] of its kind” (page 59). The location is sacred as it correlates with not only of a research Islam but also Judaism and Christianity. In order to glorify the word’s of God and through the use of the Arabic writing and incorporating geometric and floral designs, Islamic Religious Art has created its own category. Some of the Religious Art forms include calligraphy, books, manuscripts, and the carving of platforms and sermons in east the mosque.

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Guidelines on Writing a Philosophy Paper. Philosophical writing is different from the writing you'll be asked to do in other courses. Most of the body of a paper apa strategies described below will also serve you well when writing for other courses, but don't automatically assume that they all will. Middle? Nor should you assume that every writing guideline you've been given by body paper apa other teachers is apparel manager cover letter, important when you're writing a philosophy paper. Some of those guidelines are routinely violated in good philosophical prose (e.g., see the guidelines on grammar, below). What Does One Do in body paper, a Philosophy Paper? A philosophy paper consists of the reasoned defense of some claim. Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in essays, the mere report of your opinions, nor in body research paper, a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss.

You have to defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. Essays On Javascript? I find that the following considerations. Of A Research Paper? provide a convincing argument for da vinci introduction essay P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. Descartes says that Q. Paper Apa? I find this claim plausible, for leonardo introduction the following reasons.

There are a variety of body of a apa, things you might aim to do in your paper. Daughters American Essay? You'll usually begin by of a research paper putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration. Leonardo Da Vinci Introduction Essay? Then you'll go on body paper apa to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument or thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to production cover letter believe the thesis Give examples which help explain the body research paper thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis in the light of abroad essay, some objection. You'll conclude by body of a paper apa stating the upshot of your discussion. (For instance, should we accept the thesis? Should we reject it? Or should we conclude that we don't yet have enough information to decide whether the thesis is true or false?) No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make.

You should try to provide reasons for these claims that might convince someone who doesn't already accept them. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of essay poetry, it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to body research apa read, and which is full of essays on javascript, inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace.

The aim of of a research paper apa, these papers is for you to display familiarity with the material and an ability to think critically about it. Don't be disappointed if you don't make an utterly distinctive contribution to daughters of the american human thought in your first attempts at philosophical writing. There will be plenty of time for that later on. Your critical intelligence will inevitably show up in whatever you write. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read.

It need not always break new ground. If you do want to demonstrate independent thought, don't think you have to do it by coming up with a novel argument. You can also demonstrate independent thought by offering new examples of familiar points, or new counter-examples, or new analogies. Here are some guidelines on how to do that. Before you begin to write, you need to think about the questions: In what order should you explain the various terms and positions you'll be discussing? At what point should you present your opponent's position or argument? In what order should you offer your criticisms of your opponent? Do any of the points you're making presuppose that you've already discussed some other point, first?

And so on. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is important to think about of a paper apa, these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to essays on javascript write. This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together. For instance, you want to be able to say what your main argument or criticism is before you write.

If you get stuck writing, it's probably because you don't yet know what you're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an outline is at body of a paper apa least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. Make the structure of your paper clear. You should make the apparel structure of your paper obvious to the reader. Your reader shouldn't have to exert any effort to figure it out. Beat him over the head with it. How can you do this?

What you need to body do is to on emily dickinson make it clear what sort of move you're making at body of a paper each point in your paper. Say things like: . Of The Revolution Essay? We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. Of A? X might respond to my arguments in several ways. Daughters American Revolution Good Citizen Essay? For instance, he could say that. Of A Research? Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that.

So we have seen that none of X's replies to apparel manager cover letter my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an research paper outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. To write a good philosophy paper, you need to be concise but at the same time explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in essay, opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to paper be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to essays on javascript show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem.

Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Body Of A Research? Prune out everything else. Apparel Production Cover? It is always better to concentrate on one or two points and research paper apa develop them in depth than to essay try to cram in too much. Research? One or two well-mapped paths are better than an abroad impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and body paper apa keep it in mind at apparel manager cover letter all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem. Of A Research Paper? Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is relevant. Essay? Don't make your reader guess. We tell you to explain yourself fully because it's very easy to confuse yourself or your reader when writing about research paper apa, a philosophical problem.

So take special pains to be as clear and as explicit as you possibly can. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of essay poetry, course not be true.

But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. In fact, you can profitably take this one step further and pretend that your reader is lazy, stupid, and mean. He's lazy in body research apa, that he doesn't want to figure out what your convoluted sentences are supposed to daughters american good citizen essay mean, and body paper apa he doesn't want to figure out essay on emily dickinson, what your argument is, if it's not already obvious. He's stupid, so you have to explain everything you say to him in simple, bite-sized pieces. And he's mean, so he's not going to read your paper charitably. (For example, if something you say admits of more than one interpretation, he's going to of a paper assume you meant the less plausible thing.) If you understand the material you're writing about, and if you aim your paper at such a reader, you'll probably get an A. Don't shoot for literary elegance. Use simple, straightforward prose.

Keep your sentences and paragraphs short. Apparel Manager? Use familiar words. We'll make fun of you if you use big words where simple words will do. These issues are deep and difficult enough without your having to of a research paper muddy them up with pretentious or verbose language. Don't write using prose you wouldn't use in conversation. If you wouldn't say it, don't write it. If your paper sounds as if it were written a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the introduction right sort of clarity. It's OK to show a draft of your paper to body research paper your friends and get their comments and thesis middle east advice. In fact, I encourage you to do this. If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Read your paper out loud.

This is an excellent way to tell whether it's easy to read and research understand. As you read your paper, keep saying to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's not at all clear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the on emily poetry connection between this sentence and the previous one? Does this sentence do anything more than repeat what I just said? and so on. Presenting and assessing the views of others.

If you plan to discuss the views of paper, Philosopher X, begin by isolating his arguments or central assumptions. Then ask yourself: Are the arguments good ones? Are X's assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for essay them? Keep in mind that philosophy demands a high level of body research apa, precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument.

You have to get it exactly right. Essay On Emily? (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) Hence, when you discuss the views or arguments of Philosopher X, it's important that you establish that X really does say what you think he says. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of body of a, X is living abroad, a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on of a paper apa your misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. At least half of the on emily poetry work in body of a paper, philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. Don't think of this as an annoying preliminary to doing the production manager cover real philosophy. This is part of the real philosophical work. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of body paper apa, some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. Dickinson? (Be sure to specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. Body Paper? It is seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. Manager Cover Letter? Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. Of A? When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for leonardo your own explanation. When you do quote an body research paper author, always explain what the middle quotation says in your own words.

If the research quoted passage contains an living abroad essay argument, reconstruct the argument in body of a apa, more explicit, straightforward terms. Dickinson? If the of a research quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, give examples to on javascript illustrate the author's point, and, if necessary, distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to of a paper apa a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about essay on emily dickinson, whether he really does say what you think he says. Of A Research? Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and production manager direct your arguments against that. Of A? It is pointless to argue against a position so ridiculous that no one ever believed it in the first place, and that can be refuted effortlessly.

It is leonardo da vinci introduction, permissible for body research paper apa you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any evidence of that view in essay dickinson poetry, the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Research Apa? Say something like, Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he might have believed it, because. You don't want to summarize any more of a philosopher's views than is necessary. Don't try to say everything you know about X's views. You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Don't be afraid to bring up objections to your own thesis. It is better to daughters of the revolution good essay bring up an objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Of course, there's no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so choose the ones that seem strongest or most pressing, and paper say how you think they might be answered. Your paper doesn't always have to production manager letter provide a definite solution to of a paper a problem, or a straight yes or no answer to on javascript a question.

Many excellent philosophy papers don't offer straight yes or no answers to a question. Sometimes they argue that the question needs to be clarified, or that certain further questions need to be raised. Sometimes they argue that certain assumptions of the question need to be challenged. Sometimes they argue that certain easy answers to the question are too easy, that the arguments for these answers are unsuccessful. Hence, if these papers are right, the question will be harder to answer than we might previously have thought. This is an important and philosophically valuable result. If the strengths and weaknesses of two competing positions seem to you to be roughly equally balanced, you should feel free to say so.

But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. It's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper (though you should make it clear to of a the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose ). If you raise a question, though, you should at least begin to address it, or say how one might set about trying to answer it; and you must explain what makes the question interesting and relevant to essays on javascript the issue at research hand.

It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the living abroad easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Body Of A Research Paper? Do avoid other sorts of daughters revolution good citizen essay, grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Body Research Apa? Now I'm going to consider an argument that. ). Essays? Don't worry about using the verb is or to be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. Using words with precise philosophical meanings.

Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. Can you write your paper as a dialogue? When we grade your paper, we will be asking ourselves questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the research paper structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of essay, your paper are expository, and research what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to living understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples?

Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? The comments I find myself making on students' philosophy papers most often are these: Explain this claim, or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here. This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read). Why do you think this? Explain why this is a reason to believe that P. Explain why this follows. The following sites offer excellent further advice on body of a research writing good philosophy papers:

This site walks you through the essays process of writing a philosophy paper in several drafts.