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Resumes for essay for 8th, Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in of human activities on environment essay, education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to essay include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. Effect Activities On Environment Essay. What you do outside the writing graders workplace can have an effect of human activities, impact in maxine, landing a great job in effect of human activities, these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in essay, healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in on environment, your resume. Nurses, therapists and the company of wolves, medical specialists should include any certifications and effect essay, licenses you hold as well as details of effective statements do what, your work experience. Volunteer experience is of human activities, also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the thesis hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. Activities On Environment Essay. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements.
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You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and activities on environment essay, it is important that you focus on english, that in your resume. Whether you are applying at of human activities on environment essay a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the english comprehension thesis hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for effect activities essay, the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in essay deadline chris crutcher, serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to effect activities on environment essay focus on special treatments they have learned and woman kingston essay, a retail associate may want to of human activities on environment essay show off their merchandising expertise.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of modern science. Early in his career he claimed “all knowledge as his province” and afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of traditional learning. To take the of human place of the established tradition (a miscellany of Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an entirely new system based on empirical and essay, inductive principles and essay, the active development of new arts and inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of practical knowledge for “the use and benefit of men” and the relief of the human condition.
At the the company of wolves essay same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the ladder of activities, state service. His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the ascension of James his political fortunes rose. Knighted in 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and eventually Lord Chancellor (1618). While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of bribery and forced to leave public office. He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in the company of wolves essay 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for better or worse, includes most of the foundation for the triumph of technology and for of human on environment essay the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the Viscount St. Albans, and school, Lord Chancellor of England) was born in London in 1561 to a prominent and well-connected family.
His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the effect activities on environment Seal, and Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to the royal family. Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and thesis, French. She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to of human activities on environment Elizabeth I, and from 1572-1598 the most powerful man in England. Bacon was educated at home at the company the family estate at Gorhambury in effect activities Herfordshire. In 1573, at the age of just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to Aristotelianism (though not to the works of Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Gray’s Inn. Effective Thesis? Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in order to take a position in activities essay the diplomatic service in essay France as an assistant to the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in effect of human activities France, his father died, leaving him (as the second son of a second marriage and the youngest of six heirs) virtually without support. With no position, no land, no income, and no immediate prospects, he returned to England and resumed the study of law. Bacon completed his law degree in 1582, and in 1588 he was named lecturer in legal studies at Gray’s Inn.
In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in 1584 as a member for Melcombe in Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for various constituencies for essay writing graders the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in an unfortunate setback to his career expectations, the Queen taking personal offense at his opposition. Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to the extent of appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in 1596. It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of Robert Devereux, the Earl of effect of human essay, Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of intrigue, and sometime favorite of the Queen. No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to his own sagging career. The Crucible? Unfortunately, it was not long before Essex’s own fortunes plummeted following a series of effect of human essay, military and political blunders culminating in essay a disastrous coup attempt. When the coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and eventually executed, with Bacon, in his capacity as Queen’s Counsel, playing a vital role in the prosecution of the effect of human on environment essay case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacon’s prospects for advancement dramatically improved.
After being knighted by writing for 8th the king, he swiftly ascended the ladder of on environment essay, state and x learning full, from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions: 1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel. 1607 – Named Solicitor General. 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the effect essay Star Chamber. 1613 – Appointed Attorney General. 1616 – Made a member of the Privy Council. 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office). 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and influence that he could only have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment.
Yet it was at this point, while he stood at the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall. Malcolm To Read Essay? In 1621 he was arrested and charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to a prison term in the Tower of London. Although the fine was later waived and Bacon spent only four days in the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for activities on environment essay Bacon personally and a stigma that would cling to about the crucible and injure his reputation for essay years to come.
As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the accepting of gifts from suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in Bacon’s day, and statements, it is also true that Bacon ended up judging against the two petitioners who had offered the fateful bribes. Yet the damage was done, and Bacon to of human essay his credit accepted the judgment against him without excuse. Statements? According to his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and done better. (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and republished the Essayes , injecting an even greater degree of shrewdness into a collection already notable for its worldliness and on environment essay, keen political sense.) Macaulay in essay a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from Bacon’s own letters) a “most dishonest man,” and more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant. Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and moved on. Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on his lifelong project: the reform of learning and the establishment of an intellectual community dedicated to the discovery of of human essay, scientific knowledge for the “use and benefit of men.” The former Lord Chancellor died on to read essay, 9 April, 1626, supposedly of a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the preservative and insulating properties of effect of human activities on environment, snow. In a way Bacon’s descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for the company of wolves it represented a liberation from the bondage of public life resulting in effect of human activities on environment essay a remarkable final burst of writing for 8th graders, literary and effect activities essay, scientific activity. As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacon’s earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his “spare time.” It was only during his last five years that he was able to concentrate exclusively on effective thesis, writing and of human activities on environment, produce, in addition to a handful of malcolm x learning to read full, minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and biography, The History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh and The History of the Reign of King Henry the effect of human activities essay Eighth. De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of analytical about the crucible, his earlier Advancement of effect activities, Learning). The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels.
The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on topics ranging from the causes of hiccups to explanations for the shortage of rain in the company of wolves Egypt). Artificially divided into ten “centuries” (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of one hundred items), the work was apparently intended to be included in Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death. Various parts of his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a “Natural History of effect on environment essay, Winds” and a “Natural History of Life and Death.” These late productions represented the prompts capstone of a writing career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies.
Despite the fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the works traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Effect Essay? Even so, the Lord Chancellor’s high place in the history of English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and secure. Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and then revised and expanded in 1612 and 1625), he would still rate among the top echelon of 17th-century English authors. Essay Writing For 8th Graders? And so when we take into account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and activities essay, especially his major philosophical and scientific works, we must surely place him in the first rank of English literature’s great men of effective thesis do what, letters and among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacon’s style, though elegant, is by no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described. In fact it is actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of of human activities on environment, ease and clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and carefully arranged symmetries than through the use of plain words, commonplace ideas, and straightforward syntax. To Read Essay? (In this connection it is noteworthy that in the revised versions of the effect on environment essay essays Bacon seems to have deliberately disrupted many of his earlier balanced effects to produce a style that is analytical essay, actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to the casual reader.)
Furthermore, just as Bacon’s personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in his writing he was never quite able to resist the occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. (As Dr. Johnson observed, “A dictionary of the English language might be compiled from Bacon’s works alone.”) Bishop Sprat in his 1667 History of the Royal Society honored Bacon and essay, praised the the company of wolves essay society membership for supposedly eschewing fine words and fancy metaphors and adhering instead to a natural lucidity and “mathematical plainness.” To write in such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of of human essay, figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to find many examples of such spare technique in Bacon’s own writings. Of Bacon’s contemporary readers, at least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and analytical essay about the crucible, transparent meaning. After perusing the activities New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the work “like the graduate school prompts peace of God, which passeth all understanding.” As a work of narrative fiction, Bacon’s novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to effect of human activities essay both categories. According to the company of wolves essay Bacon’s amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the novel represents the first part (showing the activities essay design of a great college or institute devoted to the interpretation of nature) of what was to have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the entire legal structure and political organization of an ideal commonwealth). The work thus stands in the great tradition of the utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from Plato and More to Huxley and Skinner.
The thin plot or fable is little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of Bacon’s story: the elaborate description of Salomon’s House (also known as the College of the Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and (most importantly from Bacon’s point of view) apply the knowledge they gain to produce “things of use and practice for man’s life.” These new arts and inventions they eventually share with the outside world. In terms of its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is analytical essay, about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan. Effect Of Human On Environment Essay? But in terms of graduate school essay, its historical impact, the effect essay novel has proven to be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only as an effective inspiration and model for school essay prompts the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the modern research center and international scientific community. c. Scientific and Philosophical Works. It is never easy to summarize the thought of a prolific and wide-ranging philosopher. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the task by his own helpful habits of systematic classification and effect of human activities on environment essay, catchy mnemonic labeling. (Thus, for example, there are three “distempers” – or diseases – of essay, learning,” eleven errors or “peccant humours,” four “Idols,” three primary mental faculties and categories of knowledge, etc.) In effect, by of human activities on environment following Bacon’s own methods it is possible to effective statements do what produce a convenient outline or overview of his main scientific and philosophical ideas. As early as 1592, in a famous letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared “all knowledge” to be his province and of human, vowed his personal commitment to a plan for the full-scale rehabilitation and thesis statements, reorganization of learning.
In effect, he dedicated himself to a long-term project of effect activities, intellectual reform, and the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to make good on woman maxine hong kingston, that pledge. In 1620, while he was still at the peak of effect of human activities on environment, his political success, he published the malcolm x learning to read essay preliminary description and plan for an enormous work that would fully answer to his earlier declared ambitions. Effect Of Human On Environment? The work, dedicated to writing graders James, was to be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the “grand edifice” or Great Instauration ), and effect of human, it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacon’s thought on subjects ranging from logic and epistemology to practical science (or what in the crucible Bacon’s day was called “natural philosophy,” the word science being then but a general synonym for effect of human “wisdom” or “learning”). Like several of Bacon’s projects, the Instauratio in its contemplated form was never finished. Of the intended six parts, only the first two were completed, while the other portions were only partly finished or barely begun. Consequently, the work as we have it is less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag. Part I of the project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (“Nine Books of the Dignity and Advancement of Learning”), was published in 1623. It is basically an enlarged version of the earlier Proficience and Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to James in 1605. Part II, the Novum Organum (or “New Organon”) provides the author’s detailed explanation and demonstration of the correct procedure for interpreting nature. It first appeared in 1620. Together these two works present the essential elements of Bacon’s philosophy, including most of the major ideas and principles that we have come to associate with the terms “Baconian” and “Baconianism.”
Relatively early in graduate his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for the past (as well as to an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and effect of human activities essay, frivolities), the intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of learning, armed with new methods and insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to the world around them. This at any rate was the basic argument of essay for 8th, his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and effect activities, Advancement of Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in English. It is in school this work that Bacon sketched out the of human activities essay main themes and ideas that he continued to graduate refine and develop throughout his career, beginning with the notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is possible. “There be therefore chiefly three vanities in studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced.” Thus Bacon, in the first book of the Advancement . He goes on to refer to these vanities as the three “distempers” of learning and identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as “fantastical learning,” “contentious learning,” and “delicate learning” (alternatively identified as “vain imaginations,” “vain altercations,” and effect activities essay, “vain affectations”). By fantastical learning (“vain imaginations”) Bacon had in essay mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and that are offered largely to an audience of credulous true believers. In Bacon’s day such “imaginative science” was familiar in effect of human on environment the form of astrology, natural magic, and alchemy. By contentious learning (“vain altercations”) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and theology and especially to essay the Scholastic tradition of logical hair-splitting and metaphysical quibbling. But the of human essay phrase applies to any intellectual endeavor in which the essay principal aim is activities on environment, not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for its own sake. Delicate learning (“vain affectations”) was Bacon’s label for the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the actual recovery of of wolves essay, ancient texts or the retrieval of past knowledge but merely with the revival of Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of classical prose style.
Such preoccupation with “words more than matter,” with “choiceness of phrase” and the “sweet falling of clauses” – in short, with style over substance – seemed to Bacon (a careful stylist in his own right) the effect activities most seductive and decadent literary vice of his age. Here we may note that from graduate essay, Bacon’s point of effect of human, view the “distempers” of no name woman kingston, learning share two main faults: Prodigal ingenuity – i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Sterile results – i.e., instead of contributing to the discovery of on environment, new knowledge (and thus to a practical “advancement of learning” and eventually to a better life for all), the writing for 8th graders distempers of learning are essentially exercises in personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the preservation of older forms of knowledge. In short, in Bacon’s view the effect of human on environment distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures.
What is needed – and this is a theme reiterated in all his later writings on learning and human progress – is a program to re-channel that same creative energy into socially useful new discoveries. Though it is hard to pinpoint the birth of an idea, for all intents and purposes the modern idea of technological “progress” (in the sense of a steady, cumulative, historical advance in no name woman maxine hong kingston essay applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacon’s The Advancement of Learning and became fully articulated in his later works. Knowledge is power, and when embodied in the form of new technical inventions and mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history – this was Bacon’s key insight. Effect Activities On Environment? In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is all the more remarkable for its having been conceived and promoted at a time when most English and European intellectuals were either reverencing the literary and philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and decline. Essay About The Crucible? Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and declaring a brave new dawn of effect on environment essay, scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at best creaking along towards a state of senile immobility and eventual darkness. “Our age is iron, and rusty too,” wrote John Donne, contemplating the signs of x learning to read, universal decay in a poem published six years after Bacon’s Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and upward ascent – and not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for of human activities essay Bacon an article of secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and a sense of mission. In the graduate school Advancement , the idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of hopeful hypothesis. But in later works such as the New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the cooperation of of human activities, learned citizens and the active development of the arts and sciences.
h. The Reclassification of to read essay, Knowledge. In Book II of effect, De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for a new division of human knowledge into three primary categories: History, Poesy, and Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the writing for 8th three fundamental “faculties” of mind – memory, imagination, and of human activities, reason). Although the exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy – and especially Baconian science – above the thesis do what other two branches of knowledge, in essence defining history as the mere accumulation of activities on environment, brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of “feigned history.” Evidently Bacon believed that in order for a genuine advancement of learning to occur, the prestige of analytical essay the crucible, philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to effect on environment be elevated, while that of malcolm x learning essay, history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to effect of human activities on environment essay be reduced. Effective Thesis? Bacon’s scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of effect essay, fact, i.e., of everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of realistic possibility, i.e., of everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle. In essence, it becomes simply a means of essay, recreating actual scenes or events from the past (as in history plays or heroic poetry) or of allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in Bacon’s own interesting example of “parabolic poesy,” the New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the title New Organon (or “True Directions concerning the Interpretation of Nature”). The Greek word organon means “instrument” or “tool,” and of human activities, Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for malcolm x learning to read essay guiding and activities on environment essay, correcting the mind in its quest for the crucible a true understanding of essay, nature. The title also glances at school prompts Aristotle’s Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and thus suggests a “new instrument” destined to of human activities transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. (This notion of surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the New Organon by a ship boldly sailing beyond the mythical pillars of Hercules, which supposedly marked the end of the essay about the crucible known world.)
The New Organon is presented not in the form of effect of human essay, a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to favor as less legislative and dogmatic and more in essay writing graders the true spirit of scientific experiment and critical inquiry. Effect Essay? Combined with his gift for illustrative metaphor and writing for 8th, symbol, the aphoristic style makes the New Organon in many places the effect activities most readable and literary of all Bacon’s scientific and philosophical works. In Book I of the the company of wolves New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the “idols.” These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the mind and prevent it from achieving a full and accurate understanding of nature. Bacon points out that recognizing and counteracting the idols is as important to of human activities the study of nature as the woman maxine hong kingston essay recognition and refutation of bad arguments is to logic. Of Human On Environment Essay? Incidentally, he uses the word “idol” – from the Greek eidolon (“image” or “phantom”) – not in the sense of of wolves essay, a false god or heathen deity but rather in the sense employed in Epicurean physics. Of Human On Environment Essay? Thus a Baconian idol is a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of external reality. Bacon identifies four different classes of idol.
Each arises from a different source, and each presents its own special hazards and difficulties. 1. The Idols of the Tribe. These are the natural weaknesses and tendencies common to thesis statements do what human nature. Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only recognized and compensated for. Some of Bacon’s examples are: Our senses – which are inherently dull and easily deceivable. (Which is why Bacon prescribes instruments and strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to discern (or even impose) more order in phenomena than is actually there.
As Bacon points out, we are apt to find similitude where there is actually singularity, regularity where there is effect of human on environment essay, actually randomness, etc. Essay Writing For 8th Graders? Our tendency towards “wishful thinking.” According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and even prove what we would prefer to be true. Our tendency to rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and painstakingly accumulating evidence). 2. The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the effect idols of the tribe, which are common to all human beings, those of the cave vary from individual to essay the crucible individual. They arise, that is to say, not from nature but from culture and thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and beliefs that we are all subject to effect activities owing to our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include: Special allegiance to a particular discipline or theory. About The Crucible? High esteem for a few select authorities. A “cookie-cutter” mentality – that is, a tendency to reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of our own narrow training or discipline.
3. Effect Of Human Activities Essay? The Idols of the Market Place. These are hindrances to clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the “intercourse and association of men with each other.” The main culprit here is the company, language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the special discourses, vocabularies, and jargons of various academic communities and disciplines. He points out that “the idols imposed by words on of human essay, the understanding are of two kinds”: “they are either names of things that do not exist” (e.g., the crystalline spheres of Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for things that do exist (according to Bacon, abstract qualities and value terms – e.g., “moist,” “useful,” etc. – can be a particular source of confusion). 4. The Idols of the full essay Theatre. Like the idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. And although the metaphor of on environment essay, a theatre suggests an artificial imitation of truth, as in drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from grand schemes or systems of graduate, philosophy – and especially from three particular types of philosophy:
Sophistical Philosophy – that is, philosophical systems based only on activities on environment, a few casually observed instances (or on no experimental evidence at all) and the company essay, thus constructed mainly out of effect of human activities, abstract argument and speculation. Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example. Empirical Philosophy – that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on a single key insight (or on a very narrow base of research), which is then erected into a model or paradigm to explain phenomena of all kinds. The Company Essay? Bacon cites the effect of human on environment essay example of William Gilbert, whose experiments with the lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy – this is Bacon’s phrase for any system of thought that mixes theology and philosophy. He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to the company those of Creationists today, to effect of human on environment found systems of natural philosophy on Genesis or the book of Job. At the beginning of the Magna Instauratio and in Book II of the New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of “true and perfect Induction,” which he proposes as the essential foundation of malcolm essay, scientific method and a necessary tool for the proper interpretation of effect of human activities on environment essay, nature. (This system was to have been more fully explained and about the crucible, demonstrated in Part IV of the effect of human activities essay Instauratio in a section titled “The Ladder of the Intellect,” but unfortunately the work never got beyond an introduction.) According to Bacon, his system differs not only from the deductive logic and writing for 8th graders, mania for of human activities syllogisms of the essay Schoolmen, but also from the classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians. As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds “at once from effect of human on environment, . . . sense and particulars up to the most general propositions” and then works backward (via deduction) to arrive at intermediate propositions. Thus, for example, from woman, a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that “all new cars are shiny.” One would then be entitled to proceed backward from this general axiom to deduce such middle-level axioms as “all new Lexuses are shiny,” “all new Jeeps are shiny,” etc. – axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the activities original generalization (“all new cars are shiny”) is true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the general axioms prove false, all the intermediate axioms may be false as well.
All it takes is one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and “the whole edifice tumbles.” For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. His method is to proceed “regularly and gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the last.” In other words, each axiom – i.e., each step up “the ladder of intellect” – is thoroughly tested by observation and experimentation before the next step is taken. In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to a higher truth, with the most general axioms representing the the company last stage of the process. Thus, in the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to examine a full inventory of new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in general. And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of knowledge instead of a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to be welcomed rather than feared. For instead of activities on environment, threatening an entire assembly, the discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the trouble of having to proceed further in a particular direction or line of inquiry. X Learning To Read Full Essay? Meanwhile the structure of truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacon’s system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from carefully observed particulars to true and “inevitable” conclusions?
Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and overall superiority of his method, many of his commentators and critics have had doubts. Effect? For one thing, it is essay, not clear that the effect activities on environment Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to any general propositions, much less to scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true. For at about what point is the effect on environment essay Baconian investigator willing to make the leap from graduate school prompts, observed particulars to effect on environment abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand?
The fact is, Bacon’s method provides nothing to guide the investigator in this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the tendency is for graduate school essay prompts the investigation of particulars – the steady observation and activities essay, collection of data – to go on the company of wolves essay, continuously, and in effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in which the piling up of instances becomes not just the initial stage in a process, but the very essence of the process itself; in effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the New Organon Bacon famously compares the ideal Baconian researcher to a busy bee) becomes not only a means to knowledge, but an activity vigorously pursued for its own sake. Every scientist and academic person knows how tempting it is to put off the hard work of imaginative thinking in order to continue doing some form of rote research. Every investigator knows how easy it is to become wrapped up in data – with the unhappy result that one’s intended ascent up the Baconian ladder gets stuck in mundane matters of fact and of human activities on environment, never quite gets off the essay writing for 8th ground. It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of circulation-of-the-blood fame, to quip that Bacon wrote of natural philosophy “like a Lord Chancellor” – indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. The assessment is just to the extent that Bacon in the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and extremely rigid procedure for the investigation of nature rather than describe the effect of human activities essay more or less instinctive and no name woman hong kingston, improvisational – and by no means exclusively empirical – method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of essay, assistants, faithfully observed and then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is doubtful that there is essay writing for 8th, another major figure in the history of science who can be legitimately termed an activities, authentic, true-blooded Baconian. (Darwin, it is true, claimed that The Origin of Species was based on “Baconian principles.” However, it is one thing to collect instances in order to compare species and show a relationship among them; it is quite another to theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by x learning to read mutation and natural selection, that elegantly and powerfully explains their entire history and effect activities on environment essay, variety.) Science, that is to say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of Baconian observation and induction. It proceeds instead by unpredictable – and often intuitive and even (though Bacon would cringe at the word) imaginative – leaps and no name woman hong, bounds. Kepler used Tycho’s scrupulously gathered data to support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the movements of celestial bodies are regular and of human activities, symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the spheres.
Galileo tossed unequal weights from the Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the fact (contrary to Aristotle) that they would fall at the same rate. He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the very un-Bacon-like method of to read full essay, mathematical reasoning and deductive thought-experiment. Harvey, by a similar process of quantitative analysis and deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and essay, it was only to provide proof of this fact that he set himself the secondary task of graduate school prompts, amassing empirical evidence and establishing the actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate – in true Baconian fashion – a host of further instances. Effect Activities? But the point is already made: advances in scientific knowledge have not been achieved for the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of the company, systematic and exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to of human on environment essay ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and guesses – in a word by hypotheses – that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Popper’s important term) falsified by malcolm to read essay subsequent research.
In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the role of imagination and hypothesis (and overestimated the value of minute observation and bee-like data collection) in the production of new scientific knowledge. And in this respect it is true that he wrote of science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the benefits of his own new and supposedly foolproof technique instead of recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. On the other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the effect of human activities on environment essay final authority on the investigation of malcolm full, nature or, for that matter, on effect activities essay, any other topic or issue relating to the advance of effective do what, knowledge. By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or “trumpeter,” of effect on environment, such a revolutionary advance – not the founder or builder of a vast new system, but only the herald or announcing messenger of a new world to come. If anyone deserves the title “universal genius” or “Renaissance man” (accolades traditionally reserved for those who make significant, original contributions to more than one professional discipline or area of learning), Bacon clearly merits the the company designation. Effect Of Human Activities Essay? Like Leonardo and Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and essay, sciences. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and of human, Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and ample intellectual and literary interests (from practical rhetoric and the study of nature to moral philosophy and educational reform) with a substantial political career. Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in a variety of literary genres – from learned treatises to light entertainments – though, also like the great Florentine writer, he thought of himself mainly as a political statesman and practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to obtain literary laurels for the crucible himself than to mold the agendas and guide the policy decisions of powerful nobles and heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a “public intellectual,” though his personal record of service and activities, authorship would certainly dwarf the achievements of most academic and political leaders today. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial.
His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him “the glory of his age and essay, nation” and portrayed him as an effect activities on environment, angel of enlightenment and social vision. His admirers in the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to the Lord Chancellor’s writings) viewed him as nothing less than the daring originator of a new intellectual era. The poet Abraham Cowley called him a “Moses” and portrayed him as an exalted leader who virtually all by himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at last, a mighty Man, arose. Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of both their Lawes. . Graduate Essay? . . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on effect of human activities on environment, the very Border stand. Of the great promis’d Land, And from the Mountains Top of his Exalted Wit,
Saw it himself and shew’d us it. . . . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by kingston learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and Gassendi to Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle. Leibniz was particularly generous and observed that, compared to Bacon’s philosophical range and effect activities essay, lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes “creeps on the ground.” On the other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacon’s work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by Bacon, and welcomed by his partisans, had ever occurred. The response of the later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him. Graduate School Prompts? The French encyclopedists Jean d’Alembert and Denis Diderot sounded the keynote of this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the modern era and emblazoning his name on the front page of the Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of effect of human activities on environment essay, Pure Reason to Bacon and writing for 8th graders, likewise saluted him as an early architect of modernity. Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. In his “Lectures on the History of Philosophy” he congratulated Bacon on his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of mind, but ultimately judged him to be a person of depraved character and a mere “coiner of mottoes.” In his view, the Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for “civil servants and shopkeepers.” Probably the fullest and most perceptive Enlightenment account of Bacon’s achievement and place in effect of human activities on environment history was Voltaire’s laudatory essay in his Letters on graders, the English . After referring to Bacon as the father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to be an of human, elegant, instructive, and essay the crucible, witty writer, though too much given to “fustian.” Bacon’s reputation and legacy remain controversial even today. Activities Essay? While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on behalf of the empirical method and as an advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and of wolves, moral significance of the effect of human activities essay ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to us. The issue basically comes down to one’s estimate of or sympathy for the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for the most part share Bacon’s view that nature exists mainly for human use and benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at malcolm x learning full the amelioration of the human condition and the “relief of man’s estate,” generally applaud him as a great social visionary.
On the other hand, those who view nature as an entity in its own right, a higher-order estate of which the human community is only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of arch-villain – the evil originator of the idea of science as the instrument of global imperialism and technological conquest. On the of human activities one side, then, we have figures like the anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls “the man who saw through time”) as a kind of Promethean culture hero. He praises Bacon as the great inventor of the idea of science as both a communal enterprise and a practical discipline in the service of humanity. Essay Writing Graders? On the other side, we have writers, from Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and effect of human activities on environment, eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the main culprits behind what they perceive as western science’s continuing legacy of alienation, exploitation, and statements, ecological oppression. Clearly somewhere in between this ardent Baconolotry on the one hand and strident demonization of Bacon on the other lies the real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of effect of human activities essay, clay.
He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to be less of a “grand edifice” than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for the reform of essay writing, learning and a champion of modern science. In the end we can say that he was one of the effect of human essay giant figures of no name hong, intellectual history – and as brilliant, and flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman. Note: The standard edition of Bacon’s Works and Letters and Life is of human essay, still that of James Spedding, et. Essay For 8th Graders? al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).
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anlaysis essay How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is on environment, probably the most important of them all. Malcolm To Read Full. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. On Environment Essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers.
But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to school essay, gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. Of Human Activities On Environment. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. Essay Writing. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and effect of human on environment essay, well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to no name woman hong essay, the essay question.
This is effect on environment essay, a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in woman maxine hong, a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the of human, coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an effective thesis statements essay than like this. From this point on effect essay you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to prompts, the text, that is, the effect of human on environment essay, author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the of wolves, text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example:
'Shakespeare's theme of violence in activities on environment, Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of the company of wolves essay, Mercutio and of human on environment, Tybalt and school, an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . Activities On Environment Essay. The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and analytical, support to of human on environment essay, show that it is thesis, a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about of human on environment, opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to of wolves essay, take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to of human on environment, an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to statements, think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there#39;s no getting away from of human activities on environment essay that.
Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and graduate, far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for activities, an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to malcolm x learning to read full, show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on effect of human on environment essay in the essay. This can be done by woman hong kingston adding in activities essay, a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . X Learning To Read. This should be a brief comment (brevity is of human activities on environment essay, everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of school essay prompts, their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to effect of human activities essay, avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the analytical essay the crucible, essay. It is effect activities, a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and malcolm to read, directly developing the on environment, essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by effective thesis stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs.
This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of activities essay, what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to thesis, your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to activities on environment, hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . School Prompts. However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and on environment, supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is essay, needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the effect on environment, quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument.
Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the of wolves, creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to activities on environment, create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the graduate school essay, overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. Activities. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and no name woman hong, waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of of human activities on environment, a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to the company of wolves essay, it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of effect on environment essay, points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in graduate school essay, the opening paragraph, which itself is essay, your response to the essay title or question.
Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of graduate essay prompts, your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the effect activities on environment essay, paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the essay about, first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and of human activities essay, Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in the company, some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an on environment essay effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. The Company Of Wolves Essay. Aim to effect of human activities essay, 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of effective thesis statements do what, how to use embedded quotations.
The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is of human activities on environment essay, presented by maxine hong essay Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Activities Essay. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the no name woman maxine, Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the effect of human on environment essay, text on which the essay is writing for 8th, based. Effect On Environment. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't!
I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the essay the crucible, text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on of human the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in x learning essay, it. Effect Of Human Essay. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to thesis statements do what, retell the activities essay, story of the text. Kingston. You need to effect of human activities on environment, be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph.
A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per writing paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of effect activities on environment, place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Malcolm X Learning Full Essay. Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the effect of human activities essay, writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an the company of wolves idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in effect of human essay, the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the graduate prompts, overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to activities essay, search through the of wolves essay, text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed.
Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. On Environment Essay. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. The Company Of Wolves Essay. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the of human activities, essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the graduate school essay, major points that you will cover in effect of human on environment essay, the body of the essay.
This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the no name woman maxine, questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in of human activities on environment, the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the company of wolves essay, the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the activities, best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. The Company Of Wolves. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful).
The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of activities, analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the no name hong kingston, author's uses of the effect of human on environment essay, English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to thesis statements, discuss context by deriving your comments from effect of human on environment quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the woman maxine hong kingston essay, context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is effect of human activities on environment, 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the malcolm full, 'body' of the essay. Effect Activities. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. Analytical About The Crucible. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on on environment essay how the language of each of graduate school, these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. Activities Essay. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on malcolm to read the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the effect of human activities on environment essay, points you make by referring directly to no name woman maxine hong, the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.).
You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the effect of human activities, text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to no name woman essay, write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and of human activities on environment essay, a discussion on statements do what aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for effect essay, example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the graduate school essay prompts, effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is effect on environment, also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. Effective Statements. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning!
Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to effect activities on environment essay, an earlier point. This ignores the work the about, writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and effect activities on environment essay, logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the essay, main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . Effect Of Human Activities. It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all.
ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an school essay example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and effect of human activities essay, Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the analytical essay, above 'description' with this analytical and of human activities, insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and about, bloodshed shown in the coming scene. On Environment Essay. It will be against analytical the crucible, this violent backdrop that the pure love of activities essay, Romeo and the company essay, Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. Of Human On Environment Essay. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. Of Wolves Essay. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of effect on environment, language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and hong essay, use CAPS LOCK.
Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and of human on environment essay, interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). No Name Kingston. The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the effect of human activities on environment, use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in graduate, non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by effect of human essay consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of essay writing for 8th graders, poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of effect of human activities essay, a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. Graduate School Prompts. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and effect of human activities essay, appearance and by maxine hong essay adding illustrations and photographs , and of human activities on environment essay, so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action.
This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the essay writing for 8th graders, content of of human, a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is no name essay, its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. Effect Of Human Essay. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is for 8th graders, a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Effect Of Human Essay. Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is malcolm x learning to read full, called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of of human, meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning.
Another way is to graders, use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. Effect Of Human Activities. E.g. Malcolm X Learning Full. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to effect of human activities, suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over analytical essay the crucible the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on of human words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Woman Maxine Hong Kingston Essay. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is activities essay, intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of the company essay, irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text.
This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of effect activities on environment essay, voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. Malcolm. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of effect on environment essay, poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to analytical essay, buy his girlfriend an on environment essay expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and thesis, mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive!
Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to activities, as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on analytical about its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on activities the form and content of malcolm full essay, a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the effect activities, texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to no name woman hong, compare and contrast is the of human, number one reason marks are lost in this kind of no name maxine kingston, essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !).
This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the on environment, second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the thesis statements, first. 2) Alternatively, and effect essay, this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.
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The King James Bible's 400th Anniversary in of human essay Retrospect. The 400th anniversary of the King James Bible (KJB) is now over, but what an exciting year it was! From international conferences to exhibits at Oxford, Cambridge, and graduate school essay prompts the Folger Shakespeare Library, the version of 1611 received great attention and scholarly appreciation, ending no less with a cover story in the December 2011 issue of National Geographic. Centennials such as this have become major players in shaping scholarly work and effect of human on environment publishing agendas, and they have also created welcome opportunities for academics and graduate school members of the public to share knowledge of and enthusiasm for a hallowed English translation of the Bible that has influenced so much of western, even global, Anglophone culture, for better or for worse. With the effect of human on environment 500th anniversary of school, Erasmus's New Testament coming up in 2016, followed by what are sure to be unprecedented celebrations to on environment essay, commemorate Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses of 1517 and his German New Testament of 1522, it's worth taking note of the KJB anniversary year and what it bodes for the future of essay writing, studies in the Bible's translation- and reception history. A persistent theme in the year in scholarship was the collaborative making and ambivalent early reception of the KJB, from its predecessor English versions of the Bible such as Tyndale's New Testament (1526) and the Geneva Bible to early printed editions of the seventeenth century. Ironically, this work, which explored the collaborative and inter-related nature of English and nearly all vernacular translations of the Bible in the early modern period, illustrated what a non-event 1611 really was in the cultural, scholarly, and theological contexts of the time, both for translators and for readers. The translators of the KJB sought to preserve the language of the Bishops' Bible, and through it the text of the Great Bible and effect activities essay William Tyndale's NT, all of x learning to read, which had been influenced by previous translations: vernacular and Latin, Protestant and effect of human activities on environment essay Catholic. The earlier formative period, in which Tyndale's New Testament and Coverdale's Bible were published, was given particularly good coverage at God's Word in English: The King James Version as Translation, at full essay, K. U. Leuven and Lessius University College (Antwerp), Belgium, Mar. 24–25, 2011. In light of the effect activities essay long-term development of its text, the writing for 8th KJB was the work of activities, a series of international, multi-generational committees that becomes visible to us today only through careful comparative textual analysis among the versions themselves.
This and malcolm to read more was emphasized in the books by Gordon Campbell (Oxford, 2010) and David Norton (Cambridge, 2011), along with explanations for the lack of fanfare that greeted the 1611 Authorized Version, in the face of loyal readers of the Geneva Bible and the Catholic Douai-Rheims Bible. Plagued with typographical errors from day one, the version whose exact date of publication is lost, was met with a mixture of public criticism and apathy, a fact scholars have long known but that received much-needed public exposure, considering the effect of human activities essay long shadow cast by the KJB in graduate its eventual rise to popularity, along with claims for its inerrancy that are still made in effect on environment some conservative Christian circles. Library exhibitions complemented this scholarly work with physical evidence of the early print history and reception of the KJB. The Company! I was fascinated to see first-hand the notorious error in the so-called Wicked Bible of 1631, at the Cambridge University Library exhibit. Of Human Activities On Environment Essay! Although I had read much about the malcolm x learning to read KJB's early print history, I had not realized this edition with its infamous blooper, Thou shalt commit adultery, was printed in such microscopic font—small wonder that the activities on environment error persisted through the to read essay final edition. A slight disadvantage to scholars, however, was the placing of crucial texts under glass for the duration of displays, such as the 1602 Bishops' Bible with revision notes by translators, included in the Bodleian Library's exhibit at Oxford. Members of the public were able to view the activities on environment exhibit free of charge and without a reader's ticket; that is, until many items in the collection were shipped over to the US as the basis of for 8th, a traveling exhibition, with stops in Washington, DC and Austin, Texas.
A second consistent theme was the effect on environment KJB's influence on literature and the arts, in the seventeenth century and beyond. The KJB's reputation as a monument of English literature, and as having an incalculable impact on school essay the English language, comes from later centuries, Brian Cummings pointed out in a keynote paper at effect of human on environment essay, Translating the Word in the Reformation, a conference hosted by the Society for Reformation Studies at Westminster College, Cambridge, April 13–15, 2011. Yet the KJB was also very much a product of early modern culture and language, as shown by the company, Naomi Tadmor in The Social Universe of the English Bible (Cambridge, 2010). Gordon Campbell, Professor of Renaissance Literature at the University of activities essay, Leicester wrote and spoke eloquently on this topic at dozens of effective thesis, conferences and effect activities events in 2011, winning the malcolm to read Longman- History Today prize in 2012 for his contributions. Hannibal Hamlin's conference at the Ohio State University, The King James Bible and Its Cultural Afterlife, May 5–7, 2011, also devoted special attention to the literary impact of the KJB, with papers from many contributors to Hamlin's co-edited volume with Norman Jones (Cambridge, 2010) including Stephen Prickett, Robert Alter, and Adam Potkay. Effect Of Human Activities! Literary analysis often centered on traditional figures such as Milton and the company of wolves essay Bunyan, particularly favored at The Bible in effect of human on environment essay the Seventeenth Century: The Authorised Version Quatercentenery (1611–2011), at the University of York, July 7–9, 2011.
Yet the year, and the Hamlin and Jones volume in particular, also pointed to a broadening of the literary canon under examination, with Katherine Clay Bassard's work on the KJB and African American literature and Heather Walton's study of Jean Rhys and Elizabeth Smart. Examination of the KJB's impact on art and music was particularly good at Texts in Transit: The Cultural Afterlife of the writing King James Bible, at the Center for the Reception History of the Bible, University of of human, Oxford, June 25, 2011. Third, attention to the KJB's reception history after 1700 featured prominently, contrasting the version's rise to prominence with the continued opposition it faced over the years, centered on the company of wolves issues of text, translation, canon, and interpretation. A lesser-known eighteenth-century perspective on the strengths and activities limitations of the KJB came to light in Isabel Rivers' work on Philip Doddridge's New Testament (see her essay in essay for 8th graders Hamlin and Jones, 2010). Mark Noll drew striking parallels between the celebrations of 1911 and 2011, explaining why our own era is one of significantly lessened public enthusiasm for the version (see Jeffrey, 2011, pp. 71–98). Sugirtharajah's study of the postcolonial reception of the KJB bodes well for future inquiries into the complex and often troubled legacy of the KJB as a propaganda tool of Bible Societies. My own work for the year addressed the Catholic reception of the KJB, leading to my forthcoming first monograph, Catholic Critics of the effect on environment essay King James Bible, 1611–1911 (Ashgate). It is true that for many English speaking Christians, the KJB became a national treasure, a monument of literary excellence, of theological and textual accuracy, sometimes all these.
For others, the essay graders KJB stood for a very different, oppressive reality of Anglo-Protestant hegemony. Of Human On Environment Essay! It became for some the Vulgate of Protestantism, a text that could not be challenged without calling into question one's authentic Christianity, the right to self-govern (in Ireland; see Whelan, 2005) and one's patriotism (in the US; see Thuesen, 1999). These forgotten voices of the KJB's principled objectors deserve continued consideration for what they can teach us about patterns in the rise and fall of major biblical translations and the role of religious controversy in shaping religion, texts, and culture. This brings us to recent work on the company of wolves the contemporary legacy of the KJB, and its place among revised English translations of the Bible today. Here is activities on environment, where scholars of analytical about, literature and effect of human activities of the Bible seem to the company essay, disagree the most. Literary critics, and often some historians of religion, lament the eclipse of biblical English, as the effect on environment essay eloquent phrasing of the KJB becomes more and more a thing of the past, giving way to modern translations that cater to busy consumers with little time to statements, read slowly and carefully. Paul Gutjahr's essay on the dethroning of the of human activities on environment KJB by school, the NIV, and the rise of editions like the Light Speed Bible , is a good example of effect activities, this (Hamlin and Jones, 2010, pp. 164–78). Biblical scholars, on the other hand, value accuracy and readability above all. There is the company, no question that contemporary translations such as the NRSV present a version based on the oldest and most reliable Hebrew, Aramaic, and effect activities essay Greek manuscripts. Serious readers of the analytical about the crucible Bible appreciate this careful attention to of human essay, sources, explained in notes such as those in the New Oxford Annotated Bible edited by Michael Coogan, and they get the most out of a translation that reads smoothly and is informed by contemporary spoken Anglo-American English.
Tensions between different expectations of what biblical versions should be and do are certainly not new, as shown in Peter Thuesen's work on the public outcry over the monument of biblical scholarship that was the Revised Standard Version of 1952 (Thuesen, 1999), which was denounced as anti-Christian—even as a Communist translation! Even today, there remains a lack of the company of wolves essay, consensus as to whether the eclipse of the KJB in mainstream Western culture, and among most readers of the Bible, is to effect of human activities on environment, be mourned or praised. Yet of course some people still do read the KJB and prefer its text above all other biblical versions for various stated theological reasons and often unstated aesthetic preferences. Generally missing in the year's celebrations was any serious discussion of those who still read the KJB in this manner, as a sacred text. The existence of KJB-Onlyists was mentioned occasionally in passing, but nothing (to my knowledge) was said about their textual arguments for preferring the textus receptus , which they believe to be more accurate than the modern Greek and Hebrew texts used by scholars and biblical translators (see Cloud, 1995; Beacham and Bauder, 2001). No Name Woman Maxine Hong Essay! The religious anthropology of these groups, ranging from activities on environment essay, Southern Baptist communities in the US to black Pentecostal churches in the UK, needs further study, to help us understand the ongoing afterlives of this version and broader patterns of attachment to traditional versions in the company of wolves essay the long history of the Bible. Anyone who truly misses the literary influence of the KJB should study these arguments for the textus receptus , which are a startling reminder that full veneration of the KJB stands ideologically against nearly all that modern biblical scholarship has sought to accomplish: the effect search for older manuscripts, for essay, better translations, and for liberating interpretations.
Cultures of biblical memorization, prominent in some evangelical circles and of human essay with parallels in Muslim communities, also await further exploration. Offset somewhat by the NIV, the KJB remains the central text in use by youth Bible Quizzing teams, in which children ages 8–18 memorize up to an entire book from the New Testament each year and compete at regional and national quiz tournaments. An ethnographic study in this area would be very worthwhile and would move the center of KJB-scholarship closer to thesis statements, the present time, where the version is still being put to many uses in living faith communities, some preserving rich oral, educational, and effect activities essay religious traditions. Other uses are unfortunately less benign, such as those denying the rights of women and the full spectrum of human sexuality. This, too, is a part of the KJB's living legacy, and should not be swept under the rug or unintentionally marginalized if we are to study its influence honestly and with the hope of evoking positive social and religious change in the future. With even bigger Bible anniversary years coming in 2016–26—celebrating 500 years of Erasmus's Greek New Testament (1516), Luther's New Testament (1522), and Tyndale's English New Testament (1526)—the celebrations of 2011 have done much to energize reception history studies and give recent testimony to how anniversary years ought to be organized in the 21st century. A colleague in England remarked to me in July of last year that he was already sick to the teeth of KJB celebrations! This kind of analytical essay, intellectual fatigue will no doubt play a role in future anniversary years, with conferences and exhibitions galore. Yet a very productive momentum began to build toward the effect activities essay end of the year. Graders! The last few conferences in the autumn were the best of the year because all the groundwork had been laid, the obvious historical backgrounds examined already, freeing up (and demanding) that speakers present innovative research and point to the future. Even the title of the British Academy's conference in November—in which the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams gave the keynote address—signified the shift to a more balanced, critical perspective: The King James Bible at 400: Celebration or Valediction? on Nov.
4, 2011. (See the Archbishop's Nov. 16 sermon on the KJB here). Another reason I personally enjoyed the conferences later in the year is of human essay, because they reflected more attention to diversity of presenters, an important detail I hope organizers for 2016 and beyond will not neglect to consider. In particular, the Folger Institute's conference at the Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, DC, Sept. 29–Oct. 1, organized by Lori Anne Ferrell and Kathleen Lynch, presented an exciting lineup of speakers on the transatlantic history of the KJB with an admirable gender balance among junior and senior scholars. Other conferences, planned by well-intentioned and extremely knowledgeable experts in the field, got off to a poor start, in my view, by slating all white male senior scholars for the first half of the graders conference, then turning to effect, a token few women, maybe one person of color toward the end. Malcolm Full! A flyer I saw for a day-conference at a Midwestern college featured a lineup of eight all-white male speakers.
I was shocked and immediately disinclined to attend, to effect activities on environment, say the least. These things really do matter: representation and diversity are essential for the viability of the field in future years and I hope will be taken into careful consideration as plans for all of the coming 500th anniversary celebrations take shape. Heading up the charge for 2017 is Refo500, an international organization based in the company Europe and partnered with Protestant and Catholic universities, seminaries, and museums, all jointly planning events and effect of human activities on environment conferences to the crucible, commemorate the historic and continuing impact of the Reformation. Activities! But even as scholarly attention turns to Luther's contribution to biblical studies and the reception history of his translation, the KJB will not be soon forgotten. We will certainly hear more on the KJB within its wider European scholarly contexts, as was nicely anticipated at Translating the Word in the Reformation, hosted by the Society for Reformation Studies at Westminster College, Cambridge, April 13-15, 2011, and at Joanna Weinberg's midsummer conference at Exeter College, Oxford, called, The King James Bible: the Scholarly Context. For 8th! In the coming conference and publishing venues, we stand to continue broadening knowledge of what is unique about a version that came of age amid the Reformations of Europe, in a world of advancing printing technology and colonial expansion, and also what parallels exist with other major versions of the effect essay Bible, such as the woman hong essay Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate, which each took centuries to become more or less standard texts in effect of human on environment general use and cast long shadows of influence and controversy. It has been exciting, instructive, and rewarding to see scholars and members of the public come together as they did, to celebrate what for many individuals is statements, a complicated relationship to the KJB's text and legacy.
I myself grew up reading and memorizing it as biblical truth and now study and effect on environment essay read it with quite a different perspective. I'm not alone in admiring its literary beauty while at the same time lamenting the oppressive uses to which the KJB has been put. Perhaps the real significance KJB is its value as a snapshot of one culture's reinvention of the Bible and how it in turn affected the Bible's impact on different cultures, for better or for worse. If nothing else, these later abuses illustrate the dangers of keeping the Bible in that one snapshot for too long. It needs to be retranslated and interpreted anew, to ensure that the essay the crucible legacy of the Bible is not just one of tradition and history, but also of liberation and effect of human on environment change for the future. Alter, R. (2010). Pen of Iron: American Prose and the King James Bible . Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. Bagley, E. G. (forthcoming). Catholic Critics of the King James Bible, 1611–1911 (Ashgate). Beacham, R. and Bauder, K. (2001).
One Bible Only? Examining Exclusive Claims for the King James Bible . Grand Rapids: Kregel. Campbell, G. (2010). The Bible: The Story of the King James Version, 1611–2011 . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cloud, D. W. (1995). For Love of the Bible: The Battle for graduate essay, the KJB and the Received Text from 1800 to the Present . Oak Harbor, WA: Way of Life Literature. Effect Activities On Environment! Crystal, D. (2010).
Begat: The King James Bible and the English Language . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cummings, B. (2002). The Literary Culture of the Reformation: Grammar and Grace . Writing! Oxford: Oxford University Press. Daniell, D. (2003). The Bible in effect of human activities on environment English: Its History and Influence . New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Ferrell, L. (2008). Essay! The Bible and the People . New Haven: Yale University Press. Fogarty, G. P. (1989). American Catholic Biblical Scholarship . London and San Francisco: Harper Row. Fragnito, G. (1997). La Bibbia al rogo: La censura ecclesiastica e i volgarizzamenti della Scrittura, 1471–1605 . Bologna: Il Mulino. ——. (ed.) (2001).
Church, Censorship and Culture in Early Modern Italy . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Givens, T. (2002). By the Hand of Mormon: The American Scripture that Launched a New World Religion . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gutjahr, P. Effect Essay! (1999). An American Bible: A History of the Good Book in the United States 1777–1880 . Stanford, CA:Stanford University Press. Hamlin, H. and Jones, N. Essay For 8th! (eds.) (2010). The King James Bible after Four Hundred Years: Literary, Linguistic, and Cultural Influences . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jeffrey, David Lyle, ed. (2011). The King James Bible and the World it Made . Baylor University Press. Kern, K. Of Human Activities On Environment! (2001).
Mrs. Stanton's Bible . Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. King, J. N. and Pratt, A. T. (2010). Graduate Essay Prompts! The Materiality of English printed Bibles from the Tyndale New Testament to the King James Bible . In: H. Hamlin and N. Jones (eds.), The King James Bible after Four Hundred Years, pp. 61–99. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Lemon, R., Mason, E. and Roberts, J. (eds.) (2009). Effect Of Human Activities Essay! The Blackwell Companion to the Bible in the company of wolves essay English Literature . West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. Effect Activities Essay! MacCulloch, D. (2010). Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years . New York: Allen Lane.
Mandelbrote, S. (2004b). Writing the History of the English Bible in the Early Eighteenth Century , In: R. N. The Company Of Wolves Essay! Swanson (ed.), The Church and the Book, Studies in Church History, no. 38, pp. 268–78. Suffolk: Boydell Press. McCullough, P. (2005).
Lancelot Andrewes: Selected Sermons and Lectures . Oxford: Oxford University Press. McGrath, A. (2001). In the Beginning: The Story of the King James Bible and how it Changed a Nation, a Language, and a Culture . New York: Anchor Books. McKenzie, C. (2002). Effect Of Human Activities Essay! The Battle for the Bible in England, 1557–1582 . Effective Thesis! New York: Peter Lang.
Nicolson, A. (2005). On Environment Essay! God's Secretaries: The Making of the King James Bible . New York: Harper Collins. Norton, D. (2000). A History of the English Bible as Literature . Graduate! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ——. Effect Activities Essay! (2005). School Essay! A Textual History of the King James Bible . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Effect Of Human Activities On Environment! ——. (2011).
The King James Bible: A Short History from Tyndale to Today . Analytical About! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Rogerson, J. (2008). The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Sugirtharajah, R. (2005). The Bible and on environment essay Empire: Postcolonial Explorations . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ——. (2010). Postcolonial Notes on the King James Bible.
In: H. Hamlin and N. Jones (eds.), The King James Bible after Four Hundred Years: Literary, Linguistic, and Cultural Influences , pp. 146–63. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Tadmor, N. (2010). Analytical The Crucible! The Social Universe of the effect of human on environment essay English Bible . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Thuesen, P. (1999). In Discordance with the Scriptures: American Protestant Battles Over Translating the Bible . New York: Oxford University Press. Waite, D. (1992).
Defending the King James Bible: A Four-fold Superiority . Collingswood, NJ: Bible For Today Press. Walsham, A. (2000). 'Domme Preachers'? Post-Reformation English Catholicism and the Culture of Print, Past and Present , 168, pp. 72–123. ——. (2003). Unclasping the Book? Post-Reformation English Catholicism and the Vernacular Bible, Journal of British Studies , 42, pp. 141–66. Analytical Essay! Whelan, I. (2005). The Bible Wars in 19th Century Ireland . Dublin: Lilliput Press. Wooding, L. (2000).
Rethinking Catholicism in Reformation England . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Wosh, P. (1994). Spreading the Word: The Bible Business in Nineteenth-Century America . Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
Do My History Essay - Human Impact on the Environment: Papers -… - Columbia University, New York, NY
Dec 19, 2017 Effect of human activities on environment essay,
Friday essay: Can you keep a secret? Family memoirs break taboos – and trust. Lecturer in Sociology, University of effect activities on environment essay Melbourne. Ashley Barnwell does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from malcolm full essay, any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and effect, has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above. University of Melbourne provides funding as a founding partner of The Conversation AU. Victoria State Government provides funding as a strategic partner of The Conversation AU. The Conversation UK receives funding from Hefce, Hefcw, SAGE, SFC, RCUK, The Nuffield Foundation, The Ogden Trust, The Royal Society, The Wellcome Trust, Esmee Fairbairn Foundation and The Alliance for Useful Evidence, as well as sixty five university members. Republish our articles for free, online or in print, under Creative Commons licence. The television premiere of Benjamin Law’s adapted memoirs The Family Law may have had us laughing last night, but a foray into the recent past of the family memoir genre reveals an ethical minefield of sibling conflicts, clashing memories, and unwanted exposes.
Benjamin Law’s memoir The Family Law (2010) has been adapted for TV. Black Inc. In response to biographies scrutinizing his marriage to Sylvia Plath, the graduate school essay prompts poet Ted Hughes said, “I hope each of activities essay us owns the about facts of his or her own life”. In family memoir such hopes are dashed. When writers tell the story of effect activities on environment essay their lives they also divulge the experiences of siblings, parents, and lovers. They make the private public, often with a unique spin on events and not always with the consent of those involved. Given the essay graders intimate nature of family life these tangles are perhaps unavoidable.
The facts of our lives are always shared. But life writing still raises important ethical questions. Of Human. The memoirist’s candid account of family struggles can destigmatise taboo topics – such as divorce, sexuality, and suicide – but at what cost to those whose lives are laid bare? What should come first for a writer, loyalty to the truth of their own experience or respect for the privacy of others? These questions have troubled a series of high-profile memoirs and essay for 8th, autobiographical novels. Writers such as Karl Ove Knausgaard, Hanif Kureishi, Lily Brett, and David Sedaris have upset family members by using personal details in their literary works. These cases alert us to the difficulty of narrating shared life stories. How do we get to the truth when people remember the past differently and effect activities essay, have conflicting investments in malcolm to read essay, how the effect of human activities on environment essay story is told? But we might also see the potential social benefit of tell-all family memoirs.
By representing the conflicts and silences that families live with writers can introduce more diverse and honest accounts of family life into public culture. By the time literary sensation Karl Ove Knausgaard published the first volume in his six part autobiographical series, My Struggle (2009), several members of his family were no longer speaking to no name woman hong kingston essay, him. Karl Ove Knausgaard’s memoir Min Kamp (My Struggle) (2009) caused serious family conflict. Forlaget okober. The Norwegian writer’s aim was to of human on environment, describe the banality and drama of statements do what his daily life in raw detail. Critics have hailed the result as Proust for the 21st century.
Readers have said they feel as though he has written their innermost secrets onto the page. Effect Activities On Environment. For Knausgaard’s family this is more than just a feeling. It is their reality. Knausgaard doesn’t pull any punches. While much of the series is devoted to vivid descriptions of ordinary life, like brewing a cup of tea or going for effective thesis statements do what, a run, there are also details that most of us would shudder to have on the record. Gossipy, post-dinner party conversations that he and his wife have about their guests are recounted verbatim. The rancid excrement that stains his incontinent grandmother’s couch, his father’s descent into squalor and alcoholism, the spoken and unspoken insults of his marital rows, the fumbling sexual encounters of of human activities on environment essay his youth, his second wife’s struggle with bipolar, his feelings of frustration and boredom as a parent: it’s all there on the page. Not surprisingly, when Knausgaard sent copies of the first manuscript to no name woman maxine hong essay, his family, they were unhappy. His paternal uncle tried to halt publication, threatened to sue, and attacked the effect on environment essay book in the Norwegian press. Tonje Aursland, Knausgaard’s ex-wife, recorded a radio program about the the company essay experience of having her private life exposed in the novel, and then again in all of the media scrutiny that followed.
Knausgaard admits that the series also took a toll on activities essay his current marriage. The relentless attention caused his wife, Linda Bostrom, to have a breakdown, which Knausgaard details in the final episode of My Struggle. Knausgaard made a decision to publish a tell-all book. He exposes his own struggles to essay, be a good husband, father, writer, brother, and essay, son with disarming candour, sometimes even to the point of self-humiliation. But the people who share his life did not make this decision. They didn’t know that their words and actions, sometimes at very vulnerable moments, would be published let alone read by millions of people, almost half a million in Norway alone. In a country of five million, that’s roughly one in ten people who know the intimate details of your private life.
The author is well aware of his indiscretion and what it costs him and his family. “I do feel guilty,” he has said, “I do. Especially about graduate prompts my family, my children. I write about them and effect of human on environment, I know that this will haunt them as well through their lives”. Thesis Statements. Knausgaard also understands his father’s family’s response to of human on environment essay, the novels: I wish this could have been done without hurting anyone. Analytical The Crucible. They say they never want to see or talk to me again.
I accept that. I have offended them, humiliated them just by writing about this. British novelist and screenwriter Hanif Kureishi is less remorseful about using his family as source material. In 2008 his sister published a letter in the Independent titled Keep Me Out of your Novels. Hanif Kureishi’s ex-wife accused him of effect of human on environment essay writing about their marriage in for 8th graders, Intimacy (1998). Faber and Faber. She claims that most of his works use family members as characters. These include his parents in The Buddha of Suburbia (1991), his uncle in My Beautiful Laundrette (1985), his ex-girlfriend in the film Sammy and Rosie Get Laid (1987), and an account of leaving his wife and effect of human on environment essay, children for a younger woman in his novel Intimacy (1998). Yasmin Kureishi is most upset about prompts her brother’s portrayal of her in the 2003 film The Mother. “It made excruciating viewing,” she says, “It was like he’d swallowed some of effect on environment essay my life, then spat it back out.” After reading Intimacy, Tracy Schoffield, Kureishi’s ex-wife, criticised him for thinly veiling the break-up of their marriage as fiction:
He says it’s a novel. But that’s an absolute abdication of responsibility. You may as well call it a fish. In defence, Kureishi argues that by writing candidly about his life he gives voice to a collective experience: Why would you vilify me?
I’m just the messenger. Writing For 8th. I’m writing a book about divorce – an experience that many people have had - or separation, children, all that. … That book was a record of that experience. I don’t see why I should be vilified for writing an account of it. … If you’re an artist your job is to represent the world as you see it – that’s what you do. The same has been said of Knausgaard’s work. He disregards the activities essay privacy of his family.
But he also challenges the rules of what we can and cannot say. He drags the darkness of our everyday thoughts into the light. The Company Of Wolves Essay. In doing so, he de-shames social taboos, or at least offers the truth of effect of human on environment essay what he thinks rather than what he should think. He sees the role of an artist as that of a social truth-teller. But the tension around family memoirs brings into question the idea that an artist is simply documenting the truth. In some cases families are not upset that their lives are being represented so much as that the of wolves representation is, to them, inaccurate. Can the effect of human activities on environment essay memory of one person capture the true complexity of social events? What happens when people recall things differently? Kureishi’s sister and malcolm full, mother insist that he is not simply a messenger.
His descriptions of his roots support the identity he desires in the present. Yasmin Kureishi, for effect of human on environment, example, recollects a very different image of her father than the one her brother paints in The Buddha of Suburbia. Doris Brett wrote Eating the Underworld (2001) to essay, tell her own version of her childhood. Vintage. In the radio documentary Knausgaard’s ex-wife recorded in 2010, Tonje’s Version, she says what annoys her is that her memories will always be secondary to his work of art.
People assume they know the of human essay truth of what happened in her life because they have read My Struggle. Doris Brett was so opposed to her sister Lily Brett’s autobiographical renderings of their childhood that she published her own counter-story. Lily Brett has written novels and essays based on x learning to read full her experience of growing up in Melbourne as the daughter of Holocaust survivors. In Eating the Underworld (2001), Doris claims that her sister wrongly depicts their mother as depressed and effect on environment, sometimes cruel. Doris doesn’t recall her mother screaming in the night. The two sisters seem to the company of wolves essay, remember their mother as two very different women. When Lily Brett and her father received copies of Eating the Underworld, Lily issued a statement:
There are some things not worth replying to. This book is one of them. Her father, 85-year-old Max Brett said: This book by my daughter Doris, is a book of madness. Activities On Environment Essay. … I recognise very little of writing for 8th graders our family life in this book. Doris Brett chalked their public response up as further evidence of the bullying and favouritism she describes in her book.
For Yasmin Kureishi, Tonje Aursland, and of human on environment, Doris Brett the issue is no name woman maxine hong kingston essay not simply about privacy. They are all willing to tell their own stories in the public eye. Rather they want their life represented accurately, as they remember it. Activities On Environment Essay. They insist that there is more to the shared story of their family than what is seen through the quixotic eyes of the memoirist. But of prompts course the same question of effect activities memory’s unreliability also applies to them. With tongue in cheek, David Sedaris addresses the blurring of memory and imagination by describing his family memoirs as “realish”.
Sedaris has forged a successful career by recounting the foibles of x learning to read full essay his family life in best-selling collections such as Dress Your Family in Corduroy and effect on environment essay, Denim (2004). David Sedaris’ book Dress Your Family in Corduroy and Denim (2004) was the first his sister Tiffany allowed him to analytical the crucible, include her in. Effect. Little Brown Co. Along the way, his sister, Tiffany, requested to be left out of his stories. In a 2004 interview with the writing for 8th Boston Globe, she said “I was the only [sibling] who told him not to put me in his books. I don’t trust David to have boundaries”. Like Aursland, she became upset by effect activities essay, the consequences of the stories. People read them as fact, and an invitation to discuss her private life.
In 2014, Sedaris came under fire for an essay he published in the New Yorker, Now We Are Five. The essay describes the Sedaris family’s attempt to analytical about, deal with their grief over effect Tiffany’s suicide. A friend of the company Tiffany, Michael Knoblach, published a letter in effect of human activities, the Somerville Journal accusing Sedaris of ignoring her request not to be a subject in his stories and exploiting her death for essay for 8th graders, artistic and monetary gain. Effect Activities Essay. (The letter has since been taken down, but a similar version is reposted in the comments here). Should Sedaris have published Now We Are Five after his sister’s death? Some may argue that he should have respected her request not to analytical the crucible, be represented in his stories. On the essay other hand, the story is also about her parents, and her siblings. It speaks candidly about graduate school grief, guilt, and the way death jolts us into reality.
Even when faced with estrangement and effect of human activities essay, loss, the life of the the company of wolves family remains intertwined. Australia’s own David Sedaris, Benjamin Law, has written a memoir about growing up in a large Chinese-Australian family in 1990s Queensland. Effect Activities On Environment. The Family Law (2010) was adapted for television and premiered on SBS yesterday. Law’s memoir offers a funny take on the everyday quirks of essay family life, but it also deals with sensitive issues such as his parents’ divorce. The Family Law is unlikely to draw the kind of effect on environment essay scandal that greeted Kureishi or Knausgaard. Writing Graders. In a recent keynote at effect of human on environment the Asia Pacific Auto/Biography Association’s Conference, Law noted that when he gave his family the manuscript to read before publication, they were mostly concerned with correcting his grammar.
Law’s father insisted that audiences are smart enough to know the story is told from only one point of view, and with comedic license. Law may win our hearts with the help of his siblings. They weren’t to know their teenage travails would be re-staged on national television. It might also be strange for his parents to hear the public weighing in on their divorce. But Law’s story will be a welcome addition to a television landscape that currently doesn’t come close to representing the effective do what diversity and richness of Australian families. In her research about family secrets, sociologist Carol Smart talks about two kinds of families: families “we live with” and activities on environment, families “we live by”. Maxine Essay. Families we live with are our actual families, which may be ridden with tensions. Families we live by of human activities on environment essay, are the ideal versions of malcolm x learning to read full essay happy, cohesive families that Smart says we draw from of human on environment essay, popular culture. We tell family secrets, Smart thinks, to bring the the company of wolves reality closer to the ideal. We edit certain experiences from the effect of human activities on environment public eye so our family fits with dominant ideas about what a family should be.
In this context, to reveal a family secret might be to refuse pressures to pretend. To disclose conflicts within families can open up a space to essay writing, talk honestly about family life, to effect of human, question social norms, and acknowledge different kinds of relationships. It can be a way of bringing the ideal closer to the reality. Revealing family secrets can be insensitive and ethically dubious when the teller is not the only one who has to live with the repercussions. But it can also be a way to rethink the analytical essay the crucible reasons why we keep certain things secret in the first place. For family memoirists, where is the effect of human on environment line between rattling social proprieties and effective thesis, respecting others’ privacy?
This is not an activities on environment easy question to answer. And the answer would be different in each case. But it is worth remembering that the true stories that enrich our public sphere are often drawn from the intimate and shared lives of their authors. It is not only Law who gives generously of his life to bring a new story to Australian viewers this week, but also the supporting cast, his family.