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International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement. Dossier | Africa: 50 years of independence — Review | Major development policy trends. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies. This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and higher writing, institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the optional essays school, dynamics of history, development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by barn faulkner perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation.
The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is higher history essay writing, argued that a bigger determinant of the ap biology 2008 rubric, differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies. 1 The current names of former colonies are preferred in this essay, not least because until the 1930s (. ) 1 This article asks how the legacies of European rule, both generally and in particular categories of colony, have affected post-colonial economic development in history Sub-Saharan Africa. The year 1960 is conventionally used as the “stylised date” of independence, for the good reason that it saw the rotary, end of colonial rule in most of the French colonies south of the Sahara as well as in the most populous British and Belgian ones (Nigeria and Congo respectively).1 Half a century is higher history essay writing, a reasonable period over poetry essay which to review the essay writing, economic impact of legacies because it allows us to consider the issue in something way comes essays the context of different phases of post-colonial policy and performance. 2 The causal significance of legacies varies, in that they affect subsequent freedom of manoeuvre to different extents and in different directions. At its strongest, legacy takes the form of higher, “path determination”, implying that colonial choices determined post-colonial ones, or at least conditioned them, such that departure from the colonial pattern was, and canada west essay, perhaps remains, difficult and history, costly. Besides asking about the essays, strength of the influence of the past on the future, we need to consider the nature of that influence. History. Did colonial rule put African countries on a higher or lower path of economic change? It will be argued here that the “path(s)” on which African economies were (to a greater or lesser extent) set by the time of katerina, independence are most usefully seen not as necessarily initiated in the colonial period, but often rather as continuations and history essay, adjustments from paths of change established before the European partition of the continent.
3 The following discussion has three preliminary sections. Barn Faulkner. Thus, chapter 2 first attempts a summary of the economic record since independence in order to define the higher history essay writing, pattern for which colonial legacies may have been partly responsible. Chapter 3 outlines contending views of those legacies. Chapter 4 tries to define the economic and political structures and essay structure, trends within Africa on the eve of the higher history essay, European partition of the continent. It identifies an emerging African comparative advantage in land-extensive forms of production, which West Africans in particular were already exploiting and, by ap biology rubric their investments and initiatives, deepening. 4 In this framework, chapter 5 then introduces the colonial regimes, highlighting their fiscal constraints and comparing different national styles of colonial rule, focusing on the largest empires, those of Britain and France. It is a theme of essay, this essay, however, that another kind of variation between colonies was more important, i.e. Gcse Poetry Essay Structure. that defined by the extent and form of European appropriation and use of land: “settler”, “plantation” and essay, “peasant” colonies.
Chapter 6 considers how far colonial rule (and the actions of European companies that it facilitated) reinforced the emergence of a comparative advantage in land-extensive primary exports and looks at the consequences of this for the welfare of the population. Chapter 7 explores colonial contributions, and their limits, for the very long-term shift of gcse poetry essay structure, African factor endowments from labour scarcity towards labour abundance and a relatively high level of human capital formation, such as helped Tokugawa Japan, and more recently other parts of higher history essay, Asia, to rotary honolulu essay katerina achieve “labour-intensive industrialisation” (Sugihara 2007). Chapter 8 assesses the impact of different kinds of European regime on African entrepreneurship and on institutions facilitating, hindering or channelling African participation in higher history essay writing markets. Chapter 9 completes the rotary essay, substantive discussion by higher history commenting on the long-term effects of the colonial intrusion on the capacity of the State in wicked Africa for facilitating and promoting economic development. 2. Post-colonial change and variation. 5 Notoriously, output per head in Sub-Saharan Africa is the lowest of any major world region and has, on average, expanded slowly and haltingly since 1960. But there have been important changes, and variations over space, in policy and performance. In policy, structural adjustment in higher essay the 1980s marked a watershed: a fundamental shift from administrative to market means of resource allocation. Optional Essays. The change, however, was less dramatic in most of the former French colonies, where (except in Guinea) the maintenance of a convertible currency had enabled governments to avoid some of the higher, supplementary price and quantity controls which had increasingly been imposed in the mostly former British colonies outside the franc zone. West Foundation Essay. In performance, aggregate economic growth rates in the region were pretty respectable until 1973-75 (Jerven 2009). Ironically, in the decade or so following the adoption of structural adjustment they were stagnant or negative, before the Chinese-led boom in world commodity prices eased the region into 12 years of gross domestic product (GDP) growth at an average of 5% a year before the crises of 2007 (rising fuel and food prices, then the beginning of the international financial crisis) and 2008 brought about history a “great recession” in 2009 (IMF 2009).
1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. 5, 228). 6 There were notable exceptions to the general growth trends, both before and after the turning-point in the early to mid-1970s. Burning Faulkner. Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana made a particularly interesting contrast: similarly-sized neighbours with relatively similar factor endowments and geographical features, but with different colonial heritages. Cote d’Ivoire underwent what might loosely be described as a magnified version of the history essay writing, standard growth trajectory. It averaged an annual GDP growth of 9.5% from 1960 to 1978 (Berthelemy and Soderling 2001, 324-5) but then had several years of stagnation followed by civil war. Meanwhile, Ghana did almost the opposite. Ghanaian GDP per capita was barely higher in 1983, when it began structural adjustment, than at independence in optional essays for medical 1957.1 However, as one of the two most successful cases of structural adjustment in history writing Africa (the other being Uganda), Ghana averaged nearly 5% annual growth during the school, quarter-century after 1983. Thus, roughly, while Cote d’Ivoire was rising Ghana was falling, and vice versa.
Only one Sub-Saharan economy, Botswana, sustained growth over three, indeed four, decades since its independence, which was in 1966. Botswana averaged 9.3% annual growth (Berthelemy and history, Soderling 2001, 324-5). 3. Contrasting perspectives on the colonial legacy. 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and structure, Hopkins (2009). 7 A feature of the theoretical and ideological debate about the history of economic development in Africa is that it is possible to reach rather similar conclusions from very different scholarly and political starting-points. Regarding the colonial impact, the case for the prosecution, which a generation ago was urged most strongly by dependency theorists and radical nationalists (Amin 1972; Rodney 1972), is now championed by “rational choice” growth economists. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James A. Robinson (2001; 2002) have argued that Africa’s relative poverty at the end of the 20th century was primarily the result of the form taken by European colonialism on writing the continent: Europeans settling for faulkner, extraction rather than settling themselves in overwhelming numbers and history, thereby introducing the kinds of west contest, institution (private property rights and systems of government that would support them) that, according to Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson, was responsible for economic development in Europe and the colonies of European settlement in North America and Australasia.2. 8 Colonial extraction in Africa could be seen most decisively in the appropriation of land for higher history, European settlers or plantations, a strategy used not only to barn provide European investors and history essay writing, settlers with cheap and secure control of land, but also to oblige Africans to sell their labour to something this way comes essays European farmers, planters or mine-owners (Palmer and Parsons 1977).
Even in the “peasant” colonies, i.e. where the land remained overwhelmingly in African ownership, we will see that major parts of the services sector were effectively monopolised by Europeans. Then there was coercive recruitment of labour by higher essay colonial administrations, whether to work for the State or for something wicked this way comes, European private enterprise (Fall 1993; Northrup 1988). Of potentially great long-term importance was the unwillingness of colonial governments to accept, still less promote, the higher history writing, emergence of markets in land rights on land occupied by Africans, whether in “settler” or “peasant” colonies (Phillips 1989). From the perspectives of both dependency theory and essays for medical school, “rational choice” institutionalism, the original sin of colonialism in Africa was that it did not introduce a full-blooded capitalist system, based upon private property and thereby generating the pressures towards competition and accumulation necessary to drive self-sustained economic growth. 9 A narrower but important argument was made by the then small group of liberal development economists between the 1950s and 1970s. At a time when development economists (especially but not exclusively those writing in French) tended to favour a leading role for the State in the search for development in mixed economies (Hugon 1993; Killick 1978) P. T. Bauer (1953; 1972) attacked the history, late colonial State for introducing statutory marketing boards and thereby laying the foundation of what he considered to be deadening State interventionism. 10 Explicitly positive overviews of colonial rule in Africa are rare (but see Duignan and Gann 1975).
Many studies, though, mention the suppression of intra-African warfare, the gcse essay structure, abolition of internal slave trading and slavery, the introduction of mechanised transport and higher history essay, investment in infrastructure, and the development of modern manufacturing in the “settler” economies and in the Belgian Congo. Excited by the late 20th century wave of economic “globalisation”, some economic liberals have argued that the wicked this essays, British empire pioneered the process through its general opposition to tariff protection (1846-1931) and by other pro-market measures (Ferguson 2003; Lal 2004). With respect to tariffs, this case would apply less strongly to French colonies because of the protectionism of the French empire. It is also much less true of the final 30 years of British rule in essay Africa, which saw not only tariffs but also the creation of marketing boards. From the perspective of institutional change, a fundamental observation applicable to the region generally was highlighted by ap biology 2008 essay rubric John Sender and Sheila Smith (1986). Writing in the “tragic optimist” tradition of higher history, Marx’s writings on British rule in India, they emphasised that wage labour was rare at the beginning of essay, colonial rule and increasingly common by the end of it. For them, as for higher history essay, Bill Warren (1980), imperialism was the “pioneer of capitalism”. 11 Besides optimism and pessimism, a third view of colonial rule, and by implication of its legacy, is that its importance has been over-rated.
There are different routes to this conclusion. Many historians are struck by contest the brevity of colonial rule south of the Sahara, i.e. about 60 years in most of tropical Africa (Ajayi 1969), and by history the weakness of the canada west, colonial State (Herbst 2000). In this setting it can plausibly be argued that whatever went well in the “peasant” economies (and cash crop economies expanded greatly) was mainly the responsibility of Africans, through their economic rationality and entrepreneurship, a position epitomised by Polly Hill (1997). More ambivalent are the higher history essay writing, arguments of Jean-Francois Bayart (1989; 2000). Building on optional for medical school the familiar observation that rulers in Africa have usually found it hard to raise large revenues from domestic sources, Bayart argues that, during colonial rule and since, African elites became clients of colonial or overseas States. Thereby they forged relations which, though unequal, benefited themselves as well as the foreigners. Whereas dependency theory emphasised the primacy of foreign agency in determining historical outcomes, Bayart insists that African elites played a calculating and key role in establishing the history essay writing, “extraverted” pattern of African political economy. 4. A pre-colonial perspective on colonial legacies. 12 To evaluate the colonial legacy, we need to distinguish it from the situation and trends at the beginning of essay, colonial rule, which in most of Sub-Saharan Africa occurred during the European “Scramble”, from 1879 to circa 1905.
At that time the region was, as before, characterised generally (not everywhere all the time) by an abundance of cultivable land in relation to the labour available to till it (Hopkins 1973; Austin 2008a). This did not mean “resource abundance” as much of Africa’s mineral endowment was either unknown or inaccessible with pre-industrial technology or was not yet valuable even overseas. For example, many of the major discoveries (notably of higher, oil in Nigeria and this way comes, diamonds in Botswana) were to occur only during the period of decolonisation. History. Moreover, the fertility of much of the land was relatively low or at least fragile, making it costly or difficult to gcse poetry essay pursue intensive cultivation, especially in writing the absence of animal manure. Optional School. Sleeping sickness prevented the use of higher history, large animals, whether for ploughing or transport, in the forest zones and much of the savannas. The extreme seasonality of the annual distribution of rainfall rendered much of the dry season effectively unavailable for farm work. The consequent low opportunity cost of dry-season labour reduced the incentive to raise labour productivity in craft production. Conversely, the characteristic choices of farming techniques were land-extensive and labour-saving; but the thinness of the soils constrained the returns on labour (Austin 2008a).
All this helps to explain why the productivity of African labour was apparently higher outside Africa over several centuries, cf. the underlying economic logic of the external slave trades which in turn, ironically, aggravated the scarcity of labour within Africa itself (Austin 2008b; Manning 1990). 13 Within Africa, the honolulu katerina, structure of incentives encouraged a high degree of self-sufficiency, and by the middle of the 20th century it was widely assumed that pre-colonial economies had necessarily been overwhelmingly subsistence-oriented. The last half-century of research has progressively changed this assessment, especially for West Africa where a strong tendency towards extra-subsistence production was evident in the 16th and 17th centuries. While damaged by the aggravated “Dutch disease” effects of the Atlantic slave trade (Inikori 2007; Austin, forthcoming), this tendency was strongly resumed from the first decade of the 19th century when that trade began to be abolished, with West Africans producing on a wider and larger scale for internal as well as overseas markets. Given the relative scarcity of labour, and in the absence (generally) of significant economies of scale in essay production, it was rare for the reservation wage (the minimum wage rate sufficient to persuade people to sell their labour rather than work for themselves) to be low enough for a would-be employer to afford to pay it. Hence the honolulu essay, labour markets of pre-colonial Africa mainly took the history writing, form of ap biology essay rubric, slave trading (Austin 2005, chapters 6, 8; Austin 2008a).
14 The same abundance of land made political centralisation difficult to higher achieve and sustain (Herbst 2000). Political fragmentation had facilitated the Atlantic slave trade, in that larger States would have had stronger incentives and capacities for rejecting participation in it (Inikori 2003). Optional Essays School. This fragmentation later facilitated the European conquest. Ethiopia was the exception that proved the essay, rule, with its fertile central provinces and burning faulkner, large agricultural surplus supporting a long-established and essay writing, modernising State that, alone in Africa, had the economic base to essays resist the “Scramble” successfully. 2 The historiography is too complex to be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the moti (. Higher History Essay. ) 15 By no coincidence,2 most of Sub-Saharan Africa was colonised at a time when the canada west foundation essay contest, industrialisation of Europe was creating or expanding markets for various commodities that could profitably be produced in Africa. History Essay. The land-labour ratio, the environmental constraints on intensive agriculture and also the specific qualities of particular kinds of land in various parts of the continent gave Africa at least a potential comparative advantage in land-extensive primary production.
By the time of colonisation, especially in West Africa, the indigenous populations were increasingly taking advantage of the combination of these supply-side features and of access to expanding overseas markets. From Senegal to Cameroon thousands of tonnes of groundnuts and palm oil, and from the 1880s rubber, were being produced for sale to European merchants (Law 1995). 5. Colonial regimes: similarities and variations. 16 Colonial rule in Africa was intended to be cheap, viz. for taxpayers in west foundation essay Europe. The British doctrine was that each colony should be fiscally self-supporting. Thus, any growth in government expenditure was supposed to be financed from higher revenues, as it was in Ghana in the 1920s when Governor Guggisberg was able to fund the creation of what became the higher essay, country’s best-known hospital and school, as well as a new harbour and more railways and roads, from customs proceeds that had been fuelled by the colony’s increasing exports of cocoa beans. In practice the French were equally committed to covering costs. In French West Africa too there was a major programme of public works in the 1920s, although, as also in Ghana, within a few years expenditure had to be curtailed when export prices fell and the growth of optional essays for medical, revenue ended (Hopkins 1973, 190). 17 After retrenchment during the 1930s Depression, and especially during the Second World War, colonial administrations found themselves (for a variety of reasons) entering the history essay, post-war era with a new public commitment to be seen to promote actively the development of the economies over which they presided. “Developmental” language was partly redeemed by greater spending. In principle this came partly from the metropolitan taxpayer.
However, in the French case Patrick Manning (1998, 123-5) has calculated that the government continued to receive more in tax from something essays Africa than it spent in Africa. In British West Africa the new statutory export marketing boards accrued substantial surpluses by keeping a large margin between the price paid to producers and the price that the boards received for higher essay writing, the crop on the world market. The surpluses were kept in gcse poetry London, in British government bonds, as forced savings from African farmers (Rimmer 1992, 41-2), which assisted the history, British metropolitan economy to recover from the post-war dollar shortage. 18 The particular identity of the colonial power made some difference to the lives of those subjected to European rule. Contrasts between the two largest empires in Africa are traditionally made with reference to greater British reliance on African chiefs as intermediaries (“indirect rule”) and the French doctrine of assimilating a small minority of Africans into French culture and citizenship. On the whole it is essay rubric, arguable that, in economic terms, the similarities were much greater than the differences, except when the latter arose from the higher writing, composition of their respective African empires. 2008. French rule, like British, relied on African intermediaries, including chiefs, even though France was much more insistent on abolishing African monarchies (as in Dahomey, in contrast to the British treatment of the structures and dynasties of the States of Buganda, Botswana, Lesotho and, after an abortive attempt at abolition, Ashanti). In West Africa the higher history essay, French made much greater use of forced labour, but that was primarily because the French territories were, from the start, relatively lacking in cash-earning and rubric, therefore wage-paying potential. That specific policy, Corvee and its use to higher benefit white planters rather than African farmers, made a difference to the colonial legacy in something wicked Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire. It meant that African cocoa farming took off much more quickly and dramatically in the former, so that Ghana was much wealthier at essay, independence, when Cote d’Ivoire was in the process of catching up (and overtaking) after a late start (Hopkins 1973, 218-9), which it proceeded to do by the 1980s.
3 This is optional for medical, also the case for Madagascar, which is beyond the scope of the discussion here. 4 Gross national incomes in PPP terms averaged USD 918 in the former British colonies and USD 1,208 i (. ) 19 The contention here that the differences between the legacies of British and French rule in Africa are primarily attributable to variations in the composition of the African empires concerned may need to higher essay writing be qualified in barn the light of valuable recent research by Thomas Bossuroy and Denis Cogneau (2009). They examined social mobility in higher history writing five African countries and found that in the former British colonies in their sample, Ghana and Uganda, “the links between origin, migration, education and occupational achievement appear much looser” than in the former French colonies they examined, i.e. Cote d’Ivoire and Guinea3 (Bossuroy and Cogneau 2009, 2). Poetry Essay. In explanation, they emphasise the higher essay, importance of greater investment in education in the British colonies than the something this way comes essays, French colonies in higher writing their sample. This is essays for medical, a novel and important line of inquiry. I suspect that the favourable conclusion about the essay, former British colonies also partly reflects the fact that Ghana and Uganda, for reasons that are only partly and indirectly connected to their respective British legacies, were the two major growth successes of structural adjustment in essay Africa, therefore perhaps offering greater opportunities for educational, physical and occupational mobility from the mid-1980s, which was early enough to be partly reflected in the data and higher essay, which coincided with economic stagnation and then civil war in Cote d’Ivoire.
Finally, the contrast may also partly reflect the legacy of the era of Corvee and “settler” agriculture in something this way comes Cote d’Ivoire, before the economy took off in higher history the 1950s and 1960s. As of 1990, helped by the legacy of the Ivorian “miracle”, in a sample of 26 former British and French colonies in tropical Africa (so excluding southern Africa) it was the former French colonies that had the higher per gcse essay, capita incomes in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms, by over 30% (Bossuroy and Cogneau 2009, 45, citing World Bank data).4. 6. Colonial rule and higher history essay writing, Africa’s specialisation in primary product exports. 20 The “extraversion” and “monoculture” of African economies is widely lamented and condemned as a victory of colonial interests over African interests. The risks entailed in extreme specialisation, however, need to essays be set against the long-run income gain to be expected from the essay writing, exploitation of comparative advantage. But again, although the location of a colonial economy’s comparative advantage could be identified, sooner or later the task of capitalising on it raised the question of essays, what investments might profitably deepen that advantage and, above all, of how the costs and benefits would be distributed.
Conflicts of ideology, and higher history writing, especially the balance of power between different interest groups, worked out variously across the range of African colonies. The most fundamental difference was between the “peasant” and “settler” economies. Let us consider the contrasting cases of 2008 rubric, export agriculture in the former, notably in West Africa, and mining in the latter, most obviously in South Africa. 21 We have noted that, by the eve of the writing, European partition of the school, continent, Africa had already revealed an emerging comparative advantage in export agriculture. In West Africa in higher history writing particular it was in the joint interests of the population, European merchants and essay, the colonial administrations to further this. In Ghana British planters were initially allowed to history writing enter to grow cocoa beans. But lacking the discriminatory support from the government that their counterparts enjoyed in Kenya and southern Africa, they failed in commercial competition with African producers (Austin 1996a), just as French planters were later to gcse poetry structure be eclipsed by African ones in Cote d’Ivoire following the abolition of Corvee . Colonial reliance on the efforts of African small capitalists and peasants in the growing and local marketing of export crops paid off in what became Ghana and Nigeria, with more than 20-fold increases in the real value of foreign trade between 1897 and 1960 (Austin 2008a, 612), benefiting British commercial interests as well as (via customs duties) the colonial treasury. The efforts of W. History Essay. H. Lever, the soap manufacturer, to win government permission, along with the necessary coercive support, to establish huge oil palm plantations in Nigeria continued from 1906 to 1925, but they were always rebuffed in favour of rotary, continued African occupation of virtually all agricultural land.
Ultimately this was because African producers literally delivered the goods (Hopkins 1973, 209-14) through land-extensive methods well adapted to the factor endowment. They rejected the advice of colonial agricultural officers when it conflicted with the requirements of history essay, efficient adaptation (Austin 1996a). The positive contribution of the administrations was to reinforce and permit the west foundation essay contest, exploitation of these economies’ comparative advantage in export agriculture. They did this partly by investment in transport infrastructure, investment to which African entrepreneurs also contributed (Austin 2007). Equally important, although the colonial administration never really established a system of land titling, in higher history Ghana (for example) it upheld the indigenous customary right of farmers to ownership of trees they had planted, irrespective of the outcome of any later litigation about the structure, ownership of the land the trees stood upon. Thus, African producers enjoyed sufficient security of tenure to feel safe in investing in tree crops on a scale sufficient to create, in the case of Ghana, what became for higher writing, nearly 70 years the world’s largest cocoa economy (Austin 2005, chapters 14, 17). 22 South Africa had gold and diamonds, but their profitable exploitation required that the cost of labour be reduced far below what the physical labour-land ratio implied.
C. H. Optional School. Feinstein’s quantitative exercise indicates that without such coercive intervention in the labour market, most of South Africa’s mines would have been unprofitable until the end of the gold standard era in 1932 (Feinstein 2005, 109-12). If South Africa eventually obtained a “free market” comparative advantage in mining, it was only after several decades of using extra-market means to repress black wages, notably through land appropriation and measures to stop Africans from higher essay working on European-owned land except as labourers rather than tenants. 23 Comparison of the ap biology essay, economic legacies of European rule for poverty in “settler” and history, “peasant” economies is complicated by the many variations between individual colonies. However, some generalisations are possible. It is clear that the distribution of wealth and income was, and has remained, much more unequal in the “settler” economies than in faulkner the “peasant” ones. Preliminary findings by Sue Bowden, Blessing Chiripanhura and Paul Mosley (2008) support the proposition that possession of land put a floor under real wages in essay the “peasant” colonies, enabling labourers migrating into poetry essay, export-crop growing areas to share in the gains from exports that were otherwise divided between European firms, African and Asian middlemen and African farm-owners (see also Austin 2005).
Bowden, Chiripanhura and Mosley find real wages beginning to rise from the 1920s and higher history writing, 1930s in the “peasant” colonies of Ghana and Uganda respectively and not falling back afterwards to the 1914 floor. In contrast, it was only in the 1970s that the real wages of 2008 essay rubric, black gold-miners in South Africa began a sustained rise above their early 20th century level (Lipton 1986, 410). In the sample taken by Bowden, Chiripanhura and Mosley it was only in the “pure settler” economies, South Africa and Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia), not in the “peasant” colonies of Ghana or Uganda nor even in the intermediate case of Kenya, that there were declines in rural African living standards over periods of essay writing, longer than 15 years within the 20th century. Optional For Medical School. This pattern in real wages, together with the long-term expansion of African export agriculture which underpinned the growth of higher, real wages in burning barn the “peasant” colonies, was reflected in the earlier onset of falling infant mortality in Ghana and Uganda compared to Southern Rhodesia and South Africa. 24 It should be added that many African colonies were short of higher writing, both known mineral deposits and the kinds of land suitable for profitable export agriculture. Ap Biology 2008. These were not selected for European settlement, nor were their economies driven by strong African rural-capitalist and peasant production.
They had to rely on seasonal exports of male wage labourers, and on growing the higher, less lucrative cash crops such as cotton, the timing of whose labour requirements conflicted with those of food crops, thereby creating risks to food security (Tosh 1980). A current wave of research, led by Alexander Moradi, uses height as a measure of physical welfare. The average height of African populations rose during the colonial period in Ghana and even in the “semi-settler” economy of Kenya (Moradi 2008; 2009). When this research is extended to poorer colonies such as southern Sudan, Tanganyika (mainland Tanzania) or those in the West African Sahel, it would be no surprise if welfare improvements there are found to ap biology 2008 essay have been smaller than in the better-endowed economies studied so far. History Writing. It was particularly in (selected areas of) the something this way comes, less favourably-endowed economies that colonial governments sought to raise productivity through very large-scale, capital-intensive and authoritarian projects, notably the massive irrigation scheme of the Office du Niger in history Mali and the mechanisation campaign of the East African Groundnut Project in Tanganyika. Both were spectacular failures in their own output and productivity terms, not least because they were inefficient in gcse essay relation to the prevailing factor ratios and physical environments (Hogendorn and Scott 1981; Roberts 1996, 223-48; Van Beusekom 2002).
25 Poor as was the record of “settler” colonialism for the living standards of the indigenous population, it was in colonies where Europeans appropriated land on a large scale, for settlers or for companies, that the earlier and history essay, larger beginnings were made in modern manufacturing. 26 Where industrialisation has occurred in Asia, it has tended to follow a more labour-intensive route than in Europe and North America, substituting longer working hours for additional machinery where possible (Sugihara 2007) and generally having a higher proportion of labour to capital at any given level of output. A region in essay structure which labour as well as capital was scarce in relation to land, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, was not well suited to higher history writing follow either route in the early 20th century. 5 In Katanga, in contrast to South Africa, the black labour force was “stabilised” from the 1920s onw (. ) 27 Yet, South Africa, followed on a smaller scale by Southern Rhodesia, acquired a substantial manufacturing sector by the time most of the rest of Africa achieved independence. The “artificially” low cost of black labour helped, but only in unskilled jobs because the skilled ones were anyway reserved for whites and the choice of technique was generally capital-intensive. Manufacturing growth was made possible by tariff protection, where locational advantage (as with brewing and cement manufacture) did not suffice. Crucially, mining provided the import-purchasing power to cover the import of capital goods and, where necessary, raw materials. 2008 Essay. It was also the direct or indirect source of much of the revenue used by higher essay governments to invest in manufacturing, whether directly or through the provision of infrastructure. The large European populations were a source of both educated workers and capital, but arguably their most important contribution to industrialisation was the political commitment to support it even at the cost of consumer prices that were often above world market levels (Austen 1987, 181-7; Kilby 1975; Wood and Jordan 2000). Moving up the value chain became an ambition of substantial proportions of white voters where they controlled governments, as in South Africa after 1910 and to a large extent in Southern Rhodesia from 1923, as well as of African voters since independence. In South Africa the ap biology essay rubric, “Pact” government of the National and Labour parties, elected in 1924, embarked on a policy of promoting import-substituting industrialisation through tariffs and State investment in electricity and steel (Feinstein 2005, 113-35).
Southern Rhodesia followed in the 1930s, partly in response to the challenge of the new South African customs regime (Phimister 2000). Besides these “settler” colonies, there was a third case of essay, precocious growth of modern manufacturing, i.e. the Belgian Congo. This was absolutely not a case of settler independence or autonomy. School. As in southern Africa, however, mines provided a favourable context for essay, import-substituting industry, providing infrastructure, import-purchasing power and west, part of the market.5 South Africa remained the flagship of manufacturing in the region, but the scope for further expansion was increasingly restricted by writing the high price of optional essays, skilled labour in an economy where only a minority of the history essay writing, population had access to secondary education and by ap biology 2008 essay the limited market for mass-produced goods that resulted from the low level of black wages. If the radical school was right about the contribution of repressive racial policies to economic growth in the early 20th century (Trapido 1971), the liberals were right about the period preceding the fall of apartheid, i.e. the system was now a brake, not a booster, on essay writing the development of the economy (Moll 1990; Nattrass 1991; Feinstein 2005). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the rotary, likely underestimation of the higher writing, informal sector. This im (. ) 28 Back in 1960 modern manufacturing in South Africa was large but not very competitive internationally. In the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa it was much smaller. There were only two countries in which manufacturing accounted for more than 10% of recorded or officially-estimated GDP,6 i.e.
Southern Rhodesia (16%) and the Belgian Congo (14%). Next, on 9.5%, the “semi-settler” economy of Kenya tied with Senegal (Kilby 1975, 472). Barn Faulkner. The latter was a “peasant” colony but, as the writing, administrative and commercial centre of French West Africa, had an exceptionally large resident European population, which increased the canada west foundation, supply of people with managerial experience, technical expertise and access to capital (Kilby 1975, 473, 488-90). In West Africa even these low 1960 levels of history essay writing, manufacturing represented a very late surge, propelled by post-war developmentalism (government subsidies for manufacturing in the case of Senegal) and decolonisation, which led European firms to establish local factories to canada essay contest protect their existing markets (Kilby 1975, 475, 490-507; Boone 1992, 65-77). 29 Given the relative scarcity of labour and the small markets, together with the essay, comparative advantage in honolulu essay katerina land-extensive primary production, it is not surprising that there was not much more manufacturing by the end of the colonial period. Where there were opportunities, colonial governments were rarely interested in upsetting the status quo in which colonial markets for manufactured goods were supplied largely by monopsonistic European merchants, selling goods disproportionately produced in the European metropolitan economy concerned (Brett 1973, 266-82; Kilby 1975). But given that, despite rising population, the factor endowments of even the larger African economies were not suited to industrialisation in 1960, the higher history writing, more important question is perhaps whether colonial rule, directly or indirectly, laid foundations on which Africa might later develop the conditions for a much larger growth of manufacturing. 7 As of 1950 Dakar’s electricity was the most expensive in the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).
30 Asian experience suggests that this would most plausibly take a labour-intensive form. In the long term the structure, most fundamental change of the colonial period was probably the start of sustained population growth, which in aggregate can be dated from the end of the 1918 influenza pandemic, although local timing varied. How far the demographic breakthrough was the result of colonial actions, such as the suppression of slave raiding, the post-1918 peace within Africa and public health measures that reduced crisis mortality, is difficult to determine (Iliffe 1995, 238-41). The Sub-Saharan population is estimated to have doubled to about 200 million between 1900 and history, 1960 (for references see Austin 2008a, 591). So the demographic conditions for cheaper labour were beginning, but only beginning, to be established. But labour-intensive industrialisation also requires investment in energy supply and labour quality. It needs workers who are disciplined and perhaps have specific skills or are trained to facilitate the acquisition of 2008, new ones (Sugihara, forthcoming). School enrolment rates rose during the colonial era from low or non-existent levels and in many countries doubled or tripled between 1950 and 1960.
This was especially helped by higher writing African politicians gaining control of 2008 essay rubric, domestic budgets during the transition to higher essay writing independence, such as in Nigeria where primary enrolment was raised from 971,000 to 2,913,000 and secondary enrolment was raised from 28,000 to 135,000 (Sender and Smith 1986, 62). In 1957 annual electric power output stood at 2,750 million kilowatts in the Belgian Congo and at 2,425 million kilowatts in the Central African Federation (within which most of the electricity was produced in Southern Rhodesia). In contrast, according to figures for the previous year, French West Africa produced a combined total of 138 million kilowatts,7 Nigeria 273 million kilowatts and the rest of British West Africa 84 million kilowatts (Kamarck 1964, 271). Hence, despite the popularity of industrialisation with nationalists, the newly-independent countries were not well equipped to embark on labour-intensive industrialisation in the 1960s. Poetry Essay Structure. Those that sought to industrialise opted for history essay, capital-intensive methods (subsidising capital, protective tariffs) and the factories tended to became creators of economic rents rather than of profits from competitive success (Boone 1992). 8. Markets and African entrepreneurship. 3 For examples from each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (197 (. ) 31 African entrepreneurship has driven changes in the choice of products and in the means and canada west foundation essay, organisation of production in various contexts before, during and since colonial rule.3 This has been particularly conspicuous in West Africa, whose 19th century pre-colonial economies tended to be regarded as more market-oriented than those of the higher history, other major regions of Sub-Saharan Africa (Austin, forthcoming).
The colonial impact on African entrepreneurship and on the markets in something which they operated again turned to a large extent on whether there were large-scale appropriations of land for the use of Europeans, be they individual settlers or corporations. 32 This familiar division between “settler” and “plantation” colonies, on one hand, and “peasant” (and rural capitalist) colonies, on the other, was far from purely exogenous to African economic history. Where African producers were able to enter export markets early and on essay a wide scale, before European exporters really got going, their success was sufficient to tip the balance of the argument among colonial policy-makers in favour of those who thought it economically as well as politically wisest to leave agricultural production in African hands. As we saw in chapter 6, British West Africa was the major example of this. In South Africa, Southern Rhodesia and Kenya African farmers responded quickly to opportunities to grow additional grain to supply internal markets.
But the governments reacted by trying to honolulu essay katerina drive Africans out of the produce market and into the labour market by reserving land for Europeans, while either prohibiting Africans from leasing it back or (as in inter-war Kenya) limiting the history essay, time that African “squatters” could work for west foundation essay, themselves rather than for their European landlords (Palmer and Parsons 1977; Kanogo 1987). African production for the market proved resilient, however, and the governments eventually accepted this and shifted to imposing controls on agricultural marketing that favoured European producers rather than trying to displace African ones. History Writing. In Kenya it was only in the mid-1950s, during the Mau Mau revolt, that the government lifted restrictions on African production of high-value cash crops (Mosley 1983). Thus, to the extent that African production for the market in the late 19th century was greater in what became the “peasant” agricultural-export economies than in what became the “settler” economies, that contrast was reinforced by government actions in the latter over the following decades. 33 Not that the ap biology 2008 essay rubric, maintenance of African ownership of land necessarily entailed support for African capitalism. Admittedly, we have seen that the colonial State in Ghana protected the property of agricultural investors, in the sense of preserving the ownership of a farmer over trees or crops that he or she had planted, irrespective of the outcome of legal disputes about the ownership of the land on which they stood.
But in “settler” and history, “peasant” colonies alike colonial governments were hesitant and usually hostile to the emergence of canada foundation essay, land markets in areas controlled by Africans. History. This policy eventually changed in Southern Rhodesia and essay, Kenya, with selective promotion of land registration, in response to the de facto emergence of land sales and individual proprietorship (cultivable land having become increasingly scarce in the areas left to Africans) and with African land-owners being seen as a politically conservative force in the context of Mau Mau (Mosley 1983, 27-8; Kanogo 1987). Essay Writing. In West Africa, without the settler pressure on African access to land, and given the essays for medical, expansion of cash crops that occurred early in the colonial period and again in the 1950s, neither the political case nor the economic case for compulsory land titling was as yet compelling (Austin 2005). 34 African entrepreneurs, like European ones, needed to be able to hire labour. In this context the colonial record was one of gradual, mostly reluctant, innovation. Sooner or (often) later, they legislated against slavery.
But in West Africa, the region with evidently the largest slave population at the start of the 20th century, the replacement of the slave market by a wage labour market depended very much on the progress of African cash crop agriculture (Austin 2009). During the inter-war decades the continued use of forced labour by colonial administrations came under sustained pressure from the International Labour Office in Geneva. The embarrassment of this contributed to further reluctant and gradual reform. By the higher, end of the Second World War, as Frederick Cooper (1996) has shown, British and something essays, French authorities had accepted that wage labour had become a regular occupation for Africans, rather than a seasonal sideline from farming. Indeed, Cooper went on to show that in London and Paris the higher history writing, long-run fiscal implications of having to give workers in Africa the same rights as workers in Europe contributed to the decisions to withdraw from tropical Africa. For African societies the end of slavery and the rise of wage labour was arguably a condition of burning, continued large-scale participation in international trade. As early as 1907 the history essay, chocolate manufacturer Cadbury had moved its cocoa-buying to essay Ghana following bad publicity about “slave-grown” cocoa in the Portuguese colony of Sao Tome, where it had been buying before (Southall 1975, 39-49). By 1960 slavery was generally no longer acceptable among trading partners. Higher History Writing. In this way colonial abolitionism, however gradual, contributed to the “modernisation” of labour institutions in Africa.
35 Colonial rule facilitated the import of capital into this capital-scarce continent. Burning Barn Faulkner. But only in mining, and to some extent in “settler” and “plantation” agriculture, did this happen on a large scale. The survey by Herbert S. Frankel (1938) of external capital investment in white-ruled Africa remains the history writing, only comprehensive study for the colonial period. According to Frankel, in gross and nominal terms, during 1870-1936 such investment totalled GBP 1,221 million, of which 42.8% was in gcse poetry essay South Africa. This meant GBP 55.8 per head in South Africa, but only GBP 3.3 in the French colonies and history, GBP 4.8 in British West Africa.
Public investment constituted 44.7% of the grand total and something way comes, almost 46% of the non-South Africa total (Frankel 1938, 158-60, 169-70). Governments, and to some extent mining and plantation companies, invested in the transport infrastructure required for the development of, mainly, the export-import trade. In Nigeria and Ghana Africans also took a leading role in building motor roads and pioneering lorry services (Heap 1990). In institutional terms the colonial period saw the eventual abolition of human pawning, with its replacement by promissory notes and, in essay writing those areas of West Africa where it was possible, by loans on the security of 2008 rubric, cocoa farms. It also saw the higher history essay, introduction of modern banking, but the banks were much more willing to something wicked this accept Africans’ savings than to offer them loans, partly because of the colonial governments’ non-introduction of compulsory land titling (Cowen and Shenton 1991). 36 Like shipping and the export-import trade, banking in colonial West Africa had a strong tendency towards cartelisation (Olukoju 2001-02; Austin and Uche 2007). The initial imposition of colonial rule and boundaries itself disrupted intra-African networks of exchange, and history essay writing, the increasing presence of essay rubric, European merchants in the interior relegated many African traders further down the chain of intermediation between shippers and farmers (Goerg 1980; Nwabughuogu 1982). History Essay. Organised resistance to European cartels mostly emerged later and was largely confined to particular colonies, given the tradition of cocoa “hold-ups” with which African farmers and brokers confronted successive European merchant cartels in Ghana and gcse essay structure, the indigenous banking movement in Nigeria (Miles 1978; Hopkins 1966). Until the advent of independence it remained the higher essay writing, case in the “peasant” colonies that the markets dominated by 2008 essay Europeans were cartelistic, whereas the markets populated by Africans were characterised by extreme competition (Hopkins 1978, 95). At least, much more than in the “settler” colonies, African entrepreneurs were able to operate in the export-import as well as in the domestic exchange sectors.
Though largely confined to the lower levels of the commercial pyramids, they benefited from the overall expansion of the higher, economies, especially in 2008 essay West Africa (Hopkins 1995, 44). The monopolistic arrangements were shaken a bit by essay writing decolonisation (Austin and Uche 2007), but the foundation essay, old African sector became the “informal” sector, the old European sector the “formal” one (Austin 1993). At independence, new governments were faced with the familiar problems of this financial dualism, notably lack of cheap credit from the formal sector for informal enterprises. 37 Despite asymmetric competition, the higher history essay writing, more economically successful “peasant” colonies saw the burning barn faulkner, continuation of a tradition of entrepreneurship and mostly (but not always) small-scale accumulation in agriculture, crafts and trade. The result, as John Iliffe (1983, 67) noted, was “a strong contrast between West Africa, with its long-established capitalistic sector and its entrepreneurs from higher essay artisanship and trade, and eastern and southern Africa, where entrepreneurs had emerged chiefly through (…) Western education and modern sector employment”. Early post-colonial policy did not always build on this, for ap biology essay, example in the case of Ghana, with high taxation of export agriculture and the creation of State monopolies in certain sectors (Austin 1996b).
38 It is widely accepted that States have a critical role in economic development, at least in enforcing the rules of economic activity and providing physical public goods. Therefore, we should ask how colonial rule affected the historic constraint on political centralisation in Africa, namely the difficulty of raising revenue. Essay. Beyond this we need to consider the size of the gcse poetry essay structure, State and the nature of authority and legitimacy, i.e. whether colonisation was responsible for fragmenting Africa, as is often said, or whether, as the colonial rulers themselves claimed, they were a modernising force, bringing the State to the “Stateless” and replacing patrimonial authority by bureaucratic authority. 39 Colonial administrations themselves suffered acute budgetary constraints. Although European empires introduced to Africa the possibility of raising loan finance (at least in an impersonal, law-governed though undemocratic way), the colonial administrations were restricted in history their resort to money markets by the metropolitan insistence that each colony be fiscally self-sufficient and balance its budget. The introduction in each colony of burning barn, a single currency as legal tender probably reduced net transaction costs (although in some cases the demonetisation of existing currencies hurt Africans holding them). But the metropolitan treasuries denied their colonial subordinates the autonomy to print money (Herbst 2000, 201-13).
The French colonies used the higher essay writing, French franc. In British West Africa a colonial pound was issued, but the wicked way comes essays, rules ensured that it was always convertible at par with the metropolitan pound. It was only at independence that the new African governments had the option of creating national currencies, an history essay, option the former French colonies mostly declined while the former British colonies soon accepted. 40 Given that they faced much the same practical constraints as the African States that had preceded them, colonial governments generally continued the reliance of pre-colonial kingdoms upon optional essays for medical school, taxes on trade and people, rather than on land or agriculture. It was the higher essay, above-mentioned discovery, during the Second World War, that the export marketing board could be a major revenue-raiser, which was the major fiscal innovation of colonial rule. As independence approached, this unintended consequence of a wartime expedient offered African politicians unprecedented opportunities to, for example, transform educational opportunities for their populations. The marketing board as a fiscal instrument was an important colonial legacy, and its possibilities and implications were only west foundation beginning to higher essay writing be understood. By the 1980s the limits of the device had become clear, as ordinary traders and producers could evade it by trading on parallel markets (Azarya and Chazan 1987). 41 Smuggling brings us to one of the more notorious legacies of the colonial partition of Africa: the imposition of canada foundation essay, boundaries dividing people of shared culture, the delineation of some States so small as to be of questionable economic viability and higher history, the creation of some States so large as to be potentially ungovernable.
There is wicked this way comes essays, much in these criticisms, but recent research has shown that the borders were not necessarily so arbitrary in writing their origin and that at least some of them have subsequently acquired social reality and even popular legitimacy (Nugent 2002). Again, while the colonial legacy includes several very small States, most colonies (even the gcse essay, small ones) were larger than the pre-colonial polities on which or in place of which they were imposed; and higher history essay writing, some of them formed parts of something this, larger regional units (notably French West Africa). Higher Essay Writing. While the colonial borders have been largely preserved, colonial attempts to introduce Weberian bureaucracy have proved much less durable (Bayart 1989). One reason for, or manifestation of, this is the salience of ethnicity in most African countries for political competition over resources. 42 From the late 1970s onwards a generation of historians and anthropologists tended to argue that ethnicity in Africa, far from being “primordial”, was created, or at least greatly entrenched, by colonial strategies of “divide and rule” (seminal contributions included Iliffe 1979, 318-41, and Ranger 1983, although the thesis was pursued beyond those cautious initial statements). This Way Comes. Recent historiography has shown that the emphasis on the capacity of essay, colonial States to invent and manipulate traditions, including those relating to ethnicity and rotary essay, chieftaincy, was partly justified, but it underestimated the capacity of African elites and essay, peoples to influence the outcomes themselves (Spear 2003). By no means all ethnic divisions originated in the colonial period (Vansina 2001), although they were usually deepened and reified by burning barn faulkner the interaction of colonial and African elites (Prunier 1995).
Whatever the precise division of higher history writing, responsibility in this interaction, there is general agreement among scholars that ethnicity has been a more important organising principle of political association and conflict since colonial rule than before it. This matters for economic development because ethnic divisions are often seen, by public opinion and by some economists (notably Easterly and something way comes essays, Levine 1997), as primarily responsible for rent-seeking rather than growth-promoting policies in higher writing post-colonial Africa. However, that approach has been criticised on various grounds (notably by Arcand, Guillaumont and Jeanneney 2000), and it is essays for medical, arguable that the salience of ethnicity in African political and economic life is as much a response to as a cause of the difficulties of enlarging the economic cake in African conditions and of the continued weakness of higher, State capacity. 43 Amidst the varying and/or poor growth records of 2008, post-colonial African economies, Botswana has stood out. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James Robinson (2002a) argue that it is an exception that proves the rule, i.e. Writing. that while Botswana did not have the beneficial institutional legacy characteristic of the “full settler” colonies like Australia, it was exceptionally lightly ruled by Britain and essays school, as a result escaped the worst of the essay writing, extractive propensities that they see as generally characteristic of non-“settler” colonialism. In my view two considerations point to a different conclusion. First, without the discovery of diamonds, it is hard to see how post-colonial Botswana could have grown dramatically faster than colonial Bechuanaland. Indeed, during the first three decades of indendence the non-diamond mining sector of Botswana did no better than Zambia (Jerven 2008).
Second, British rule was relatively intense, rather than the opposite, in Bechuanaland. By the criterion of the number of Africans per rotary essay, administrator, circa 1937 it was fifth out of 33 African colonies (Richens, forthcoming). 44 The limited revenue-generating potential of African colonies (especially before some of the more spectacular mineral discoveries) helps to explain the decisions of the French and British governments, faced with rising popular expectations channelled into growing nationalist movements, to accept early decolonisation. History. Simultaneously French firms were apparently becoming less interested in colonial economies (Marseille 2005). If so, it is foundation essay, ironic that the French government remained closely involved with its former colonies after their independence, not least through the franc zone. Again, in the 1950s British firms on the spot expressed concern about higher their future under independent African governments, but they failed to attract much notice from the decolonising authorities (Tignor 1998; Stockwell 2000). The irony of the latter case is that a few years later the British government’s attitude to the Biafran secession was influenced by the interests of katerina, British oil companies (Uche 2008). 45 This article has considered the issue of higher history essay writing, colonial legacies in relation to the longer-term dynamics of this way comes, economic development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region, characterised by simultaneous shortages of higher essay, labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market exchanges, especially in gcse West Africa, and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. Colonial governments and European firms invested in both infrastructure and (especially in southern Africa) in institutions designed to develop African economies as primary-product exporters. In both cases the old economic logic for coercing labour continued to operate, i.e. the essay, continued existence of slavery in early colonial tropical Africa and the use of large-scale land grabs to promote migrant labour flows in “settler” economies. But there were changes and variations.
While we have noted differences between French and British policy, for example in West Africa, the bigger contrasts were between “peasant” and “settler” colonies. 46 In British West Africa in ap biology 2008 essay rubric particular there was a genuine coincidence of higher essay, interest between African farmers, European merchants and colonial governments in enlarging and exploiting West Africa’s comparative advantage in land-extensive agriculture. The resultant income at least enabled many of the slave-owners to ap biology 2008 essay rubric become employers instead. In these cases the British government (and the essay writing, French in Cote d’Ivoire after 1945) correctly recognised where their own self-interest lay when they supported African investment in export agriculture. It was in those “peasant” colonies that were best endowed with lands suitable for producing the more lucrative crops that African populations experienced significant improvements in purchasing power and had the most improvement in physical welfare.
In the same countries, however, colonial rulers, partly because of fiscal constraints as well as a probably realistic assessment of the short-term economic prospects, did little directly to prepare the economies to move “up the value chain”. Thus, the honolulu essay katerina, first generation of post-colonial rulers presided over economies which were as yet too short of educated (and cheap) labour and sufficient (and sufficiently cheap) electricity to embark successfully on history essay writing industrialisation. It has taken post-colonial investment in education and barn faulkner, other public goods to move West African economies, and tropical Africa generally, closer to the prospect of a substantial growth of labour-intensive manufacturing, if international competition permits it. 47 “Settler” colonies had a worse record for poverty reduction, especially considering the mineral resources of South Africa and Southern Rhodesia, but they had a better one for structural change. The large-scale use of coercion was the basis for the construction of white-ruled economies that, especially in South Africa, eventually became profitable enough for history writing, a partly politically-impelled policy of west foundation essay contest, import-substituting industrialisation to history writing achieve some success. Thus, the essay katerina, rents extracted from African labourers were channelled into structural change, although the process became self-defeating as it progressed, contributing to the fall of higher history, apartheid. 48 As promoters of market institutions, the for medical school, colonial regimes had a very mixed record; but probably in writing all Sub-Saharan countries there was far more wage labour, and a lot more land sales, and a lot more people more deeply dependent on markets, by 1960 than there had been in 1890 or 1900. A final legacy of the colonial period has a rather unclear relationship to colonial policy, i.e. the sustained growth of (total) population since 1918 has progressively transformed the factor ratios and, on the whole, increased the long-term economic potential of the continent. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. 2001. The colonial origins of ap biology rubric, comparative development: An empirical investigation.
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Ph.D. dissertation, London School of Economics. Jerven, Morten. 2009. The quest for the African dummy: Explaining African post-colonial economic performance revisited. Journal of International Development 21 (published early online: DOI: 10.1002/jid.1603). Kamarck, A. M. 1964. The development of the economic infrastructure. In Economic transition in barn faulkner Africa , ed. Melville J. Herskovits, and Mitchell Harwitz, 263-75. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Kanogo, Tabitha.
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4, The economics of colonialism, 1870-1960 , ed. Canada West Foundation Essay Contest. L. H. Higher Essay. Gann and Peter Duignan, 470-520. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Killick, Tony. 1978. Development economics in barn faulkner action: A study of higher history writing, economic policies in Ghana . Ap Biology Essay. London: Heinemann. Lal, Deepak. 2004. In praise of empires: Globalization and order . New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Law, Robin (ed.). History Writing. 1995. From slave trade to “legitimate” commerce: The commercial transition in nineteenth-century West Africa . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lipton, Merle. 1986. Capitalism and essay, apartheid: South Africa, 1910-1986 . 2nd edition. Aldershot: Gower/Maurice Temple Smith. Manning, Patrick.
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Moll, Terence. 1990. From booster to ap biology 2008 rubric brake? Apartheid and economic growth in history essay writing comparative perspective. In The Political Economy of South Africa , ed. Optional Essays. N. Nattrass and E. History Writing. Ardington, 73-87. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Moradi, Alexander. 2008. Confronting colonial legacies: Lessons from human development in essay structure Ghana and higher essay writing, Kenya, 1880-2000.
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2: 121-54. Sugihara, Kaoru. Forthcoming. Labour-intensive industrialisation in optional global history. In Gareth Austin and Kaoru Sugihara (eds), Labour-intensive industrialisation in global history . London: Routledge.
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Oil, British interests and the Nigerian civil war. Journal of African History 49, no. 1: 111-35. Van Beusekom, Monica M. 2002. Negotiating development: African farmers and colonial experts at the Office du Niger, 1920-1960 . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann. Vansina, Jan. 2001. Le Rwanda ancien: le royaume Nyiginya . Paris: Karthala. Wariboko, Nimi. 1998. A theory of the canoe house corporation.
African Economic History 26: 141-72. Warren, Bill. Higher History. 1980. Imperialism, pioneer of capitalism . West Foundation. London: Verso. Wood, A., and K. Jordan. 2000. Why does Zimbabwe export manufactures and Uganda not? Journal of Development Studies 37, no. 2: 91-116.
1 The current names of former colonies are preferred in history essay this essay, not least because until the 1930s “Gold Coast” did not correspond to what is now Ghana. However, “Southern Rhodesia” is used because “colonial Zimbabwe” is a contradiction in terms. “Belgian Congo” is ap biology 2008, used because of its clarity as there is history writing, more than one Congo today. 1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. 5, 228). 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and Hopkins (2009). 2 The historiography is too complex to be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the motives for colonisation were not entirely economic (not least in the French and German cases), there were several links between the progress of industrialisation in Europe and the fact that, so late in the history of European overseas empire, the rival European powers finally “scrambled” for Africa. For instance, industrialisation reduced the costs of coercion and control, creating incentives for (in particular) those lagging within Europe to seek additional resources overseas (especially Portugal), while those dominating European trade with Africa had economic reasons to secure their position by extending it into annexation (Britain). 3 This is also the case for Madagascar, which is honolulu katerina, beyond the scope of the discussion here.
4 Gross national incomes in PPP terms averaged USD 918 in the former British colonies and USD 1,208 in the former French ones. 5 In Katanga, in contrast to South Africa, the higher, black labour force was “stabilised” from the optional for medical school, 1920s onwards, migrant workers being replaced with a smaller but better-paid permanent workforce. Their purchasing power provided part of the market for Congo-made manufactures (Fetter 1976, 110-5). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the likely underestimation of the informal sector. This implies an even smaller share for modern manufacturing because the latter was all within the formal sector. 7 As of 1950 Dakar’s electricity was the most expensive in the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).
3 For examples from each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (1978) and Forrest (1994). Gareth Austin , « African Economic Development and higher history essay, Colonial Legacies », International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement , 1 | 2010, 11-32. Gareth Austin , « African Economic Development and foundation essay, Colonial Legacies », International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement [Online], 1 | 2010, Online since 11 March 2010, connection on history essay writing 05 October 2017. URL : http://poldev.revues.org/78 ; DOI : 10.4000/poldev.78. Gareth Austin teaches African and comparative economic history, focusing on long-term economic development, at ap biology, the London School of essay writing, Economics and Political Science.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. 2017 7.0| 8.0 2016 7.1 2015 6.1| 6.2 2014 5.1| 5.2| 5.3 2013 4.1| 4.2| 4.3 2012 3 2011 2 2010 1. Electronic ISSN 1663-9391. Informations Title: International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement Briefly: Peer-reviewed journal that promotes cutting-edge research and faulkner, policy debates on essay writing global development.
Published by the Graduate Institute | Geneva, it links up with international policy negotiations involving Geneva-based organisations.
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Essay Of Rizal Essays and higher essay, Research Papers. Larry S.Esperas One hundred fifty one years hitherto, a substantial Filipino in the illustrious epithet of Jose Protacio Rizal . This Way Comes? Mercado y Realonda, extricated our predecessors from higher essay writing, being slaves by deploying a taciturn yet strapping apparatus. It was for his exertion that we are anon lodging on the snug threshold of freedom. By dint of his literary works ? essays , novels and articles. He brawled for canada essay our territory’s liberty hostile to the Spanish settlers who subjugated us for writing three hundred thirty. El filibusterismo , Jose Rizal , Manila 1230 Words | 4 Pages. I. Seven (7) reasons/proof why Rizal is his parent’s child. Honolulu Essay Katerina? 1. He is higher writing, a religious man like his parent’s; he started reading the Bible at . a very young age. 2. He is a man of independent thought like his father.
3. He also inherited his passion in rhetoric from his mother. 4. He inherited his father’s strength, sturdiness, industry and independence. 5. He also inherited his father’s deep feeling of dignity, self-respect, serenity and wicked this, poise, and seriousness. Higher Writing? . Ateneo de Manila University , El filibusterismo , Jose Rizal 751 Words | 3 Pages. Rizal Notes By fatz18angel | Feb. 2012 Zoom In Zoom Out Page 1 of 5 LECTURE NOTES I. Something Wicked Way Comes Essays? Introduction and significance of R.A. Higher History Writing? . 1425 ( Rizal Law) II. Burning Barn? The world during Rizal’s times local conditions during Rizal’s times LECTURE NOTES I. Introduction and significance of R.A. 1425 ( Rizal Law) II. The world during Rizal’s times local conditions during Rizal’s times Chapter 1 Advent of a National Hero Chapter 2 Childhood Years in higher history essay writing Calamba Chapter 3 Early Education in gcse poetry structure Calamba and. Ateneo de Manila University , Bankruptcy in the United States , Calamba City 437 Words | 4 Pages. made an history essay writing endeavour, a step towards liberty. Thousands of 2008 rubric, Filipinos died and sacrificed their lives to higher history essay writing, satisfy their longing for 2008 essay rubric freedom.
Heroes like Andres . Bonifacio and Lapu-lapu offered themselves without hesitation only for higher our motherland. Dr. Jose Rizal was considered the Juan of change; an eye opener for Filipinos who were allured by burning faulkner, all the mendacities of the essay, wolves, but then the eyes was shut when he was killed for unfolding the anomalies of the Spaniards. River of flood gushed into the land before. Andres Bonifacio , Emilio Aguinaldo , Filipino language 1250 Words | 5 Pages. 20th century, Rizal in the Philippines in the late 19th century. In an undated essay on education, La Instruccion, whose . Canada West Foundation Essay? manuscript is preserved in the Philippine National Library, Jose Rizal presented a critique on primary instruction in the Philippines during the late 19th century and provided suggestions for history writing its improvement. Before taking further studies in Manila and Europe, Rizal was taught by his mother, private tutors and a small private school in Binan, thus his essay was based on. Andres Bonifacio , Christianity , Filipino language 856 Words | 3 Pages. ?LETTERS TO THE YOUNG WOMEN OF MALOLOS On February 22, 1889, Rizal wrote the famous letter now known as “To the ap biology essay, Young Women of Malolos” . as per essay writing the request of Marcelo H. del Pilar.
This famous letter was written by Rizal in canada contest Tagalog while he was residing in London. The story behind this letter is as follows: On December 12, 1888, a group of 20 young women from Malolos petitioned Governor-General Weyler for permission to open a “night school” so that they could study Spanish under Teodoro Sandiko. Emilio Aguinaldo , Filipino language , Filipino mestizo 1596 Words | 4 Pages. Birth and Family Life Jose Rizal was born on higher writing June 19, 1861. Optional For Medical? It was a Wednesday evening in Calamba, Laguna, and his mother nearly died in the . process.
He was baptized three days later, on June 22, by the parish priest of the Catholic church in history essay his town, Fr. Rufino Collantes from Batangas. His godfather, Fr. Pedro Casanas, was a close family friend. Rizal's mother named him after St. Barn Faulkner? Joseph, to whom she was ardently devoted. Higher Writing? He was born in Calamba, Laguna (a few kilometers south of Manila) on. Calamba City , Jose Rizal , Laguna 1125 Words | 4 Pages. AN ESSAY ABOUT JOSE RIZAL Who is wicked this essays, Jose Rizal to common people? What is the impact of his life, woks and . Writing? writings? When we ask most average persons today these questions, they might answer something like, he is our national hero, he died in Bagumbayan, and he wrote two great novels.
Beyond that nothing more is rotary honolulu essay katerina, explicitly said about Jose Rizal . As I read through the chapters of the book I have come discover many more things that is admirable about higher, this man. In his childhood, he wrote a poem to. El filibusterismo , Jose Rizal , Manila 1132 Words | 3 Pages. RIZAL : Filipino patriots who were brutally tortured to implicate Rizal : * Deodato Arellano * Dr. Pio Valenzuela * . Moises Salvador * Jose Dizon * Domingo Franco * Timoteo Paez December 29, 1896 – Rizal was formally notified of the court’s verdict: death. “Imitation of Christ” by Thomas a Kempis - always had with him ( Rizal ). Documentary and Testimonial evidence presented against honolulu katerina Rizal : * A letter of Antonio Luna to Mariano Ponce * A letter of Rizal to his family . Filipino people , Katipunan , Manila 1159 Words | 5 Pages.
EVENTS Rizal departed for Spain secretly for two reasons and those were (1) to avoid detection by the Spanish authorities and the friars . and (2) his parents do not know about his departure. Higher History Essay? Rizal went abroad to observe keenly the life and foundation essay, culture, languages and customs, industries and history essay, commerce, and rotary essay, governments and history writing, laws of the European nations in order to prepare himself in the mighty task in gcse poetry essay structure liberating his oppressed people from history, Spanish tyranny. On his travel to Spain, Rizal had seen and. Cortes Generales , Francisco Franco , Jose Rizal 731 Words | 3 Pages. JOSE PROTACIO RIZAL MERCADO Y ALONZO REALONDA Calle Real, Rizal Shrine Calamba, Laguna 0915-5774925 [email protected] . OBJECTIVE: To share a heart of a Filipino nationalist and faulkner, inspire all the Filipino youth today EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: 1887 Eye specialization course, PhD University of Heidelberg 1885 Philosophy and Letters, PhD 1884 Licentiate in history essay writing Medicine Universidad Central de Madrid 1878-1882 Opthalmology (undergraduate) 1877-1878 Philosopy. Bachelor's degree , Filipino people , Jose Rizal 278 Words | 3 Pages. GROUP 2 :RIZAL’S ESSAYS ORTEGA, OLLERO PASTRANA PENALOSA PFLEIDER To the young women of Malolos (London, February 22, . 1889) This famous letter was written by Rizal in something wicked this way comes essays Tagalog, while he was reading in London, upon the request of M.H. del Pilar. The story behind this letter is this; On December 12, 1888, a group of twenty young women of writing, Malolos petitioned Goveror-General Weyler for permission to open a “night school” so that they might study Spanish under Teodoro Sandiko. Andres Bonifacio , Bulacan , Filipino language 851 Words | 4 Pages.
Jose Rizal is a 1998 Filipino biographical film of the barn faulkner, Philippine national hero Jose Rizal directed by higher essay, Marilou Diaz-Abaya and . Optional Essays? starring Cesar Montano as Jose Rizal . History Writing? At the time of its release, it was the barn, most expensive film in the history of Philippine cinema with a budget of over PhP.80 million. The film was an official entry to the 1998 Metro Manila Film Festival. Upon release, the film met a universal critical acclaim. History? Plot Imprisoned in Fort Santiago under the abusive Spanish colonization. Cesar Montano , Jose Rizal , Katipunan 959 Words | 3 Pages. RIZAL IN DAPITAN From June 17, 1892 to July 31, 1896, Dapitan became the canada west foundation, bare witness to one of the most fruitful periods in Rizal's life. . His stay in history writing the province was more than he was living in exile. It was the period when Rizal had been more focused on serving the people and for medical, the society through his civic works, medical practices, land development, promotion of education and of course, coming accross with his one true love, Josephine Bracken. The part of Rizal's life where he came to higher writing, know.
Andres Bonifacio , Jose Rizal , Katipunan 1084 Words | 3 Pages. the important claims of Renato Constantino, which supports his negative thesis of Rizal , was the refusal of the essay rubric, latter to align with the . Philippine Revolution. This argument was based on the documentary evidence’s such as Rizal’s manifesto to history essay, the Filipino people, and Dr. Pio Valenzuela’s 1896 testimonial. Quibuyen’s article, Rizal and the Revolution the same core Constantino evidences were used to debunk the wicked essays, anti- Rizal thesis and further prove Rizal’s participation of the Revolution. Discuss thoroughly. Colonialism , Emilio Aguinaldo , Katipunan 1147 Words | 4 Pages. Carezza Marie P. BS Architecture Life and history writing, Works of Rizal MWF | 4:00-5:00 Is Rizal a hero, saint or martyr? Who is . Essays For Medical? Rizal ? Jose Rizal , the higher writing, national hero of the Philippines and burning barn, pride of the Malayan race, was born on history writing June 19, 1861, in the town of Calamba, Laguna.
He was the seventh child in ap biology rubric a family of 11 children. Essay Writing? Both his parents were educated and belonged to distinguished families. His father, Francisco Mercado Rizal , an industrious farmer whom Rizal called a model of fathers, came from Binan, Laguna;. Andres Bonifacio , Emilio Aguinaldo , Jose Rizal 808 Words | 3 Pages. Rizal’s Journey in Hong Kong and Macao Hounded by ap biology rubric, powerful enemies, Rizal was forced to leave his country for the second . Higher Essay? time in February 1888. He was then a full-grown man of 27 years of canada contest, age, a practicing physician, and higher essay, a recognized man-of-letters. • February 3, 1888 - after a short stay of six months in his beloved Calamba, Rizal left Manila for Hong Kong. He was sick and sad.
To aggravate his discomfiture, he was sick during the crossing of the choppy China Sea. • February 7. China , Chinese language , Chinese New Year 871 Words | 3 Pages. RIZAL Chapter7-Paris to Berlin Chapter 7 Paris to Berlin (1885-87) ? Rizal went to Paris and Germany in order to . Rotary Honolulu Katerina? specialize in higher history writing ophthalmology. ? He chose this branch because he wanted to cure his mother’s eye ailment. In Gay Paris (1885-86) ? After studying at the Central University of Madrid, Rizal , who was then 24 yrs old, went to barn faulkner, Paris to acquire more knowledge in ophthalmology. ? Maximo Viola – a medical student and a member of higher, a rich family of rotary honolulu katerina, San Miguel, Bulacan ? Senor. Anthropology , Baden-Wurttemberg , Berlin 876 Words | 4 Pages. Relevance of Jose Rizal Today Dr Jose Rizal , national hero of the essay, Philippines The following article about Dr Jose . Rizal is widely circulated on structure the Internet in celebration of Rizal Day which is observed every 30th day of December, the day he was executed in writing Bagumbayan by Spanish authorities, more than 100 years ago. To preserve the originality of the report,I am presenting it the same way it is found on something wicked this essays the Internet and as written by two sources of information, for which I express my indebtedness. Andres Bonifacio , Jose Rizal , Katipunan 1964 Words | 7 Pages.
administration in the colony. In 1853 to 1898, there were 41 political dictum who held office in higher history essay writing the Philippines. In 1885 to 1896, during the regency of . Gcse Essay? Queen Ma. Cristina there were four assign to the colonial government and two acting capacity. Rizal observes in his Noli Me Tangere that Governor-General was talking to history essay writing, Crisostomo Ibarra about his burdens he weigh in his shoulder.
About his hardship of pleasing the ap biology essay, King Minister and worst is when he consult the higher essay writing, mother country about his proposal which. Andres Bonifacio , Emilio Aguinaldo , Jose Rizal 932 Words | 3 Pages. ? 1. Rotary Honolulu Essay Katerina? Rizal as a lover ----- was he a womanizer or a chick boy? Defend your answer. Rizal had the impression of being a . womanizer because if his past relationships with many women. Higher History Essay? (Segunda Katigbak, Leonor Valenzuela, Vicenta Ybardaloza, Leonor Rivera, Consuelo Ortiga, Nelly Boustead, Suzanne Jacoby, Usui Seiko, Gertrude Beckett, and Josephine Bracken). Truly, these were just serial relationships which mean most of honolulu essay, them were not serious. Only Josephine Bracken was the only one he lived within.
Antonio de Morga , British Empire , Filipino people 1498 Words | 5 Pages. Rizal Submitted by: Jose Marcko Durano Submitted to: Sir Parawan Rizal , American sponsored Hero . | Rizal was an higher essay American-sponsored hero | Rector’s Bill |Claro M. Recto Foundation | Why is Rizal the National hero? |Jose Rizal | Discovery in Binyan Jose Rizal |Jose Rizal . Andres Bonifacio , Honore de Balzac , Jose Rizal 413 Words | 5 Pages. quibuyen's rizal ; by: joyce anne tuliao A Nation Aborted By Floro Quibuyen What was Rizal’s vision? Rizal’s vision was of the nation as . an ethical community, a vision of an inclusive nation without borders, and west foundation, not of a sovereign nation demarcated by a territory and higher, protected by faulkner, the armature of the state. Higher Essay Writing? He was convinced that the ap biology essay, road to national liberation, to essay writing, freedom and justice, was not via the violent seizure of state power—wherein today’s slaves become tomorrow’s tyrants. West Essay? The Historians… . Andres Bonifacio , Jose Rizal , Katipunan 894 Words | 3 Pages. Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896) is the most venerated and acclaimed patriot in the . Philippines recognized for his unselfish and history, non-violent contributions to the historical and essays, social transformations in the country. He is one of the national heroes of the Philippines regarded by the National Heroes Committee, together with Andres Bonifacio. He was the most prominent advocate for essay writing reform in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era that led.
Andres Bonifacio , Calamba City , Jose Rizal 780 Words | 3 Pages. CHAPTER 5 : Rizal in Paris and essays school, Germany * Rizal went to Paris and Germany in order to specialize in higher history writing ophthalmology, - a . Barn Faulkner? branch of medical science dealing with the anatomy, functions and diseases. * Rizal was just only 24 y/o when he went Paris to study ophthalmology. STOPOVER AT BARCELONA * To visit his friend MAXIMO VIOLA, a medical student and a member of a rich family in San Miguel, Bulacan. November 1885-February 1886 * Rizal worked as an assistant to Dr. Louis de Weckert. Berlin , East Germany , Germany 741 Words | 3 Pages. Works and Writings 1. Brief . Higher Essay Writing? 3. Rizal Life Works Writings Summary 1 - Scribd . For Medical? www.scribd.com/doc/68182467/ Rizal -Life-Works-Writings-Summary-1? * Oct 10, 2011 - Rizal Life Works Writings Summary 1 - Download as Text file (.txt), PDF File (.pdf), Word Doc (.doc) or read online.
4. Summary of Rizal's Life, Works and Writings 126.96.36.199:8080/course/info.php?id=195? * This course presents a historical-thematic account of the life of Rizal , the history writing, society he lived and something wicked this, the works he. Andres Bonifacio , Jose Rizal , Katipunan 543 Words | 3 Pages. Synopsis Jose Rizal was born on June 19, 1861, in Calamba, Philippines. While living in higher history writing Europe, Rizal wrote about the canada west foundation contest, . discrimination that accompanied Spain's colonial rule of his country. He returned to the Philippines in 1892, but was exiled due to his desire for reform. Although he supported peaceful change, Rizal was convicted of sedition and higher essay writing, executed on December 30, 1896, at age 35. CONTENTS Synopsis Early Life Writing and Reform Exile in burning the Philippines Execution and higher history essay, Legacy QUOTES . Andres Bonifacio , Jose Rizal , Katipunan 504 Words | 3 Pages. M. Cecilio B .Jose Rizal C. Silvestre Ubaldo D. Doctor Uliman 2. Who wrote the German poem that Rizal translate into . Optional For Medical? Tagalog? A. History? Fray Rodriguez B. Lt.
Jose Taviel de Andrade C. Father Rector Gregorio Echavarria D. Von Wildenath 3. He is a liberal-minded Spaniard, who knows that Rizal life was in Jeopardy because the friars were powerful. A. Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez B. Von Wildenath C. Governor General Terrero D. Lt. Jose Taviel De Andrade 4. Rizal wrote down the findings. Andrade , CALABARZON , Calamba City 803 Words | 3 Pages. RIZAL IN PARIS After completing his studies in Madrid, Rizal went to wicked way comes essays, Paris and Germany to specialize ophthalmology. He studied . this field to be able to writing, cure his mother’s eye ailment. Something This Way Comes Essays? He served as an assistant to history writing, famous ophthalmologists in Europe. He also continued his travels and west foundation essay contest, observations on European life and customs, government and laws in Paris and higher, Germany. * In Gay Paris * 24 years old, already a physician * On his way to Paris, he stopped at Barcelona to meet his friend, Maximo.
Berlin , Calamba City , Germany 2149 Words | 7 Pages. CHAPTER 1 : ADVENT OF NATIONAL HERO JUNE 19, 1861 – the this essays, day when Jose Rizal was born JOSE RIZAL - The greatest hero of the history essay writing, . Poetry Essay? Philippines - “many – splendored genius” - dowered by God superb “intellectual”, - “moral” and “physical qualities” - a man of many talents - a martyr and a patriot ? WORLD WHEN RIZAL WAS BORN 1861 PAX HISPANICA – reigned over history essay the archipelago GOV. Optional Essays School? JOSE LEMERY – the governor general – a good militarist amp; established politico military over Visayas amp; Mindanao . Calamba City , Family , Grandparent 1120 Words | 5 Pages. know what happened to Leonor Rivera. His education, work and history writing, writings of Rizal including his associations with professors, scholars and . scientist made him famous in Europe. He may wanted to see the effect of the ” Noli Me Tangere” in first hand to his people and the abusive Spanish authorities.
He had a delightful trip from wicked essays, Europe to Manila. It was also a happy homecoming in Calamba, Laguna . However, the family of Rizal knew that they were plotting to history essay, be killed because of his writing in “Noli. Calamba City , Dominican Order , Filipino people 3334 Words | 7 Pages. Summary: The film started with a scene showing Jose Rizal writing while narrating about Spanish abuses during his time. The film shows how . the friars mistreat Filipino women, how they beat children and something this way comes, students when being disciplined and how they drag Filipino workers when they are being punished. History Essay? In the film, he also narrated how he put himself as a character, Crisostomo Ibarra and Elias, in his novels because like what Ibarra portrays in the novel, he also wants revolution. When his novel was.
Andres Bonifacio , Complutense University of Madrid , Jose Rizal 2282 Words | 6 Pages. The film starts with Dr. Jose Rizal (Cesar Montano) in Ghent, Belgium, supposedly writing his second novel, El Filibusterismo. As the narration . during the burning barn, opening minutes continued, scenes that illustrate Rizal’s first novel, “Noli Me Tanger” was shown and Crisostomo Ibarra and his alter ego, Simoun, (Joel Torre) was introduced. This stood more as a second story of the higher history, movie as the said scenes progress throughout the movie as Rizal’s thoughts. As the two novels spread throughout the Philippines.
Andres Bonifacio , Cesar Montano , Jose Rizal 1048 Words | 3 Pages. ophthalmologist in Hong Kong Rizal gained many clients •December 1, 1891 -He wrote to his parents asking there permission to return to the . Burning? Philippines - on the same date he receive news from his brother-in-law That Don Francisco, neneng, sisa, and Paciano and other calambeno were rusticated. Writing? Christmas 1891 -He was visited by honolulu katerina, his family in Hong Kong but he was saddened because of his mothers situation. •His family saw the difference in the life of Rizal when he was in the Philippines. Calamba City , Filipino people , Hong Kong 409 Words | 3 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Rizal sa Dapitan From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia | This article does . not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to higher essay writing, reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2011) | Rizal sa Dapitan (lit. Burning Faulkner? Rizal in Dapitan), is a 1997 film adaptation of history, life of the Filipino national hero Dr. Barn Faulkner? Jose Rizal , starring Albert Martinez as Jose Rizal and Amanda Page as Josephine Bracken, the screenplay. Creative Commons , Jimmy Wales , Jose Rizal 477 Words | 3 Pages. ? Archaeologist Rizal studied monuments and antique currency everywhere he went.
He drew most of the monuments he saw. An archaeologist is . History Essay? one who investigates the relics of Ancient Peoples and Civilizations, such as old jars, tools, weapons, jewelries, and rotary honolulu essay katerina, ruins of buried cities and temples. Rizal acquired his knowledge of archeology from his reading books on history and archaeology. History? During his exile in Dapitan, Rizal explored the caves, inlets, and mountains near the town. He made his greatest. Andres Bonifacio , Archaeology , Jose Rizal 853 Words | 5 Pages. in Binan, Laguna, a year before the nation celebrates the 150th birth anniversary of the national hero, Jose Rizal . At the center of the . brewing controversy is an ancient bahay na bato (Spanish colonial stone house) known as the Alberto House. Obscured by the controversy over canada west foundation essay the house's sale and heritage value is the family relationship between Rizal and history essay writing, the Albertos of Binan. All Rizal biographers agree that there is a blood relationship but disagree on the exact nature of the rotary honolulu katerina, relationship. Jose. Ambeth Ocampo , Calamba City , Consanguinity 965 Words | 2 Pages.
Reform movement did not cause the Revolution DICHOTOMY: REFORM REVOLUTION Renato Constantino Echoed Agoncillo Accepts: Essentialist characterization of higher history essay writing, . Agoncillo DICHOTOMY RIZAL BONIFACIO 3. NOT based on historical FACTS FACTS: (REFORMIST) Province of Spain NOT for INDEPENDENCE Anti-Friar NOT anti-SPANIARD Not for Armed Revolution RIZAL : El Fili and 2008 essay, Manifesto to the Filipino People Denounced the Revolution Antonio Luna: x Katipunan 4. MIDDLE CLASS Illustrados Economic interest Cautious and conservative. Andres Bonifacio , El filibusterismo , Filipino people 1083 Words | 3 Pages. 1. What do you think is the history writing, contribution of Rizal’s parents’ qualities of the shaping of his personality that made him later hero? When Jose . Rizal is still a child his mother taught him to read a book even if he is only 3 years old of age at that time. His father is called to be “haciendero”, “mercado” and capitanes of the essay, town which they were born. Rizal described his father as “a model of higher history writing, fathers” because his father Don Francisco gave all their needs just to have a good life even if building. Filipino people , Jose Rizal , Manila 1395 Words | 4 Pages. Town): * A poem wrote by canada west foundation, Rizal when he was 15 years old and history, was a student of Ateneo De Manila. * B. Earliest Childhood Memories . * At the age of three, Rizal was a frail, sickly and undersized, so he was given the tenderest care by essays for medical school, his parents. During childhood memory, he was know how to higher, pray the angelus.
The imaginary tales by aya (nurse maid) makes Rizal enduring interest in legends and folklore. * C. Hero’s First Sorrow * The first sorrow of katerina, Rizal was brought by the death of. Angelus , CALABARZON , Jose Rizal 1116 Words | 4 Pages. ”The leading authority among the history essay writing, oculist of France” It was from him that Rizal learned various types of burning barn, surgery, including the cataract-surgery . technique he used to higher essay writing, treat his mother. * Dr. Katerina? Otto Becker (1828–1890) was a pioneer in ophthalmic pathology who wrote numerous works about the eye. Essay? He wrote a text on the anatomy of the normal and canada west contest, diseased lens and collected more than 1,800 pathologic specimens. From him Rizal learned the basics of ophthalmological examination and diagnosis. . El filibusterismo , Filipino language , Jose Rizal 581 Words | 3 Pages.
social unrest among the natives. Jose Rizal , at age 35 was the greatest political enemy of Spain in the Philippines with his . Higher Writing? exceptional linguistics ability and interest in canada west foundation the science and arts Rizal was most effective in his campaign for freedom as a writer. His novels Noli Me Tangere and higher essay writing, El Filibusterismo were scratching indictments of Spanish Tyranny and church which came to acquire immense political power. In Ghent, Belgium 1891 as Rizal narrates while he is writing the chapter. Andres Bonifacio , Emilio Aguinaldo , Jose Rizal 1368 Words | 5 Pages. Paris to Berlin (1885-87) * Rizal went to burning barn, Paris and Germany in order to specialize in ophthalmology. Higher History Writing? * To cure his mother’s illness. . * Barcelona - stopped in Barcelona to visit, Maximo Viola - Befriended Eusebio Corominas – editor of La publicidad. Don Miguel Morayta (owner) - Article on west essay the “Caroline’s Question” * In Gay Paris November 1885 (four months) - Worked as an assistant to history essay writing, Dr.
Louis de Weckert , leading French Opthalmologist - Visited his friends: Tavera’s. Anthropology , Berlin , Germany 766 Words | 4 Pages. would also be a blessing/ to the future generations.// We remember today/ the legacy of the writer,/ the linguist,/ the wicked essays, anthropologist,/ the journalist,/ . the biologist,/ the artist,/ the history writing, son,/ the Filipino icon,/ our national hero,/ Dr. Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda.// He was a fighter.// He fought /and died for something wicked this a nation.// But when he died,/ he left his heart/ and gave his spirit back/ for the people he loved so dearly.// He is our liberator.// Intelligent that he was,/ at a young. Filipino people , Jose Rizal , Luzon 1027 Words | 3 Pages. When Rizal Left New York for higher writing London From May 13-16, 1888, Dr. Jose P. Rizal stayed at the Fifth Avenue Hotel.
It was one of . the best hotels in New York City at the time and essays for medical, the building is now the location of the International Pencil Factory located at the Madison Park (incidentally where the Filipino Independence Day festival is held every year.) On May 16th, Jose Rizal gathered enough funds for a trip to London onboard the luxurious liner CITY OF ROME. The Statue of Liberty was only 2 years. Jose Rizal , Manila , Philippines 894 Words | 3 Pages. A three-hour epic on history essay the life and struggles of poet and patriot Jose Rizal , the optional for medical, national hero and martyr of the higher essay, Philippines, this film was . commissioned to mark the 1998 centennial of the country's independence from Spanish colonial rule. Rizal was a remarkably educated man; not only was he a writer, but he was also a painter, sculptor, doctor and surgeon, teacher, natural scientist, economist, engineer and something way comes, theologian.
He was an excellent fencer and marksman; he studied at colleges in higher history essay Europe, America. Cesar Montano , El filibusterismo , Jose Rizal 687 Words | 3 Pages. Tangere is something way comes, Latin for essay Touch me not. Faulkner? According to Jose Rizal , the prevailing culture of injustice and history writing, oppression during that time was a . 'cancer' that was killing the Philippine society and culture. As we know, cancer growths should not be touched lest they metastasize to barn faulkner, fatal (end-stage) proportions. Jose Rizal was a medical doctor after all. Noli Me Tangere laid the ground work for the two novels. There was actually a third one in history the works but Rizal died before finishing it. In Noli, he gave the reader. El filibusterismo , Harriet Beecher Stowe , Jose Rizal 1956 Words | 4 Pages. frame that says “National Hero – Jose Rizal ” (Figure 1).
The narrator introduces two main characters – a director and a screenwriter – . brainstorming on a Rizal film project. Essay? It becomes clear that this is a meta-film, a film within a film. Higher Essay Writing? The two filmmakers embark on an investigative research to explore the cinematic potential of 2008 essay rubric, Rizal’s biography. We see a series of eclectic flash-cuts as the filmmakers review the “omnipresence” of Rizal in Philippine culture. Rizal had been canonized as a saint by.
Cannes Film Festival , Edgardo M. Reyes , Film crew 2001 Words | 6 Pages. stint as a town doctor in Calamba, Jose Rizal made changes in the plot and edited some chapters of the higher history essay writing, novel. * Gregorio Zaide noted that . Rizal finished the original manuscript of El Fili in Biarritz. Ambeth Ocampo, on the other hand, wrote that Rizal completed the manuscript in barn faulkner Brussels, Belgium. * It took three years for Dr. Jose Rizal to finish El Fili. PUBLICATION OF EL FILIBUSTERISMO * Two Views * Gregorio Zaide * It was Jose Rizal who canvassed printing shops to print. El filibusterismo , Jose Rizal , Laguna 1163 Words | 4 Pages. Written Report Mariella Mae Corral Vergara II-BEED Rizal in London (1888-1889) Lived in London May 1888 to writing, Mar. 1889 3 reasons why he . stayed there: 1)To improve the his knowledge of theEnglish Language 2)To study and canada west foundation essay, annotate Morga’s Sucesosde Las Islas Filipinas 3)London was a safe place for him to carryon his fight against Spanish Tyranny Filipiniana studies, completing annotating Morga’s books, wrote many articles in essay writing La Solidaridad Penned Young Women of Malolos Life in west foundation essay London . Calamba City , Emilio Aguinaldo , Filipino language 592 Words | 3 Pages. RIZAL’S ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF THE INDOLENCE OF THE FILIPINO PEOPLE Rizal pointed out that long before the higher history essay, coming of the Spaniards, the . Filipinos were industrious and ap biology 2008 essay, hardworking. It is the higher, Spanish reign that brought about ap biology 2008 essay rubric, a decline in economic activities because of certain causes.
First, the establishment of the Galleon Trade cut off all previous associations of the higher history essay writing, Philippines with other countries in Asia and the Middle East. Burning Barn Faulkner? As a result, business was only conducted with. Emilio Aguinaldo , Faith , Filipino people 1715 Words | 5 Pages. ?Biarrritz Vacation and Romance with Nelly Boustead (1891) (CHAPTER 18) To seek solace for his disappointments in Madrid, Rizal took a . History? vacation in theresort city of Biarritz on the fabulous French Riviera. He was a guest of the richBoustead family at gcse its winter residence- Villa Eliada.
He had befriended Mr.Boustead and his wife and history essay, the two charming daughters Adelina and Nellie. Hewas used to barn, fence with the Boustead sisters at the studio of Juan Luna. Higher History? It was inBiarritz where he had a serious romance. El filibusterismo , Jose Rizal , Philippine Revolution 1998 Words | 6 Pages. First Homecoming From 1882 to 1887, Rizal was in Europe studying. There he was allured, fascinated and have all the beautiful memories . throughout his sojourn. But this will not make Rizal forget his fatherland and his nationality. After 5 years of memorable adventure in Europe, he returned to optional for medical school, the Philippines in August 1887 and practiced medicine in Calamba.
Although his life is threatened because his Noli Me Tangere caused uproar especially among the higher history writing, friars, he insists on returning home. He has. Calamba City , Jose Rizal , Katipunan 1918 Words | 6 Pages. what evil things they’re making out. Unite as one and light up the fire in our mind and soul. Through the katerina, elements of the strong, powerful, and very . influential books of Dr.
Jose Rizal , we Filipinos, are able to wake up in our long time of sleeping. It is true that pen is sharper than a sword. History Writing? It’s been 150 years when Rizal gave his life to our country for us to be awaken in the abuses, wrong doings, and treats of Spaniards to the Filipinos. It’s been a very long time but his advocacy of opening the. Jose Rizal , Manila , Paciano Rizal 1268 Words | 3 Pages. press Berliner Buchdruckrei-Action-Gesselschaft F. MEYER- VAN LOO PRESS 11. Token for the financer Galley proofs of the Noli carefully rolled around the . pen that Rizal used in writing it and a complimentary copy.
Original Manuscript and an autographed printed copy. 12. Critics of the faulkner, novel ? In citing the Biblical source, Rizal made a mistake. It should be the Gospel of St. John not St. Luke. ? Unlike many works of fictional literature, Noli Me Tangere was a true story of Philippine conditions.
El filibusterismo , Harriet Beecher Stowe , Jose Rizal 486 Words | 3 Pages. it will be from the hands of the oppressed But, are these people ready for a change like his? Are they free? Or even independent . individuals? Can they handle a very huge responsibility of taking care of a country. Rizal saw the condition of the world… ***Other countries (super powers) might colonize us … England – in India, Singapore, Hong Kong and Shanghai Germany- doesn’t want any conflict with other Super Powers France- in Vietnam . Colonialism , Future , Manila 431 Words | 3 Pages. Reaction About Rizal the Movie - Essay. Reaction about Rizal the movie: First of all, I want to criticize the whole movie first, the movie was great so is the stars who acted upon . the characters who was born on late 1800’s when Dr. Higher Essay? Jose Rizal lived as a hero, a champion to essay structure, all Filipino from the Spanish tyranny.
This movie really portrays the all the different kinds of emotion exerted by all filipinoes in the hands of the Spanish government. In terms of history essay writing, Rizal’s life, although they didn’t exactly tell all of his exploits, we can see through. Cesar Montano , Filipino people , Filipinos of Spanish descent 963 Words | 3 Pages. allowed to hold parishes. Something This Way Comes? June 1872 The hero’s mother was accused and arrested on malicious charge that she aided her brother, Jose Alberto, in higher writing trying to . poison Alberto’s wife.
She was forced to walk on foot from Calamba to barn, Santa Cruz. Jose Rizal experienced the injustice of the Spanish authorities. This event in his life was inculcated in writing his mind and opened his eyes to gcse poetry structure, reality and dreamed to have equality between Filipinos and higher essay, Spaniards before the law. This event shows how Spaniards manipulate. Ateneo de Manila University , Calamba City , Education in Scotland 725 Words | 3 Pages. Philippine Revolution and Premium Rizal. An Essay On Rizal's Juventud flying. Optional? The writer exhorts the reader to smash these chains and see the history, light.
Additionaly, Rizal . sees mother Spain as one who tries to make the youth see the light. Premium Essay On Rizal's Reforms if even those who made it do not know what they are implementing? If they are to put into action Rizals reforms regarding human rights, they should be appropriate. Premium Essay Of Rizal could read and write at the age of five. 10. At the essays, age of eight, Jose Rizal. Calamba City , Essay , Jose Rizal 647 Words | 3 Pages. ?JOSE RIZAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE COURSE SYLLABUS SUBJECT (3 units): History 23 COURSE TITLE: Life and Works of Rizal I. . Higher History Writing? Course Description Objectives A study of the life of Dr. Jose Rizal , national hero and martyr, and ap biology essay, of his important works, particularly the Noli Me Tangere and the El Filibusterismo in their unexpurgated editions.
At the end of the course, the student is expected to: 1. Understand the life, works and writings of Rizal particularly his moral and intellectual legacies. Andres Bonifacio , El filibusterismo , Filipino people 504 Words | 2 Pages.