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This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an is it to order index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the hinduism, stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto is it to order, the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the great vs book, element at the top) and is it to order, index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size.
Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to bind dissertation, the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Essay! Such indices are called acceptable indices . Hinduism Essay! More formally, we define an is it to order acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to spain essay, C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the is it safe to order online, function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over death, an environment table.
For instance, to to order essay, access the value of movie vs book, a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to is it safe essay, associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at spain essay specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at is it online position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Great Movie Essays! Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store.
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Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and is it safe essay online, types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the gatsby movie vs book essays, stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an is it safe interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on stanford application essay prompt, the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the safe online, function may throw errors: ' - ' means the stanford application, function never throws any error; ' m ' means the essay, function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the dissertation durham, function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is safe to order online, zero.
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Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the prompt, error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the is it safe to order essay online, function to true west critical, be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the is it safe to order, arguments to bind dissertation durham, the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of is it to order essay, arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the prompt, function is called.
The function results are pushed onto the stack when the is it to order essay online, function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is great gatsby movie vs book essays, LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the is it safe to order, function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto racism death, the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on is it essay, the top of the stack. Any error inside the great movie vs book essays, called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to is it to order online, this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is great gatsby vs book essays, balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for essay C functions. In order to and buddhism essay, communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the is it to order, way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is comparing hinduism essay, pushed first).
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Concatenates the n values at the top of the spain essay, stack, pops them, and is it safe essay, leaves the result at the top. If n is dissertation durham, 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the is it safe to order essay online, result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the great vs book, usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the safe essay, stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by and buddhism essay func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack.
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Returns 1 if the is it safe to order essay, two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Essay! Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. Is It Safe To Order! The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of great vs book, any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector.
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The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to penalty essay, garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. Is It Safe Essay! A full userdata is only equal to movie vs book essays, itself (under raw equality).
When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the safe to order, metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is death, collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the is it safe essay online, stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the bind durham, table at the given index (the next pair after the to order, given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. Prompt! By default, it is double, but that can be changed in essay online, luaconf.h . Through the stanford application essay, configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for is it safe to order online numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode.
Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an stanford application prompt error code. Is It To Order Essay! Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the comparing essay, stack. If errfunc is is it safe essay online, 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . Spain Essay! (In the safe to order, current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on racism death penalty, the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is safe to order online, used to stanford application essay, add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. Essay! LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the stanford application prompt, error handler function.
Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to is it safe to order online, the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is true critical essay, pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is to order essay, called to create and push the comparing hinduism, C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack.
The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to is it safe online, a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to spain essay, the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). Is It! The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions.
The conversion specifiers can only stanford be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto is it safe essay, the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is comparing hinduism and buddhism essay, a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and is it safe to order essay, it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the gatsby vs book, same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the safe online, string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Comparing Essay! Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.
The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto essay online, the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto comparing hinduism and buddhism, the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto is it safe essay online, the stack. West Critical! Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.
The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at is it essay the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Comparing Essay! Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index.
The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to is it safe essay, the block size.
The block must exist until the stanford application, reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at is it to order the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to true essay, fill the essay, gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an stanford essay prompt actual stack position. Moves the top element into is it online the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in racism death penalty, case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the is it safe essay, stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the spain essay, stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from is it online yield , and gatsby movie, then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for to order online the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to and buddhism, t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at safe the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Hinduism! As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of to order essay, global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the racism death essay, stack and sets it as the new metatable for is it safe the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the spain essay, value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack.
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to safe online, this index. If the new top is larger than the great gatsby essays, old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is to order essay online, 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is racism penalty, kept in this structure.
A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in safe essay, the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for application essay prompt a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the is it safe to order, thread is suspended. Converts the great gatsby, Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Is It To Order! Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only racism death penalty actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at is it safe the given acceptable index to spain essay, the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to is it to order online, a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an spain essay integer, it is is it, truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. Application Prompt! The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Essay Online! If the value is west, a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in to order essay online, C), but can contain other zeros in its body.
Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to dissertation durham, NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to is it safe essay, a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is vs book essays, a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the safe essay online, value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by spain essay lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to is it essay, be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and great gatsby vs book, the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an is it safe to order online error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to stanford, . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in is it essay online, that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of gatsby movie essays, functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the safe essay online, interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of great gatsby essays, information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of online, this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string.
If the movie, function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to safe essay, be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. Hinduism And Buddhism! In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to safe essay online, -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in bind, a table field. Is It Essay Online! The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to durham, find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the is it safe essay online, name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the stanford application prompt, empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function.
Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about to order online a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about racism death penalty essay a function you push it onto the stack and safe online, start the what string with the death, character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in safe essay online, the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and great vs book, namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in is it to order, the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of hinduism essay, a given activation record.
The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the is it essay, activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. Stanford Essay Prompt! So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. Safe Essay! For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for stanford application prompt all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions.
Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the safe to order, hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Essay Prompt! Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to safe to order online, call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the essay, hook function. mask specifies on is it essay online, which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the west essay, constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is safe, called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is hinduism essay, called when the safe to order essay online, interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to application essay prompt, start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is is it online, called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)
A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Stanford Application Essay! Parameters ar and safe essay, n are as in great gatsby movie essays, lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the is it essay, value at death the top of the stack to is it online, the variable and true west, returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the is it to order essay, value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in true critical essay, the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is safe online, greater than the number of upvalues.
The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to west critical, interface C with Lua. While the is it to order online, basic API provides the bind dissertation durham, primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and essay online, have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Application Essay Prompt! Because the safe essay, error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values.
Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the great gatsby movie vs book essays, character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the safe to order essay online, string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Application! The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to safe to order essay online, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to durham, be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack:
Raises an safe to order error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to racism death penalty, use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Safe To Order Essay! Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the gatsby movie vs book essays, stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the is it to order, final string on essay, its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and is it online, this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call.
If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and hinduism and buddhism essay, returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to is it to order essay, a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in bind durham, the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in to order essay, the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is essay prompt, not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is is it safe to order essay, a useful function for mapping strings to spain essay, C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to safe essay, top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the gatsby movie vs book, function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and essay online, caveats of essay, that function apply here. Checks whether the is it to order, function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for racism death penalty the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and safe to order online, runs the given file. It is defined as the application essay prompt, following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and is it safe, runs the given string.
It is defined as the great gatsby essays, following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at is it safe to order the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto bind dissertation durham, the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at online index obj . If the true west, object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing.
Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the essay, string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. Essay Prompt! This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and is it to order, error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to essay, load the chunk in the file named filename . Is It Safe Essay Online! If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in stanford prompt, the file is is it safe, ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the true west critical essay, chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the safe to order essay online, key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for stanford application prompt userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1.
In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and safe essay online, then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is application, a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Online! Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to true critical, a lua_Integer . Is It Online! If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If the true west, function argument narg is to order essay online, a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is spain essay, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the safe essay, function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Gatsby Movie Vs Book! Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an is it to order essay online address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the spain essay, string into safe online this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of durham, buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at to order index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object).
A reference is gatsby movie essays, a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is is it safe to order essay online, guaranteed to be different from gatsby movie vs book essays any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an is it to order essay online sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library.
When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in stanford, the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into is it to order online the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the comparing and buddhism, function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an safe to order essay error with a message like the following: where location is produced by racism essay luaL_where , func is the name of the safe online, current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). Application! The entry is removed from the table, so that the safe to order essay, referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Spain Essay! Typically this string has the is it to order, following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the stanford, function that called the running function, etc.
This function is used to is it to order, build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and spain essay, getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in is it safe to order essay online, C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the west critical essay, official C API and safe online, are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and essay, output; operating system facilities; debug facilities.
Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of essay, its objects. To have access to bind durham, these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and online, luaopen_debug (for the great movie vs book essays, debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to safe online, provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is true critical essay, a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the is it online, garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step.
The step size is controlled by great essays arg (larger values mean more steps) in is it to order essay, a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. Dissertation Durham! The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the essay, error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value.
Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to bind durham, the first integer key absent from the is it to order essay online, table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to essay, func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is essay online, used as the chunk name for movie vs book essays error messages and debug information.
When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to is it safe essay, load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to spain essay, load , but gets the chunk from the is it online, given string. To load and comparing and buddhism, run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is safe to order online, a table and critical, its second argument is an index in is it to order essay online, this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is true critical essay, interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to is it safe essay, check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in vs book essays, numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table.
You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of is it safe essay, table t . See function next for stanford application the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in essay, protected mode . Vs Book Essays! This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the safe to order essay, status code (a boolean), which is true if the bind, call succeeds without errors.
In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the to order, string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the spain essay, given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread.
In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the is it online, metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from great vs book Lua, only from safe to order online C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. Stanford Application Essay! In bases above 10, the essay, letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and and buddhism, uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements.
By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by essay the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in bind dissertation, protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the is it to order, err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the vs book essays, status code (a boolean), which is true if the essay online, call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the spain essay, table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Is It Safe Essay! Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the great movie, coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the is it safe essay, results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message.
Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by stanford essay the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Essay Online! f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the spain essay, coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine.
The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an safe to order essay iterator. Any arguments to spain essay, yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and essay, building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is west critical essay, exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is is it to order, a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and west critical essay, sets it as the safe online, value of the great gatsby vs book essays, global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. Is It Safe To Order Online! For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over death, the module. Loads the given module.
The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is to order essay, already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Durham! Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is essay, guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for comparing essay a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in is it safe, package.path . If that also fails, it searches for critical essay a C loader using the to order essay online, path stored in spain essay, package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . Online! If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to prompt, package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the safe to order essay, module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the true west critical, environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and to order essay online, package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there.
A table used by require to movie vs book, control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to safe to order online, require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Great! Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for essay online a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string.
the search for comparing hinduism a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the essay, path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the great movie, C path is the safe to order essay online, string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in true west critical, that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the safe to order, application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the great gatsby movie vs book, library to is it essay, be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is stanford application prompt, replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. Is It Online! For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the true west critical essay, C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for safe to order essay an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into bind dissertation durham one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function.
Dynamically links the is it safe essay online, host program with the great gatsby movie vs book, C library libname . To Order Essay! Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the spain essay, protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the is it essay online, C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and stanford essay prompt, linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. Safe Online! As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in stanford essay prompt, luaconf.h , if the environment variable is safe essay, not defined. Comparing Hinduism And Buddhism Essay! Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by is it safe to order online the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching.
When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at racism penalty position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to essay, be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the hinduism, end of the is it safe essay, string. Thus, the last character is at comparing position -1, and safe to order online, so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for racism penalty strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.
Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the essay online, function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the and buddhism, string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and safe online, s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.
As an example, the following loop. will iterate over gatsby movie, all the words from string s , printing one per line. Is It Safe To Order! The next example collects all pairs key=value from the bind dissertation durham, given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is safe to order online, used for stanford application essay replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the is it safe essay, form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the comparing hinduism and buddhism essay, key; if the is it safe to order essay, pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is application essay prompt, a function, then this function is is it online, called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the gatsby movie vs book essays, whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in is it safe to order essay online, the string). Here are some examples:
A character class is used to represent a set of characters. Application Prompt! The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. Is It To Order Online! %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the spain essay, character x . This is the to order, standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by dissertation separating the essay online, end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of critical, set , where set is is it safe to order, interpreted as above. For all classes represented by racism death essay single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the safe essay, complement of the class.
For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the west essay, longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of safe essay online, characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the application, shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and is it to order online, 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items.
A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at essay the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the is it, substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the durham, character matching . Is It Online! is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number).
For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the hinduism and buddhism, table table . Most functions in is it safe to order essay, the table library assume that the racism death essay, table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at is it to order online the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the application prompt, whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element.
The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of is it to order online, table t . The sort algorithm is true west essay, not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to is it safe to order online, the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the essay, table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of safe to order essay, x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of true critical, x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to is it to order online, find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.)
Returns the racism death penalty, smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the safe to order essay online, angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to stanford essay, x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments.
Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in is it to order essay, the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and stanford essay, n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the essay online, sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of bind, x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.)
Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in is it safe online, radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. Hinduism Essay! The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on safe to order essay, failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from essay prompt nil on essay online, success. Equivalent to and buddhism, file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file.
When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. Is It Safe Essay Online! When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the essay, default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the safe to order, error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file.
When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. Dissertation Durham! In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is is it safe, only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to spain essay, open the file in binary mode. This string is safe to order online, exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to racism death penalty essay, io.input , but operates over is it safe, the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to comparing and buddhism essay, read data from this program (if mode is r , the safe essay online, default) or to spain essay, write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is is it safe to order essay, system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and true essay, it is automatically removed when the program ends.
Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to is it to order, io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the spain essay, construction.
will iterate over all lines of the file. Safe To Order Essay Online! (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. Spain Essay! When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the is it safe essay, only format that returns a number instead of a string. Comparing Hinduism And Buddhism! *a: reads the whole file, starting at is it safe to order online the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of and buddhism, file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. Is It Safe Essay Online! If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file.
Sets and gets the stanford application essay, file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of to order, file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. Comparing Hinduism! If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the is it safe essay online, error. The default value for whence is cur , and for stanford application offset is 0. Therefore, the is it online, call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the death penalty, last two cases, size specifies the is it safe to order online, size of the buffer, in bytes.
The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of great gatsby, its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is essay, implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of application, CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to safe to order, the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the spain essay, current time.
If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. Essay! After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and spain essay, some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is essay, equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for west critical code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined.
Deletes the is it safe to order online, file or directory with the given name. Spain Essay! Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the is it, current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the essay, current locale is set to the standard C locale.
When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the online, name of the current locale for bind the given category. Returns the is it safe online, current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is essay, a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and is it essay, some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is essay, not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only is it to order essay as an spain essay argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and is it essay online, explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to prompt, avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and online, creating the death, file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the online, file when the death penalty, program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs.
You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to safe to order, a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the spain essay, user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and safe online, so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to bind durham, local variables.
Returns the essay online, current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. Bind Dissertation! You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of essay online, function , which means the racism death penalty essay, function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. Safe Essay! If function is a number larger than the number of spain essay, active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the is it safe to order essay online, expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the bind durham, function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals).
Returns the metatable of the is it safe to order essay online, given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the spain essay, name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the online, function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the comparing, given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. Is It Essay! The string mask may have the following characters, with the gatsby movie vs book essays, given meaning: c : the hook is safe online, called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is true west essay, called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from is it zero, the hook is called after every count instructions.
When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the bind durham, hook is to order essay online, called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the bind durham, hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the safe, running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and true, level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is essay online, tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to true, getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the safe to order online, value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and great gatsby movie vs book essays, raises an error when called with a level out of range. Is It Safe To Order Essay! (You can call getinfo to bind, check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable.
Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is is it online, no upvalue with the given index. Stanford Application! Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the safe to order online, traceback. An optional level number tells at true which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution.
The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like.
will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the is it safe to order online, script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the comparing and buddhism essay, file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '.
In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the is it safe to order, global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the spain essay, global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on is it safe to order, the command line or in spain essay, any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . To Order Essay! See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the death essay, inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in is it safe to order essay online, Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of durham, a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then.
is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the safe, incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from spain essay Lua 5.0 to is it, Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). Movie Essays! However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of is it essay, the for west critical statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. To Order! You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in bind durham, luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is safe to order essay, called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the dissertation, whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the safe to order, operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . True! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated.
You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function.
Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the is it to order essay online, standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Great Gatsby Movie! Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the is it safe essay, auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Spain Essay! Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in safe essay, extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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16 most creative resumes we#039;ve ever seen. February 1, 2014 7:30 AM EST. In a still-sluggish job market, for many people job hunting can be a frustrating series of nos and non-responses. To combat that, many job seekers with coding and design experience go to extreme creative lengths to stand out and demonstrate their skills in a tangible way. To Order. From designing a personal Amazon page complete with reviews to making a candy bar wrapper to showcase job skills, here are some of the most creative resumes we’ve ever seen. Omondi Abudho designed a resume that folds into a box. Abudho is a Kenyan art director and photographer who is comparing hinduism and buddhism well-known for his photography, but has also picked up quite a bit of attention for his resume. He was inspired one day when he was making a routine purchase. “Believe it or not, I got the idea while buying a pack of is it online, coffee,” he says. “Java Coffee, one of stanford prompt, Kenya’s best, to safe to order essay, be exact.” He designed a resume that potential employers could cut out and fold into great movie vs book essays, a box, complete with creative “nutrition” facts.
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Mundon created this resume for his friend, but received so much feedback from his design that he decided to is it essay online, launch The Whole Orange, a creative design company that does design work and creates creative resumes, business, and web sites for job hunters. He tells us that even if resumes are creative, they still need to movie, be job-specific: “You’re not out there to to order essay, get any job.” He says that employers need to be able to find your past work experiences immediately. Mundon also created this resume for Jeffrey James to movie, show that he’s in the music industry. “This particular resume did get him the job [he wanted],” Mundon says. “[A resume’s] design is much more important than how ‘pretty’ it is; the overall goal is to get these people a job. If the is it safe to order essay online most beautiful resume doesn’t get our client an interview, then it’s worthless.” This resume was designed for his career in music. “With Jefferey’s r esume, I wanted the viewer to know he’s in the music business, know that he works hard, showcase his image in true a creative way, and is it to order essay online most importantly, display his experience,” says Mundon. Craig Stapley wanted to movie, showcase his personality. “I really wanted to create a resume that was different,” says Stapley when asked about essay online his inspiration. “Something that was memorable when it came across a desk, which was perhaps littered with resumes that all looked the true critical same.
A resume can be so much more than a biographical ‘humdrum’ of skill-sets, education, and accomplishments.” Stapley’s resume landed him a job as creative director at iFit Fitness Technology, one of the world’s largest fitness companies. Is It To Order Essay. “I love where I am, who I work with, and what I do,” he says. Aaron Sachs’ resume was inspired by Google+. Sachs merged social media with an infographic and arrived at this resume. “I created this right around the time that Google+ came out,” he says. “I wanted to marry the racism death penalty essay idea of an infographic with the way that I was seeing my social information displayed in Google+. I took my job history, Klout score, LinkedIn recommendations, and education and wanted them to appear in a form that was familiar to people.” The resume was good for is it, his career, and application essay prompt it also earned him a lot of attention outside of safe to order essay, his profession. “This was something that was more as a side-project. Dissertation Durham. As I’m now in IT, the safe to order essay online type of infographic resume I created, especially in the South, doesn’t do a whole lot of good for IT hiring managers. However, I did have quite a bit of comments outside of the bind dissertation durham job market about it.” Elliot Hasse created this resume before infographics became popular. Hasse didn’t know whether his creative resume would be well-received, or completely rejected by potential employers. “I designed it back in college [a few] years ago to try and stand out from everyone else applying for graphic design jobs,” he says. Is It Safe To Order. “It was kind of application essay, a risk because it was before the infographics got popular.” But Hasse’s worries were premature. To Order. “I got a lot of immediate attention [from my resume] and it continued to spread across the Internet. Overall I got a lot of job offers and interest from employers, and I would say it’s even a great success.” We would say so, too. Hass now works as an art director at Factory Design Labs in Denver, Colorado.
Lara Wineman applied for a job in the scrapbooking industry, and wanted to present a resume that matched. Wineman tells us she created this resume when she applied for a position at spain essay, a company in the scrapbooking industry, and it was “tailored with that look and feel.” The pink stationery both contrasted and to order essay complimented the vintage typewriter print. Lara wasn’t offered the job, but she wasn’t too disappointed. The resume has earned her a lot of attention on Flickr. Great Gatsby Movie Essays. “I wasn’t actively looking for employment at the time,” she says. “I just came across the job announcement one day for the company and thought I’d try applying to see what would happen.” Michael Anderson designed this resume to convey as much information as possible. Anderson‘s resume was born out safe to order of an epiphany. “It occurred to me one day that a resume is spain essay just tagged temporal data, and is it safe to order essay that if I treated it as such, I could convey loads more information,” he says.
The resume is racism death essay a creative and more colorful take on a standard display of data. “I have had a few job offers, but I only really took one, as a graphic design chair at a small school in Pennsylvania, and is it safe essay online shot portfolio photos for students from a few programs,” Anderson says. Michael is now working in essay his family’s business, but his resume still draws a lot of attention online. Riccardo Sabatini wanted to breathe life into the traditional CV. Online. Sabatini is an Italian graphic designer born and raised in Italy. He is currently based in prompt Florence and is it safe to order focuses on digital art and typography.
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Leonardi, who has had past jobs at AOL and Industry Next and now works at Fox News, built a side scrolling interactive resume reminiscent of games like Mario. A series of is it safe to order, levels run through his skills, qualifications, and experience. Philippe Dubost built a full-blown Amazon page for himself. Dubost’s page, which you can view here, went viral and racism death essay racked up 1.5 million views over the course of his job search, and is it essay online eventually got him 150 job offers and finally a job as a tech product manager at rapidly growing New York startup Birchbox. The instantly recognizable format and the depth of detail (there’s everything from product dimensions to reviews from past employers) helped make it a hit and spain essay get him exactly the kind of job he’d hoped for. A Google-themed resume got Eric Gandhi an interview with the search giant. Gandhi is safe to order essay online a young Georgia Tech graduate and fan of Google who modeled his resume after the Google’s iconic style and search results.
It worked pretty well, getting him an bind interview with the famously selective company. It ended up being for a marketing rather than a design job, which wasn’t a great fit, but the creative resume still helped land interviews elsewhere. Gandhi is now a product designer at Magento in Los Angeles. You can find his personal site here. Now for a great example of a traditional resume: 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Is It Safe. An Uber driver once made his wife ride in his trunk while he worked, CEO reveals. Apple Inc slashing iPhone 6S orders because of weak demand: Credit Suisse. Goldman Sachs forced Valeant’s CEO to hinduism, sell 1.3 million of his shares on Thursday.
People in Sweden are hiding cash in their microwaves because of a fascinating — and terrifying — economic experiment. Metro#039;s $4.5-billion takeover of Jean Coutu creates Quebec mega-firm. GM stock jumps over promises to add electric and self-driving vehicles. Your account has been deactivated. Sorry, we could not verify that email address. Your account has been reactivated. You must verify your email address before signing in. Check your email for your verification email, or enter your email address in the form below to resend the email. Please confirm your details below. Postmedia wants to improve your reading experience as well as share the best deals and promotions from our advertisers with you.
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Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO. For more information on Duties, Responsibilities and to order online Authority of the NCO see AR 600-20, “Army Command Policy,” DA PAM 600-25, “US Army NCO Professional Development Guide” and spain essay FM 6-22 (22-100), Army Leadership. For more information on inspections see FM 22-5, Drill and Ceremonies. and AR 1-201, “Army Inspection Policy.” Need essay sample on Duties, Responsibilities and is it safe to order essay online Authority of the NCO ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. ASSUMING A LEADERSHIP POSITION. 2-1. Assuming a leadership position is one of the most important leadership situations you’ll face as an NCO. Racism Death Penalty Essay! Everything discussed in FM 6-22 (22-100) about what you must BE, KNOW and DO is relevant to your success of assuming a leadership position.
2-2. Essay Online! When assuming a leadership position, there are some things to think about and learn as you establish your goals in the organization. Figure 2-1 will assist you in achieving your goals. · Determine what your organization expects of you. · Determine who your immediate leader is and what they expect of you.
· Determine the level of competence and the strengths and weaknesses of your soldiers. · Identify the key people outside of racism your organization whose willing support you need to accomplish the is it safe essay mission. Figure 2-1. Tasks to essays Assume a Leadership Position. 2-3.
You should also talk to your leaders, peers and key people such as the chaplain and the sergeant major. Seek clear answers to the questions in Figure 2-2. · What is the organization’s mission? · How does this mission fit in is it to order, with the mission of the next higher organization? · What are the standards the organization must meet? · What resources are available to help the stanford essay prompt organization accomplish the mission? · What is the current state of morale?
· Who reports directly to you? · What are the strengths and weaknesses of safe essay your key subordinates and the unit? · Who are the key people outside the organization who support mission accomplishment? (What are their strengths and stanford application weaknesses?) · When and to order online what do you talk to your soldiers about? Figure 2-2. Hinduism And Buddhism Essay! Questions When Assuming a Leadership Position. 2-4. Be sure to to order online ask these questions at the right time, of the right person and in true essay, the best way. The answers to these questions and others you may have will help you to correctly assess the situation and select the right leadership style.
DUTIES, RESPONSIBILITIES AND AUTHORITY. 2-5. As a noncommissioned officer, you have duties, responsibilities and authority. Do you know the meaning of duties, responsibilities and safe essay online authority? 2-6. Great Vs Book Essays! A duty is something you must do by virtue of your position and is a legal or moral obligation. For example, it is the supply sergeant’s duty to issue equipment and keep records of the unit’s supplies. It is the first sergeant’s duty to hold formations, instruct platoon sergeants and assist the commander in supervising unit operations. It is the duty of the squad/section/team leader to online account for his soldiers and bind dissertation ensure that they receive necessary instructions and are properly trained to perform their jobs.
2-7. A noncommissioned officer’s duties are numerous and must be taken seriously. An NCO’s duty includes taking care of soldiers, which is your priority. Corporals and sergeants do this by is it to order online, developing a genuine concern for west critical their soldiers’ well-being. Leaders must know and understand their soldiers well enough to train them as individuals and teams to operate proficiently. This will give them confidence in their ability to perform well under the difficult and demanding conditions of battle. Is It Safe To Order Online! Individual training is the principle duty and responsibility of NCOs.
No one in hinduism and buddhism, the Army has more to do with training soldiers than NCOs. Well trained soldiers will likely succeed and survive on the battlefield. Well trained soldiers properly do the safe to order online tasks their NCOs give them. A good leader executes the boss’s decisions with energy and enthusiasm; looking at their leader, soldiers will believe the hinduism and buddhism essay leader thinks it’s absolutely the best possible solution. “We don’t need ‘leaders’ who stay warm on cold days… while their men freeze on the grenade ranges. If they get cold, the leader ought to to order essay get just as cold. Comparing And Buddhism! And when he marches back to the barracks with them after that kind of day, they know he is one of them.” Drill Sergeant Karl Baccene. 2-8. There may be situations you must think carefully about what you’re told to do.
For example, duty requires that you refuse to obey illegal orders. This is not a privilege you can claim, but a duty you must perform. You have no choice but to do what’s ethically and legally correct. Making the right choice and acting on it when faced with an ethical question can be difficult. Sometimes, it means standing your ground and telling your supervisor you think their wrong. If you think an order is illegal, first be sure that you understand both the details of the order and its original intent. Seek clarification from the person who gave the order. This takes moral courage, but the question will be straightforward: Did you really mean for essay me to… steal the true west essay part… submit a false report… shoot the prisoners? “Moral courage, to me, is much more demanding than physical courage.” SMA Leon L. Van Autreve.
2-9. If the question is complex and time permits, seek advice from legal assistance. However, if you must decide immediately, as in the heat of combat, make the best judgment possible based on is it to order essay online the Army values and attributes, your experience and your previous study and reflection. You take a risk when you disobey what you perceive to be an illegal order. Talk to your superiors, particularly those who have done what you aspire to do or what you think you’ll be called on to do; providing counsel of this sort is an important part of leadership. Obviously, you need to make time to do this before you’re faced with a tough call. This could possibly be the most difficult decision you’ll ever make, but that’s what leaders do.
2-10. Noncommissioned officers have three types of duties: specified duties, directed duties and implied duties. 2-11. Specified duties are those related to spain essay jobs and positions. Directives such as Army regulations, Department of the is it essay Army (DA) general orders, the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), soldier’s manuals, Army Training and durham Evaluation Program (ARTEP) publications and MOS job descriptions specify the is it safe to order essay online duties. Spain Essay! For example, AR 600-20 says that NCOs must ensure that their soldiers get proper individual training and maintain personal appearance and cleanliness. 2-12. Directed duties are not specified as part of a job position or MOS or other directive. A superior gives them orally or in writing. Directed duties include being in charge of quarters (CQ) or serving as sergeant of the guard, staff duty officer, company training NCO and NBC NCO, where these duties are not found in the unit’s organization charts.
2-13. Implied duties often support specified duties, but in some cases they may not be related to the MOS job position. These duties may not be written but implied in the instructions. They’re duties that improve the quality of the job and help keep the unit functioning at an optimum level. In most cases, these duties depend on individual initiative. They improve the work environment and motivate soldiers to perform because they want to, not because they have to. For example, while not specifically directed to do so, you hold in-ranks inspections daily to ensure your soldiers’ appearance and equipment are up to standards. 2-14. Responsibility is being accountable for what you do or fail to is it safe to order do. NCOs are responsible to fulfill not only their individual duties, but also to ensure their teams and units are successful.
Any duty, because of the position you hold in the unit, includes a responsibility to execute that duty. As an NCO, you are accountable for hinduism your personal conduct and that of your soldiers. Also, each soldier is essay, individually responsible for his own personal conduct and that responsibility cannot be delegated. A soldier is accountable for his actions to fellow soldiers, leaders, unit and true west essay the US Army. 2-15. As a leader you must ensure that your soldiers clearly understand their responsibilities as members of the team and as representative of the Army. Commanders set overall policies and standards, but all leaders must provide the guidance, resources, assistance and supervision necessary for soldiers to perform their duties. Mission accomplishment demands that officers and NCOs work together to advise, assist and learn from each other.
Responsibilities fall into two categories: command and individual. 2-16. Command responsibility refers to collective or organizational accountability and includes how well the unit performs their missions. For example, a company commander is responsible for all the tasks and missions assigned to essay online the company; his superiors hold him accountable for completing them. Commanders give military leaders the responsibility for what their sections, units, or organizations do or fail to do. NCOs are therefore responsible to fulfill not only their individual duties, but also to ensure that their team and unit are successful. The amount of responsibility delegated to you depends on your mission, the position you hold and your own willingness to accept responsibility. 2-17.
One point you need to get straight is that although a list of duties can be drawn up describing what is expected of you, it will not tell you how to do your job. For example, one of an NCO’s duties is to enforce standards of military appearance. This means you are responsible for correcting soldiers who wear the uniform improperly and for teaching them the correct standards of appearance. It also means that you should inspect for proper and penalty serviceability, clothing and equipment of online your soldiers. Remember that you must set the example first and your soldiers will follow in your footsteps. “Rank is a badge of responsibility…” DA Pam 360-1 (1957)
2-18. Individual responsibility as a noncommissioned officer means you are accountable for dissertation your personal conduct. Soldiers in the Army have their own responsibilities. For example, if you write a check at the commissary, it is your responsibility to have sufficient funds in the bank account to cover the check. Individual responsibility cannot be delegated; it belongs to the soldier that wrote the check.
Soldiers are accountable for their actions, to their fellow soldiers, to their leaders, to their unit and to the United States Army. As a leader you must ensure that your soldiers understand clearly their responsibilities as members of the online team and as representatives of the comparing hinduism and buddhism essay Army. “A leader does not ‘choose’ the best or most opportune time in which to lead. A good leader takes the challenge whenever and wherever it presents itself and is it safe to order essay online does the best he or she can.” SMA Richard A. Kidd. 2-19. As a noncommissioned officer, you must know what authority you have and where it comes from. You are also expected to comparing hinduism essay use good judgment when exercising your authority. 2-20.
Authority is defined as the right to direct soldiers to do certain things. Is It To Order Online! Authority is the legitimate power of bind dissertation durham leaders to direct soldiers or to take action within the scope of their position. Military authority begins with the Constitution, which divides it between Congress and the President. Is It To Order Online! The President, as commander in chief, commands the armed forces, including the Army. The authority from the Commander-in-Chief extends through the stanford application prompt chain of command, with the assistance of the NCO support channel, to the squad, section or team leader who then directs and supervises the actions of individual soldiers. When you say, “PFC Lee, you and PFC Johnson start filling sandbags; SPC Garcia and to order essay online SPC Smith will provide security from that hill,” you are turning into action the orders of the entire chain of command. 2-21. In the Army there are two basic types of authority: command authority and general military authority. 2-22. Command authority is the authority leaders have over soldiers by virtue of rank or assignment.
Command authority originates with the bind President and is it essay may be supplemented by law or regulation. True West Critical Essay! Even though it is called “command” authority, it is not limited to officers – you have command authority inherent in essay online, your leadership position as a tank commander or team leader, for example. Noncommissioned officers’ command authority is inherent with the prompt job by virtue of position to direct or control soldiers. “It takes guts for an NCO to use inherent authority and responsibility in training, maintaining, leading, and caring for soldiers.” SMA Glen E. Morrell. 2-23.
Leading soldiers includes the is it to order online authority to organize, direct and control your assigned soldiers so that they accomplish assigned missions. It also includes authority to true west critical essay use assigned equipment and resources to accomplish your missions. Remember that this only is it safe essay online applies to soldiers and facilities in your unit. For example, if the platoon sergeant of first platoon goes on leave and a squad leader is put in charge, that squad leader has command authority over only first platoon, until he is relieved from the responsibility. The soldiers in first platoon will obey the squad leader’s orders due to his position. However, the squad leader does not have command authority over another platoon. “As a leader… you are not given authority, status and position as a personal reward to enjoy in comfort. Dissertation! You are given them so that you may be of safe online greater service to your subordinates, your unit and your country.”
FM 22-100, Army Leadership (1983) 2-24. General military authority is authority extended to all soldiers to take action and act in the absence of a unit leader or other designated authority. It originates in oaths of office, law, rank structure, traditions and regulations. This broad-based authority also allows leaders to take appropriate corrective actions whenever a member of any armed service, anywhere, commits an act involving a breach of great movie essays good order or discipline. For example, if you see soldiers in a brawl, you have the general military authority (and the obligation) to stop the fight. This authority applies even if none of the safe essay soldiers are in your unit. 2-25.
General military authority exists whether you are on comparing hinduism and buddhism essay duty or not, in uniform or in is it safe essay online, civilian attire and regardless of location. For example, you are off duty, in civilian clothes and in the PX and you see a soldier in uniform with his headgear raised up and trousers unbloused. You stop the soldier immediately, identify yourself and ensure the soldier understands and makes the necessary corrections. If he refuses, saying you don’t have the authority to tell him what to do because he’s not in essay, your NCO support channel, the soldier is wrong.. 2-26. You as an NCO have both general military authority and the duty to enforce standards as outlined in AR 670-1. Your authority to enforce those regulations is specified in safe online, AR 600-20 and if you neglect your duty, you can be held accountable. Hinduism! If the soldier refuses to obey you, what can you do? For starters, you can explain that you have authority regardless of your location, your unit, or whether you are in uniform or civilian attire. You may decide to settle for the soldier’s name and to order essay online unit. If so, a phone call to his first sergeant should be more than enough to ensure that such an incident does not recur.
“Speak with your own voice.” CSM Clifford R. Great Gatsby! West. 2-27. Delegation of authority. Safe Online! Just as Congress and the President cannot participate in every aspect of the armed forces operations, most leaders cannot handle every action directly. To meet the organization’s goals, officers delegate authority to west critical NCOs in the NCO Support Channel who, in turn, may further delegate that authority. Unless restricted by law, regulation, or a superior, leaders may delegate any or all of their authority to their subordinate leaders. However, such delegation must fall within the leader’s scope of authority. Leaders cannot delegate authority they do not have and essay online subordinate leaders may not assume authority that superiors do not have, cannot delegate, or have retained. The task or duty to comparing essay be performed limits the authority of the leader to whom it is assigned.
2-28. Both command and general military authority originate in the Constitution and Congress has further defined them in is it essay, law. Dissertation Durham! More explicit sources are Army Regulations, the Manual for is it to order essay Courts Martial (MCM) and the chain of command/NCO support channel. 2-29. You don’t need to read or remember all Army Regulations (ARs) but study those that pertain to your job. Death Penalty! If necessary, ask other NCOs to help you find out what regulations pertain to you, where they can be found and how to interpret them. Start with AR 600-20. Is It Safe To Order! It covers enlisted soldiers’ and noncommissioned officers’ authority and responsibilities. 2-30. The Manual for spain essay Courts Martial (MCM, 2002) describes legal aspects of the authority of the noncommissioned officer.
It states in part that, “All commissioned officers, warrant officers and noncommissioned officers are authorized to stop quarrels, frays and is it safe to order online disorders among persons subject to the code….” Severe penalties are imposed for violations such as disrespect, insubordination, or assault. Spain Essay! No one expects you to be an expert on military law, but as a noncommissioned officer you should know the definition of safe essay these words and be able to gatsby essays explain them to your soldiers. Your legal clerk can be a good source of information. Authority of the NCO is part of the equation in is it safe essay online, military discipline. 2-31. Your authority also stems from the combination of the chain of command and essay the NCO support channel.
Orders and policies that pass through the chain of command or the NCO support channel automatically provide the authority necessary to get the job done. With such broad authority given to all commissioned officers and safe to order online noncommissioned officers, the responsibility to use mature, sound judgment is critical. The chain of command backs up the NCO support channel by legally punishing those who challenge the NCO’s authority. But it does so only if the noncommissioned officer’s actions and orders are sound, intelligent and based on proper authority. To be a good leader, you should learn what types of authority you have and where it comes from. Whenever in doubt, ask.
Once you’re confident that you know the extent of your authority, use sound judgment in applying it. Then you will be a leader respected by both your soldiers and superiors. INSPECTIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 2-32. Great Movie Vs Book! Why do we have inspections? From long experience, the Army has found that some soldiers, if allowed to, will become careless and lax in the performance of minor barrack duties in their unit.
They become accustomed to conditions in their immediate surroundings and overlook minor deficiencies. Should a soldier fall below the is it safe to order online Army standard of performance, you can be assured that someone will notice those deficiencies immediately. 2-33. Your superiors will order inspections to see that soldiers have all the bind dissertation durham equipment and clothing issued to them and that it is serviceable. Inspections serve this practical purpose; they are not harassment. You will probably agree that inspections often correct small problems before they become big problems. Sharp appearance, efficient performance and excellent maintenance are important considerations that affect you directly. Is It Safe Essay! They are the earmarks of stanford application a good organization and one you should be a proud member of.
First line leaders should inspect their soldiers daily and should regularly check soldiers’ rooms in is it safe to order, the barracks. First line leaders should also make arrangements with soldiers who live in quarters (on or off post) to ensure the soldier maintains a healthy and great safe environment for himself and his family. TYPES OF INSPECTIONS. 2-34. There are two categories of inspections for is it essay determining the status of individual soldiers and their equipment: in-ranks and in-quarters. An in-ranks inspection is of personnel and equipment in a unit formation.
The leader examines each soldier individually, noticing their general appearance and the condition of application essay prompt their clothing and is it to order equipment. When inspecting crew-served weapons and vehicles, the comparing and buddhism personnel are normally positioned to the rear of the safe to order formation with the stanford application essay prompt operators standing by is it to order essay online, their vehicle or weapon. Leaders may conduct an in-quarters (barracks) inspection to include personal appearance, individual weapons, field equipment, displays, maintenance and sanitary conditions. Bind Dissertation Durham! Organizations will have inspection programs that help determine the status and mission readiness of the unit and its components. These include Command Inspections, Staff Inspections and Inspector General Inspections. · The training, instruction, or correction given to a soldier to correct deficiencies must be directly related to the deficiency. · Orient the corrective action to improving the soldier’s performance in their problem area. · You may take corrective measures after normal duty hours. Such measures assume the nature of the training or instruction, not punishment. · Corrective training should continue only until the is it safe to order training deficiency is overcome. · All levels of command should take care to ensure that training and instruction are not used in an oppressive manner to evade the procedural safeguards in imposing nonjudical punishment.
· Do not make notes in soldiers’ official records of death deficiencies satisfactorily corrected by means of training and instruction. Figure 2-3. On-the-Spot Corrections Guidelines. 2-35. On-the-Spot Corrections.
One of the most effective administrative corrective measures is to order essay online, on-the-spot correction. Use this tool for making the dissertation durham quickest and often most effective corrections to is it safe essay deficiencies in training or standards. Comparing And Buddhism! Generally there is one of two reasons a soldier requires an on-the-spot correction. Either the soldier you are correcting does not know what the standard is or does not care what the standard is. If the soldier was aware of the is it safe to order essay standard but chose not to adhere to it, this may indicate a larger problem that his chain of command should address. In such a situation you might follow up an on-the-spot correction with a call to the soldier’s first sergeant. Comparing! Figure 2-3 provides guidelines on making an on-the-spot correction. SGT Park and the On-the-Spot Correction. As SGT Park left the is it safe online Dining Facility after breakfast one morning, he stopped to buy a paper from a newspaper machine nearby.
Just as he let go of the machine door, letting it slam shut, a soldier (who was about 30 feet away) shouted, “Hey! Hold it Open!” When the soldier saw SGT Park had let it close he said, “Thanks a lot, pal.” SGT Park called the soldier over, identified himself and dissertation his unit and asked if the soldier knew the proper way to address an NCO. The soldier said he hadn’t realized that SGT Park was an NCO and would have addressed him by safe to order, his rank if he had. Then SGT Park asked him if he was aware that taking a newspaper without paying for it was theft. The soldier said that he didn’t think it mattered since it was “just a newspaper.” SGT Park told him that it did matter, just as proper execution of seemingly small, unimportant tasks matters to death penalty essay the Army as a whole. The soldier, who was at parade rest and is it safe essay online respectful throughout the conversation, nodded and said, “Alright, sergeant.” SGT Park ended the on-the-spot correction by asking the soldier to think about what integrity meant and whether a soldier’s honesty is important to the Army.
2-36. Keeping a soldier on track is the key element in solving performance problems. Motivated soldiers keep the group functioning, training productive and ultimately, accomplish the training objectives and most importantly the mission. Some leaders believe that soldiers work as expected simply because that is their job. That may be true. But soldiers and leaders need a simple pat on back once in a while, for a job well done. You need to praise your soldiers and let them know that you care about the job they are doing and you are glad they are part of the true west essay team. Soldiers not performing to standard need correction; use the is it safe online on-the-spot correction tool. Even after making an on-the-spot correction additional training may be necessary.
Figure 2-4 shows the steps in spain essay, making an on-the-spot correction. · Correct the soldier. · Attack the performance, never the person. · Give one correction at a time. Do not dump. · Don’t keep bringing it up — when the correction is over, it is over. Figure 2-4. On-the-Spot Correction Steps. 2-37. More often than not, your soldiers do good things that deserve a pat on the back.
In the same way you do on-the-spot corrections (but obviously for different reasons), praise your soldiers’ good work by telling them the specific action or result observed, why it was good and encourage the is it to order online soldier to continue. Your soldiers know when they’ve done well but your acknowledgment of their performance is a powerful motivator. It reinforces standards, builds soldiers’ pride and lets them know you notice the hard work they do. It is also another indicator that you care about them. “Correct errors in the use of judgment and initiative in such a way as to encourage the individual.”
FM 22-10, Leadership (1951) 2-38. Durham! On-the-Spot Inspections. Is It To Order! Making an informal, unscheduled check of true west equipment, soldiers or quarters is called an on-the-spot inspection. Stopping to check the tag on a fire extinguisher as you walk through a maintenance bay is an example of an is it essay online, on-the-spot inspection.
Another example is checking the condition of the trash dumpster area in back of the orderly room. For any inspection, the steps are the same. 2-39. PCC/PCI. Pre-combat checks (PCCs) / Pre-combat inspections (PCIs) and Pre-execution checks are key to ensuring leaders, trainers and soldiers are adequately prepared to bind dissertation execute operations and training to Army standard. PCC/ PCIs are the bridge between pre-execution checks and execution of training. They are also detailed final checks that all units conduct before and during execution of training and combat operations. Conduct PCC/PCIs at essay online, the beginning of each event or exercise as part of troop leading procedures to check personnel, equipment, vehicles and mission knowledge. The chain of true west command is responsible for developing, validating and verifying all PCC/PCIs. Safe Essay! Pre-execution checks ensure that all planning and prerequisite training (soldier, leader and collective) are complete prior to the execution of training. They systematically prepare soldiers, trainers and resources to ensure training execution starts properly.
Pre-execution checks provide the attention to detail needed to use resources efficiently. 2-40. You are the key to inspections, checking soldier and unit readiness in personal hygiene and true critical appearance, weapons, field equipment, displays and sanitary conditions. Inspections must be done regularly to to order online help reinforce standards and instill discipline. Regular, impartial inspections of important areas develop confidence, teamwork and spain essay soldiers’ pride in themselves and their equipment. NONCOMMISSIONED, COMMISSIONED AND WARRANT OFFICER RELATIONSHIPS. 2-41.
An important part of your role as an NCO is how you relate to commissioned officers. To develop this working relationship, NCOs and officers must know the similarities of their respective duties and is it to order essay online responsibilities. 2-42. Commissioned officers hold a commission from the gatsby movie vs book essays President of the United States, which authorizes them to act as the President’s representative in certain military matters. Laws, regulations, policies and customs limit the duties and responsibilities of commissioned officers, like NCOs and other government officials. As the President’s representatives, commissioned officers carry out the orders of the Commander in Chief as they are handed down through the chain of command. In carrying out orders, commissioned officers get considerable help, advice and is it safe assistance from NCOs. Both commissioned officers and stanford essay NCOs share the same goal – accomplish the unit’s mission. Figure 2-5 lists general duties of commissioned officers. The Commissioned Officer.
· Commands, establishes policy, plans and programs the is it safe to order work of the Army. · Concentrates on collective training, which will enable the unit to accomplish its mission. · Is primarily involved with unit operations, training and related activities. · Concentrates on unit effectiveness and unit readiness. · Pays particular attention to the standards of performance, training and essay professional development of essay officers as well as NCOs. · Creates conditions – makes the durham time and other resources available – so the NCO can do the Job. · Supports the NCO. Figure 2-5. General Duties of Commissioned Officers. 2-43. Warrant officers are highly specialized, single-tracked specialty officers who receive their authority from the Secretary of the Army upon their initial appointment.
However, Title 10 USC authorizes the commissioning of Warrant Officers (WO1) upon promotion to is it safe essay online Chief Warrant Officer (CW2). These commissioned warrant officers are direct representatives of the President of the United States. They derive their authority from the same source as commissioned officers but remain specialists, in contrast to commissioned officers who are generalists. Figure 2-6 lists general duties of warrant officers. The Warrant Officer. · Provides quality advice, counsel and solutions to support the bind dissertation command. · Executes policy and is it safe to order online manages the Army’s system. · Commands special-purpose units and tasks-organized operational elements. · Focuses on collective, leader and great gatsby movie vs book essays individual training.
· Operates, maintains, administers and manages the Army’s equipment, support activities and technical system. · Concentrates on unit effectiveness and is it safe essay online readiness. · Supports the NCO. Figure 2-6. General Duties of Warrant Officers. 2-44. Warrant officers can and do command detachments, units, activities and vessels as well as lead, coach, train and great gatsby movie vs book counsel soldiers. As leaders and technical/tactical experts, warrant officers provide valuable skills, guidance and expertise to commanders and is it safe organizations in their particular field. 2-45.
Warrant officers provide mentorship, leadership and training to NCOs to support technical, tactical and mission-related tasks. The relationship between the warrant officer and racism NCO is similar to the commissioned officer. They rely on each other for help, advice and assistance to accomplish the unit’s mission. The Noncommissioned Officer. · Conducts the daily business of the Army within established orders, directives and policies. · Focuses on individual training, which develops the capability to accomplish the mission. · Primarily involved with training and leading soldiers and teams. · Ensures each subordinate team, NCO and soldier are prepared to function as a effective unit and safe essay online each team member is hinduism and buddhism, well trained, highly motivated, ready and functioning.
· Concentrates on standards of performance, training and professional development of NCOs and enlisted soldiers. · Follows orders of officers and NCOs in the support channel. · Gets the job done. Figure 2-7. General Duties of Noncommissioned Officers. 2-46. Noncommissioned officers, the backbone of the Army, train, lead and take care of is it enlisted soldiers. They receive their authority from their oaths of comparing essay office, law, rank structure, duty position, traditions and regulations. This authority allows them to direct soldiers, take actions required to accomplish the mission and enforce good order and discipline. NCOs represent officer and safe essay sometimes DA civilian leaders.
They ensure their soldiers, along with their personal equipment, are prepared to function as an effective unit and team members. While commissioned officers command, establish policy and manage resources, NCOs conduct the Army’s daily business. Figure 2-7 lists general duties of NCOs. 2-47. Two noncommissioned officer positions require special mention: the platoon sergeant and the squad/section leader positions. Comparing Essay! The platoon sergeant’s position is unique because the platoon sergeant must be ready to assume the responsibilities of the platoon leader — an officer. The platoon sergeant takes command in online, the platoon leader’s absence. Therefore, the platoon sergeant’s tasks are essentially the same as those of the platoon leader. As acting platoon leader, the platoon sergeant assumes the west same responsibilities as the commissioned officer.
The platoon leader and platoon sergeant must understand each other; the platoon sergeant must be able to move in and out of the officer’s area of responsibility to prepare to replace the platoon leader if necessary. In many cases, the platoon sergeant has much more experience than the lieutenant does; one important task is to teach and advise the lieutenant. The platoon needs both the officer and is it safe online the sergeant and they must know each other without thinking. There is naturally some overlap of duties and responsibilities between officers and NCOs. This is a necessary and desirable outcome of close cooperation and stanford prompt should be a source of strength for a unit rather than the cause of friction. 2-48. The second unique position is the squad, section or team leader. To Order Essay! Possibly the only NCO in the squad, section or team, he is the leader of his soldiers. This NCO is the first link in both the NCO support channel and chain of command.
They take their orders from both the platoon sergeant and platoon leader. This is comparing and buddhism, another reason why the platoon sergeant and platoon leader must know what each other are doing. If they do not, they might give conflicting orders to the squad, section or team leaders. 2-49. Noncommissioned, commissioned and warrant officers depend on each other and work together to accomplish the mission of the unit. It is impossible for is it safe online an officer to command an effective unit and accomplish the mission if the application NCO doesn’t ensure the soldiers know their jobs. Commissioned officers, warrant officers and safe to order NCOs must advise, assist and learn from each other. Although the officer is spain essay, held accountable for all that the unit does or fails to do, only by working together with the NCO can he assure the job will get accomplished. THE NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER SUPPORT CHANNEL. 2-50.
The NCO support channel is subordinate to and supportive of the chain of command. The NCO support channel is safe to order essay, not an independent channel. Stanford Prompt! It is incumbent on the users of this channel to ensure that the chain of command is safe to order essay, kept informed of actions implemented through the NCO support channel and to eliminate the great gatsby possibility of the NCO support channel operating outside of command policy and directives. Problems should be brought to the attention of the chain of command and resolved through a coordinated effort. Since the NCO support channel should be operating in accordance with established command policy and directives, conflicts should be minimal and easily resolved.
2-51. Prior to 1977 the to order essay NCO support channel was regarded as informal. However, AR 600-20 formalized the NCO support channel and great movie vs book expanded its functions in online, December 1976. The NCO support channel is now directive in true west critical, nature within established policies and orders. Is It Safe To Order Online! Because of this, commanders are seeing the senior NCO more actively participating in all unit activities and and buddhism essay tasks. Is It Safe Online! The NCO support channel (leadership chain) parallels and reinforces the true west critical chain of command. NCO leaders work with and support the commissioned and warrant officers of their chain of command.
2-52. In units at the battalion level and higher, the NCO support channel is the communication and supervision that begins with the command sergeant major (CSM), extends through first sergeants and platoon sergeants and ends with section chiefs, squad leaders, or team leaders. Safe To Order! In addition to passing information, this channel is bind durham, used for executing the is it safe to order online commander’s orders and getting routine, but important, jobs done. Most often it is used to put into effect policies and procedures and to enforce standards of performance, training, appearance and movie vs book essays conduct. 2-53. The connection between the chain of command and the NCO support channel is the senior NCO. Commanders issue orders through the chain of command, but senior NCOs must know and understand the orders to to order essay online issue effective implementing instructions through the NCO support channel. Although the stanford application prompt first sergeant and command sergeants major are not part of the formal chain of command, leaders should consult them on individual soldier matters. 2-54.
Successful officers have a good leader and NCO relationship with their first sergeants and command sergeants major. This leaves the is it safe commander free to plan, make decisions and program future training and operations. The need for such a relationship applies to platoon leaders and platoon sergeants as well as to staff officers and great gatsby vs book essays NCOs. Safe To Order! Senior NCOs have extensive experience in successfully completing missions and dealing with enlisted soldier issues. Death Penalty Essay! Also, senior NCOs can monitor organizational activities at all levels, take corrective action to keep the organization within the boundaries of the commander’s intent, or report situations that require the online attention of the officer leadership. Regardless of where the information or task begins – in the chain of command or in prompt, the NCO support channel – keep the counterpart informed. A positive relationship between officers and NCOs creates conditions for success. 2-55. The NCO support channel assists the chain of command in accomplishing the following: · Transmitting, instilling and ensuring the efficacy of the professional Army ethic. · Planning and conducting the day-to-day unit operations within prescribed policies and safe to order essay directives. · Training enlisted soldiers in their MOS as well as in the basic skills and attributes of a soldier.
· Supervising unit physical fitness training and ensuring that soldiers comply with the stanford application weight and appearance standards in is it online, AR 600-9 and AR 670-1. · Teaching soldiers the history of the Army, to include military customs, courtesies and traditions. · Caring for individual soldiers and their families both on and off duty. · Teaching soldiers the mission of the unit and developing individual training programs to support the mission. · Accounting for and maintaining individual arms and equipment of enlisted soldiers and unit equipment under their control. · Administering and monitoring the NCO professional development program and other unit training programs. · Achieving and maintaining Army Values. · Advising the commander on movie vs book rewards and punishment for enlisted soldiers. 2-56.
The NCO support channel and the chain of command must be reinforced by all to ensure effectiveness. It is the channel of communication and supervision from the command sergeant major to the most junior enlisted soldier in the unit. Commanders may further specify responsibilities and authority of their NCOs to their staffs and subordinates. Your contribution to the NCO support channel ensures its overall success. “…the routine daily business of the Army is noncommissioned officer business, that is to safe online say, execution of established policies and standards pertaining to the performance, training and hinduism and buddhism essay conduct of enlisted personnel is the responsibility of the Noncommissioned Officer Corps.
The establishment of those policies and standards is the responsibility of the is it safe to order essay officer corps.” CSM J. F. La Voie. SERGEANT MAJOR OF THE ARMY. 2-57. Established in 1966, the Sergeant Major of the Army (SMA) is the senior enlisted position of the Army. The sergeant major in this position serves as the senior enlisted advisor and consultant to the Chief of Staff of the Army. The SMA provides information on dissertation durham problems affecting enlisted personnel and proposes solutions to is it to order these problems concerning standards, professional development, growth and advancement of essays NCOs, morale, training, pay, promotions and is it to order online quality of life for soldiers and bind dissertation family members. 2-58.
Using command information channels, the SMA keeps soldiers current on important NCO issues and through the is it to order online public media informs the American people of the Army mission, soldiers’ accomplishments and future enlisted trends. The SMA directs NCO support channel activities through the major commands’ CSMs by using written and verbal communications. The SMA also presents the enlisted viewpoint to Congress, DA boards and committees, meets with military and civilian organizations to discuss enlisted affairs, and receives and represents Army enlisted personnel at appropriate ceremonies. COMMAND SERGEANT MAJOR AND SERGEANT MAJOR. 2-59. The Command Sergeant Major is the senior NCO of the spain essay command at battalion or higher levels. To Order! The CSM carries out policies and racism standards on performance, training, appearance and conduct of enlisted personnel.
The CSM gives advice and initiates recommendations to the commander and staff in matters pertaining to enlisted personnel. Essay! A unit, installation, or higher headquarters CSM directs the activities of that NCO support channel. Great Essays! The support channel functions orally through the CSMs or first sergeant’s call and to order online normally does not involve written instruction. The CSM administers the unit Noncommissioned Officer Development Program (NCODP), normally through written directives and dissertation durham the NCO support channel. As the senior NCO of the command, the CSM is the training professional within the unit, overseeing and to order essay online driving the entire training program. Penalty! The CSM assists the commander in determining leader tasks and to order essay online training for NCOs.
2-60. The CSM and bind dissertation commander jointly coordinate and develop the unit’s Mission Essential Task List (METL) and individual training tasks to create a team approach to battle-focused training. The CSM and NCO leaders then select the is it safe essay specific individual tasks, which support each collective task to be trained during this same period. Application Prompt! CSMs use command information channels to inform, express concerns on enlisted issues and safe essay build esprit. They also represent the commander at military and civilian functions to maintain good community relations. 2-61. The Sergeant Major is often the bind durham key enlisted member of the staff elements at battalion and higher levels. The sergeant major’s experience and ability are equal to is it to order online that of the unit command sergeant major, but leadership influence is generally limited to those directly under their charge.
The sergeant major is a subject matter expert in his technical field, primary advisor on policy development, analytical reviewer of regulatory guidance and often fulfills the vs book duties of the is it safe to order command sergeant major in his absence. Sergeants major also serve in non-staff and true leadership positions such as Special Forces Team Sergeant Major, instructor at the Sergeants Major Academy or as the State Senior Enlisted Advisor. Colors and Color Guards. Flags are almost as old as civilization itself. Imperial Egypt and the armies of Babylon and Assyria followed the colors of their kings. Ancient texts mention banners and standards. The flag that identified nations usually were based on the personal or family heraldry of the reigning monarch.
As autocracies faded or disappeared, dynastic colors were no longer suitable and national flags came into essay, being. These national flags such as the Union Jack of Great Britain, the Tricolor of France and the Stars and Stripes are relatively new to history. When the struggle for independence united the spain essay colonies, there grew a desire for a single flag to represent the new Nation. The first flag borne by our Army representing the 13 colonies was the grand union flag. Safe To Order Essay! It was raised over the Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts, on 2 January 1776. The Stars and Stripes as we now know it was born on 14 June 1777.
The flags carried by Color-bearing units are called the national and organizational colors. The Colors may be carried in any formation in bind dissertation, which two or more company honor guards or representative elements of a command participate. The Command Sergeant Major is responsible for the safeguarding, care and display of the organizational color. He is also responsible for the selection, training and performance of the Color bearers and is it safe online Color guards. The honorary position for the CSM is two steps to the rear and centered on the Color guard.
Because of the bind importance and visibility of the task, it is an honor to be a member of the Color guard. The detail may consist of three to eight soldiers, usually NCOs. The senior (Color) sergeant carries the National Color and commands the Color guard unless a person is designated as the Color sergeant. Safe! The Color sergeant gives the necessary commands for the movements and for rendering honors. The most important aspect of the selection, training and performance of the Color guard is the and buddhism essay training.
Training requires precision in drills, manual of arms, customs and courtesies and wear and appearance of uniforms and insignia. A well trained color guard at the front of unit’s formation signifies a sense of teamwork, confidence, pride, alertness, attention to detail, esprit de corps and discipline. The Color Guard detail should perform its functions as much as possible in accordance with ARs 600-25, 670-1 and 840-10 and online FM 22-5. FIRST SERGEANT AND MASTER SERGEANT. 2-62. The First Sergeant is the stanford senior NCO in companies, batteries and troops. The position of first sergeant is similar to that of the CSM in importance, responsibility and prestige. As far back as the is it to order essay Revolutionary War period, first sergeants have enforced discipline, fostered loyalty and commitment in their soldiers, maintained duty rosters and comparing hinduism essay made morning reports to is it essay their company commanders. Since today’s first sergeants maintain daily contact with and are responsible for training and ensuring the health and welfare of all of the unit’s soldiers and families, this position requires extraordinary leadership and professional competence.
2-63. First sergeants hold formations, instruct platoon sergeants and assist the commander in daily unit operations. West Critical Essay! Though first sergeants supervise routine administrative duties their principle duty is training soldiers. Is It Safe! The CSM, first sergeant and other key NCOs, must understand the organization’s collective mission essential tasks during METL-based training. Through NCO development programs, performance counseling and other guidance, first sergeants are the Army’s most important mentors in developing subordinate NCOs. 2-64. The Master Sergeant serves as the principle NCO in staff elements at battalion or higher levels. Although not charged with the enormous leadership responsibilities of the first sergeant, the master sergeant dispatches leadership and executes other duties with the same professionalism as the first sergeant. PLATOON SERGEANT AND SERGEANT FIRST CLASS.
2-65. While “Platoon Sergeant” is a duty position, not a rank, the gatsby movie vs book essays platoon sergeant is the primary assistant and advisor to the platoon leader, with the is it safe essay responsibility of training and caring for spain essay soldiers. The platoon sergeant helps the commander to train the platoon leader and in that regard has an to order, enormous effect on how that young officer perceives NCOs for the rest of his career. The platoon sergeant takes charge of the platoon in the absence of the platoon leader. As the lowest level senior NCO involved in the company METL, platoon sergeants teach collective and individual tasks to soldiers in true west essay, their squads, crews or equivalent small units. 2-66. The Sergeant First Class (SFC), may serve in a position subordinate to safe to order essay online the platoon sergeant or may serve as the NCO in charge (NCOIC) of the section with all the great gatsby essays attendant responsibilities and duties of the is it safe essay online platoon sergeant. A platoon sergeant or sergeant first class generally has extensive military experience and can make accurate decisions in the best interest of the mission and the soldier. 2-67. Utilizing tough, realistic and and buddhism intellectually and physically challenging performance-oriented training to excite and motivate soldiers, the platoon sergeant ensures Army standards are met and maintained. Safe To Order Essay Online! Additionally, the platoon sergeant must conduct cross training to promote critical wartime skills within the unit, evaluate the effectiveness of the platoon and provide training feedback to dissertation durham the commander and first sergeant during After-Action Reviews (AAR) on is it safe essay online all unit collective training.
SQUAD, SECTION AND TEAM LEADERS. 2-68. Staff Sergeants, Sergeants and Corporals are normally squad, section and team leaders and are a critical link in the NCO channel. Spain Essay! These NCOs live and work with their soldiers every day and are responsible for their health, welfare and to order safety. These squad, section and team leaders ensure that their soldiers meet standards in personal appearance and teach them to maintain and account for their individual and unit equipment and property.
The NCO enforces standards and develops and trains soldiers daily in MOS skills and unit missions. “NCOs should make it a point to drop by the barracks on and off duty to visit soldiers and check on their welfare.” SMA Jack L. Tilley. 2-69. The NCO teaches individual and comparing hinduism essay collective training, develops unit cohesion, fosters the values of loyalty and commitment and builds spirit and confidence. The NCO evaluates performance oriented training and through coaching and counseling grooms young soldiers for future positions of increased responsibility. Squad, section and safe to order team leaders teach everything from the making of sound and timely decisions to physical training to ethics and spain essay values. You, corporals and sergeants, are the basic trainer of safe to order today’s soldiers. YOU ARE A NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER. 2-70. You as an racism death penalty, NCO have a tough, demanding, but very rewarding job.
The soldiers you lead are the heart of the is it to order Army. You lead soldiers at the action level where the important day-to-day fundamental work of the Army is mission oriented. Because you live and work directly with and gatsby vs book among soldiers, you have the best opportunity to know them as they really are. You are the first to essay online identify and teach soldiers how to best use their strengths and help them detect and overcome their shortcomings. You are in the best position to secure the trust and confidence of soldiers by leading by example. You have the advantage of a deeper understanding of true west essay soldier behavior because you were promoted directly from the ranks that you now lead and serve. Your soldiers will challenge you each and every day and you will be rewarded by is it safe essay online, the respect they hold for your ability as a leader.
You will be successful as they follow your leadership in the difficult business of getting ready to fight and win our Nation’s wars.
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Essay, Research Paper: Dream Interpretation. There are many facts that are unknown about dreams and their meanings. For. centuries, philosophers and scientists have tried to understand the meaning of. dreams. They have all been fascinated by the fact that the essay online content of dreams may. have meanings relating to spain essay, one’s life. Are dreams just thoughts in people’s. minds, or are dreams in fact representations of different areas in people’s.
lives? Dreams represent many different areas of is it to order one’s life in physical, emotional, and mental ways. Spain Essay? Dreams can relay to safe to order, people facts about their lives. that they are not even aware of. There are also many ways that dreams can help. cure different physical, emotional, and mental problems in one’s life. This. paper will discuss dreams and their meanings, and ways of spain essay interpreting a dream.
using such methods as hypnotherapy and psychoanalysis therapy that can help a. person in physical, mental, and emotional ways. Is It To Order? The first fact that will be. discussed is what dreams are and how they work for people in allowing the person. to discover more about racism death penalty, himself. Dreams can be defined as “a conscious series. of images that occur during sleep” (Collier’s, vol. 8).
Dreams are usually. very vivid in color and imagery. Is It To Order Online? They reveal to the dreamer different wishes, concerns, and worries that he or she has. Dreams usually reflect every part of. who the dreamer is. The content of the person’s dream is usually made up. according to how old the dreamer is and how educated the he or she is. (Collier’s, vol. 8).
Dreams are not planned out or thought up. The unconscious. part of the durham mind brings out is it to order essay bits and pieces of information in the dreamer’s. mind and places them together. Racism Death Essay? According to Encarta, dreams are almost always. visual. Forty to fifty percent of dreams have some form of communication present. in them and a very small percentage of dreams give the dreamer the ability to. use his or her five senses (Encarta). Dreams allow one to take a closer look. into his mind and himself in a quest for self-discovery.
Dreams can be used to. solve all different types of problems. Safe Online? In Sigmund Freud’s book, The. Interpretation of stanford essay prompt Dreams, Sigmund Freud states: “As regards the dream, all the. troubles of waking life are transferred by it to safe, the sleeping state [. ]” (Freud 113). They relay things about a person that the person may not be able to. see. Sigmund Freud says that certain images in dreams sometimes have significant. meanings relating to the person’s life. Different objects in the dream may.
serve as a symbol (Kalb 77). Symbols in dreams usually mean something much. deeper than simply being an object that just happens to be in the dream. They. represent different areas of essay prompt one’s life that deal with one’s physical, mental, and emotional being. These symbols will relay information about one’s. life if these symbols are interpreted. Dreams are “a private language, known. only to safe, ourselves” (Cartwright 5).
Dreams have the ability to relieve all. people of their everyday problems in life. They have a way of setting one free. from reality, which includes all of one’s problems. Dreams help one to. overcome these stresses and help people to get on with their lives. Sigmund. Freud states, “The waking life never repeats itself with its trials and joys,
its pleasures and pains, but, on the contrary, the dream aims to relieve us of. these” (qtd. in Burdach 474). This statement means that though a certain. experience in a person’s life can never happen again, dreams allow the person. to relive those memories, and racism penalty they can also allow the is it to order essay online person to overcome the. stresses of other memories that bother him or her. Comparing Hinduism And Buddhism? Memories that continue to. stay in is it essay online people’s minds from their childhood are very often included somehow in.
the dream. No memory that a person has once experienced will ever be lost. because it is stored within the bind person’s mind and kept there. A person’s. conscious mind is the mind that he uses when he is awake and is it safe aware of what he is. doing. The conscious mind has the ability to make distinctions between reality. and the fantasy world. A person is able to great gatsby vs book, think in a reasonable manner and have. a higher order thinking along the online lines of placement of time and bind dissertation space. A.
person, in this state of mind, has complete control over everything he or she. does including speaking, thinking, and the way that he or she acts around. people. A person can evaluate what is reality and online what is not reality while in. this state of mind. Racism Death Penalty Essay? Treatment such as hypnotherapy and psychoanalytic therapy. cannot be given during this state of mind because the person is fully aware of.
what is going on is it safe essay online, around him and also fully aware of how he is acting and and buddhism what he. is saying. Safe To Order Essay? When a person falls asleep or is almost asleep, then he or she leaves. the conscious mind and drifts into the unconscious mind (Beck). Alex Lukeman. explains that people’s conscious minds are very much related to the. unconscious part of people’s minds (Lukeman 61). Application Essay? All thoughts that a person.
thinks while he or she is conscious comes from the person’s unconscious (Lukeman. 61). During dreaming, the mind travels from the conscious to the unconscious. Dreaming allows the unconscious part of the mind to relay all information to the. person that sometimes that the person does not even know exists.
Lukeman. explains that one’s unconscious mind does not deal with issues such as. morality, ethics, or cultural essentials (Lukeman 62). Is It Safe To Order Online? People often feel scared. of just the thought of the unconscious.
People do not like the hinduism thought of having. something not completely under their control. Through analyzing a patient’s. unconscious mind, a therapist is able to see all of the patient’s choices that. he makes during his life and also his health. The Freudian theory deals with the. issue that the safe to order essay unconscious involves memories or events that are from the. person’s childhood (Encarta).
Bad childhood memories that affect the spain essay person in. present day may even be relayed through the unconscious. Through some kind of. therapy, a person may become aware of his problems and different things that are. bothering him or her (Beck). Safe Online? Dreams have a way of telling the person about.
sickness and gatsby essays disease that he or she is experiencing at the moment or will be. experiencing. Dreams are sometimes trying to to order essay online, tell a person that he need to stop. doing something or start doing something for his own well being (Garfield). Critical Essay? In.
Alex Lukeman’s book, What Your Dreams Can Teach You, Lukeman states “If we. pay attention, our dreaming consciousness will forewarn and advise us about. health of our bodies and essay the course of any disease process with which we are. involved (Lukeman 4). Dreams tell people when something is not right in their. bodies. Shakespeare even states that sleep and durham dreams are “nature’s soft. nurse” (qtd. In. Cartwright 5). Most people, however, would rather not know.
what their dreams are trying to tell them. Some people have a certain fear about. dreams because dreams are part of the unconscious. People do not like not being. in complete control of their thoughts and is it actions. True Critical? They feel that if they have a. dream about something like death, there will be death in essay the near future. Most.
of the time, when dealing with dreams like this, people would rather not find. out what the dream means (Lukeman 67). Psychoanalytic Therapy is a treatment. that psychologists use for helping people to overcome mental, physical and. emotional torment. Death Penalty Essay? It is is it to order online, often called the “the talking cure” (Beck). Psychoanalysis can be described as a “specific method of investigating. unconscious mental processes and to a form of psychotherapy” (Encarta). Psychoanalytic therapy is mainly based on the idea that how people act, their. thoughts and their attitudes and how they are arranged by the unconscious.
portion of the person’s mind and are not within one’s usual conscious. control. Psychoanalytic therapy is performed by the patient lying on a couch. allowing him or her to totally relax. The psychoanalytic therapist beings. talking to the patient. The therapist invites the patient to talk about his or. her past, angers, fears, and fantasies. Spain Essay? This form of talking helps the patient. gain control of safe essay his life by confessing to the therapist his or her needs,
motivations in life, wishes and memories. Comparing And Buddhism Essay? Sometimes there are difficulties in. the progress of a person’s ability to talk about what is safe online, bothering him or her. This difficulty of making progress is called resistance. An example of. resistance is when the patient becomes unable to talk to the therapist any. longer, or stops communicating feelings, or does not want to talk about certain.
topics. Transference is comparing and buddhism essay, another problem that sometimes occurs through the course. of the therapy. This problem occurs when the patient feels certain strong. emotions towards the therapist. Certain emotions can be either a strong feeling. of love, or a strong feeling of hate (Antrobus). Psychoanalytic Therapy is.
successful for is it essay online, the patient as soon as the patient is comfortable with himself in. relation to his feelings, and having a relatively good sense of being able to. feel feelings without the stanford essay urge to act them out. As soon as the is it safe to order patient can relay. all of his feelings to the therapist without any resistance, the therapy is. completed.
However, achieving complete recovery takes a person’s lifetime. There is always some area where the person is weak and needs to overcome. different problems that are holding the person back from having the fullest life. possible (Beck). Through diligent work, however, a person may be able to return. to his normal, healthy state of mind and life. West? Hypnotherapy is another form of. therapy that uses the subconscious and is it safe to order essay online dreaming to understand and analyze what. the patient’s problem could be.
Using hypnosis, a psychiatrist is west critical essay, able to safe essay, look. into the subconscious where emotions that the patient has experienced, the. patient’s memories, and the patient’s imagination are held. The subconscious. also holds the feelings that one has relating to the person’s place that they. hold in racism death the world. This type of therapy can, in time, help the patient to. conquer all of safe online his or her fears, emotional problems, and physical problems such.
as a type of pain control. In the seventeen hundreds and spain essay early eighteen. hundreds, hypnosis was used very often as an anesthetic during surgery. The. patient would not have any other type of anesthetic in his or her body. Donald. Jackson states: “Since World War II, it has slipped quietly and discreetly. into the clinical mainstream, to the point where the America Medical. Association, many HMOs and even Medicare now recognize it” (Jackson 128). A. patient has to develop his hypnotic skills in essay order for the best results.
possible using hypnotherapy. Hypnosis will help the patient live a much fuller. life with new confidence in dissertation durham himself and the world, and will also improve. concentration and management skills. The use of online this type of therapy can. actually spark one’s interest and potential in various activities one engages. oneself in that one finds interesting.
Hypnosis has also been used during major. surgery as an anesthetic with no other anesthetics present. Donald Jackson tells. us that psychiatrists, medical doctors, psychologists, and other people who have. tried it have used hypnotherapy for two centuries to treat people with different. sicknesses and pain (Jackson 127-128). Hypnotherapy can give a patient that is. in very bad pain, relief that lasts for a long time.
Hypnosis has been reported. to give many people that have been through it feelings of happiness and total. bliss (Churchill). There are many misinterpretations that people pick up that. are related to hypnosis. Spain Essay? Many people believe that the patient is “under a. spell” and essay will do anything that the hypnotist says to do. Instead of and buddhism essay the. patient losing control, the person gains more control of his or her life and. himself than he had ever experienced before. During hypnosis, a patient is well.
aware of what is taking place. Hypnosis is simply allowing the patient to safe to order online, have. the ability of great concentration on one subject. Hypnosis is an everyday. occurrence in everyone’s lives. People experience hypnosis in reading a book, in the state of mind right before sleep, and essay while watching a movie or. television show. Each time one experiences hypnosis, the is it essay online more in depth the. concentration is for the patient. Though deeper concentration sounds more.
therapeutic for the patient, it is not. The deeper the hypnotic state, the more. likely it is that one will experience loss of consciousness and hallucinations. Hypnosis skills allow the patient to completely relax. Hypnosis slows down all. parts of the body, including the nervous system, respiratory system and the. patient’s brain waves (Churchill). Rosalind Cartwright, Ph.D. has studied.
dreams for 35 years. She states that “Dreams give us a chance to face. situations from real life while our bodies are totally at ease” (Williams 99). Dreams deal mostly with things that one has experienced in vs book the past, or at the. present time of the safe to order dream. They help one to solve problems that he or she is. dealing with. Dr.
Cartwright calls dreaming one’s “internal therapist” (Williams 99). People who have certain phobias have been known to spain essay, treat their. phobia by is it essay online themselves without any psychiatric help just through the wondrous act. of dreaming. Dreams help people to spain essay, overcome obstacles and help the people learn. more about safe essay, themselves and the lives that they live (Williams 99). Dream. interpretation has helped hundreds of people to overcome their lifelong problems. as well as daily problems. Through therapies such as hypnosis and gatsby movie vs book psychoanalytic.
therapy, people who have suffered great emotional, mental, and physical stress. have moved on to live happier, fuller lives. Dreams do, in essay online fact, represent many. different areas of people’s lives in physical, emotional, and mental ways. Dreams can relay things to a person about his or her life that he or she are not. even aware of. Interpreting one’s dream is a method of self-discovery that. lets one in on parts of his or her life that he or she never could have. imagined. Durham? Dreams can help cure different physical, emotional, and mental. problems in one’s life.
People have depended on dreams to guide them in essay their. actions and also for self-discovery for hundreds of years. People will continue. to depend on their dreams as a means of guidance, just as their ancestors have. done for years to come. Model.
16 Feb. Comparing And Buddhism Essay? 2000. . Safe To Order? Beck, Henry W. What is hinduism and buddhism, Psychoanalytic Therapy? . Cartwright, Rosalind, and Lynne Lamberg. Is It Essay? Crisis Dreaming: Using Your Dreams to. Solve Your Problems. Harper Collins Publishers: New York, 1992. Churchill, Randal. “The Transformational Nature of dissertation durham Hypnotherapy.” Become the Dream: The.
Transforming Power of Hypnotic Dreamwork. Transforming Press, 1997. Safe To Order Essay Online? 16 Feb. 2000. Encarta 96 Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. Funk Wagnall’s. Corporation. CD-ROM. 1996 ed. 1993-1995. ---. “Psychoanalysis.” Microsoft.
Encarta 96 Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. Funk Wagnall’s. Corporation. CD-ROM. 1996 ed. 1993-1995. Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of. Dreams. New York: Macmillan Company, 1923.
Freud, Sigmund. Modern Critical. Interpretations: The Interpretation of Dreams. Ed. Spain Essay? Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. Garfield, Patricia. The Healing Power of Dreams. Simon Schuster: New York, 1981. Jackson, Donald Dale. “Hypnotism: You.
Will Feel No Pain.” Smithsonian Mar. 1999: 126-140. Kalb, Claudia. “What. Dreams Are Made of.” Newsweek Nov. 8, 1999. 77. Lukeman, Alex. What Your. Dreams Can Teach You. St.
Paul, Minnesota: Llewellyn Publications, 1990. Williams, Gurney. “What do your dreams mean?” McCall’s Aug. 1998: 98-101. Works Consulted Green, Philip. Hypnotherapy. 8 Mar 2000. . Thornton, Stephen. The Theory of the Unconscious. Internet Encyclopedia of.
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