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optus business plan Clicking a question will scroll this page to paper discussion section, the relevant answer. Broadband Internet Usage Meter FAQs. Unlimited Dial-up For Broadband Users FAQs (No longer available to new customers) How am I billed for my Optus DSL Broadband plan? On or around the same day each month you will be billed in advance for the monthly access fee for disadvantages of drinking essay, your plan. Any additional charges such as changes in speed from the previous month will also be billed at psychology research paper discussion, this time. You can find out writing school admissions essay, which plan you're currently on, change plans or look at your Internet usage by visiting the My Account section of Member Services.

Optus Fusion and paper, Optus 'yes' Fusion: If you are currently on a quarterly billing arrangement you will need to move to monthly billing. You will receive a single bill for your Optus Broadband and Optus Telephony services. Analysis. On or around the discussion section same day each month you will be billed in advance for essays ancient civilization, the monthly access fee for psychology paper, your Optus Fusion plan. Academic. Any additional charges such as a notebook or service call will also be billed to you on paper, this bill. Analysis Argument Academic Essay. You can find out which plan you're currently on or look at your Internet usage by visiting the My Account section of Member Services.

What are the charges listed on my first bill? Your first bill will include your installation charge and paper discussion, may include a pro-rated monthly access fee and delivery fee if applicable. There will also be charges listed for writing school essay, Service in Advance. Once Optus DSL has been installed, all prices for supply are charged in advance. Your pro-rated monthly access fee is research paper section, based on of drinking alcohol, the number of discussion days of the billing month for which you are connected to the service. Optus Fusion and argument, Optus 'yes' Fusion: If you are on an Optus Fusion plan, your first bill may include both a pro-rata (part-month) amount for your Broadband and Telephony Fusion combined subscription fee, as well as a charge for the service in advance.

Prices on the bill are listed first without GST added. The 10% GST charge is calculated on each individual taxable charge description then it is totalled at the end of the bill. The final total (including GST) is then rounded down to the nearest 5c. How can I pay for paper section, my Optus DSL Broadband service? Optus ADSL 1 Broadband (Optus Resale Network) Optus ADSL 1 Broadband can only be paid by Direct Debit from your credit card or bank account. Optus ADSL 2+ Broadband (Optus Direct Network) including Optus Fusion, Optus 'yes' Fusion and Optus Phone Broadband Bundles. Optus ADSL 2+ Broadband provides a number of essay methods of paying your service, including Credit Card, BPay, Cash, Cheque and Direct Debit from your credit card or bank account. Psychology Paper Discussion Section. All of these methods of thesis on discourse analysis payment are detailed on psychology research, the back of your bill. Optus may provide your bill in an electronic format.

If you choose not to receive an electronic bill you may be charged a $2.20 paper invoice fee. If you use a credit card or debit card to pay your bill, a 1.0% fee (inc GST) will be charged and of drinking alcohol essay, will appear on psychology research, your next bill. Optus Fusion, Optus 'yes' Fusion and Optus Phone Broadband customers will only receive a separate Telephony bill if they have a Telephone Handset Pay Over Time offer for example. How can I change my payment details for argument academic, my Optus DSL Broadband service? Optus ADSL 1 Broadband (Optus Resale Network) You can change your payment method either by going online to the Change your payment details section of psychology paper discussion Member Services or by jane, calling a Customer Service Representative on paper section, 133 937 (Small Business customers call 133 343). Optus ADSL 2+ Broadband (Optus Direct Network) including Optus Fusion, Optus 'yes' Fusion and Optus Phone Broadband Bundles.

You can change your direct debit details by going through the a grad essay following steps - Change your direct debit details - My Account or by calling a friendly Customer Service Representative on 133 937 (Small Business customers call 133 343). Direct debit changes can take up to 72 hours to be processed. Psychology Research Paper Discussion Section. If you have a payment due within this timeframe, a cancellation may not prevent the upcoming debit from occurring. You can attempt to prevent funds being withdrawn by paying your balance via a payment method that will reach your account prior to the date that your next direct debit is thesis on discourse analysis, due to be taken out. Direct Debit is a way to automatically pay your account on its due date each month. Psychology Research Paper Discussion. On some bills, Optus refers to effect topics, direct debit as 'Auto-Pay'. You can setup direct debit in two ways: Upon receipt of psychology a direct debit application via the disadvantages of drinking form, processing can take 5-7 business days. So if you've already received your bill or you request direct debit too close to your invoice date you'll need to pay via another payment method. What happens if Optus cannot take a monthly payment from my cheque/savings account or credit card?

If you are on direct debit and have insufficient funds available in your credit card, cheque or savings account or the details you have provided are incorrect when we attempt to discussion, retrieve funds, we will email notification of this decline to your primary email address. Your Optus Broadband account (and for Optus Fusion, Optus 'yes' Fusion and Optus Phone Broadband Bundle customers your Telephony account) may be suspended and a dishonour fee of thesis $22 will be incurred. Refer to the Standard Form of Agreement, Consumer Terms for details. If you attempt to access the paper discussion section Internet whilst your account is analysis academic essay, suspended, you will be given the opportunity to update your account details via ServiceNet. ServiceNet will assist you to update your billing details and psychology discussion section, reactivate your account simply by on discourse analysis, following the psychology research discussion section instructions provided. Alternatively, you can call Optus Customer Care on 133 937 (Small Business customers call 133 343) to update your details. For customers on of drinking essay, an Optus Fusion, Optus 'yes' Fusion or Optus Phone Broadband Bundle , your Broadband service may be suspended or cancelled if you fail to pay your monthly account by the due date indicated on the bill. Psychology Research Paper Discussion. It may also be suspended or cancelled if you have insufficient funds available in your credit card, cheque or savings account or the a grad admissions essay details you have provided are incorrect when we attempt to research paper section, retrieve funds. Will I receive a bill each month if I pay my account by direct debit?

Optus ADSL 1 Broadband (Optus Resale Network) Plans: You will receive a payment summary confirming that direct debit has occurred. This will be e-mailed to your primary Optus email address. Optus ADSL 2+ Broadband (Optus Direct Network) including Optus Fusion, Optus 'yes' Fusion and Optus Phone Broadband Bundles: Yes, you will receive a single bill for both your Broadband and Telephony services. It will detail your calls and will indicate the date on thesis on discourse analysis, which the direct debit will occur i.e. payment due date. How do I know if my bill is on direct debit? If your bill is to psychology paper section, be paid by direct debit, it will have one of the essays following statements on the first page of your bill. 'Direct Debit from Bank Account will be debited on [DUE DATE]' 'Direct Debit from Credit Card will be debited on psychology research paper discussion section, [DUE DATE]' The statement location can be found on jane, the front of your bill in the 'Your Account Summary' section. If direct debit is not setup a different statement will show in this section of your bill. Optus ADSL 1 Broadband (Optus Resale Network) Plans: Optus ADSL 1 Broadband accounts can only psychology paper discussion be paid by Direct Debit from topics your credit card or bank account.

If you wish to psychology paper section, cancel you Direct Debit please Contact Us. Optus ADSL 2+ Broadband (Optus Direct Network) including Optus Fusion, Optus 'yes' Fusion and disadvantages of drinking alcohol, Optus Phone Broadband Bundles: You may cancel your direct debit details by going through the following steps - Cancel your direct debit details - My Account. Direct debit cancellations can take up to psychology research paper discussion, 72 hours to effect topics, be processed. If you have a payment due within this timeframe a cancellation may not prevent the psychology research discussion upcoming debit from occurring. You can attempt to prevent funds being withdrawn by emma essays jane, paying your balance via a payment method that will reach your account prior to the date that your next direct debit is due to psychology, be taken out. If you cancel direct debit, a $2.20 processing fee will be charged to emma essays jane austen, your monthly bill(s).

Can I use my monthly bill as a tax invoice? Yes, the monthly bill that is psychology discussion, emailed to your primary Optus Broadband email address can be used as a tax invoice. Who do I call if I have a query or a complaint about charges appearing on my bill? If you have a query or a complaint regarding your bill, contact Customer Support by phone on 133 937 (Small Business customers call 133 343). Please note we are unable to respond to account related questions by email.

What plans does Optus Broadband offer? Optus Broadband offers a range of monthly-billed plans to suit your Internet needs. On The Egyptian. You can view the research paper section range of analysis plans online on the Optus homepage. How do I change my Optus Broadband plan? You can change your monthly plan either online within the research My Account section of thesis on discourse Member Services, or by calling one of our friendly Customer Service Representatives.

Optus Fusion Plans: Customers on research paper, an Optus Fusion plan must call Optus Customer Care on 133 937 (Small Business customers call 133 343) to make any plan changes. Effect Topics. Note: Optus Fusion plans only allow one plan change per billing month. Optus 'yes' Fusion Plans: Customers on an Optus 'yes' Fusion plan may call Optus Customer Care on 133 937 (Small Business customers call 133 343) or visit the My Account section of Member Services to make any plan changes that are within the Fusion plan family. Any Fusion to paper section, non-Fusion plan changes must be done by calling Optus Customer Care. Note: Optus 'yes' Fusion plans only allow one plan change per billing month. If you subscribed to a broadband plan or Fusion plan on a grad school admissions essay, or after 25 April 2010 , a $50 plan downgrade fee applies if you change to a lower Broadband or 'yes' Fusion plan at anytime during your agreement period. Please note, a $140 hardware fee also applies for customers on psychology research paper discussion, the 100GB Unlimited or 200GB Unlimited plans who connected to a plan with an included Home WiFi modem and then move to emma essays jane austen, a plan lower than the research discussion section 100GB Unlimited plan or cancel the essays jane service within 3 months of commencing the psychology research paper discussion plan. For Fusion , if you connect to the Optus 'yes' Fusion $99, $109, $129 or $149 plan and a grad essay, receive a Home WiFi modem and you move to psychology paper discussion section, a plan lower than the 'yes' Fusion plan $99 or cancel your service within 3 months of commencing your plan, you will incur a $140 hardware fee.

Customers on $149 plan who received a PlayStation3 Pack and who change to a lower plan within their term of essay their 24 month contract will also incur a pro section rata $500 hardware charge. Total Business Cap: Customers on thesis on discourse, a Total Business Cap plan must call Optus Customer Care on 133 343 to make any plan changes. Psychology Research. Note: Total Business Cap plans only allow one plan change per billing month. Does changing my plan impact my initial agreement period? No, if you find your current plan is not suitable then you can easily change your plan and writing admissions essay, your initial agreement period will not be impacted. I have changed my plan, when do I get billed? Depending on when you requested your plan change to research paper section, take effect: Mid Month Plan Change: If you have requested a plan change to occur during your current billing month, the plan change will occur within 2 business days of the request (not applicable to Optus 'yes' Fusion).

Optus Fusion - If you have requested a plan change to occur during your current billing month, the plan change will occur within 2 business days of the request. Optus 'yes' Fusion - If you have requested a plan change to disadvantages, occur during your current billing month, the psychology research paper section plan change will occur at the beginning of your next billing month. End of Month Plan Change: If you have requested to move to a higher plan at the start of your next billing month or you are moving to a lower plan, the plan change will occur on the 1st day of your next billing period. Optus 'yes' Fusion: All plan changes will take effect from the start of effect topics your next billing month. If you would like to change you plans, you will need to research paper, call our helpful Customer Care representatives on 133 937 (Small Business customers please call 133 343). When does my plan change take effect? Plan downgrades will take effect on the 1st day of your next billing period, regardless of thesis on discourse analysis when you requested the change during your current billing period. See 'How do I change my Optus Cable plan?' for details of charges that apply for plan downgrades. Plan upgrades will take effect either within 2 business days or on the 1st day of research section your next billing period depending on the selection you make when requesting the upgrade. Optus Fusion - If you have requested a plan change to occur during your current billing month, the plan change will occur within 2 business days of the request.

Optus 'yes' Fusion - If you have requested a plan change to occur during your current billing month, the plan change will occur at the beginning of your next billing month. Total Business Caps - If you have requested a plan change to occur during your current billing month, the plan change will occur within 2 business days of the request. Can I upgrade my plan immediately once I have reached my data limit? You can change your monthly plan online within the My Account section of Member Services. You can choose an option to thesis on discourse analysis, make your plan upgrade effective within 24 hours from the time you submit the request. Optus 'yes' Fusion: You can change your monthly plan online within the My Account section of Member Services or by calling Optus Customer Care on research paper discussion section, 133 937 (Small Business customers please call 133 343) and request a plan upgrade which will take effect from the 1st day of on discourse your next billing month.

Note: Online plan changes can only be performed for plan changes that are within the Fusion plan family. Any Fusion to non-Fusion plan changes must be done by calling Optus Customer Care. Total Business Cap: Changing your plan online is not available for this plan. Psychology Paper Discussion Section. If you wish to change your plan, you should contact Customer Care on austen, 133 937 (Small Business customers please call 133 343). Please note, only one plan change permitted per month. Can I downgrade to a lower plan straight away? No, all plan downgrades occur at the end of your current billing month.

See 'How do I change my Optus Cable plan?' for details of charges that apply for plan downgrades. Total Business Cap: Plan downgrades can be done at anytime if you are connected to a Total Business Cap plan, however the usage allowance for your new and old plan will be pro-rated for that month. Paper Discussion Section. Please note, only one plan change permitted per month. What speeds does Optus DSL Broadband offer? Speeds are based on network testing. Maximum theoretical speed is 20Mbps. About 70% of thesis on discourse analysis Optus Direct customers on the DSLD network can typically access average speeds of over 5Mbps and 76% of Optus Cable customers can access average speeds of over 8Mbps. Not applicable if your service has been speed limited. Actual speeds may be slower as many factors affect speed such as internet traffic, your line condition, your hardware and psychology research paper, software, the source of the download and effect, your location. How can I select the best plan for discussion section, me? Choosing the jane right plan depends mainly on how you use the Internet.

You can find all the psychology research discussion information you need on the available Optus Broadband plans at Should you exceed your plan's monthly data allowance you will not pay any excess usage charges, instead, your data usage will be speed limited to alcohol, 28.8, 64 or 256kbps depending on your plan until the psychology research section end of effect essays your billing month. (Excludes Optus 'yes' Fusion plans $79 and $89) You will stay connected to your Optus DSL Broadband service for the remainder of the month and research paper section, will be able to use email, surf sites and on discourse, download information - just at psychology research discussion section, the slower speed. Data Usage and Data Allowance are measured in Megabytes (MB) and for argument academic, all purposes 1 Gigabyte (GB) = 1000 Megabytes (MB). Unused Data Allowance in any month can not be rolled into subsequent months. Optus 'yes' Fusion: excess usage may apply.

See Table 1 below for details: Any additional data usage over your plan's standard data allowance will be speed limited to 64kbps for psychology research discussion section, Optus Fusion $69 and $89, and 128kbps for Optus Fusion $99, and cannot be removed, until the end your billing month. ^ Any additional data usage over your plan's standard data allowance will be considered excess usage and will be charged to a grad school admissions essay, your account at paper discussion, a rate of $0.15 per MB (megabyte) until you reach 2GB of essays jane austen excess usage (approx. $300 in research discussion section excess usage charges), after which you will be speed limited to school admissions, 64kbps for psychology research paper section, Optus 'yes' Fusion $79 and effect topics, $89 plans, and 128kbps for Optus 'yes' Fusion $99 and $109 plans, and cannot be removed, until the end your billing month (not applicable on Fusion $99 and $109 if you join on or after 25 April 2010, see below). + Excess usage does not apply to 'yes' Fusion $99, $109, and $129 plans, instead these plans have unlimited data allowance unthrottled up to psychology research section, 15GB, 30GB, and 50GB respectively, includes uploads and downloads, after which the service will be speed limited to broadband speed of 256kbps until the analysis argument essay end of your billing month. Usage means monthly combined upload and download data transfer. Psychology Research Discussion Section. 1 Gigabyte (GB) = 1000 Megabytes (MB). Customers can elect to have data allowance notifications sent to an additional email address and by SMS to a nominated mobile phone. To do this, enter the additional contact details in Member Services online once 'yes' Fusion is on the ancient, activated on the account.

You will only research paper section receive these by maintaining current primary e-mail and mobile phone number details in Member Services. Note: Optus Fusion and Optus 'yes' Fusion plans combine both upload and download data transfers (1 Gigabyte = 1000 Megabytes) to determine your monthly usage. Total Business Cap: With Optus Total Business Cap plans any additional data usage over your plan's standard data allowance will be considered excess usage and essays jane austen, will be charged to your account at a rate of $0.15 per MB (megabyte). All uploads downloads count towards your Total Business Cap plan included data usage. Your Optus Broadband username and password are very important. Psychology. Your username identifies your particular Internet account and your password is the key that authorises access to a grad admissions, your account. The only psychology research section people who can access your account are those who have both the username and argument, password, so please guard these details very carefully. Here are some important points to psychology discussion section, remember about your username and disadvantages alcohol essay, password: When entering your username and psychology research paper, password, please do so in lower case only. Your username forms the first part of your email address. Analysis. For example, if your Optus Broadband username is research paper section, jbloggs then your email address will be [email protected]

Keep your password safe - do not write it down or tell anybody. Analysis Essay. We recommend that you change your password at least every three months for your protection. Psychology Research Paper Discussion. If you believe that an essays jane austen unauthorised person has access to your password, we recommend that you change it immediately. Optus Broadband staff will never call you to psychology research paper discussion section, verify a password. If you do receive a request from someone asking you for your password, refuse the request and call our Customer Support Representatives on 133 937 (Small Business customers please call 133 343) immediately.

Never send the disadvantages alcohol essay password to your account to anyone by email - this includes email that you may send to psychology research discussion, our Customer Support team. Disadvantages Of Drinking Alcohol Essay. Help us to help you when you are contacting us for support and have your account details ready. When your account was created, you will have been provided with a username and password. Your username is the first part of your email address (e.g. [email protected]) and the password is used to log in to the Optus Broadband service, to personalise your homepage and to access your email. For security reasons, you should change this password regularly. Paper. You can do this online via User Management in Member Services. You should change this password as soon as you are connected to on discourse, the service and regularly thereafter. You'll first need to change your password on discussion section, the Optus DSL Broadband server: Go to User Management in topics MemberServices Login with your current username and psychology discussion section, password and then click the Login button.

Carefully read the instructions regarding changing your password then towards the bottom of the web page, enter the new password you want to use. Disadvantages Of Drinking. You will need to re-enter the research discussion new password in the second box to confirm the password you now want to use. Click the Next button. Your new password will now replace the old one. Can I have multiple email accounts? With every Optus Broadband account, you can have up to five free email accounts. You can create your additional email accounts here. If I have an Optus Dial-up account as well, can I use the same usernames between my Optus Dial-up and broadband accounts? You can share usernames with both accounts. Effect Topics. You can find the Manage Usernames tool here. What technical help can I get from psychology research discussion Optus Customer Care?

Optus Broadband provides technical support for problems that relate to browsing the effect essays Internet, sending or receiving email and psychology paper discussion section, network connectivity issues. Support for third-party software and hardware configurations not related to the Optus DSL Broadband product can be obtained through the product manufacturer. Optus DSL Customer Care will only assist with connection to a single computer and modem. Factors affecting speed on the Internet. It is analysis, important to paper discussion, note that factors such as what type of of drinking computer you have, what sites you are trying to access and overall network traffic can affect performance. Other factors that can affect Internet speed are listed below.

The technical specifications of your computer also impact the psychology discussion performance you experience from the emma essays jane service, including the speed at which information is downloaded. For this reason to get the Optus Broadband service your computer must meet the minimum system requirements Location of the paper discussion section web site. One of the largest factors influencing speed is the location on of drinking alcohol essay, the Internet of the psychology discussion web site that you want to access. Some sites that do not have fast connections, up to date technology, or are located on servers overseas may take longer to thesis on discourse, download. Cached content. To overcome the influence of location on speed, Optus Broadband stores frequently requested sites and broadband content directly on psychology section, our network using Caching. This means that Optus Broadband subscribers have fast access to popular content without going to another network or to an over-crowded server.

Overall network traffic. The Internet by topics, its nature is shared by research, millions of users. The number of users 'on' at any one time could impact performance. For example, when the Napster trial verdict was announced, the server that contained this information in on the ancient egyptian civilization America was very slow due to research discussion section, the number of users trying to access it. If many people are accessing the same information from the effect same site at the same time, then the psychology discussion speed of transmission will be affected. Broadband Internet Usage Meter FAQs. The Internet Usage Meter is analysis, a monitoring tool provided to allow you to psychology, better manage the usage of analysis argument essay your Optus Broadband Service. It allows you to view how many Megabytes (MB) of data you have used. The Internet Usage Meter also allows you to psychology research paper discussion, monitor your usage on a monthly basis as well as providing up to 6 months of historical usage. Any customer on a plan with Excess usage will also be able to view a daily breakdown of their data usage.

Our systems update the alcohol essay Internet Usage Meter at regular intervals (at least every 15 minutes) under normal network conditions. Occasionally a network event may cause delays in the updating of the usage meter. Why should I use the Internet Usage Meter? Your Optus Broadband plan provides you a set amount of data per psychology, month (your Data Allowance). If you exceed your monthly plan data allowance, access will be speed limited to 28.8, 64 or 128kbps depending on your plan until the end of the billing month. Optus 'yes' Fusion plans : excess usage may apply.

See Table 1 above under 'What is speed limiting?' for details. Note: Optus Fusion and Optus 'yes' Fusion plans combine both upload and analysis essay, download data transfers (1 Gigabyte = 1000 Megabytes) to paper discussion, determine your monthly usage. Remember: with Optus Fusion and Optus 'yes' Fusion plans, both downloads and uploads are counted against your monthly Data Allowance. The Internet Usage Meter will help you evaluate your usage of the service and will let you know how much data you have left at on the ancient, any given time. Total Business Cap: With Optus Total Business Cap plans any additional data usage over your plan's standard data allowance will be considered excess usage and will be charged to your account at a rate of $0.15 per MB (megabyte). All uploads downloads count towards your Total Business Cap plan included data usage.

Note: Due to usage rounding, total usage shown in psychology research discussion the Internet Usage Meter may differ slightly from what is displayed on your bill. Will I be charged for a grad school admissions essay, the use of the Internet Usage Meter? No. Psychology Research Paper Section. The Internet Usage Meter is effect essays topics, provided as part of your monthly service fee. Research Discussion. However, accessing the Internet Usage Meter does count toward your monthly plan data allowance or excess usage charges (in the case of Optus 'yes' Fusion). How do I read the analysis essay Internet Usage Meter - Current Usage page? Current Usage provides a graphical representation of the amount of data you have used from your plan Data Allowance relative to the days available in your billing month. Thermometer-like indicators illustrate both Plan data used and Days used: Plan data used shows the amount of data you have used at the particular stage of your billing month, represented both as a percentage and raw data figure (MBs). For Optus Fusion and Optus 'yes' Fusion plans, data usage is a combination of both upload and download data.

Days used indicates how far you have progressed into your current billing month, represented both as a percentage and the number of psychology research discussion section days passed. This particularly is useful to help you manage the amount of Plan Data Allowance available to essays egyptian civilization, you within the billing month. Total Business Cap: The graphical representation of usage is not available if you are connected to this plan. You will be able to paper discussion section, view the usage of each service as a raw figure shown in Megabytes (MBs). Current Usage also provides useful information such as your existing plan, the Data Allowance of that plan, your existing billing month, your usage for the month to date in Megabytes (MBs), any Bonus data allocated/used (if applicable), and the date and time at which the last update occurred. How do I read the Internet Usage Meter - Daily page? This service is essays ancient egyptian, only available to plans that have excess usage.

To access the section Daily Usage page, click on the link in the left hand navigation menu. Note: The Daily Usage page is writing admissions essay, only available to customers on 'yes' Optus Fusion plans. How do I read the psychology paper discussion Internet Usage Meter - History page? The History page shows the last three months worth of usage in graphical format format (not available to Total Business Cap customers), while the last six months usage is shown in analysis academic table format. Research Paper Section. Similar to austen, the Current Usage page, the History page also shows a breakdown of Plan Allowance, Plan data used during the psychology discussion month and the billing period in writing a grad school admissions essay question. In addition, it shows the amount of data that you have uploaded (sent from your computer). To access the History page, click on research discussion, the link in the left hand navigation menu. Total Business Cap: The graphical representation of usage history is not available if you are connected to this plan.

You will be able to alcohol essay, view the research paper discussion section usage of each service as a raw figure shown in Megabytes (MBs). What do the of drinking alcohol different colours mean? The Internet Usage Meter provides a colour-coded reference to easily show the different types of usage that are available, and to connect the data shown in the graph to discussion, that in the table. For example your Plan Allowance will show in blue, Bonus MBs (if applicable) in orange and Excess MBs in of drinking red. Not applicable to Total Business Cap plans. What happens when I use all of my monthly Data Allowance? When you exceed 100% of your monthly plan's Data Allowance, access will be speed limited to 28.8, 64 or 128kbps depending on your plan until the end of the billing month, at discussion section, which point your Data Allowance will be reset. An exclamation mark (!) and notification message box will appear in your Internet Usage Meter to represent this. The speed limiting cannot be reversed, and additional data cannot be purchased for essay, the remainder of the month. If you would like to upgrade your monthly plan in order to provide more data for your next and subsequent billing periods, click here to upgrade your plan or if you are on an Optus Fusion plan or a Total Business Cap plan, please contact Optus Broadband Customer Care on 133 343 to discuss your options.

'yes' Fusion only : excess usage may apply. See Table 1 above under 'What is speed limiting?' for details. Note: Optus Fusion and paper section, Optus 'yes' Fusion plans combine both upload and download data transfers (1 Gigabyte = 1000 Megabytes) to determine your monthly usage. Total Business Cap: With Optus Total Business Cap plans any additional data usage over your plan's standard data allowance will be considered excess usage and will be charged to your account at a rate of $0.15 per MB (megabyte). All uploads downloads count towards your Total Business Cap plan included data usage If you require additional data, plan changes can be done at, however the emma essays jane usage allowance for your new and psychology research discussion, old plan will be pro-rated for that month. On Discourse Analysis. Please note, only one plan change permitted per month.

What usage is included in my Data Usage count? Both upstream and downstream data is counted towards your plan's Data Usage for Optus MyHome and Fusion plans. This includes such things as general browsing of web pages, use of your email, all content on the myZOO website, online gaming and streaming radio or video. For all Optus Broadband plans (excluding Fusion) that were available prior to research, 10 September, 2007 only downstream usage is counted towards your data allowance. Note: Both Optus Fusion and on discourse, Optus 'yes' Fusion plans combine both upload and download data transfers to determine your monthly usage. Bonus data shown in MBs includes any MBs that have been added in addition to your standard plan's Data Allowance. The Optus Fusion and psychology research paper discussion, the Total Business Cap plans do not provide you with 'Bonus Data' e.g. 'yes' Data. Can I access the Internet Usage Meter using my additional email accounts? No. Analysis. For security reasons only the psychology research discussion primary account holder will have access to the Internet Usage Meter (i.e. the username and password of the primary email account).

Can anyone else access my Internet Usage Meter? No. As a username and password are required to academic, login, only the primary account holder will have access. What if I forget my username and password? The username and password are the paper section same as for writing admissions essay, your first (primary) email account. If you are the account holder, you can change your password at any time by psychology research discussion section, visiting the Change Password page in Member Services or within the thesis Desktop Service Centre located in your computer taskbar.

Will I get a warning when I'm close to reaching my plan Data Allowance? Yes. When you exceed 80% of your plan's Data Allowance, a notification will appear on Internet Usage Meter and an email will be sent to psychology discussion section, your primary email account. This will also occur when you exceed 100% of your plan's Data Allowance. Optus 'yes' Fusion Only: In addition to receiving the emma standard 80% and 100% Data allowance notifications, you will also be sent a notification when you reach 95% of your Data allowance. However, if you exceed your plan's standard Data Allowance, a notification will also be sent for every additional 250MB of data you use. Customers can elect to have Data Allowance notifications sent to an additional email address and by SMS to a nominated mobile phone. To do this, enter the additional contact details in Member Services online once Fusion is paper discussion, activated on jane austen, the account. You will only receive these by psychology paper discussion section, maintaining current primary e-mail and ancient, mobile phone number details in Member Services. Note: While we will make our best effort to send Data Allowance notifications within 'real time'. Customers should always check their Internet Usage Meter if unsure of their data usage.

Excess usage may apply. See Table 1 above under 'What is speed limiting?' for details. Excess usage will be charged to your account at a rate of $0.15 per MB (megabyte). Once you reach 2GB (approx. Psychology Research Section. $300 in excess usage charges) of on the egyptian excess data, your download speed will be limited to 64kbps or 128kbps depending on psychology research paper discussion section, your plan until the end of emma essays austen your billing month. Note: Optus Fusion and Optus 'yes' Fusion plans combine both upload and download data transfers (1 Gigabyte = 1000 Megabytes) to determine your monthly usage. Total Business Cap: Customers connected to this plan will not receive usage notifications.

Please check the usage meter to determine your usage. Excess usage will be charged at paper, a rate of analysis $0.15 per MB (megabyte). All uploads downloads count towards your Total Business Cap plan included data usage. How often is the Internet Usage Meter updated? The Internet Usage Meter is updated on a regular basis - approximately every 15 minutes. Psychology. The time and date of the last update is shown within the disadvantages of drinking data table on paper discussion, the Current Usage page. Occasionally a network event may cause delays in the updating of the on discourse usage meter. Unlimited Dial-up For Broadband Users FAQs (No longer available to new customers) Optus Internet now offers an Unlimited Dial-up account to existing Optus Broadband Internet users at a greatly reduced price. This account is handy for psychology, when you are travelling or otherwise away from your Broadband connection.

This feature is only available to a grad admissions essay, active Optus Broadband customers. Unlimited Dial-up for paper section, Broadband users is available for $4.95 per month*. This includes unlimited downloads and unlimited hours. There are no setup fees and no excess usage fees. No.

You can download as much as you like. A 5 hour session limit and 20 minute idle time-out applies. How will I be billed for this feature? You will be debited monthly in thesis on discourse advance from your nominated credit card or bank account. What if I already have a Dial-up account? Unlimited Dial-up is setup using the psychology research paper discussion same username and password as your Broadband account. If you already have a Dial-up account sharing your primary Broadband username, you will have the option to change your current Dial-up plan to the new Unlimited Dial-up feature.

If your existing Dial-up account username is not shared with your primary Broadband username you will be able to setup a new Dial-up account for ancient egyptian, the Unlimited Dial-up feature, and your existing account will not be affected. What happens if I close my Broadband account? The Unlimited Dial-up feature is only available to research paper, active Optus Broadband Internet customers. If your Optus Broadband Internet account is closed or suspended, your Unlimited Dial-up account will automatically be closed. Can I use Dial-up while my Broadband service is effect, logged in? Yes. You can use the research discussion section Dial-up facility concurrently with your broadband connection. *Call charges apply to connect to the Optus Internet PoP network. Can I sign up to the $2.95/hour Casual Usage Plan. No.

This is disadvantages of drinking alcohol essay, no longer available. Only existing customers on the Casual Usage plan can continue to use this plan. How much does the Dial-up Casual Usage plan cost? The Dial-up Casual Usage plan is charged at $2.95 per hour of Internet usage*. There is psychology discussion section, no monthly access fee.

You only pay for what you use! No. You can download as much as you like. You are only charged for the amount of argument academic essay time you spend connected to the Optus Dial-up Internet network. How will I be billed for Casual Usage Dial-up? Any usage on your Casual Usage Dial-up plan will be debited monthly, in arrears from psychology your nominated credit card or bank account.

The Casual Usage plan is thesis on discourse, configured with a default 5 hour session limit (at anytime). This is an optional feature designed to protect you in the event your Dial-up service is left accidentally connected. Psychology Research Paper Discussion Section. You can easily modify this feature, or turn it off completely, by visiting the Session Limit page. How do I access my Casual Dial-up Plan usage? To view usage for Dial-up accounts, simply log in at emma essays jane, My Usage.

What happens if I close my Broadband account? The Casual Usage Dial-up plan is only available to active Optus Broadband Internet customers. If your Optus Broadband Internet account is closed or suspended, your Casual Dial-up plan will automatically closed also. *Call charges apply to connect to the Optus Internet PoP network.

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Launch: New Resume Export, Email Notification and Mass Emailing Rejected Applicants. Since launching Resume Tracker, it has had a feature called “Export Data”, which export all the applicant’s data in CSV or Excel format. However, users were not able to research paper, download resumes for a specific job position. Today we introduce the essays austen new “Resumes Export” Our customers have been asking for psychology research paper section a better way to export data for backup purposes. They liked the original Export Data functionality, but they also wanted to be able to export resumes for a specific job instead of academic downloading all the information every time.

Also, they wanted to have the research paper discussion option to download the resumes in PDF format. We’ve been listening your feedback and we’re proud to release the brand new “Resumes Export” feature today. After you choose the analysis academic output file format, we will compress all the files into a single ZIP file and email it to you. The whole process should be finished in a few minutes. It will take longer if you are exporting hundreds or thousands of resumes. In the past, Resume Tracker users received an email notification whenever someone applied for their opening positions. It works fine when there are only a few applicants applying per discussion week/month. For some of our customers who have more than 10 applicants per day, those emails become annoying. So starting from today, our customers can choose to egyptian, receive those notifications in a Daily or Weekly Digest email format.

We hope this will improve the user experience for our heavy users. The default setting is still “per resume”. You can change it on our “Settings” page. Finally, our users told us they hope Resume Tracker can improve the psychology discussion communication with their job applicants, especially keeping the applicants update on the latest application progress. Based on this feedback, we’ve developed a new mass emailing feature so our customers can notify all the applicants when their applications are rejected. So they don’t have to email each applicant separately. When you go to the Job Position page now, you will notice a new “Rejected Applicants” button on the right. In there, you will be able to a grad, mass emailing all the rejected applicants.

For the email content, you can modify it in our Settings page. We hope you find these new features useful and would love to hear your thoughts about research paper section them. Thanks for your continuous support. When Employee Referral Turns Ugly. Why do companies use employee referral programs? Because, by definition, they can generate the best candidates at essays on the ancient egyptian a fraction of the cost of traditional recruitment methods. An employee referral program can also help employers to reach a source of high quality passive candidates (people who are not actively looking for new jobs). The referring employee usually screen his or her referrals closely because their own reputation is at psychology research paper section stake. Writing A Grad Essay. Employees tend to make sure the paper referrals are a good fit with the company’s culture before making the analysis argument academic recommendation.

However, not every employee referral has a happy ending. Here is psychology a dramatic story between a former Miso engineer and the company’s founders. To cut a long story short, the employee forgot to on discourse, claim his referral bonus after referring a personal friend to Miso. After this employee left Miso, the employer refused to give back the bonus because they believe bonuses are to reward current employees only. This incident turned into psychology discussion a PR disaster harming the company’s reputation. Eventually, Miso’s CEO admitted the mistake and agreed to pay for thesis the referral bonus.

Check his response here. He also makes the following changes in their referral program going forward: Moving forward, we have established the research discussion following clear criteria to explain how employees will be eligible for the $10K referral bonus: The employee must provide a referral for a full-time hire. The referred employee must work at Miso for 6 full months after hire date (excluding any leaves of absence) The referring employee must be employed at Miso and not have given notice to thesis analysis, depart the research discussion company prior to the date of the bonus payment. They probably never expected their referral program would hurt them so bad.

So what can you do to avoid the same mistake? Firstly, your organization has to understand that it is necessary to add clear structure to an employee referral program, make sure the employees understand the benefits, track the topics result of paper discussion section referred candidates, reward successful referrals and discourage bad referrals. You can find a list of Employee Referral Program best practices here. After all, the benefits of successful employee referral programs should outweigh the potential pitfalls. Just remember that, before encouraging your employees to refer candidates, you have to jane austen, make sure that a well designed employee referral program is psychology research paper section already in place. Disadvantages Of Drinking Essay. And you have to spend time to teach your employees how to do this right. Small Business Answer to Filling Jobs: Personal Touch. Say you want to hire for a new position. Discussion Section. Do you count on interviews alone to make hiring decisions? Does your company have an alcohol, obsession with grades? According to a research by Frank Schmidt and John Hunter in the Psychological Bulletin, interviews are not the best predictor of research section performance, despite their widespread use.

Big corporations, like Google, would collect and analyze data about their existing employees and come up with some sophisticated models to evaluate and identify top talents. Unfortunately, as a small business, you probably don’t have a large data set and the skills to build such a statistical model. So does that mean you should give up and compromise your hiring standards? So if you’re trying to compete with companies that are much bigger and better funded, you’re not going to win by playing their games. You have to think differently. So what can you do to attract superstar candidates to come to you? In a world of technology innovations, hiring managers are often too busy to give superstar candidates the “personal touch” they crave.

They tend to rely too much on technology, mostly sending out essay, impersonal emails, and forget that this is a people business. Psychology Paper Discussion Section. People like to be touched, talked to personally, courted, and wooed. Recruiting technology can help, but it can only emma essays jane, take you so far. And it definitely is paper discussion section not a silver bullet because hiring is academic still a highly personal activity. Many companies hate adding the “personal touch” in psychology research paper section, the hiring process because it takes time and perseverance. So if you find top talent candidate, your company has to be willing to of drinking, invest more than just money because you can’t compete based on wages, or equity alone nowadays. Research Discussion Section. You need to make sure that they know you value their talent.

One of the classic examples is how 42Floors, a startup trying to disrupt the commercial real estate market, decided to publicly offer a college sophomore a job via their company blog recently. Below is the on discourse offer letter. Psychology Research Paper. For the disadvantages of drinking essay full blog post and background story, please check out here: Dear Dan Shipper: Please join us. Consider this a job offer to work at 42Floors.

Because you have never applied for this position, this may come as a little bit of a surprise. But you have known for awhile that I have been really impressed with your work. You’re only a sophomore in college, but you’ve already started several companies. You’ve taught yourself to code, and psychology paper discussion you are a maker at heart. And you have that rare gift of having a sense of style in effect, your design work as well.

AND, your blog posts that reach Hacker News are eloquent and research well thought out. It would be an honor to have you join us here at on the ancient civilization 42Floors. Here is your job description: You will make gorgeous products that help entrepreneurs find their dream office. There are dozens of things we need built — you will pick what you most want to work on or come up with your own project. If you ever decide you want to go back to working on your own startup, you have my full support, and I will personally do everything I can to paper, help you be successful as an emma jane austen, entrepreneur.

You will never be asked to sign a non-compete. You will be free to contribute to open source, free to blog about psychology paper anything and everything, and never be required to submit a patent that could be used offensively. This offer has no expiration and, regardless of thesis whether you decide to work with us, I hope to personally be there on your side in everything you do. If you are willing to go the extra mile to recruiting the psychology paper top talent like 42floors, your people will eventually become your company’s competitive advantage. Innovative Hiring Tactics That Go Beyond Job Ads. Companies should never compromise with the talents and disadvantages alcohol essay qualifications required of paper section their employees. However, talented professionals are becoming a rare commodity in the job market now. How do you plan to win them over to essays on the ancient egyptian civilization, your small company?

You probably have already tried campus recruitments, internal job postings, employee-referrals, participating in job fairs, advertising in newspapers and psychology paper section job portals…etc. As a small company, what else can you do? Let’s see how other startups did it. When Facebook was young and hunting for talent, says Lee, it combed through Stanford’s syllabi and essays course catalogs to find relevant students. Facebook was already well-known on campus. If, for example, Facebook needed engineers, it would search for engineering classes. Once it found relevant classes, it would find their required reading lists. Zuckerberg and his staff would go to Stanford’s library and psychology paper discussion section put fliers for Facebook positions in essays ancient, those books.

When students pulled them down, they’d find what Facebook left behind. The program, which ran this summer, brought in people with a core aptitude for psychology paper discussion section programming, then spent six weeks “teaching them something to see if we could get them up to effect essays, a level where we actually might want to hire them,” Bahat says. IGN specifically downplayed the psychology research discussion importance of experience and education. Admissions Essay. “Flipping burgers to scrape together enough cash to buy Portal 2?” read its recruitment ad. “Blow our minds while you’re here and we’ll hire you.” Pivotal Labs - Train junior developers through paired programming. Rather than spending months searching for a white whale, take those eager, ubiquitous junior developers you’d normally pass over and pair them with your senior developers. In three to six months, Knowles says, they’ll start adding value, and you’ll be able to rotate them out into autonomous roles. Psychology Research Discussion Section. Cycle in more junior devs to effect topics, keep the factory growing. ZOHO - Training high-school students who can’t go to college. Zoho identifies promising high-school students whose families can’t afford to psychology section, send them to college, then trains them itself.

The program began six years ago, and about a tenth of Zoho’s 1,400 employees, and 20% of its new engineers, are graduates of it. “It’s not charity,” says Zoho CEO Sridhar Vembu. Disadvantages Of Drinking Essay. “It works for everybody. Psychology Research Paper Discussion Section. We find great employees, and they make us money.” SMS Country - Using collective knowledge. SMS Country recruits their sales teams on college campuses. They visit a campus to argument academic essay, host a company presentation and call for applications. Every attendee is asked to name the eight other people from the paper discussion class that he or she would want to work with on essays jane austen a sales team. The eight names that get mentioned the most frequently are hired. Psychology Section. It’s that simple.

Rather than relying on a 20-minute interview with a stranger, SMS Country leverages the alcohol collective knowledge in the two-year “interview” conducted by fellow classmates. Brilliant! But the process doesn’t stop there. The 8-member team elects their own leader as well as finds and establishes their own office in their sales region. If you know of any other creative hiring methods, feel free to discussion, let us know in the comment. Winning With the essays austen Collaborative Hiring Process. Many small businesses believe that hiring is a top-down process driven by research discussion, the owner. They wrongly assume that employees are happy to emma, leave the research section hiring decision to the management.

However, this approach often left team members feeling disconnected and frustrated. After all, they are the ones who will work with new hires on a daily basis. They should be the ideal people to judge whether the job candidate fits the essays ancient egyptian company culture and values. But how can business effectively involves their employees in the hiring process? Simply put, they have to embrace a collaborative hiring approach. It’s common for big corporations like Google, Facebook, Apple…etc, to research section, let job candidates to meet with their future colleagues during on-site interviews. Thesis On Discourse. Why do they do that? Because they understand the huge cost of making a bad hiring decision. According to the Department of Labor, the cost of mis-hire is considered to be, on paper discussion average, 3-4 times their annual salary. On The Civilization. It can be even higher at a smaller company when you have only a few or even one employee. Including existing employees in the hiring process can make sure the psychology research section candidates fit with the effect essays topics company’s culture.

In result, employers can make better hiring decisions and create a more productive and engaged workforce. So how can small business learn to research paper section, implement a collaborative hiring process? Simple steps like improving communication during the effect essays topics interview process can already create better and faster results. Ideally, employers can create a platform for research paper section team members to discuss potential candidates and give comments. They can do it on the phone, in person, or using recruiting software to help encourage engaged communication. For example, on Resume Tracker, every team members can leave their comments about each candidates so that everyone in the team knows how each other feels about the prospects. These steps can seem time consuming at first, but it’s time well spent when you find the of drinking alcohol essay perfect candidate. Research Paper Discussion Section. The effective and collaborative hiring process can definitely save you time in the long run. New Pricing Offer for Our Early Users.

We’re committed to delivering a great product that continues to evolve with new features and benefits. Therefore, we are changing our plan offerings in response to our customer requests for different packaging and features. We will continue to disadvantages essay, offer a Free plan. However, the discussion section Visionary plan is analysis academic essay discontinued and replaced with the new Standard, Plus and Premium plans. Below are the psychology research paper section new plans and pricing:

Free Plan : 1 user, 1 job, unlimited resumes Standard Plan ($29/mth) : 1 user, 3 jobs, unlimited resumes Plus Plan ($49/mth) : 10 user, 10 jobs, unlimited resumes Premium Plan ($99/mth) : 50 users, unlimited jobs, unlimited resumes. What if I was using the Visionary Plan? To show our appreciation for support, we are now offering an exclusive offer to all of our existing customers. You can enjoy our Premium Plan for $29/month (Original price: $99/month) - without a time limit! Please go to the link below to choose your plan now:

If you were using our Free Plan and would like to remain so, no further action is needed. We hope these changes enable us to disadvantages alcohol, continuously provide a high level of psychology discussion service to all customers, and really appreciate your ongoing business and feedback. If you have any questions, please contact [email protected] Thanks again for using Resume Tracker. Resume Tracker is essays a simple applicant tracking tool. Companies use it to manage job applications and to paper, maintain an active list of potential applicants.

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10 Things Smart PhDs Do NOT Put On Their Industry Resumes. Written by research paper Isaiah Hankel, Ph.D. Essays Topics? What are you supposed to do when you send hundreds of resumes out and get nothing back but a few automated responses? This is the question I was trying to answer my last year of graduate school. I literally sent out hundreds of psychology section resumes. I posted my resume to and waited for writing school essay the tidal wave of industry job offers to discussion, roll in. Yeah…that didn’t happen. I polished up a generic resume and uploaded it to school admissions essay, dozens of industry job websites. I remember getting on Pfizer and Baxter’s websites, clicking the job opportunities tab, and seeing all the psychology research paper discussion section industry job openings. “Yes!” I thought.

Piece-of-cake. I’ll just upload my resume and have an on the ancient egyptian civilization offer by the end of the psychology paper section week. Analysis Argument? There couldn’t possibly be that many other PhDs out there applying to the same PhD jobs. Wrong. I found out later that some companies receive over 2,000 resumes a day. 2,000 a day! I felt stuck and lost so I asked my academic advisor to research, help me write my resume.

He sent me his CV and said “Here, look at this.” Great. On The Egyptian Civilization? Thanks for nothing. I knew that industry hiring managers weren’t interested in research discussion section, CVs. How did my advisor not know this? That’s when I realized how little lifetime academics know about getting an analysis argument academic industry job. So, I asked one of the job counselors at the graduate school for advice. She told me the key to research section, getting an interview was to write a very detailed cover letter, make sure that my education history was at jane, the top of my resume, and to include a one sentence “objective” at the very top of my resume. Paper? Okay. That’s great advice.

Right? Nope. She was wrong too. It wasn’t until 3 months later that I found out essays topics, just how awful her advice was. Over 427,000 resumes are posted to each week—that’s just one job website. Most companies use Applicant Tracking Software to automatically filter and eliminate 75% of the resumes sent to discussion section, them. If your resume makes it to the desk of a hiring manager and recruiter, they will spend an emma average of just 5-7 seconds reading it.

Seconds. Paper Discussion? That’s all you get. All the emma austen hours, days, months, and years you’ve spent getting your PhD will come down to just a few seconds. Psychology Discussion Section? Think of how hard you’ve worked to disadvantages, get to where you are. Are you really going to throw it all away by not taking the time to get your resume just right? More is more. This is what most PhDs are taught. Triplicates are better than duplicates. An N of 200 is better than an N of 2. A CV with 10 first author publications is better than a CV with one first author publication. Psychology Discussion Section? On and on. But, when it comes to alcohol, creating a strong industry resume for a PhD job, less is more.

Adding the wrong things or too many things to your resume will keep you from getting the industry job you want. A better strategy is to simplify your industry resume down to only the things that industry hiring managers and recruiters actually want to see. Here are 10 things smart PhDs like you should remove from your industry resume: 1. Unprofessional email address. Three out of four resumes are discarded because they’re sent from an unprofessional email address or have an unprofessional email address attached to their resume or cover letter. Psychology Research? This means you can put yourself ahead of 75% of the disadvantages other applicants simply by eliminating any references to unprofessional email addresses like [email protected] or similar. A lot of psychology research paper discussion PhDs are afraid to use their University email address when applying to jobs because they think their PI is going to hack into their email account and find out they’re trying to leave the lab. This won’t happen. PIs don#8217;t have access to your University email account. However, if you’re currently working in school admissions, industry and looking to change jobs, don’t use your work email because your boss can absolutely see your emails. Instead, create a very professional gmail address in this format: [email protected]

If this version of psychology paper section your name is thesis on discourse taken, then simple insert your middle initial or middle name between your first and last names. 2. Impersonal greeting. Psychology Research Paper Section? Never use an writing a grad school impersonal greeting on your resume’s cover letter. Psychology Research Section? Greetings like #8220;Dear Sirs#8221; or #8220;To Whom It May Concern#8221; are creepy, distant, and outdated. Most importantly, these greetings makes you seem lazy. Instead of essays civilization taking the time to research who the hiring manager is, you just threw your hands up in the air and typed a general greeting that could be applied to anyone.

As a result, your resume and candidacy were seen as mediocre at best. Smart PhDs always use a personal greeting. They know that over 50% of all top industry jobs are given to referrals, but only 7% of applicants are referrals. Let that sink in. Over 50% of the best positions are given to people who have networked and, as a result, have been introduced to a decision-maker or someone who will vouch for them to a decision-maker. Research Paper Discussion? Yet, 93% of people applying to these jobs are just sending out their resumes blindly and impersonally on the Internet without knowing anyone at the company they want to work for. Which side of the fence are you on? Before you send your resume in, find out who the hiring manager is. Jane? Or at least find out the psychology section name of disadvantages alcohol someone who works on research paper section, the team you’re trying to crack into. At the very least, use the name of argument academic someone in human resources.

Then, connect with people who work at the company you’re seeking employment at. Psychology Discussion Section? Network on disadvantages alcohol essay, LinkedIn, network at face-to-face events, and do whatever it takes to get to know someone well enough to put their name on the first line of your cover letter. In the psychology research discussion end, your cover letter should be short and essays egyptian, sweet, with a personal greeting (e.g. Research? Dear Jeremy, Dear Dr. Ancient Egyptian Civilization? Smith) and research paper discussion, should start with a line like, “I have been in contact with Jason Jones , your Regional Sales Manager , who mentioned that your open Project Manager position would be perfect for me.” Putting an objective statement at the top of your resume will not help you get an industry job. Instead, it will paint you into thesis a corner. A better strategy is to use a visual center . A visual center starts at 2 inches from the top of psychology paper discussion your resume and ends 2 inches below that. This center should be emphasized with graphics, such as textboxes, bullets, and bold fonts. Load the visual center with the value you will offer the essays jane austen company, such as across-the-board accomplishments, industry-specific skills, a summary of a highly successful project you lead, or even a clipping from a recommendation letter or news article about your work. Resumes with visual centers that are interesting and catch the reader’s eye will be read much more carefully than they would be otherwise. A strong visual center will make you stand out without preventing you from being considered for additional positions.

If you want employers to notice you and keep you in mind for psychology research paper discussion other positions that you may also be qualified for, replace your objective statement with a visual center. Recruiters and hiring managers spend just a couple of seconds looking at a resume before deciding whether it’s worth a full read. This means you should show them exactly what they want to see first. And guess what—they don’t care about the effect essays dates. They care about the research paper title of the position you held, the name of writing a grad school essay your employers, the psychology research paper section location of your employer, and, most importantly, what you achieved. Don’t mistake your resume for a publication citation. It doesn’t need to list the dates first. When listing past employment, exclude the dates or at least list them last.

If you really want to thesis on discourse, get your resume read, list your experience by paper section relevance, not by date. Just like you can sort publications on PubMed by relevance to a specific topic, you can sort your work experience by relevance to writing a grad school, a specific position. Always put your work experience above your education history. Smart PhDs never bury the lead on their resumes. Your lead is what employers want to read most on psychology paper discussion section, your resume. Drop the dates and the dated mentality. Essays Austen? Instead, create a strong visual center, followed by a list of work experience sorted by relevance to the position you#8217;re applying for. Paper? Industry employers do not want to read about your job duties. Emma Essays Jane? They care about the outcomes you achieved, not how you achieved the outcomes. Your resume does not need a methodology section.

Delete any reference to “job duties” or “responsibilities included.” Instead, list key achievements as tangibly as possible. Unlike your typical CV, a good industry resume is always accomplishment-focused. Research Paper? This means that within seconds of reading your resume, employers should be able to see that the thesis return on investment for psychology discussion section hiring you is higher than the salary you are asking for. On Discourse Analysis? You must demonstrate that you can save your potential employer time and make them money. If you’ve spent your entire career in academia, you can still add tangible outcomes to your resume.

For example, you could say, “Helped PI recognize over $1,000,000 in grant funding by skillfully leading a team of scientists to discussion section, complete all projects on time, resulting in grant renewal every year.” Do not waste precious resume space on a grad school essay, listing the contact information of three professional references. Don’t even waste space on writing “References Upon Request.” Employers know that you have references. If you don’t, then you shouldn’t be applying for the job in psychology paper discussion section, the first place. You should be networking. 7. Typos and grammatical errors.

If you can’t spell #8220;Technical Specialist#8221; correctly, you shouldn#8217;t be one. At least that#8217;s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume. Surveys and of drinking, studies show that top companies care more about communication and interpersonal skills than anything else when interviewing new candidates. One of the very first indicators employers will have of your communication skills is your industry resume. If it is riddled with mistakes, you will not move to research paper section, the interview stage. Your industry resume must be absolutely perfect.

If you’re not a good writer or if English is not your native language and you’re submitting your resume in English, make sure you have a professional editor proofread it for errors. Jane? You don’t need to pay hundreds of dollars for this. You can find worthy editors on eLance and Fiverr who will polish your resume for as little as $5. Psychology Discussion Section? Once you’ve had your resume professionally proofread, go back and insert relevant keywords into it. Then have it proofread again. This is the best and most successful sequence to topics, follow. First, write your resume without considering keywords so it flows well. Then, have it proofread. Psychology Paper Discussion? Next, add keywords. And finally, have it proofread again. Using relevant keywords is critical to getting your resume past the of drinking essay Applicant Tracking Software checkpoint.

It’s also important for getting your resume past recruiters and hiring managers who will use the “Find” function on their computers to do quick keyword searches on your resume. The best place to find the keywords you should use is in the job description of the discussion position you’re applying for. For example, if the description contains the phrase “project management” over and over essay, againas in, project management experience requiredyou can bet the hiring managers entered it into their Applicant Tracking Software and that they will search for it themselves once they have your resume in hand. Publications don#8217;t matter in psychology paper, industry. Even hiring managers for industry RD positions don’t care about your publications.

This is especially true at the resume-reading stage of the writing a grad hiring process. I know—it hurts. I’m sorry. There may be a few outdated hiring managers or RD directors who will insist that publications should be listed on an applicant’s resume, but they’re simply wrong. Smart PhDs know that putting their publication record on an industy resume is a waste of time. They know that industry employers want to see work experience and results, not publications or education history.

You’ve worked hard on your publications and should be proud of them, but don’t let your pride get in the way of creating a sharp resume. Besides, your publication record isn’t going anywhere. Paper? Once you get to the interview stage, if hiring managers want to bring up the papers you’ve published, they will. Recruiters and hiring managers have mountains of essays austen resumes sent to research discussion, them daily. Recall that some companies receive thousands of on the egyptian civilization resumes a day and most of these will be filtered out by Applicant Tracking Software. The remaining resumes will be further filtered out by employers who are unwilling to research paper discussion, read anything beyond a bullet point followed by a single sentence.

Think of writing an industry resume as the opposite of writing an academic journal article. Instead of analysis using dense text and research paper discussion, long paragraphs to construct a well-formulated argument, you want to simplify everything down into digestible nuggets of information. Avoid turnoffs like small, dense font styles and sizes. Avoid run-on sentences. Avoid paragraphs altogether. Smart PhDs put everything on their resume behind a bullet point, number, or header and never put more than two sentences together at a time. Effect? 10. Overly personal information. Industry resumes that are submitted with photos are rejected 88% of the time. Why? Because submitting a photo is too personal.

Don’t make the mistake of getting too personal too soon. The most important rule of paper section writing an effective industry resume is to leave off all personal information. Argument Academic Essay? If you’re smart and have followed the psychology other points in this article, you know that networking and finding strong references is the most important thing you can do to get your resume read. The only personal information you should submit with your resume is a short cover letter with a personal greeting and a personal reference—a reference who works at the company you’re applying to. However, don’t be afraid to add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’ve received or leadership role you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership role. Emma Jane Austen? Things like “Captain of the swim team winning 3 consecutive awards for research paper section leadership” or “Four-time Habitat for Humanity project leader and Eagle Scout” will help differentiate you from the piles of resumes coming in from PhDs who having nothing but academic achievements to essays topics, reference. Finally, it’s important to understand that almost every company you apply to (up to discussion section, 93% of them) will Google your name and look up your social media profiles.

Before you submit your resume, make sure your social media profiles are professional and display a unified message. To learn more about transitioning into a non-academic career, including instant access to essays ancient, our exclusive training videos, case studies, industry insider documents, transition plan, and private online network, join the Cheeky Scientist Association. Latest posts by Isaiah Hankel Ph.D. Research Paper Discussion Section? (see all) Industry Transition Spotlight: James Morris, PhD - October 5, 2017 Industry Transition Spotlight: Karin Weigelt, PhD - September 28, 2017 Climbing Career Ladders (Industry Careers For PhDs Podcast) - September 28, 2017. Get Your Free Industry “Insider Booklet” Your First Step In Your Transition To Industry. Some good advice here. The visual centre is a good concept however if the organisation uses resume scanning software then graphics will cause problems. Keep it clean and readable by the software and then by a human if you are lucky enough to make the austen first cut. Thanks for sharing your opinion Sally. Psychology Research Discussion? Some very good points made and to stress the point on typos and grammatical errors please take notice of the following: #8220;However, don’t be afraid to add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’re received or leadership roll you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership roll.#8221; I believe you meant to say #8220;you#8217;ve#8221; instead or #8220;you#8217;re#8221; and #8220;role#8221; instead of #8220;roll#8221; Thanks for the find Marwah, though you may have missed the point of the article. No actually, I appreciate the article and I am implementing your suggestions accordingly. #8220;7.

Typos and grammatical errors. Essays Topics? If you can’t spell “Technical Specialist” correctly, you shouldn’t be. one. At least that’s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume.#8221; ..condescends poster for being pedantic#8230; PS: this is psychology research paper your resume for people you#8217;re convincing to take your advice. Thanks a lot for this great article !. Where can i find a clear picture of the ancient example shown in advice number 3.) Objective statement ? Thanks for the advice. Psychology Paper Discussion? The above are very handy. Should I even mention my PhD when applying for industry jobs? Sorry, it sounds like a stupid question, but sometimes I feel it quite awkward and out of emma jane austen place given that my PhD topic is totally unrelated to many of the jobs I apply for anyway. Excellent advice. Any chance the research paper section #8220;After#8221; template is available for on the ancient egyptian download somewhere? Are there any examples of how a resume should look like for recently graduated PhD? Im curious, because I just don#8217;t know what to include in my resume if my publications does not matter (not that I have that many)?

I only have education and in my country a PhD is considered as work. Research? Also, in essay, my resume I have a section called key skills mentioning things like software, lab equipment etc. My PhD has been more of engineering type of research paper section work. I have been developing an optical sensor. I would prefer to essays austen, go to industry now. Research? so I am trying to increase my chances. Really enjoy reading your posts. Keep up the great work! I do not question your suggestion in writing a grad school essay, point #8 to psychology discussion, remove publications from a resume. However, a first author publication on a resume shows successful teamwork, strong communication skills, and conclusive results! It would seem to me that those are exactly the qualities that companies would be looking for in prospective candidates. Can you explain why these qualities should be devalued?

Suggestion for disadvantages essay publications: just put a link to your MyNCBI publication list at the bottom of your resume. Research Paper Discussion? This will not eat up more than two lines of space. If a potential employer is emma essays austen really interested in section, you and your work, then everything that you#8217;ve done is there. Excellent advice. Anybody have an essays jane austen existing LaTeX template that is laid out according to psychology research paper section, these principles? These articles make me nauseous; not because they are untrue, but because they are very true. Just sad when even a PhD in disadvantages of drinking alcohol, a complete #8216;nerd#8217; position has to impress the former clothing sales girl with ADD, then the bean counter who needs to know how much money you can save the corporation. If you#8217;re applying for a PR/marketing or finance position then fine, but seriously#8230; Does nobody care that #8216;getting hired#8217; is now the psychology research paper primary skill in thesis analysis, today#8217;s job market?

Could this conceivably not end well? In fact it already is. PS- also not knocking your advice, but on every page an expert offers a different take; case in point the photo on a resume. Agree. I#8217;m not a PhD but a writer. Research Paper? I have taken a hint from the resumes of egyptian software engineers I#8217;ve worked with in tech. Write for psychology discussion the person who understands the skills you bring, and try to thesis analysis, get to that person directly.

As an industry RD hiring manager (currently hiring), this article frustrates me quite a bit. In my scan of resumes, one of the first things I look at is the dates of your education and work experience so I can understand your career path, and right after that I want to look at your publications. I don#8217;t want to hear how you got a $1M grant, I want to know that you were able to get a high quality scientific publication published because that was the primary output of research discussion your PhD. On Discourse? While I agree that industry hiring managers are looking for specific things and some of this post I agree with, I think some is discussion section plain bad advice. Essays? The biggest thing I want in your resume is clarity I want to see every major accomplishment in your career so far, including publications, as quickly and psychology research paper, clearly as possible. Thank you Yvar! I#8217;m currently looking for jobs and I was debating on if I should list my publication records (which is very good) on my CV or not. And I saw this article, and I was so frustrated because I believe somebody who did their job well in his previous position is more likely to do their next job well. Even that the publication record shouldn#8217;t mean everything, it should mean something.

It#8217;s a representation of what you have achieved and what you are capable of as a Ph.D. or researcher. I#8217;m glad that as a hiring manager you think the same, that gives me quite a lot encouragement #128578; Hi, I am a recent PhD graduate and actively looking for an industry job, though not really successful! I am looking for a professional Resume writer to of drinking, help me with re-construct my industry CV. Anyone here has a suggestion where I can find one? I too am in the same fight and this person at top resume really gave me the almost exact advice and offers packages to help you with your overall industry profile. [email protected] Psychology Research Paper Section? Ready To Get Started? Join Cheeky!

Cheeky Scientist is a training platform for academics who want to transition into thesis on discourse non-academic careers. Psychology Discussion? The Cheeky Scientist Association is our specialized training program for PhDs who want to disadvantages alcohol essay, transition into industry. The site is not a part of the Facebook website or Facebook inc. Additionally, this site is research paper NOT endorsed by Facebook in any way. Thesis? FACEBOOK is a trademark of FACEBOOK inc.

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country essay china A Country Analysis of China. For Staples Incorporated. Miriam (Penny) Milsom. University of Maryland University College. February 2, 2003. China with its recent transition efforts offers an optimum environment for Staples to psychology research paper, expand. There is a huge labor pool supplied by essays austen the world's largest population. There is research paper discussion, a high-level of jane, capital input energized by sufficient household savings and research paper discussion, foreign direct investment. China offers a technological environment with significant overseas transfer of information.

In addition, significant structural and legal reform efforts are well under way and writing school admissions, although the future is paper section, unknown, overwhelmingly a positive future is predicted for China if it can successfully balance the Golden Straightjacket with its cultural roots. With the right entry vehicle and some minor changes to operating methods, Staples might very well flourish in China’s growing economy. Table of Contents. Limitations encompassing this paper may include: (1) Time. The research of this paper took place over the entire semester from 10.27.02 – 02.01.03 and the writing took place during the one-week period from 01.27 – 02.02, 2003. (2) Resources. Disadvantages Essay. Research was limited to information accessible online and in English.

Many of the resources regarding China were in Chinese. Staples first opened its doors less than 20 years ago and has since grown to b e an $11M company with over 1400 stores located in the US, England, Germany, Canad a, the Netherlands and Portugal as well as an online presence. (Staples Corporate Inf ormation, 2003) In true entrepreneurial spirit and western culture, Staples was the first s uperstore or category killer to offer office supplies at discount prices. Discussion Section. As it continues to expand internationally, it is only natural that China, with its 1.2 billion population, recent a dmission to the World Trade Organization and emma essays jane, the burgeoning small- and psychology research paper discussion, mid-size business environment, would be considered as a potential target. China could offer Staples an on the ancient opportunity to increase the target market reach while maintaini ng the core product of low price office supplies. In order to evaluate the potential of Chinese expansion, Staples needs to perform a country analysis on China. According to psychology research paper, Sullivan (2002) when a company begins to on discourse, consider international expansion, it is psychology research paper discussion, important to conduct a country and a market analysis as well as an internal SWOT analysis. However, the country analysis should be performed first, “since countries with hig h risk and poor infrastructure are poor candidates for business activities regardless of market potential” (p. Thesis On Discourse. 364).

A country analysis encompasses three primary categories: Economic, Poli tical, and Legal Conditions – this includes the business climate, economic conditions, currency issues, government laws and policies as well as the ethics environment. In assessing these conditions for China, we examined the political and regulatory system, anti-competitive practices, product and service standards, intellectual property rights, financial markets, and monetary policy. Infrastructure Analysis – the focus is “on the psychology research paper section, factors which support the economic and on discourse analysis, business climate and allow it to function” (Sullivan, 2002, p. 522). In evaluating China’s infrastructure we specifically looked at the economic and social aspects. Managing and Culture – “Even if a country has a good economic and legal environment and suitable infrastructure,” the culture “may create unacceptable conditions for a foreign country” (Sullivan, p. 522). A thorough examination of research paper discussion section, these three categories will help us and Staples determine if China offers a plausible expansion route or if it is too high of a risk. During the past decade, the Chinese government has opened their markets to emma, world investors creating laws and regulations more in line with th e World Trade Organization (WTO) guidelines. Psychology Paper Section. This change in essays on the civilization philosophy has encoura g ed foreign investment in China. However, there are still many risks to consider before expanding to China. One risk is that the Chinese communist, socialist philosophy continues to psychology section, be core to the Chinese culture and may impact the political/legal environment and therefore foreign investments in the future.

Another risk is that the stability of the current Chinese regime may be negatively impacted by demonstrations protesting cultural changes, low growth, and inequities of wealth and power. In addition, there continues to be festering discontent in the poorer interior provinces and academic, with ethnic minorities, farmers, and members of the unemployed. Other risk factors include the many rules and research, restrictions for firms operating in China. Emma Essays Jane. Certain firms may be blocked from entering a particular field or may face difficult rules regarding wage and price controls, technology, personnel, financing, and unreasonable taxes. Finally, there exist personal rivalries, dishonesty, nepotism, favoritism and corruption in China. The Chinese government is, however, taking steps to create and enforce a stricter legal system, support freer commerce, and embrace the global marketplace. “The People's Republi c of China (PRC) began developing its present legal system in the late 1970's. The passa ge of the Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture Law in 1979 was the psychology research discussion section, first step by the Chinese government to build a legal structure governing foreign investme nt.

Since then, China has continued to build a legal system that will protect their rights as well as the rights of their foreign partners” (ChinaLaw, 1998, ¶ 1). Unfortunately, “policy making in Beijing is like steering a supertanker -- it takes a long time before a policy gets approval and becomes a reality” (Jackson, 2002, ¶ 8). There are many risks involved in expanding to China and there are also many legal avenues that Staples would have to follow in order to maintain operations in China. However, the Chinese government is of drinking alcohol essay, taking steps to conform to psychology research, WTO guidelines by creating and enforcing a stricter legal system, supporting freer commerce, and embracing the global marketplace. New Chinese legislation is regularly introduced to protect private personal property rights and corporate assets. China is expected to increase the creation and enforcement of such investment-friendly laws. When Staples considers expanding into the Chinese market, it should investigate the anti-competitive practices, cartels and monopolies that exist there.

Cartels are independent enterprises created to eliminate competitors. The leaders of a Cartel hope to create a monopoly, or an enterprise that has the exclusive control or rights to academic essay, sell a product. Cartels and psychology research paper discussion section, monopolies unlawfully enlarge their areas of trade and create unfair selling practices in order to acquire illegal income which endangers the interests of the writing essay, consumers. In the People’s Republic of China (PRC), price monopolies are prevalent. Research Discussion. A price monopoly is admissions, seen when “some operators of State monopolized industries take advantage of their monopolistic position to pressure the government into setting a high price. They even adjust price levels or create new charge items themselves” (, 2002, June 7, ¶ 6). A significant hindrance of the psychology section, monopolies in China is emma, their ability to influence price setting. Without enough true market price information accessible, the government is unable to figure the section, actual prices for monopolized products. Currently, the Chinese government is emma essays, improving regulations and laws that govern industries such as electric power, aviation, railways, telecommunications, oil, natural gas, etc. These laws will knock down monopolies in order to improve competition (, 2001).

Reconfiguring the monopolies is one of the most important components of the state’s Five-Year Plan (2001-2005). The premise of the reforms will be in separating government’s management position from private sector operations, allowing full freedom to companies to do business. Reforms will focus on introducing more competitors into the industries and research discussion section, markets, permitting outside private investment, including foreign dollars to enter economic infrastructure and even the utility supply industry. It is on the ancient egyptian, apparent that cartels and monopolies are formidable obstacles for Staples and could be a bad anti-competitive factor against the success of an expansion to China. Another obstacle would be that China is a large state and the government may not successfully eliminate the large monopolies. Finally, implementation of China’s new reform laws to psychology paper section, open up the markets to fair pricing and competition might not be successful. Product and service standards reflect an expected level of quality and safety as identified within an essays jane industry. They serve the purpose of protecting the consumer and equally important, the section, manufacturer’s employees in the form of safety standards. Standards are an accepted factor in the United States, and with the formation of the Internationa l Standards Organization (ISO) and effect, other international organizations have become commonplace internationally. Research Paper Discussion Section. China, however, has historically used their standards as a means of blocking imports, although they have begun to place more emphasis on product standards with their induction into the WTO. As recent as 1997, a Country Alert noted that “’shoddy goods’ produced in China are a regular fixture in national newspapers.” It goes on to describe “a corrupt business environment, in which many factories put short-term profits above quality and in which regulations on product quality and writing admissions, safety standards are often not enforced.” In fact in 2000, testing showed that less than 80% of a random sample met prescribed standards (Country Briefing, 2001, January 22).

A sign of changing times in China is represented by the establishment of a Standardization Administration in 2001 and the first ever mandatory product recall in 2002. Maintaining a strict vigilance on product and service standards is critical for China if it hopes to competitively succeed in paper discussion section the world market, as many of these standards are not only writing admissions expected but required by businesses. The determination of expanding Staples to the Chinese market is not directly impacted by product and service standards. Where they do become important is with the research paper discussion, products that Staples stocked. Admissions Essay. Interestingly, many of these products are already manufactured in China under US standards by companies such as 3M, Pilot Pens, and Avery Dennison. The good news is that should Staples decide to expand to China it will probably not have to import many of the products it sells.

Intellectual property is an idea from a person’s mind that is distinctive and innovative. Psychology Research Discussion Section. The issue of intellectual property (IP) is that it has a value in the marketplace. People are willing to pay for such things as an idea, unique name, business method, computer process, or presentation. Profit is reduced if Staples cannot protect their rights to the ideas that are produced from their initial costs. If Staples cannot protect their investments, they may be less willing to commit time and money to writing a grad school admissions, the production of new ideas. IP can be protected under national laws, world treaties , and memorandums of understanding. IP laws are often regional laws that originate in one country and affect the citizens of that country.

However, IP issues also affect international trading when ideas and innovations cross national borders. During the past few years, China has made efforts to protect intellectual rights. Psychology Research Paper. In 1985, China joined the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property. Effect Essays Topics. In 1992, the psychology paper discussion section, United States and China signed the Memorandum of on the ancient, Understanding on the Protection of Intellectual Property that required China to ensure certain intellectual property protection. In addition, China agreed to accede to the Berne Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention . Psychology Research Discussion Section. By signing these agreements, China has pledged to develop IP protections and to establish equal rights for foreign investors.

Although laws and agreements are in place in China, Staples’ should be aware that their IP stil may not be protected. Egyptian. The implementation of these laws has proven lacking, due largely to ambiguities in the law and difficulties in enforcement” (Spierer, 2002, p. Paper Discussion Section. 1). Ambiguities in the laws create loopholes. For example, one provision of the Chinese law allows a few copies of products to be made for non-commercial use. Yet another ambiguity refers to products that are banned from publication. “The Copyright Law stipulates that works banned from disadvantages essay, publication shall receive no copyright protection, but does not clearly define ‘banned‘ works,” (Spierer, p. 3) leaving the door open to ban publications after the fact to suit their needs. Aside from the psychology research paper discussion, ambiguities in Chinese IP law, another issue for Staples to examine is the Chinese ability to enforce the law. China’s central government may be unable to police the huge area and large population of the People’s Republic of China.

The decentralization of the central government makes it even more difficult to ancient egyptian, monitor and enforce international policies. Other issues pertaining to psychology research paper section, protecting IP rights include corrupt officials, and a Chinese culture that encourages copying as an essential means of learning. Also, consumers have easy access to pirated information and the Chinese consumer is not concerned with illegal violation if IP Law. China’s financial markets consist of bank loans, stock exchanges, international capital markets and bonds. Despite China’s efforts to liberalize its markets, they still remain largely closed. A pegged exchange rate, significant controls to limit investment and “state-owned” everything are some of the primary reasons that China is viewed as a closed or restricted market. Bank loans are the primary means of funding for Chinese companies, accounting for 12 times more capital than the stock market (Sommers, 2002, p.15). There are four State sanctioned banks able to offer investment banking services domestically -- 1) the Agriculture Bank of China (ABC), 2) the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), 3) the China Construction Bank (CCB), and 4) the Bank of China (BOC) [i] . Together they “control about three-quarters of the emma essays jane, country’s deposits and commercial loans” ( Murphy, 2003, ¶5). What makes the process particularly ineffective is that “ 90% of loans are almost all for state-owned enterprises” (SOEs) and psychology paper, a huge number of them are non-performing. ( Murphy) China has two stock exchanges located in Shanghai and Shenzhen. Created for the initial purpose of providing SOEs a means of obtaining additional fundin g, they offer four official classes of academic essay, stock: A, B, C and H. As of 2002 1,200 companies offered A shares, but due to the primarily state-owned nature of the companies, only 30% of the shares are available for purchase by discussion Chinese citizens.

These shares are also not currently available to foreign investors although the QFII proposal would let them in of drinking essay under very stringent conditions. Conversely, B shares are open to both foreign, and as of 2001, domestic investors, but there are only section a little over 100 companies that were able to academic, obtain the necessary state approvals to be listed. Psychology Discussion. Overall, only 15% of the companies listed on essays civilization the exchanges are privately held. Because the privately held Chinese companies aren’t able to get their funding from sanctioned banks or the stock market they are turning en masse to the International capital markets through foreign direct investment (FDI). Even the research discussion section, mis-managed and often financially troubled SOEs are eager to sell, but a 30% equity limit is on the civilization, a significant restriction. ( Wonacott, 2002) The bond market is paper discussion section, yet another example of the emma essays, closed nature of China. The majority of bonds are government or treasury bonds, with corporate bonds representing less than 2%.

Once again the government has left private companies out of the funding opportunity although Beijing has promised to psychology section, rectify this in the future. Its important to note that lack of money in essay China isn’t a problem, as it has one of the highest annual savings rates in the world. Unfortunately, the majority of investment opportunities are in poorly run state-owned companies. “Industry remains dominated by state-owned enterprises (SOEs), despite the government’s recently articulated commitment to paper section, the private sector. Where free-market practice runs ahead of what the law countenances, the government periodically intervenes to reverse developments” (Country Briefing, 2002, December 30, ¶2). Essays On The Egyptian Civilization. As Jingu (2002) notes, “China currently maintains total control over its monetary policy in a closed capital market” (p.

5). The term monetary policy refers to the measures taken by discussion a central bank to a grad, influence the availability and research section, cost of money and credit. The objectives of a country’s monetary policies are to help promote national economic goals. By maintaining a stable financial industry, positive impacts will be made to both imports and exports, creating jobs and increasing national wealth. The Federal Reserve establishes the monetary policy for the United States by making changes in the open market operations, the analysis, discount rate, and the reserve requirements. The result is an paper discussion influence on such events as the interest rate, money supply, unemployment, and jane, ultimately, the psychology, costs of essays, goods and services. Research Section. In China, the monetary policy is thesis analysis, established by the People’s Bank of China ( PBC ). The PBC , similar to the Federal Reserve, implements policies that will promote economic growth and psychology research paper discussion section, ensure the stability of the Chinese financial industry. In addition, the PBC approves, supervises, and administers other financial institutions and financial markets and publicizes financial and business laws and rules.

The existing monetary and credit structure created by on the ancient civilization the PBC appears to be very successful, but there are some identifiable risks. Despite many reforms, mechanisms to control risk have not yet been created since the central bank's 'window guidance' continues to psychology research, be the major reason behind lending institutions' decisions. There continues to be political pressure from the PBC to expand loans during stagnant economic conditions, generating poor performing loans. Another negative aspect of the analysis, Chinese monetary system is that strong government control of the PBC and resulting fiscal and credit policies make it difficult for the financial systems to paper section, mature. Banks and on discourse analysis, businesses will be concerned less about the costs and risks if the psychology research discussion, central bank robustly controls credit policies. Essays On The Egyptian Civilization. Lack of equitable money distribution also prese nts a problem, with the majority of psychology paper section, available money eventually flowing to disadvantages alcohol essay, only a small group of big-name firms with reliable credit record.

Finally, the current PBC credit policie s, successful or not, may not be able to maintain their strong control in research paper discussion the long run. Private and foreign companies are becoming an increasingly major force in the Chinese economy. These private and disadvantages of drinking alcohol essay, foreign sectors have not traditionally been covered by Chinese lending practices. Even with the above mentioned risks, China appears to have been more successful than the United States in surviving the psychology research, recent turbulent financial crises while maintaining a level growth. This success may be a result of the strong government control that the PBC has over independent local banks and essay, other financial institutions.

Under this central control, the Chinese government directs banks to lend to specific industries according to a national plan. Oppositely, the U. S. must rely on a free market and federal incentives to guide specific industry development and investment and other economic changes. A country’s economy cannot grow until sufficient infrastructure is in place. China’s infrastructure is very complex (Hand, 2002), and psychology research paper section, consists of “those services provided by effect public and private utilities which foster production, trade, and consumption” (Sullivan, 2002, p. Discussion. 475). These services include power, telecommunications, water, sewage and sanitation, piped gas, roadways, railways, ports, airports, and emma jane austen, most importantly banking. Over the past two decades, China has revitalized its infrastructure. Much of research discussion, China’s success stems from its promotion of the privatization of enterprises, the breakdown of analysis argument academic, its monopolies to provide fair competition for all entrepreneurs, and the creation of research paper section, treaties, agreements, etc. that promote foreign business relations (, 2002). Of critical importance to Staples will be the thesis, adequacy of China’s infrastructure in transportation, foreign trading, finance, telecommunications, and section, the Internet. China’s complex transportation infrastructure consists of old and new roadways, antiquated railways, undeveloped rural dirt roads, ancient waterways (along the major rivers), and booming air traffic, all responsible for moving more than 1.2 billion people from village to town to city, across different provinces, etc. (Xinhuanet, 2003).

At present, China is seeing a growth in transportation that parallels its growing economy, requiring ongoing improvements. Currently, the last section of a double-track line on the Beijing-Kowloon Railway (a major North-South route) is being laid. And plans to continue numerous highway and thesis on discourse, railway construction projects are in psychology research section place. Air travel is another major mode of Chinese transportation that has also undergone change. Although most transportation is on land or in the air, China also has extensive waterways. Chinese shipping companies are ranked among the alcohol essay, world's largest and provide services to all of the world's major ports (Gates, July/August, 2001). China’s telecommunications and Internet infrastructures have grown and helped to boost the research paper, efficiency of communication for both domestic and writing a grad admissions, foreign businesses. Ten years ago, most Chinese people had never seen a cellular phone, but today 150 million Chinese people possess their own cellular phone.

Staples should be aware, however, that the development of telecommunication and the Internet is uneven among provinces, with growth much slower in the central and west regions. China’s financial infrastructure appears to research paper discussion, be very strong. In the past seven years, China has received more foreign direct investment than any other country in the world except the U.S. Currently global multi-national companies are actively investing in China, and more than 400 of the top 500 global companies have investments in thesis on discourse analysis China (, 2002, November 13). China’s openness to foreign trade has immensely improved its economic infrastructure. Over the past three decades, treaties and agreements, such as the Sino-US Relations, the WTO accession, etc. Research Discussion. have increased Chinese imports and exports.

Despite the state’s economic gains and success in modernization, the economic infrastructure is still undergoing many changes and there is no promise that these changes will produce further success for essays jane China. A country’s economic infrastructure cannot be at its best unless its social infrastructure is strong enough to support it. China’s social fabric is growing stronger every year and as a result quality of discussion section, life has dramatically improved over the past 30 years. As Staples considers expansion into China it must take into account two primary aspects of the social infrastructure that directly impact productivity: education and effect essays topics, health. Other important societal factors include employment, work ethics, environment, and paper, culture. China is the civilization, most populated state in the world and continues to grow, with expectations of 1.5B people by 2050 (, 2003).

The average life span is research paper, 71 (, 2003), and as the population grows the employment sector grows. China’s employment rose from 650 to a grad school, 730 million between 1990 and 2001. With an unemployment rate that remains steady at about 4%, there are plenty of employment candidates available to Staples. (China Daily, 2002, November 12) Since 1949, the Chinese government has placed an emphasis on education, initiating reforms that have increased the psychology paper section, number of students. Today, 91% of China has implemented compulsory primary education resulting in almost 99% of school-age youth attending school and essays jane, a declining dropout rate (, 2001, April 4). The literacy of young and middle-aged people has increased by 7% and the illiteracy rate among China’s adults has been reduced from 22.23 to 8.72 percent in discussion section a 10 year-period. Concurrent with a restored status at the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1972, China’s healthcare system improved resulting in better overall health for the people. China now has an average 2.33 hospital beds and 1.6 doctors for every 1,000 people (Xinhuanet, 2003), and emma essays jane, the mortality rate has dropped to research section, an all time low of 6.5%. The Chinese people have strong work ethics, based on a long history of effect, hardworking farmers, strong laborers and creative philosophers (Xinhuanet, 2003). As the population grows more educated, the two trends have the research paper discussion, opportunity to combine and offer a stellar workforce for Staples. Culture can be defined as “a set of accepted behavior patterns, values, assumptions, and shared common experiences” (Cultural Savvy, 2000).

Culture is essays on the ancient egyptian, extremely important from psychology research discussion, a business perspective as it will shape employee behaviors and expectations, determine acceptable management styles, and influence interaction with outside entities. China’s culture is founded on the 2500 year old Confucius teachings of “the importance of argument academic, society, the group, and hierarchical relationships within a society.” It is collective in research nature, directly contrasting the individualistic culture found in thesis analysis US businesses. Psychology Research Paper Discussion. (Ralston, Holt, Terpstra, 1997) According to Sullivan (2002) the Hofstede dimensions are one of the disadvantages of drinking alcohol essay, best known means of examining culture used in international business. Only one of the five dimensions is scored for China, but the other dimensions can be estimated (See Appendix B). China’s degree of research discussion section, individualism would be on the low end due to its collective nature, and focus on the group v. the writing essay, individual. Guanxi, loosely translated as relationships, is psychology discussion section, very important in the Chinese business culture. The bureaucratic, state-owned businesses lend themselves to the high end of the power distance scale due to their hierarchical nature. China has an extremely high intolerance for uncertainty , again stemming from the state-owned bureaucracy exemplified by a lack of risk or uncertainty. This score however is probably moving lower (toward accepting risk and change) as outside / westernized influences creep into the culture and businesses become privatized. The degree of assertiveness would be located on the lower end of the scale, toward nurturing and thesis on discourse, cooperative living, but also supported by research paper the hierarchical nature of businesses.

Finally, the one Hofstede score that is provided is for long-term orientation and is off the scale on the high end, which tracks, since China has one of the highest rates of on the egyptian civilization, savings in the world (40% GDP). Where the US focuses on research individualism, equality, achievement, change, taking risks, and immediate gratification, China is more collective, valuing cooperation within a hierarchical structure, the status quo, and decision making only after careful and detailed analysis. (Sullivan, 2002). Argument Academic. Because “China and the U.S. represent ideological opposites in the work environment, in section spite of the present move toward capitalism in writing a grad admissions China,” (Ralston, Holt, and Terpstra, 1997, ¶24), US based companies such as Staples will face quite a few challenges. Staples represents a typical western or individualistic culture oriented company. Research Paper Section. Based on their recruiting slogan from, the typical Staples employee is entrepreneurial, individualistic, risk taking, and assertive. Essays On The Ancient Civilization. This is in direct contrast to the classic Chinese employee. Other key challenges include a hesitancy among Chinese employee’s to raise problems until there is absolutely no other option, making them difficult to resolve. This stems partially from the state-owned aspect of many business es which has created a culture with little incentive to psychology research paper, take responsibility. These SOEs guarantee employment and benefits and whenever they run into issues are bailed out by the government. “Under the collective system, where conformity meant anonymity, and anonymity meant a peaceful life, there was a disincentive to use initiative or to writing a grad admissions essay, take responsibility for a situation.” (China Business Desk, 2000, ¶6) The good news is that as the SOE’s are replaced by privatization, the values are slowly changing. Job insecurity, the psychology paper section, need for stakeholder management resulting from effect essays, tightening budgets and psychology discussion, unsecured losses, income for argument academic essay performance and other capitalistic business practices are slowly being accepted although perhaps not yet embraced by the Chinese.

And entrepreneurship is becoming a “respectable occupation.” (Zapalska, and Edwards, 2001, ¶21) As Sullivan (2002) points out, a country analysis should not just be a data dump, but rather it should “interpret” the information in regards to the company needs and strategy. A thorough examination of the different facets in the country analysis will guide Staples not only toward the best entry method but a determination as to whether or not China offers a lucrative expansion option. The first step is to examine the costs and benefits to doing business in China based on the information collected in the previous sections: Costs / Benefits Analysis of Doing Business in China. Communist / Socialist Philosophy. Stringent rules and restrictions for foreign operations.

Foreign investment welcomed – highest FDI in the world excluding US. History of nepotism and corruption. A new generation entering the psychology research paper discussion, workforce. Prevalence of bureaucratic state-owned enterprises and price monopolies. Trend toward privatization of state-owned businesses and entrepreneurial endeavors. Product quality and safety standards not always enforced. 2001 creation of the Standardization Administration and a realization that quality is necessary to compete globally. Decentralization of the jane austen, government. Decentralization of the research section, government.

Lack of analysis academic essay, funding available to private enterprises. Highest savings rate in the world. Relatively closed financial markets. Newly proposed reforms to provide citizens and foreign entities increased investment opportunities. Government controlled economy. Significant economic growth. Rural areas not well connected. Burgeoning telecommunications (including Internet) infrastructure. Increased poverty and disgruntled citizens. Emerging middle class. China is clearly a country in transition.

Realizing the need to put on Friedman’s (2000) Golden Straightjacket, the section, government is in the tailoring process, “moving toward, the of drinking alcohol essay, following golden rules: making the psychology paper discussion section, private sector the primary engine of its economic growth, maintaining a low rate of inflation and writing school, price stability, shrinking the psychology research paper section, size of its state bureaucracy, maintaining as close to a balanced budget as possible, if not a surplus, eliminating and lowering tariffs on imported goods, removing restrictions on foreign investment, getting rid of academic, quotas and psychology paper discussion, domestic monopolies, increasing exports, privatizing state-owned industries and utilities, deregulating capital markets, making its currency convertible, opening its industries, stock and thesis on discourse analysis, bond markets to direct foreign ownership and investment, deregulating its economy to promote as much domestic competition as possible, eliminating government corruption, subsidies and kickbacks as much as possible, opening its banking and telecommunications systems to private ownership and competition and research discussion section, allowing its citizens to choose from an array of competing pension options and foreign-run pension and mutual funds” (p. 105). China still has a long way to go before the jacket fits comfortably and during the transition phase China doesn’t want to upset the proverbial apple cart, or cause the financial upheaval and crises other countries have faced as they’ve transitioned. It is also critical to understand that as China evolves, there is a 2500 year old collectivist culture that will probably remain a significant factor of the business environment. The summarizes it perfectly in its most recent Backgrounder (see Appendix C). The new China, after it transitions to a more open and capitalistic philosophy, offers significant benefits to writing a grad admissions essay, a company such as Staples. With a population of 1.2 Billion Staples would have easy access to both employees and shoppers. Section. The emerging middle class and thesis, trend toward privatization offer a target market that would definitely be interested in Staples category-killer product offerings.

The fact that a significant portion of the products Staples stocks on its shelves are already manufactured in China is a financi al plus creating less need for importation. To enter this market, Staples has several options available and needs “to evaluate the pros and cons of” foreign direct investment through, “joint ventures, subsidiaries, or a mix of these as a mode of psychology research paper section, future involvement in the country” (Sullivan, 2002, p. 523). Staples current expansion model is focused on beefing up its North American holdings. Over the past several years though, Staples has built and purchased a strong European presence. Using a “combination of analysis essay, cash generated from operations and debt or equity offerings to psychology research, fund its expansion and acquisition activities” (Staples 2001 Annual Report, p. 25), Staples has focused on only adding wholly owned subsidiaries to its business. Staples has also expanded via its Internet presence. According to their 2000 annual report, they “recognize the long-term potential of electronic commerce and plan to continue to aggressively address this market.” To expand into China, Staples has several options of FDI including setting up a wholly owned subsidiary, purchasing an equity position in a currently existing company, creating a joint venture and a very rarely used option of establishing a branch office.

For each of these options there are numerous restrictions enforced by China on academic essay foreign firms that Staples will need to evaluate. Wholly Owned Subsidiary. The legal policies and regulations appear to be a little unclear as to the specific requirements or impediments to paper discussion, operating a wholly owned subsidiary in China. According to a Country Briefing (2002, December 30) there is a foreign-owned cap of 65% that cannot be exceeded. The briefing discusses Carrefour, a French retailer, that recently came under scrutiny for violating the ceiling and was “ordered to reduce their holdings to the permitted limit” (¶3). Fortunately for thesis analysis the long-term, the ceiling will be increased as a result of China’s new membership in the WTO, but in research the meantime, China is hoping to give its domestic chain stores the opportunity to consolidate and analysis, become more efficient before facing stiff foreign competition.

An exception apparently can be made if at least half of the annual output is exported or if the nature of the operations relies heavily on advanced technology that is psychology paper section, beneficial to China. In this situation, Staples would maintain control of their business activities with little interference from the analysis argument academic, Chinese government although it would be considered a Chinese legal entity under the jurisdiction of Chinese law. Staples would also have to employ Chinese labor in accordance with local and central government labor laws and would be encouraged to establish trade unions. Research Paper Discussion Section. (ChinaLaw, 1998) Unfortunately as Staples is a seller of manufactured goods, there would be little export involved negating Staples ability to open a wholly owned subsidiary. This could be a good thing though as Jin Partners (2002) note that “t raditionally the wholly foreign owned enterprise has rarely been the chosen method for investment in China. The independence offered to the foreign investor is often outweighed by the lack of direct links to essays on the ancient egyptian civilization, the domestic economy.” Joint Venture. An equity joint venture is one of the most common means of FDI. Psychology Paper. “Joint ventures are usually established to analysis essay, exploit the market knowledge, preferential market treatment, and manufacturing capability of the Chinese side along with the research paper, technology, manufacturing know-how, and marketing experience of the of drinking, foreign partner” (Paglee C. Psychology Research Section. 2005. Thesis On Discourse. Par 1). To establish a joint venture in China, the host party submits “a project proposal, preliminary feasibility study, and a letter of intent” to the local government. The same information along with a “written opinion” from the psychology paper section, local government must be submitted to MOFTEC for approval.

It’s important to note that “Joint ventures are supposed to export their products rather than supply the domestic market” ( Australia China Business Council, 2000). In a joint venture scenario, Staples would be required to school admissions essay, contribute a minimum of 25% capital. Share holdings are usually non-negotiable and cannot be transferred without approval from the Chinese government. Also, Staples would be restricted from withdrawing registered capital during the research paper discussion section, life of the joint venture contract. However given the exportation requirement, it does not seem that this would be a viable option for emma jane austen Staples. Equity Position. Another option open to Staples is to psychology research discussion section, gain an equity position in an already existing office supply store via a merger or acquisition. School. According to Bath Grams (2001), this method of foreign investment is much quicker in regards to getting through approval processes as a result of China’s WTO membership. Historically, China’s “ ill-fitting patchwork of laws and regulations” made it extremely difficult for foreign equity owners to have any input into paper discussion, restructuring their host nation businesses.

The new laws however, have created an egyptian environment where MAs are often more advantageous to foreign companies. This could be a very viable option for Staples as it is in line with its current expansion strategy. The difficulty, similar to the joint venture option will be in discussion section finding a similar company in China. Instead, Staples may have to look at on the ancient purchasing a number of smaller, localized, stationary, office furniture, and research discussion section, supply stores and restructuring them to create a superstore or category killer. Or they could search for companies that might be looking to thesis on discourse analysis, divest themselves of secondary offer supply businesses. Research. Bath Grams (2001) note that this is becoming a common event; “The MA Provisions are being used even by companies in relatively unsaturated industries because as both domestic and foreign- invested competitors move in to claim market share, pressure is exerted on writing a grad school essay the less efficient operations to shed excess capacity, dispose of research discussion, non- performing entities or simply downsize to focus on core operations.” Branch Office. A final option for Staples is the establishment of a Branch Office. Admissions Essay. In 1993, Chinese law adopted a method for establishing a foreign branch office that would have manufacturing and selling capabilities but would not be considered a Chinese legal person. This law would allow Staples to conduct business in China while not requiring them to make the paper section, more sizable investment required when setting up a wholly foreign owned enterprise. Of Drinking Essay. A branch office would be a Staples, rather than a Chinese, legal entity.

This will leave Staples open to liabilities from research, its China operations, should things go wrong, but give them the essays on the civilization, opportunity to conduct business. Basically, a branch office is similar to any other foreign enterprise in China without as high a level of investment. Psychology Paper Discussion Section. The Branch Office has not been widely used in China, however, it may be a loophole to get around the stricter requirements of setting up a joint venture or a wholly foreign owned enterprise. The country analysis tells us to proceed with caution. Before making a final determination about expansion into China, we recommend that a SWOT analysis be conducted along with a competitive assessment of China. The SWOT analysis must take into ac count product offering, distribution methods, marketing communications, manufacturing options, financing and analysis argument academic, management from a global perspective, specific to China. If the paper, additional analysis further justifies immediate expansion into China, Staples should set up a Representative Office to thesis, act as a conduit between the research, U.S. Staples Corpor ation and analysis academic essay, China. “The registration of a representative office is required in order to lawfully employ Chinese nationals, to open a bank account, to import personal effects duty-free, to psychology paper discussion section, import office equipment without an import license, to obtain direct telecommunication lines, to display signs with the essay, company name, or to use business cards that identify the company's presence in research paper China” (Paglee, 1998). This office will provide Staples with time to gain experience and understanding of the Chinese Market along with the equally important rules and regulations that must followed to gain entry.

It will also allow Staples to formulate an acceptable exit strategy based on on the egyptian civilization its entry options. If the psychology paper discussion section, decision is made to emma essays jane austen, move forward, we believe Staples best options for entry would be via a Branch Office or Wholly Owned Subsidiary depending on psychology research discussion the time frame. The Branch Office would be the first point of entry but as China becomes more global and the regulations regarding FDI or loosened further a Wholly Owned Subsidiary option would probably become viable. Whatever method it chooses, Staples needs to remember that Chinese culture is based on 2500 years of Confucius teachings that will be difficult if not impossible to overcome. The result is that Staples needs to be ready, willing and able to integrate some of this culture into its every day business operations in China. Relationships will have to be cultivated all along the supply chain as well as with the employees and customers. Management expectations of initiative taking, individualistic, self-motivating employees may need to be tempered slightly to school admissions essay, accommodate the more group oriented, tentative Chinese. This can be done through the research, use of teams and motivations to on discourse, encourage initiative. Staples will also need to determine the research discussion section, best location for its store placement. Further research will be required, but Staples should look for areas where transportation of its goods will be simply accessible.

The stores should be strategically located in the urban dwellings where it will probably do best because that is where China’s business professionals, who will need to order pens, word processors, etc., most often live and work. Staples, should examine cellular and Internet access as an topics indicator of locations because the users will typify the target market, and psychology research discussion, these users are more likely to need services from Staples. International Standards Organization (ISO), July 17, 2002. Bath, V. Thesis On Discourse. Grams, R. (2001). Get ready for China’s MA boom. BizLaw Article. Retrieved online from:

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china essays FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by psychology research paper discussion John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of a century. This historical social transformation is one in which all of Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. Thesis! In the context of such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on social changes and unprecedented new social experiences. With support from research, Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years. Effect! The exhibition is intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience. The photographs by the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and early 1980s. At the time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in China’s rural areas, he sketched and took photographs.

As an paper art student, he was motivated to take the photographs as source material for effect his paintings. However, it is precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from research paper discussion, some of the conventions of art photography. Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the essay, camera, so that upon his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into psychology section his paintings. Without the photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979.

I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of a society bound by the social structure and lifestyles of the Maoist era. Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the conditions and substance of country living, and the states of the disadvantages of drinking alcohol, mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in Liu’s works. The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an accidental witness to a unique episode in Chinese history. Master of the House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in Henan province during the 1990s. Paper Section! His technique has an apparent and argument misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against images on the wall of the main room, the research discussion, equivalent in Chinese rural architecture to the living room in an urban residence. In traditional Chinese living spaces, the central wall hanging in the main room expresses the values of Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of calligraphy.

The memorial tablets on the offering table express the importance of the lineage of the analysis argument, clan and the centrality of family ethics. Traditionally, the cultural signs found in these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon psychology research paper, the behavior of family members. The main room is also the center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and analysis argument the reception of psychology discussion section guests. The area serves family members and analysis argument essay constitutes the key venue where they interact with visitors. Research Paper Section! These photographs reveal that, in a grad school admissions essay the context of paper discussion section contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in the space of disadvantages of drinking alcohol these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the space and are competing against one another. Psychology Paper Discussion Section! Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the disadvantages of drinking alcohol, same space.

Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in the coastal cities. They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms. The Master of the House series expresses the persistence of Chinese rural society and section folk traditions in essays an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the concurrence of research paper discussion popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and their mutual impact on contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in their description with the help of different theories and methodologies? Many of us are facing these questions.

The unique approach of the Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads. Jiang Jian invites his subjects to essays adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is still richly resonant with meaning, and then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings. It is through such detail that he displays the conditions of life among Chinese peasants, and through bold folk coloring he highlights the cultural taste in rural central China. At the same time, Jiang is also able to render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of research section government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is that the process of urbanization is also one in which the values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to take root in rural areas.

Jiang Jian thus makes available to us a set of emma essays jane austen visual documents to help understand the daily lives of Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region. Besiege the City by the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by the Country: The Long March of Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of three. parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and The City . Psychology Research Discussion Section! In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants’ departure. from their land and their integration into topics city life. Since the 1980s, because of radical changes in China’s social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of urbanization. Research Paper! Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in search of work. According to a survey conducted by the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from rural to urban regions. Besiege the City by on discourse the Country (series) However, for peasant workers, the prospects for life and work in the city have not been good.

The challenges they face in paper the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter. Cities and their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Even though the on the ancient egyptian civilization, cities and their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of peasant workers, the latter are often subject to ill treatment. Zhang’s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers. The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of peasant life in the city, whether it is the taking of pictures for identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in the city, or the pin-ups of psychology discussion section voluptuous women and the blown-up images of analysis a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of contemporary Chinese urban life. Their living and psychology research paper section working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of China’s social reality, and alcohol essay a part of China’s urban culture. Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in research paper discussion the urban environment.

Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the 1990s, urbanization in China grew at an extraordinary pace. Many social tensions intensified and egyptian became highly visible. Psychology! While the speed of social change no doubt left an indelible impact on the values and lifestyles of peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and essays on the ancient egyptian civilization daily lives of urban dwellers. Beginning in the early 1990s, the Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change. At the center of psychology research Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is a cohort of thesis Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of section living on the eve of radical upheavals in argument essay Chinese society. The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in their external world. For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in Chinese media and press. They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to the new economic policies from above and actively engaged in commerce when the society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the paper discussion, people left behind by their own times.

Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media. But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for neither the society’s attention nor its assistance. They were a self-sufficient lot. Analysis! At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the psychology section, population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters. His photographs reveal a strong sense of identification with his subjects. In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the deepest of sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description. In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in times that have passed. From their reserved and jane austen somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the psychology paper discussion section, complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation.

The stillness of thesis on discourse their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time. Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to psychology research section observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of No. 1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the 1990s. From then on, he gave priority to street shots in an effort to ancient civilization capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. These were distinctive for the employment of what photographers call the “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to render the reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint. Section! He does so by gathering a large number of photographic details of everyday life in the city. He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the.

same frame to provoke associations regarding the passage of time. The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Luoyang is topics, not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style. Psychology Research Discussion! Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of Chinese residential construction and the reductive nature of Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. A Grad Essay! The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in contrast to the clusters of skyscrapers in discussion the coastal cities, and thesis on discourse are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast. New Residences of Luoyang (series)

Such works by Luo provide a meaningful point of departure for an understanding of the relationship between architecture and urban life and development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the psychology research paper discussion section, limited aesthetic resources of a grad Chinese city dwellers in these areas. After Luo began working in Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the paper, modern city’s endless expansiveness and self-duplication. In the recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. According to disadvantages alcohol essay this model, Chinese society now may be divided into research discussion ten classes. The leading classes of the Maoist era, the industrial workers and analysis peasants, are ranked eighth and ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and psychology paper semi-unemployed. According to this scheme industrial workers and peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in admissions China.

The “masters” of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is psychology discussion, increasingly marginalized and disadvantages alcohol workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and working conditions of psychology research discussion industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into the society’s “silent majority.” Zhou’s documentary project began in 1997 and is, according to him, still ongoing. Analysis! In his own writing, he makes it clear that the motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and subsistence of the workers.

His images are intended to call attention to the human component of the abstract notion of industry. Psychology Research! He wants to demonstrate the heaviness of industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the working class. While the images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the ancient, workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to its peripheries. The Heaviness of Industry series catalogs a number of psychology research raw moments in workers’ operational routines from a rich variety of perspectives. Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of human tragedy. Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of “industry,” of the persons who are engaged in industrial production, of the relationship between the human body and work, of the value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the writing a grad school essay, special conditions of social development and historical coincidences, modernization in China is following a unique trajectory. Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society. The conflicting objectives and realities between the pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in psychology research paper much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in on the egyptian Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms.

These works do not excessively elaborate upon the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to the complicated psychological states — a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness — with which the workers react toward the complexities of the historical moment. By weaving together subliminal settings and intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to psychology research paper their actual condition and salvation. From the documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is a parallel between the growth of academic Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society. Psychology Research Paper Discussion! The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is thesis, emerging from the research, constraints of state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the thesis on discourse analysis, reality of society.

The cameras in the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.