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Brief intervention to encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in best down words essay half among adolescents. Edited by qualities Susan T. Fiske, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, and way cut down, approved March 18, 2016 (received for word how long to write review December 1, 2015) There is increasing concern about rising discipline citations in K–12 schooling and a lack of best way cut words means to papers reduce them. Predominant theories characterize this problem as the best words essay, result of qualities good punitive discipline policies (e.g., zero-tolerance policies), teachers’ lack of interpersonal skills, or students’ lack of way cut down words essay self-control or social–emotional skills. By contrast, the present research examined teachers’ mindsets about discipline. Essay A Special Person. A brief intervention aimed at encouraging an down words essay empathic mindset about discipline halved student suspension rates over essay an academic year. Way Cut Down Words Essay. This intervention, an a place to stand essay online exercise, can be delivered at near-zero marginal cost to best words large samples of 1000 to write teachers and way cut words, students. Essay A Treasured. These findings could mark a paradigm shift in society’s understanding of the origins of and best down words, remedies for discipline problems. Word Essay How Long. Growing suspension rates predict major negative life outcomes, including adult incarceration and unemployment. Way Cut. Experiment 1 tested whether teachers ( n = 39) could be encouraged to qualities good adopt an best way cut down words empathic rather than punitive mindset about discipline—to value students’ perspectives and sustain positive relationships while encouraging better behavior.

Experiment 2 tested whether an on misrepresentation empathic response to best misbehavior would sustain students’ ( n = 302) respect for teachers and essay, motivation to down behave well in class. These hypotheses were confirmed. Finally, a randomized field experiment tested a brief, online intervention to encourage teachers to adopt an a place essay topics empathic mindset about best discipline. Evaluated at five middle schools in on succession three districts ( N teachers = 31; N students = 1,682), this intervention halved year-long student suspension rates from best way cut words 9.6% to 4.8%. On Misrepresentation. It also bolstered respect the way cut, most at-risk students, previously suspended students, perceived from teachers. Age Essay. Teachers’ mindsets about discipline directly affect the best way cut down, quality of teacher–student relationships and student suspensions and, moreover, can be changed through scalable intervention. Removal from word essay to write mainstream education settings for best way cut down essay discipline problems denies children opportunities to learn and essay describing a special, thus predicts major negative life outcomes such as adult unemployment and incarceration (1). Best Down Words Essay. However, in the United States, the number of students suspended for misbehavior nearly tripled from on ancient nubia 1.7 million in down words essay 1974 to more than 5 million in a place 2011 (3.7–11% of all students) (2, 3). Contemporaneously, a dominant approach to way cut misbehavior, which prioritizes punishment over remediation, has emerged in youth and old US schooling (4).

For instance, zero-tolerance policies aim to words essay deter misbehavior through tough consequences and thus promote severe disciplinary action (e.g., suspensions) for a treasured belonging even minor misbehavior (5). Although many factors contribute to high suspension rates, we examined teachers’ mindsets about discipline. We hypothesized that a punitive response to misbehavior can, ironically, alienate disaffected students and best way cut essay, thus incite the destructive, oppositional behaviors it aims to descriptive essay about a treasured prevent. Best Words Essay. A response that values students’ perspectives and maintains high-quality relationships in disciplinary interactions may improve outcomes. Much research shows that feeling respect for thesis on succession planning and being respected by way cut authority figures can motivate people to term papers on ancient follow rules enforced by down essay those figures, especially in conflicts (6). If teachers convey this respect while disciplining students, this may improve students’ behavior. Essay Describing. Consistent with this hypothesis, the quality of students’ relationships with teachers is best way cut down words one of the essay, strongest predictors of classroom behavior (7).

Relationships of way cut words essay trust and respect may be especially important in adolescence. 1000 Essay To Write. In this period before cognitive-control regions in the brain have fully matured, external resources like trusted teachers may be essential to guide children’s growth (8, 9). Best. Punitive disciplinary interactions risk undermining these relationships (10). If students feel disrespected and subsequently misbehave, this may confirm in teachers’ minds that the age essay, student is a “troublemaker,” facilitating harsh responses to future misbehavior (11). Thus, a punitive approach to best discipline may give rise to descriptive about belonging a self-perpetuating cycle of punishment and misbehavior (12). Three experiments tested whether teachers can be encouraged to adopt an down essay empathic mindset about discipline and term nubia, examined its impact on essay, students. Term. This mindset prioritizes valuing and understanding students’ experiences and negative feelings that give rise to best words essay misbehavior, sustaining positive relationships with misbehaving students, and essay, working with students within trusting relationships to improve behavior (9). For example, perspective-taking, the cognitive component of words essay empathy, may help teachers understand students’ experiences and internal states (13) and thus respond more appropriately to misbehavior (e.g., with greater concern for to stand topics the needs of the best words essay, student) (12, 14). Notably, even as many teachers are exposed to papers on ancient a default punitive approach to discipline (5), teachers also have, as a central plank of words essay their profession, the goal to build and essays on misrepresentation, sustain positive relationships with students, especially struggling students (15). The existence of best way cut down words essay this alternative mindset suggests that it may be possible through relatively modest means to encourage a different approach to student misbehavior. A Place To Stand. We thus test whether an empathic mindset can change teachers’ practices, whether this improves students’ responses to way cut down words discipline, and whether encouraging an thesis on succession empathic mindset in teachers can reduce suspension rates among students.

Experiment 1 tested whether a targeted message about empathic discipline would change teachers’ approach to discipline. Way Cut Down Essay. Thirty-nine K–12 teachers ( M experience = 14 y) were randomly assigned to an empathic- or a punitive-mindset condition. Teachers read a brief article, which reminded them either that “good teacher–student relationships are critical for on succession students to down learn self-control” (empathic mindset) or that “punishment is about a treasured belonging critical for best essay teachers to take control of the and old, classroom” (punitive mindset). Best Words Essay. Next, teachers were asked how this approach helps teachers “maintain control over a class.” Teachers then reviewed three counterbalanced incidents of minor misbehavior drawn from a place essay middle-school referral records (e.g., disrupting class by way cut down essay throwing away trash). After each incident, teachers described how they would discipline the essay neighbours, student.

Last, they reported the likelihood they would consider the student a troublemaker (1, not at all; 7, extremely). As predicted, teachers’ disciplinary responses were less punitive and more empathic in the empathic-mindset condition than in down the punitive-mindset condition. Teachers were also less likely to term on ancient nubia label the student a troublemaker in best way cut the empathic-mindset condition (see Tables 1 and youth, 2). Teacher responses to best words essay minor student misbehavior as a function of describing condition (experiment 1) ( n = 39) Coded disciplinary responses and best words essay, teacher judgments (experiment 1) ( n = 39) How do students respond to 1000 word essay how long empathic discipline? In experiment 2, we asked college students ( n = 302) to imagine themselves as middle-school students who had disrupted class by repeatedly walking around to throw away trash. Their teacher, Mrs.

Smith, responded in a manner reflective of best each condition in thesis on succession experiment 1: by best words assigning detention and referring them to the principal’s office (punitive-discipline condition) or by on misrepresentation asking them about their misbehavior and way cut essay, moving the person, wastebasket closer to best words essay their desk (empathic-discipline condition). Next, participants reported the thesis on succession, respect they would have for best the teacher (six items; e.g., “I think Mrs. Youth. Smith deserves my respect”; ? = 0.85) and best down words, the motivation they would have to behave well in essay about a treasured belonging the future (two items; e.g., “It is words important to me that I follow rules in this class”; ? = 0.83) (1, strongly disagree; 7, strongly agree). Good Neighbours. As predicted, college students reported that, as middle-school students, they would respect the teacher far more in down the empathic-mindset than in the punitive-discipline condition ( M = 5.23, SD = 1.14 versus M = 2.47, SD = 1.09), t (300) = 20.98, P 0.001, d = 2.42. Describing A Special Person. They also anticipated they would feel greater motivation to behave well in best way cut down essay the future ( M = 4.38, SD = 1.41 versus M = 3.79, SD = 1.56), t (300) = 3.43, P 0.001, d = 0.40 (see Fig. 1). Moreover, consistent with our theory, the thesis planning, greater respect college students reported that they as middle-school students would have for the teacher statistically mediated the increase in their anticipated motivation to best behave well in the future. Using mediation procedures with model 4 of the descriptive belonging, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) macro mediation analysis package (PROCESS) (16) and best words essay, 10,000 bias-corrected bootstrap resamples, we tested a model with “condition > respect (mediator) > behave well.” As noted, the total effect of condition on essays on misrepresentation, students’ anticipated motivation to best way cut down behave well was significant ( b = 0.59, SE = 0.17, P = 0.001). In step 1, the essay describing a special person, total effect of condition on the mediator (respect) was significant ( b = 2.02, SE = 0.11, P 0.001).

In step 2, we regressed the best words essay, dependent variable (behave well) on essays on misrepresentation, the mediator and condition. Way Cut Down. The effect of youth age essay respect was significant ( b = 0.59, SE = 0.08, P 0.001), and the effect of condition was reduced ( b = –0.60, SE = 0.23, P = 0.011). In step 4, the best down words, predicted mediation (indirect path from qualities neighbours condition > respect for teacher > motivation to down words behave well) was significant [ b = 1.19, SE = 0.19, confidence interval (CI) = 0.82, 1.58]. Nubia. College students ( n = 302) who imagined themselves as middle-school students being disciplined in best way cut down words an empathic rather than a punitive manner reported that they would respect the word, teacher more and best words essay, be more motivated to behave well in essay the future (experiment 2). Way Cut Down Words Essay. The y axes represent the full range of the essay, scales. Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps. Experiments 1 and 2 show that teachers can be encouraged to take an way cut down essay empathic approach to discipline and that students report that such treatment motivates better behavior. On Misrepresentation. Can an empathic mindset give rise to a cycle of improved interactions between teachers and students and, thus, cause lasting benefits?

Experiment 3, a longitudinal randomized placebo-controlled field experiment, tested whether encouraging an down words essay empathic mindset about discipline in age essay teachers would reduce student suspension rates over an academic year. Essay. Participants were math teachers at five diverse middle schools in three school districts in descriptive about a treasured California ( n = 31) and their students ( n = 1,682; 52% female; 17% Asian, 2% Black, 54% Latino, 7% White, 20% other/unknown). This sample represents 91.12% of recruited faculty, 83% of math faculty, and 55.57% of students at these schools. Best Way Cut. For school characteristics, see Table S1. The intervention comprised one 45-min and on misrepresentation, one 25-min online module. Best. Teachers were told that the good, purpose of the exercise was to way cut words review common but sometimes neglected wisdom about teaching and to a place to stand essay topics collect their perspectives as experienced teachers on how best to best way cut essay handle difficult interactions with students, especially disciplinary encounters. Teachers were randomly assigned to a condition within school immediately after consent. Demographics of essays on misrepresentation participating schools (experiment 3) The first module was completed midway through the Fall semester. Way Cut Essay. First, teachers read an article that described nonpejorative reasons why students sometimes misbehave in class and essay good, how positive relationships with teachers can facilitate students’ growth (e.g., “[the] social and words, biological changes of a place essay topics adolescence can make middle school students insecure … worries [about unfair treatment] can cause students to experience stress, to overreact, and down words essay, sometimes to term on ancient disengage from school”).

These materials discouraged the labeling of misbehaving students as troublemakers. Instead, they encouraged teachers to understand and best way cut down essay, value students’ experiences and thesis on succession planning, negative feelings that can cause misbehavior and to sustain positive relationships when students misbehave. Way Cut Down Words Essay. Teachers were reminded that “a teacher who makes his or her students feel heard, valued, and essays, respected shows them that school is best fair and they can grow and succeed there.” These ideas were reinforced through stories from on misrepresentation students (e.g., “One day I got detention, and best words essay, instead of just sitting there, my teacher talked with me about a special what happened. He really listened to best down words essay me. Topics. … It felt good to know I had someone I could trust in way cut down school. A Special. …”). Teachers then wrote how they incorporate or could incorporate these ideas in best way cut down words their own practice. Thesis. These responses, they were told, would be “incorporated into a teacher training program so future teachers can benefit from your experiences and insights” (see SI Experiment 3 for details). Best Way Cut Down Words. This representation of the term on ancient, exercise and best way cut words essay, interactive elements draws on other successful social–psychological interventions (17 ? ? –20). Thesis Planning. Teachers were treated as experts and agents of positive change for way cut others, not as recipients of a place to stand remediation. They were exposed to powerful stories on best way cut, which they elaborated in guided writing exercises, allowing them to take ownership of the about a treasured, intervention message, to connect it to their own practice, and to advocate for it to others (21) (see SI Experiment 3 for best down words details). A Place. (Students completed separate randomized materials at this time, which did not affect the primary outcomes examined here; SI Experiment 3 .)

The second session completed 2 mo later reinforced the best down essay, treatment message. On Ancient. Teachers were reminded that “students’ feelings about and best down words essay, behavior in school can and thesis, do improve when teachers successfully convey the essay, care and about belonging, respect students crave.” They reviewed a story from best way cut words essay a teacher who described a teacher of essays on misrepresentation hers who had eased her worries about way cut down mistreatment by and old showing her respect and how she tried to convey the same respect to her students. Participating teachers then described how they show their own students respect. Teachers also had their students complete surveys during this session, which assessed broad perceptions of the school climate. The present study focused on best way cut down essay, the critical factor of a place perceived respect (“Teachers and other adults at best way cut essay, my school treat me with respect”; 1, strongly disagree; 6, strongly agree) (see SI Experiment 3 for details). It is how long to write important to note what the way cut, empathic-mindset intervention does not do. Even as this intervention encourages teachers to understand and value students’ perspectives, it does not ask teachers to to stand essay share students’ perspective or to down words essay think that that perspective is good reasonable, which it may not be. Best Way Cut Essay. In many contexts, simply understanding and feeling understood may be enough to neighbours initiate a better teacher–student relationship (20).

The intervention also does not encourage teachers to not discipline misbehaving students. As in parenting contexts (22), an overly permissive approach may be counterproductive. It may cause teachers to lose control of the way cut down, class and how long to write, deny misbehaving children the understanding and supportive feedback they need to improve. Way Cut Down Essay. Instead, the intervention encourages teachers to discipline students in on misrepresentation a context of mutual understanding and trust. Best Down Words Essay. The control exercise was similar in form and a place to stand topics, interactivity but discussed ways to words use technology to promote learning (see SI Experiment 3 for details). This neutral comparison tests whether the empathic-mindset intervention can reduce suspensions compared with typical disciplinary practice. How did intervention-condition teachers describe how they would incorporate empathic approaches in person their practice? When asked how they “would like … to best way cut down words essay improve your relationships with your students?” teachers powerfully echoed the to stand essay topics, intervention themes: For example, “[I] greet every student at down, the door with a smile every day no matter what has occurred the day before”; “[I] answer their questions thoughtfully and essay belonging, respectfully no matter what their academic history with me has been”; and “I NEVER hold grudges. I try to remember that they are all the best down, son or daughter of describing a special someone who loves them more than anything in best down the world.

They are the light of someone’s life!” (see SI Experiment 3 for details). Age Essay. The primary outcome was students’ year-long suspension rates. (Each school district recorded discipline data differently and way cut words, primarily only term nubia as year sums, so it was not possible to best down examine discipline outcomes across the on misrepresentation, full sample with greater granularity.) Examining official school records, a mixed-effect linear regression with students nested within school, teacher, and classroom (each teacher taught multiple classes) showed that students whose math teacher received the empathic-mindset intervention were half as likely to be suspended over the school year (4.6%) as students of best down words essay control teachers (9.8%) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, z = –3.33, P = 0.001; see Fig. 2). The effect remained significant controlling for student race, gender, and essay, prior-year suspension status (OR = 0.49, z = –2.37, P = 0.018). It was consistent across all these factors; there was no interaction involving them ( z s 1.85, P s 0.05). As in national data (4), control-condition suspension rates were highest among boys (OR = 3.21, z = 4.16, P 0.001), African American and Latino students (OR = 2.48, z = 2.30, P = 0.021), and way cut down essay, students with a history of thesis on succession planning suspensions (OR = 17.34, z = 1,420.00, P 0.001). The reduction in suspension rates was comparably large for best down essay these groups (boys, 14.6–8.4%; African Americans and Latinos, 12.3–6.3%; previously suspended students, 51.2–29.4%). 1000 How Long To Write. Middle-school students ( n = 1,682) whose math teacher ( n = 31) completed the empathic-mindset intervention compared with randomized control materials were half as likely to be suspended over best way cut the school year (experiment 3).

Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps. Did the empathic-mindset intervention improve teacher–student relationships from students’ perspective? It did for the most at-risk students, those with a history of suspensions. An initial mixed-effect linear regression on students’ reports of respect from to write teachers with students nested within school, teacher, and classroom revealed a main effect of prior suspension status, t (1,440) = –2.01, P = 0.045, and no main effect of condition ( t 1.25). Best Words Essay. (We used Satterthwaite approximations to estimate degrees of word essay freedom with the lmerTest package in R.) However, a subsequent model revealed a significant Prior Suspension ? Treatment interaction, t (1,438) = 2.57, P = 0.010 (see Fig. 3). In the control condition, previously suspended students thought their teachers were less respectful ( M = 3.85) than did students with no history of suspension ( M = 4.53), t (1,434) = –3.20, P = 0.001, d = 0.56. Best. This effect was eliminated by the intervention, t (1,430) 1. Students with a history of age essay suspension felt more respected by their teachers when their math teacher had been treated ( M = 4.70) than when the teacher had not ( M = 3.85), t (1,439) = 2.68, P = 0.008, d = 0.77. Best Down Words. Middle-school students ( n = 1,449) with a history of to stand essay topics suspension whose math teacher ( n = 31) completed the way cut, empathic-mindset intervention perceived their teachers as more respectful of them 2 mo after the initial teacher intervention than students whose math teacher completed randomized control materials (experiment 3). The analysis omits 233 students who did not complete the essay a treasured belonging, follow-up survey (13.85%).

Attrition did not differ by best down students’ math teacher condition assignment (OR = 1.24, z 1, nonsignificant). Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps. Papers Nubia. The present research demonstrates how a punitive climate can create in way cut words teachers a punitive approach to planning discipline and down, how this approach undermines students’ feelings of descriptive essay about belonging respect for teachers and motivation to best down words essay behave well in a treasured class (experiments 1 and 2). A brief, online intervention to encourage an best words empathic mindset in thesis planning teachers about down words discipline halved year-long suspension rates among 1,682 students in on succession planning five diverse middle schools (experiment 3). Many past interventions have aimed to down essay facilitate mindsets that help students overcome challenges in school (18, 19). The present intervention targeted teachers’ mindsets to make school more psychologically safe, removing a barrier to students’ success. Importantly, the about, empathic-mindset intervention did not attempt to teach teachers new skills for best way cut interacting with students or introduce new policies for how to discipline students (23).

Nor did it attempt to term nubia build students’ self-control or social–emotional skills, another common approach to improving student behavior (24). Like learning any new skill or program, such approaches may require ongoing coaching and practice. Way Cut Words Essay. Instead, we assumed that teachers were capable of building better relationships with students and that students could behave more positively with more supportive treatment. The intervention simply encouraged teachers to view discipline as an opportunity to word how long to write facilitate mutual understanding and way cut down essay, better relationships and essays on misrepresentation, empowered teachers to down essay do so in essay describing a special person a manner effective for way cut words essay them and essay neighbours, their students. The findings suggest that, at least in the school contexts examined here, punitive mindsets about best down discipline serve as a critical barrier to better teacher–student relationships. Moreover, insofar as relatively brief, online modules can encourage teachers to take a more empathic approach, the person, results suggest the potential for effective, scalable intervention to way cut words improve discipline outcomes. Descriptive Belonging. However, our emphasis on best down essay, teachers’ mindsets does not diminish the importance of youth age essay punitive discipline policies; rather, it illustrates one reason why such policies matter. They create a context that discourages teachers from way cut words essay prioritizing building strong relationships with students at essay qualities good, critical junctures. Efforts to way cut down essay change discipline policies and to encourage empathic mindsets about thesis planning discipline thus go hand-in-hand. Way Cut Down Essay. The present research raises important questions, which will be exciting to address in future research. First, a notable finding was that the essay about belonging, randomization of best words essay a single teacher to treatment versus control condition caused a reduction in essay a special suspensions that arise from misbehavior in all school settings; indeed, supplementary analyses provide evidence that the intervention effect extended beyond a reduction in words suspensions referred by 1000 essay to write math teachers ( SI Experiment 3 ). Way Cut Words. Although striking, this finding is consistent with research suggesting the importance for children of a treasured belonging having at least one teacher in school whom they trust (20).

It will be important to best words further understand how, when, and essay, why improvement in way cut words essay a single teacher–student relationship causes reverberating benefits for students. Second, it is important to further explore the planning, psychological and best way cut down, social–relational changes induced by planning the intervention and how these improve discipline. Using a chain of experiments, the present research identified key causal relationships (25) linking an empathic mindset and best words, treatment to greater feelings and a place topics, perceptions of respect and way cut words, reduced suspensions. An important next step is to include periodic assessments of essay how long to write teachers’ and way cut words essay, students’ attitudes and developing relationships and on succession planning, observations of down words essay their interactions in future trials. Such measures may further clarify how and on ancient, when an best way cut words empathic approach to discipline can become enduring in teachers’ minds and youth, embedded in teacher–student interactions and best down words essay, support statistical tests of mediation (26). They may also shed light on consequences beyond discipline, like for descriptive belonging school engagement and learning. Ideally, these assessments will be unobtrusive so as not to lead teachers to feel scrutinized or to best way cut down words essay undercut the honorific representation of the qualities, exercise, which could undermine intervention effectiveness.

In changing teachers’ mindsets to improve a social system, the way cut down words essay, present research suggests a new frontier for psychological intervention. Many past interventions help students navigate the to stand, social world of best way cut school more effectively (18 ? –20, 27). Essays. However, psychological interventions can also make social worlds easier to navigate. Racial-minority students can be held back by best down words essay teachers’ feelings of dissimilarity to essay describing a special them (28). People trying to way cut down words lose weight or quit smoking can contend with pejorative views among physicians of a treasured health-risk behaviors (29). Way Cut Down Words Essay. In circumstances like these, the mindsets of a few can undermine the outcomes of descriptive a treasured belonging many. Where else can we alter the mindsets of down essay powerful social actors to 1000 word essay how long to write improve the functioning of systems as a whole? Empathic Discipline Session 1: Sample Materials. Way Cut Essay. Empathic discipline session 1: Introduction of the activity (excerpt). “Teachers are always looking for belonging new ways to teach and to down words better serve their students. As you know, one important part of teaching is developing positive relationships with students so they can learn. Our own research team has been studying the essay describing, role of down words essay teacher–student relationships in students’ motivation, learning, and behavior.

This research suggests that how teachers and students interact, especially during the on misrepresentation, critical period of best down words essay adolescence, can have long-lasting effects on 1000 word essay to write, students’ motivation and way cut words, success. Essays. The relationships students build with their middle-school teachers can influence students’ motivation and best way cut essay, behavior in essay a special person class and their attitudes and success beyond. In this web module, we will share with you some of down essay this research. Then, we will ask you for thesis planning your input as a professional educator. We are especially interested in your thoughts about how teachers like you can and best way cut down words, do use these ideas to have better interactions with students and to how long improve their lives.

Your input will be incorporated into best essay, a teacher training program so future teachers can benefit from essay person your experience and best way cut words essay, insights. Term Papers Nubia. Thank you for down essay your time and essays, help.” Empathic discipline session 1: Empathic-mindset article (excerpt). Way Cut Essay. “Almost everyone has a personal story about a great teacher who influenced his or her life. On Misrepresentation. For some, it’s a teacher who reached out and way cut down, helped them feel both comfortable and respected in school. For others, it’s a teacher who helped them see they could reach a higher standard, even when they doubted themselves. As teachers, these stories warm our hearts.

They inspire us to create a positive setting that brings out the a place to stand essay, best in down words our students. To Stand Topics. Research suggests that students’ relationships with teachers are important—and even more so than you might think. Best Down Words. Children who experience caring relationships with adults grow up to be more respectful and age essay, caring people. At home, a kind and responsive parent shows a child that their family is good and trustworthy. In school, a teacher who makes his or her students feel heard, valued, and respected shows them that school is best way cut fair and word essay how long to write, they can grow and best essay, succeed there. Of course, creating positive relationships is not always easy—especially with middle-school students. The social and biological changes of about a treasured adolescence can make middle-school students insecure and way cut down words, sensitive. Yet students’ attitudes about school and behavior can and how long, do improve when teachers successfully convey the way cut down words essay, caring and respect students crave.

This makes understanding students’ perspectives very important to 1000 teaching. Way Cut Down Words Essay. The more teachers understand how students perceive teachers’ actions, the descriptive essay, better equipped teachers are to interact with students in ways that nurture their growth into best way cut words, responsible, motivated young adults. Topics. Many teachers worry about students disengaging from school during middle school and best down essay, seek out a variety of strategies to help their students. Adolescence is age essay a time of new worries and pressures. In middle school, students interact with far more students, have far more teachers, and way cut down, go through puberty. As a result, middle-school students think a lot about how they are treated.

They worry about being treated unfairly, and essays, they are sensitive to best way cut down essay any sign that others—especially authority figures, like teachers—are dealing them an unfair hand. These worries can cause students to experience stress, to overreact, and sometimes to word essay to write disengage from school. Some students have additional reasons to worry if people will treat them fairly, which cause concern for teachers. For instance, students from best way cut words poor families or from descriptive essay ethnic minority backgrounds may hear discouraging stories from friends, parents, or the best way cut down words essay, media about describing a special person how their group is best way cut down essay treated. So it’s reasonable for planning these students to be especially worried about how they will be treated in way cut essay middle school. And this is an additional challenge for teachers when forming positive relationships with these students.” Empathic discipline session 1: Sample student stories. And Old. “In middle school, I didn’t feel like I belonged. Way Cut Down Essay. It seemed like the teachers always called on the other students. So I didn’t pay attention in class and and old age essay, sometimes I got in trouble. Words Essay. One day I got detention, and instead of term papers just sitting there, my teacher talked with me about down essay what happened. On Succession. He really listened to me.

And then he told me that he had trouble sometimes in best way cut essay middle school but that it gets better. A Treasured Belonging. It felt good to best down words essay know I had someone I could trust in about school.” “One time, after I got in down words essay trouble in descriptive about seventh grade, I still remember how my teacher took me aside later and down words essay, listened to thesis on succession planning my side of the words, story. Youth And Old Age Essay. She repeated what I said back to best way cut down words essay me to be sure she understood what I was saying. Then she explained why she still had to give me a detention because I was disrupting class. Even though I still got a detention, I was glad that she didn’t just dismiss what I had to say, like other teachers sometimes did. Essay. After that, I actually felt better in school because I knew I had someone to talk to.” Empathic discipline session 1: Sample writing prompts and teacher responses. “What are some of the ways that you try to build positive relationships with your students, or things that you would like to try in the future to best down words essay improve your relationships with your students? Please illustrate your answer with examples from your own experience and essay, of specific students you have known (please omit or change students’ names).

Consider especially circumstances when it is most important to reach out to students, for best way cut down words essay instance situations when students are struggling academically, not participating in class, or are getting in to stand trouble.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “Answer their questions thoughtfully and respectfully no matter what their academic history with me has been.” “Greet every student at way cut down words essay, the door with a smile every day no matter what occurred the day before.” “After school one day, a student approaches you and essays, tells you that he felt like he was unfairly disciplined for chewing gum in class. Best Way Cut Down. Earlier that week, you saw the student chewing something in a place class after you had warned him not to best way cut words essay chew gum at school. You sent the student to the office for thesis disrupting the class. Best Way Cut Essay. Now he tells you that he feels that he was not treated fairly. Essay A Special. How would you respond to best words this student? For example: Listen to the student and make sure he knows you care about his feelings. Explain to essay qualities neighbours him why you had to best way cut enforce the rule.” The following is a sample participating teacher response: “In this situation I would ask the 1000 how long to write, student to way cut essay sit down and we would have a conversation both sitting down. Essays On Misrepresentation. I would ask him why exactly he felt he was unfairly treated.

I would repeat this back to him and down essay, say I was sorry he felt this way. Describing. I would remind him I did warn him earlier in words essay the week and a place topics, ask if he remembered this. Best Down Essay. I would end the conversation with a positive note such as: I am sorry you became frustrated with receiving detention but know that I notice how hard you have been working in youth and old age essay here. Keep up that positive work habit.” Control Session 1: Sample Materials. Best Way Cut Down. Control session 1: Control article (excerpt). “Students engage more with lessons when they are presented in 1000 word how long to write computer formats that they use regularly. Research suggests that most teachers use some forms of down technology to essays improve students’ experience in class and to best way cut down facilitate learning. 1000 Essay. Many teachers believe that showing the details of best down essay materials in a place essay a presentation or allowing students to best down research a subject themselves supports their understanding. About. Technology can also help to improve communication with students and best down, parents. Some small changes in essay good the way technology is used in best words essay the classroom can prove to be very useful to keep students interested and help them to learn class materials.” Control session 1: Sample student stories. “I liked when the teacher used the qualities good, projector in my class. It was more fun than just a lecture. The work was more clear and I think my teacher made more sense.

It was easier to focus in best way cut down class. 1000 Word Essay How Long. And being able to best down email my homework to my teachers is great. I think it saves everyone a lot of term on ancient time. Best Down Words. It also helps me keep track of how long my stuff for best when tests come around.” “We get to search the net to a place essay get information for homework. We also get to see images about the best way cut down words essay, subjects we discuss in planning class. Way Cut Down Words Essay. It helps.

I can view videos, slideshows, and other media to word how long to write help me understand everything. And one of best way cut words essay my teachers has a website which helps a lot. I can just go to 1000 essay her webpage and best down, see a calendar for homework and essay neighbours, check my grades. Best Down Essay. Of course we use email a lot too.” Control session 1: Sample writing prompts and word essay, teacher responses. “What are some of the essay, ways that you try to on misrepresentation use technology in best your classes or things that you would like to try in a place to stand the future to down essay make more use of technology? Please illustrate your answer with examples from your own experience and of specific students you have known (please omit or change students’ names). Essay How Long To Write. Consider especially circumstances when it is best words most important to keep students interested, for instance when students spend a lot of topics time on the internet or students have a hard time understanding difficult lessons.” The following is way cut essay a sample participating teacher response: “I use technology every day to essay describing person plan, teach, and to keep students motivated and engaged.

Teacher planning: 1. Down Words Essay. Lesson plans, 2. Power Point presentations, 3. Document camera/overhead projector. Student Engagement: 1. Interactive websites, 2. Homework tutorials on descriptive essay about belonging, internet, 3. Online textbook, 4. Educational websites like Khan Academy IXL Math Discovery Education Brain Pop.” “One day, you are teaching students about measuring lengths and way cut down, solving proportions. Describing. You want to show visual examples and words essay, give students the opportunity to exercise with the youth age essay, new materials. Best Down. Also, you want to assign a homework assignment that students should return within the next couple of days. Essay Belonging. What do you do?” The following is down essay a sample participating teacher response: “After explaining concepts with my document camera and term papers, drawings I would have students use computers to way cut words essay design their own related math problems and qualities, then require each student to explain its solution. Students could email the completed assignment to down me and use web research as well as examples from the planning, internet for way cut words essay the project.

Additionally I could have students present their findings using PowerPoint.” Empathic-Mindset Session 2: Teacher Story, Sample Writing Prompt, and Sample Teacher Response. “‘When I was a child, I remember worrying about how I would be treated by teachers at my school. But I will always remember Ms. McBride, who treated me with respect and trust. Term On Ancient Nubia. She showed me that teachers could make all the difference in best way cut down how students feel about about a treasured school. Best Words. Now, I make a point of treating my students with respect and I find that they respect me more in return.’ How do you incorporate what this teacher is doing in essay qualities neighbours your own interactions with students? Please explain in detail.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “I am always doing this with my students.

I do not feel like students should automatically respect me because I’m their teacher. Way Cut Down Words. I feel I need to earn my students’ respect and trust. To Stand Essay Topics. I know many of them have had poor experiences with past teachers so I need to prove to best down words my students that I am there for them and 1000 essay how long to write, will not let them fail.” “Respect is the most important thing in way cut creating positive relationships with people, especially students. You cannot demand it; you can only 1000 essay expect it in way cut words return for essays on misrepresentation respect you give to down words others. Essay Belonging. It is also extremely important to way cut down words continue to give respect to essay about belonging your students despite the lack of best way cut respect some of essay a special them may give you. Down Words. This allows for and old a conversation with them about how you treat them on way cut down words, a daily basis and ask them to essay to write look at way cut, how they treat you. Overall respect runs my classroom.

I remind students who disrupt in some way that they are showing disrespect to 1000 word essay another individual.” Control Session 2: Teacher Story, Sample Writing Prompt, and words essay, Sample Teacher Responses. “‘When I was a child, I remember having to stay after school to papers on ancient get extra help and best down words, lessons were only taught on essays on misrepresentation, chalk boards. Words. But now technology allows us to essay describing teach students more effectively. For example, I can contact students outside of class through email. Words Essay. Now, I also use web-based math games to youth and old age essay enhance their learning.’ How do you incorporate what this teacher is doing in down your own use of technology with students? Please explain in detail.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “I use web-based math games to enhance their learning. Thesis On Succession. I can refer them to way cut down specific sites that will help with the on ancient, skill we are working on in class. Best Way Cut Down Words. I have also used online assessments to essay help me see where the students currently are as far as knowledge of down words a math topic.” “I use edmodo to qualities good neighbours communicate the homework with my students as well as the best words, school website to post the homeworks.” During session 1, all students completed randomized materials.

These focused on the importance of understanding teachers’ perspectives about papers on ancient nubia disciplinary action or on best way cut words essay, practicing good study skills. There was no effect of student condition on suspension rates (OR = 1.43, z = 1.70, P = 0.09) and no interaction with teacher condition (OR = 1.03, z 1). Papers On Ancient Nubia. The effect of the best way cut down essay, empathic-mindset intervention on to stand topics, suspension rates remained significant controlling for way cut down essay student condition (OR = 2.23, z = –3.02, P = 0.003). And Old Age Essay. In session 2, students completed a series of essay measures assessing broad perception of the school climate (17). These included six items assessing trust in school (e.g., “Teachers at my school give out fair grades” and “Students in my racial group are treated fairly by the teachers and other adults at essay person, [school name] Middle School”) (1, very much disagree; 6, very much agree) (? = 0.80).

There was no effect of the condition on best down words, an average of the assessed measures, t (1,446) 1. For the 1000 essay how long to write, purpose of the down, present study, we focused on neighbours, the one item that directly assessed the critical construct of respect: the way cut down essay, extent to which students reported feeling respected by teachers (“Teachers and youth and old, other adults at way cut down essay, my school treat me with respect”; 1, strongly disagree; 6, strongly agree). Supplementary Analyses of to stand essay topics Student Suspension Rates. Best Way Cut Down. The primary analyses focused on describing person, student suspension rates that arose from down essay misbehavior across school settings. Could the and old, reduction in student suspension rates have arisen from words a change only in math class where the teacher was randomized to on misrepresentation condition, for instance as a result of improved behavior or reduced discipline restricted to this class? To address this question, we examined data from the only school that identified the way cut down words essay, faculty member who referred a student for a given suspension: school 2 (Table S1), the second largest school in essay topics the study, accounting for 33% of the best down words, full student sample. Describing. In this school, students whose math teacher was treated versus not were 55% less likely to best essay be suspended from word essay how long any class (treatment, 5.4%; control, 12.1%; OR = 0.41, logit = –0.88, z = –2.10, P = 0.035), controlling for demographics (OR = 0.50, logit = –0.69, z = –2.38, P = 0.017). This effect was not due to down a change only in to stand essay math class. Only 7.4% of suspensions were referred by math teachers. Furthermore, all students referred for down words essay suspension by and old age essay a math teacher were also referred for suspension by best words essay other faculty. A Place To Stand Topics. Thus, running the best words essay, analysis in school 2 even excluding suspensions referred by descriptive math teachers yields an down essay identical reduction in essays on misrepresentation suspension rates. This analysis suggests that, at least in this school, the best down words essay, intervention led to on misrepresentation a broad improvement in student behavior across diverse school contexts, not to either an best way cut words essay improvement in behavior restricted to math class or to more permissive discipline practices among treated math teachers.

All ethical protocols, including informed consent from all participants, were followed in conducting the three experiments, and approval was obtained from term papers on ancient nubia Stanford University’s Institutional Review Board and a principal at each school (experiment 3). A total of best words essay 39 K–12 teachers ( M experience = 14 y; M age = 41; 73% male; 92% White, 3% Asian, 8% Black, 3% unknown) recruited from the websites of school districts across the country took part and thesis on succession planning, were randomized to best words a two-cell (punitive mindset vs. A Place Essay. empathic mindset) design. Best Words Essay. All teachers read that “misbehavior can disrupt the flow of the on misrepresentation, class and essay, distract other students … teachers can work best when students behave properly and qualities neighbours, pay attention in best way cut down words essay class.” Next, teachers in the empathic-mindset condition read the following: “Good teacher–student relationships help students learn how to descriptive a treasured appropriately conduct themselves in way cut words essay the classroom … [they] help students understand self-control at the time of a disruption, which can improve interactions with the student that day.” Teachers in person the punitive-mindset condition read the best way cut down, following: “Consequences lead students to appropriately conduct themselves in youth and old the classroom … punishment allows teachers to best way cut down words essay take control of the descriptive, class at the time of a disruption, which can help to get the class back on track that day.” Teachers then read about three separate misbehaviors drawn from middle-school referral records (order counterbalanced) (11). Best Way Cut Down. After each incident, teachers described how they would respond to the incident: – “Darnell is describing a special consistently disrupting the best, class environment by youth strolling around the down words, classroom at random intervals, getting tissues from the youth age essay, tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class, throwing items away constantly; in best way cut down words general, Darnell circulates around the room and up and down the and old age essay, rows to best way cut down words see what other students are doing, the and old age essay, students have eyes on him, and way cut down essay, he disrupts the flow of the on succession, lecture or activity the class was participating in.” – “Darnell is sleeping in way cut essay class. Thesis On Succession Planning. You tell him to pick his head up and get to work. He only best way cut picks his head up.

He chooses to rest it on his hand and a place, continue to sleep. Way Cut Essay. So you ask him one more time, and 1000 essay to write, again, Darnell refuses to best do work. Thesis Planning. You ask him to leave class and go to the office to best way cut down words tell them that he won’t do his work and thesis, chose to sleep instead. He refuses to best way cut words essay do this as well.” – “Darnell is sitting in on succession planning the back of the classroom. Best Way Cut Essay. He is youth and old age essay not paying attention to the lessons that you are teaching in class. Way Cut Down Words Essay. Instead, Darnell is talking to essay topics other students. Way Cut Down Words. When you ask him to pay attention, he starts passing notes with a nearby student.” Coding teacher responses from descriptive essay about belonging pilot study. Essay. Two coders blind to the condition reviewed teachers’ responses and recorded whether or not each disciplinary action involved ( i ) each of three punitive responses: ( a ) assigning detention, ( b ) threatening to punish the a special, student, or ( c ) involving an way cut down essay administrator (e.g., principal); and a place essay topics, ( ii ) each of words two empathic responses: ( d ) talking with the thesis planning, student about why he or she was misbehaving or ( e ) rearranging the best way cut words, classroom to essay how long to write accommodate the way cut down words essay, student (for sample responses, see Table 1). 1000 Essay How Long. There was moderate agreement among raters ( ?s = 0.54–0.81; see Table S2).

Thus, we averaged the two judges’ ratings of best way cut essay each response category. On Succession. We then averaged across the way cut words, three incidents to provide the likelihood the how long to write, student received a given response per disciplinary incident. Best. Finally, we summed the likelihood of the a place to stand, three punitive responses and best way cut words essay, the two empathic responses to provide the descriptive essay about a treasured, average number of punitive and best essay, empathic responses a student received per 1000 word essay how long to write incident. We then submitted the data to down words essay t tests (see Table 2). Interrater reliability (experiment 1) To examine how students would respond to teachers who used an thesis on succession planning empathic compared with a punitive approach to down words discipline, we asked college students ( n = 302; 51% female; 48% White, 13% Black, 13% Asian, 19% Latino, 6% Other, 1% unknown) to essay imagine having committed a single infraction as a middle-school student and down words essay, having received either an a place to stand empathic or a punitive teacher response, based on best essay, the responses provided in essays on misrepresentation experiment 1. The infraction and teacher responses by down condition were as follows: (For the essay good neighbours, punitive condition) “You leave your seat to get tissues from the down, tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class. Qualities. Mrs.

Smith assigned 1 day of detention to way cut you and threatens to tell the principal about your misbehavior. Later, you get up and a treasured, throw items away in the wastebasket on the other side of the room. Mrs. Best Words Essay. Smith has the principal talk to term papers nubia you about way cut your misbehavior.” (For the empathic-discipline condition) “You leave your seat to and old age essay get tissues from the tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class. Mrs. Smith asks you why you are moving around the way cut down, class so much. Later, you get up and qualities good neighbours, throw items away in best down words the wastebasket on the other side of the essays, room. Mrs.

Smith rearranges the best words, room so that the wastebasket and tissue box are closer to 1000 word essay your desk.” Students completed six items assessing the extent to way cut words which they respected the qualities good, teacher: “I think Mrs. Smith deserves my respect”; “I think Mrs. Words. Smith is a fair teacher”; and essay about belonging, “I get along with Mrs. Smith” (1, strongly disagree; 7, strongly agree); and “Mrs. Smith cared about my perspective”; “I have a quality relationship with Mrs. Smith”; and “Mrs. Smith is down words biased against a place to stand me” (reverse-coded) (1, not at way cut down, all; 7, extremely) (? = 0.85). Next, participants completed two items assessing their motivation to behave well in a special class in the future: “It is best down words important to me that I follow rules in descriptive essay a treasured this class” and best way cut down words, “I want to behave in belonging this class” (1, not at best, all; 7, extremely) (? = 0.83).

We recruited all math faculty at three participating middle schools and, at the request of the principals, 67% and descriptive essay about, 50% of math faculty at the remaining two schools (34 in way cut words total). Three recruited teachers did not begin the module and thus were not assigned to essay a condition or exposed to experimental materials, leaving a sample of down 31 teachers (77% female; 39% sixth grade, 29% seventh grade, 32% eighth grade). This represents a teacher participation rate of 91.12% and 83.4% of all math faculty at the five schools. Essay Qualities Good. Schools provided data for 2,069 students. Data from best down essay 387 students were not included in a place to stand essay the analyses: 172 were not taught by a teacher randomized to best a condition, and good, 215 could not be matched to best way cut school discipline records for the year before or the essay about a treasured, year of the intervention (they likely transferred to way cut words essay or from the essay neighbours, school district within the way cut words essay, 2-y period).

The lack of matches to discipline records did not differ by essays on misrepresentation teachers’ condition assignment (? 2 1.75, nonsignificant). Essay. All remaining students were retained in on misrepresentation the primary analysis ( n = 1,682) (see Table S1). Way Cut. For demographic variables, 20% of youth and old students reported a race/ethnicity that did not fall into one of the primary categories (i.e., they reported being multiracial or did not report their race/ethnicity). They were treated as a category in best analyses including student race. Three students did not report their gender. On Succession Planning. They were omitted from way cut essay analyses including student gender. To Stand Essay. Thus, 1,679 students were included in words essay analyses controlling for student race, student gender, and prior suspension status.

A total of descriptive essay a treasured belonging 233 students did not complete the follow-up survey assessing respect perceived from teachers (13.85% of best down essay participating students). On Ancient. This attrition did not differ by students’ math teacher condition assignment (OR = 1.24, z 1, nonsignificant). Analyses of down words this outcome omit these students, leaving a sample of term papers nubia 1,449 students. This approach to missing data maximizes the words essay, transparency of our analyses and essay describing a special person, keeps it as close as possible to our experimental design. Teachers in best way cut each condition completed two online sessions (a 45-min session in late Fall and a place to stand essay topics, a 25-min session in best essay early Winter) at their convenience within a 2-wk period. In the 1000 word essay how long, first session, teachers read an introduction to best way cut words the activity, an youth article including stories from best way cut essay students describing their experience in school and essay how long, relationships with teachers, and best way cut words, responded to several writing prompts. In the second session, teachers in essay describing both conditions read another article about the words essay, same topic that included a story from a teacher’s perspective. Essay A Special Person. They also responded to words essay several additional writing prompts (see SI Experiment 3 for details).

We thank C. Dweck, J. Zaki, the planning, Dweck–Walton laboratory, and down words essay, the Race and Social Inequality Lab for feedback; the participating school districts, administrators, and thesis on succession planning, teachers for way cut down words their time and effort; the New Teacher Center for facilitating this project; and the Project for Education Research That Scales (PERTS) for on ancient nubia technical and best essay, logistical support.

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Rashomon Essays and best way cut essay Research Papers. ?Chris Higgins 12515433 I have chosen to analyse a scene from the film Rashomon by Akira Kurosawa. Term Papers On Ancient! I will be discussing in particular the scene . where the Woodcutter wanders through the woods and way cut down discovers the 1000 word, body of the samurai. This scene is vital as we are introduced to best way cut words essay the scenario which will be the a place essay, focus of the rest of the movie. Kurosawa utilizes a number of interesting techniques that contribute to the film’s experimental nature, which I will be discussing in this analysis. The establishing.

Akira Kurosawa , Cinema of Japan , Film editing 825 Words | 2 Pages. Rashomon and Blowup: a Study of Truth. Rashomon and Blowup: A Study of Truth In a story, things are often not quite what they seem to be. Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon . and Michaelangelo Antonioni's Blow-Up are good examples of stories that are not what they first appear to be. Through the medium of film, these stories unfold in different and exiting ways that give us interesting arguments on the nature of truth and way cut words essay reality. Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon tells the story of a murder. It flashes back to the event four times, each time as. Akira Kurosawa , Blowup , Film director 1749 Words | 5 Pages. In the 1950’s Japanese crime, mystery, and drama film, “ Rashomon ”, directed by Akira Kurosawa, provides not only a number of intuitions into . the human mind, but while doing so, is also able to question the nature of truth itself. The story unfolds in different and unexpected ways that gives one interesting arguments on essay qualities, the nature of truth, human weaknesses and trust.

Akira Kurosawa's tells the story of a murder. Best Words! It flashes back to the murder four times and topics the story of the best down words, murder is told by a different. Akira Kurosawa , Cinema of Japan , Golden Lion 1087 Words | 3 Pages. RASHOMON The story told by Rashomon is both surprisingly simple and deceptively complex. The central tale, which tells of the 1000 word how long, . rape of a woman (Machiko Kyo) and best way cut down words essay the murder of a man (Masayuki Mori), possibly by a bandit (Toshiro Mifune), is presented entirely in flashbacks from the youth and old age essay, perspectives of four narrators. The framing portions of the movie transpire at Kyoto's crumbling Rashomon gate, where several people seek shelter from a pelting rain storm and essay discuss the recent crime, which has shocked. Akira Kurosawa , Fumio Hayasaka , Rashomon 970 Words | 3 Pages.

The Rashomon effect is contradictory interpretations of the same event by different people. The phrase derives from the movie . Essays On Misrepresentation! Rashomon , where four witnesses' accounts of a rape and best down essay murder are all different. Contents [hide] 1 Beginning 2 Use in a plot 3 Use in cinema 4 Use in TV 5 See also 6 References Beginning[edit] The idea of contradicting interpretations has been around for a long time and has implications to ethics in journalism. Essay Topics! It is studied in the context of understanding the nature. Akira Kurosawa , Cinema of India , Journalism ethics and standards 1628 Words | 6 Pages. ?Shahriar Najafgholizadeh TV 104 Professor David Echols 1. Best Down Words! Assignment #1 2. Rashomon 3. Akira Kurosawa 4. 1950 5. YouTube 6. Laptop 7. Alone . From Rashomon : “07:38 min. Woodcutter stars to tell the stories; through this movie, different perspectives are presented by each four person. As the viewer, we come up with our own truth.

Obviously, there are facts in all four stories, but the truth is describing person what we have to find ourselves. For example, the words essay, fact that samurai was killed, or the woman slept with the. Akira Kurosawa , Cinema of qualities Japan , Golden Lion 523 Words | 2 Pages. Critical Reception of Rashomon in the West Greg M. Smith Asian Cinema 13.2 (Fall/Winter 2002) 115-28 Most of us who write about films . may as well relax and confess that we know nothing at first hand about Japanese movie production; that all we have as data has come to us from press-sheets, from quick consultations with the best way cut down, nearest Japanese bystander, or. . . whatever we have been able to term nubia find useful in the way of analogy and best way cut of seeing the unaccredited performances of youth Kabuki. - Vernon. Akira Kurosawa , Cinema of Japan , Film 5110 Words | 14 Pages. done something terrible to a man therefore she is punished by best way cut words having her body possessed by essays the man that she had wronged.

During this time period, Buddhism . was on the rise along with Shinto. It was apparent on down essay, the film when the opening scene showed Rashomon (Rajomon gate), which was the main gate for Kyoto. The gate looked devastated and torn down because during that time there was plenty of essay how long to write natural disasters and buildings being set on fire and also gangs and essay vigilantes were prevalent during this time. Periodization , Testimony , Time 1498 Words | 4 Pages. RASHOMON The story revolves around the encounter of to stand essay topics a servant of words essay a samurai, with stubby whiskers and a large pimple on his right cheek,who was . recently discharged from his master due to the declination of the prosperity of the city of papers nubia Kyoto and down an old woman, gaunt, gray-haired, all skin and bones and nunnish in qualities appearance, whose means of survival was stealing those that were left of the dumped corpses in the Rashomon , the southern gate of down essay Kyoto. On a chilly and rainy evening in the devastated city. Death , Hag , Harold Pinter 746 Words | 2 Pages.

Kelsey Noah Period 6 Senior Seminar Absolute Truth in Rashomon In the film, Rashomon by essays Kurosawa, a samurai's murder is told . in different ways by the bandit Tajomaru, the samurai's wife, the samurai speaking through a medium, and a woodcutter, who each witnessed the way cut down words essay, murder and, apart from the woodcutter, claim to essay a special be the killer. These circumstances in the film bring up the question of whether truth is absolute or if it is subjective. Roger Ebert holds the belief that truth is words subjective and. Elaine Benes , Jerry Seinfeld , KILL 1169 Words | 3 Pages. Comparison of the essay describing a special, Plague and Rashomon. inequality that is established by society. The only down essay time people are truly equal is once they are done living. People are only equal in the eyes of death. No . And Old Age Essay! one can escape mortality. Both The Plague, by best way cut down Albert Camus as translated by Stuart Gilbert, and Rashomon , by Akutagawa as translated by word how long to write Jay Rubin, use setting and characterization to make clear the theme death has as the great equalizer.

The setting that is created in a piece of literature can be used to forge the theme. Both Albert Camus and Akutagawa. Albert Camus , Black Death , Body 1400 Words | 4 Pages. Analysis of Akira Kurosawa’s Rashomon. Analysis of Rashomon Akira Kurosawa’s Rashomon (1950) involves the rape of Masago, wife of the samurai Takehiro, by the . Best Down Words Essay! bandit Tajomaru in a forest as the samurai was escorting his wife on the road from Sekiyama to on misrepresentation Yamashina. Way Cut Down Words Essay! The rape occurs in front of the husband who is, first tricked into, and, then tied to a tree by the bandit. Three accounts of this event given by the three persons directly involved in the incident and an independent eye witness account given by a woodcutter, differ in. Akira Kurosawa , Husband , Katana 2008 Words | 7 Pages. FYS, section 8 Margarita Diakova, ECO-111 Professor V. Hardin How do the actions of each character in essay a special person Rashomon illustrate the tension . between social rules (li) and doing what is right, or appropriate (yi)?

Which characters obeyed the social rules? What happens in society when li breaks down? Is it still possible to way cut essay have yi? Li (pinyin Li, the essay describing a special, rites) is the way a person acts. It refers to rituals, customs, rites, etiquette, and morals. “The rites are a code of rules of behavior” (Confucius. Acts of the Apostles , Akira Kurosawa , Analects 1376 Words | 4 Pages. A Film Review: “ RASHOMON ” Presented to: Mr. KC Daniel Inventor Presented by: . Shemaine P. Peregrina II-Daniel 1.)How significant is the color used in the film? It is very important to have and decide what will be the color of the best way cut down essay, film or movie because color show us the a place essay topics, dramatic and narrative effects of the film or movie, also it gives life to the. Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film , Akira Kurosawa , Angle 1580 Words | 4 Pages. Arnold Lavely Intro to PHI Mon 6PM 750 Words The Philosophy of Rashomon The 1950 film “ Rashomon ” – directed by famed . Japanese filmmaker, Akira Kurosawa – is best way cut words essay about an incident of violence and depravity that takes place some time around Feudal-era Japan, told through the perspectives of four different people, all witnesses to the incident.

As such, it is a compelling story that bases itself upon the philosophies of Justice and the problem of a place to stand Moral Relativism and how human experiences are often. Akira Kurosawa , KILL , Moral relativism 778 Words | 2 Pages. Ryunosuke Akutagawa and Patrick Suskind’s Depiction of Evil Unveils Human Depravity in Perfume and “Rashomon” Akutagawa’s “ Rashomon ” and Suskind’s Perfume introduce the audience to their own portrayal of evil that contrasts the way cut words, cliched literary concept . of bad always being triumphed over by to stand good. Evil is particularly developed in their works to way cut down words achieve a similar purpose: to reveal the social stigma and corruption of human society. Notwithstanding the similar surrounding—Akutagawa’s crumbling Rashomon gate and essays Suskind’s degrading depiction of Paris—that reflects the equally declining state of the society. Aroma compound , Core issues in ethics , Evil 1727 Words | 5 Pages. self-preservation and selfishness in both Rashomon by Ryunosuke Akutagawa and The Lottery by Shirley Jackson. In The Lottery human nature is . selfish because they kill someone in best way cut down words essay the community for to stand topics their own personal gain. Selfishness also has a negative effect in Rashomon due to words the harmful extremes the essay topics, servant takes to stay alive. Best Down! The way human nature is portrayed in word essay how long to write these two stories is sometimes similar to best words essay the way people act in real life.

In Rashomon the servant turns into a thief for the purpose. Human nature , Humans , Morality 1190 Words | 3 Pages. R.J. Renzi In A Grove and Rashomon Comparison In Ryunosuke Akutagawa's short stories In A Grove and Rashomon , an epic . conflict of essay person appearance vs. Down Words Essay! reality is reinforced by youth and old the world-renowned movie Rashomon . Although the stories and the movies use different symbolism and have many distinct differences, they both support this theme. Down Essay! In the essays on misrepresentation, book Rashomon and Other Stories, Akutagawa creates the stories In A Grove and Rashomon where they are combined to best way cut down essay form a story within a story, which makes. Art , Human , In a Grove 529 Words | 2 Pages.

1962 memoirs of youth and old murder metropolis midnight in best way cut down paris million dollar baby mission impossible movies monster montyphyton ML mr. . Essay Qualities Good Neighbours! nobody Mulholland dr mystic river open your eyes pay it forward platoon predator primer rashomon reservoir dogs run lola run scent of a woman seconds serenity serpico seven samurai shame shaun of the dead sleepaway camp snatch solaris 1972 stand and deliver star trek sunshine synecdote, new york taken 1 2 the best way cut words essay, believer the. Academy Award for Best Actor , Academy Award for Best Picture , American drama films 406 Words | 5 Pages. Different Elements in a place to stand the Ghost Dog. passing the book along to Pearline. From the passing along of the Mafia tradition to words essay the daughter, and from the passing along of the Rashomon . book from Louise to Ghost Dog to Louie. The Hagakure is a major part of the film in a very obvious manner, as is the mafia tradition and neighbours hierarchy.

The most subtle of these is the book Rashomon and Other Stories. Best Down Essay! The story Rashomon is actually a story of one samurai’s dilemma in whether he should steal from the dead, becoming unhonorable or starve to death and. American Mafia , Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai , Hagakure 1746 Words | 5 Pages. ?‘ Rashomon ’ directed by essays Kurosawa is considered one of the most highly ranked foreign films. This film was made in best way cut down essay the early 50’s and was one of . the first films to introduce the element of flashbacks. The film is entirely based on the concept of flashback with 3 witnesses; all giving their accounts on the murder that had taken place. All 3 take the blame upon them and confess to on misrepresentation have been the culprits.

There is a build up of confusion at down words this point and constant questions are raised as to who is the. Actor , Behavior , Film 606 Words | 2 Pages. aesthetic. Another film, Hidden Fortress would eventually have tremendous impact on nubia, a young American filmmaker; George Lucas utilized the plot and character . structure of words this film to essay good neighbours create Star Wars. In the 2002 film Hero, the strong influence Rashomon can still be seen. Kurosawa explored many masterful cinematic concepts through camera work and editing. He used the down essay, telephoto lens to create abstract compositions.

In addition to employing three cameras to establish a scene, enabling him shoot. Akira Kurosawa , Cinema of Japan , Film 1250 Words | 4 Pages. becoming very ill with the radiation sickness. This novel is word essay to write like many other Japanese stories in way cut words essay that it is youth not a very happy book. There is no happy . ending and the novel is way cut down filled with many gruesome descriptions of corpses much like the story Rashomon . The book gives the reader a front seat view into the lives of the people of Hiroshima. It also, like the story In a Grove, gives multiple first hand views of the bombing itself. You are given a visual picture as Mr.

Shizuma describes in detail. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Empire of how long Japan , English-language films 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Welles and words essay veteran writer Herman J. Essay Good! Mankiewicz jointly crafted a storytelling tour de force combining non-linear narrative, composite storytelling from way cut down essay . multiple points of view (a technique that would later be indelibly associated with Kurosawa’s Rashomon ), varying narrative forms including the famous opening newsreel segment as well as interviews and flashbacks, and a dramatic span of decades with characters aging from on misrepresentation young adulthood (or even childhood) to best down old age. Their characters are complex and. Charles Foster Kane , Citizen Kane , Deep focus 921 Words | 3 Pages. photograph of Mom. Essays! Soon a larger question emerges: do they really know the best way cut down words essay, woman they called Mom? Told by the alternating voices of Mom's daughter, son, . 1000 How Long To Write! her husband and, in way cut the shattering conclusion, by Mom herself, the novel pieces together, Rashomon -style, a life that appears ordinary but is anything but. This is a mystery of one mother that reveals itself to be the mystery of youth and old all our mothers: about her triumphs and way cut words disappointments and about who she is on her own terms, separate from who. Family , Father , Korea 1388 Words | 6 Pages.

practice, things are not so simple. The observable truth would seem to change as the to write, ruler enters the water. Perhaps this is to be expected? After all, if . Best Way Cut! true beliefs describe the world, and to stand essay the world changes, then truth must change too. The film Rashomon is best way cut down based on all of the different perspectives varied among the four characters in the story. Essay Qualities Good Neighbours! All the best way cut down words essay, flashbacks are both true and false. True, in that they present an accurate portrait of what each witness thinks happened. False, because as Kurosawa. Belief , Debut albums , Logic 611 Words | 2 Pages. without that information having to be spoken. On a higher level, this information can be used as a subtext, to enhance the ideas the film is trying to . make.

We have many good examples of on ancient mise-en-scene used in various films such as Citizen Kane, Rashomon , Double Indemnity, Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, etc. One of my favourite films in terms of mise-en-scene is The Bicycle Thief by Victoria De Sice. It certainly is neorealist, by all the principles one can deduce from the best Italian films since 1946. Bicycle Thieves , Cinema of India , Class consciousness 661 Words | 2 Pages. Psychological Analysis of Rashomon Psychological Analysis of way cut down words Rashomon Rashomon , by Ryunosaki Akutaguya provides . Youth And Old! great insight into the psychological discord that the Japanese culture was undergoing in the early part of the twentieth century.

Japan was in the throes of a societal transformation, from a traditional, religious-based society, to a newly adopted weternized culture. Best Way Cut! Japan was rapidly assimilating industrial and scientific techniques and philosophies that were in conflict with, and. Amontillado , Detective fiction , Edgar Allan Poe 11916 Words | 30 Pages. I realized that there must be a cause and essay qualities effect leading to best way cut down essay a result. And sometimes, it is so hard to discover the truth since there are complex and essay multiple . factors mixed in one issue which are perceived differently by different people.

In Rashomon , Akutagawa doesn’t make as many changes as he does in “In the Grove”, the author expands and develops the way cut down words, story by telling more details describing the choice between stealing to survive and starving to die. In Akutagawa’s work, he uses many animal. Emotion , Husband , Marriage 749 Words | 2 Pages. Different Film Industries in Different Countries. none won until 2009.

The Japanese films Gate of Hell by Teinosuke Kinugasa and Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto by Hiroshi Inagaki won special awards respectively . in youth 1954 in 1955 but the foreign film category was not created until 1956. Akira Kurosawa’s Rashomon received the essay, special award in 1951. He won Best Foreign Language Film Award in 1975 for Dersu Uzala but that film was made for papers nubia the Soviet Union not Japan. Down Words Essay! The Japanese have long had a knack for telling a good ghost story. And for more than half. Bollywood , Cinema by country , Cinema of describing India 2170 Words | 7 Pages.

basic terminology: antagonist, protagonist, ally, core con?ict, ‘‘spect-actor’’ intervention, ‘‘hot seat,’’ and Rashomon . Workshop . participants are considered spect-actors because they are spectators who become actors. The hot seat is an interview strategy where a core actor is invited to sit for questioning by the audience to determine the motivation for down words his or her actions. Rashomon is an essay good neighbours, analytic strategy where characters from the scene freeze their action at a critical point and ‘‘think aloud’’. Abuse , Assertiveness , Bullying 3359 Words | 14 Pages. in the best way cut essay, Rain (1952) |60,032 | |79. |8.3 |Some Like It Hot (1959) . |73,114 | |80. And Old Age Essay! |8.3 | Rashomon (1950) |42,633 | |81. |8.3 |The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957) |63,559 | |82. |8.3 |Once.

1916 , 1918 , 1920 2243 Words | 12 Pages. 400 Blows (1959, France) Apr. 3 (W): The French New Wave Apr. 5 (F): Exam 2 Readings: Text Ch. 11: pp. 292-303; Packet: “Six Characters in . Way Cut! Search of Auteurs” Week 13 Apr. 8 (M): A Brief Look at Japanese Cinema Screening: Rashomon (1950, Japan) Apr. On Misrepresentation! 10 (W): A Brief Look at Japanese Cinema Apr. 12 (F): A Brief Look at British Cinema Readings: Text Ch. 12: pp.

344-351; Packet: “Master and Commander” Week 14 Apr. 15 (M): A Brief Look at British Cinema . Academia , Academic dishonesty , Citizen Kane 2072 Words | 10 Pages. ruined tem­ ple by the Rashomon gate. There they discuss a current scandal: a bandit has stabbed a samurai to death and raped his wife. What . really happened in the grove during and after the crimes? In a series of flashbacks, the partici­ pants give testimony. (Through a medium, even the words essay, dead samurai testifies.) But each person's version, shown in flashback, differs drastically from the term papers, others' . When we return to the present and the three men waiting out the rain at the Rashomon gate, the priest despairs.

Akira Kurosawa , Art film , Federico Fellini 10491 Words | 40 Pages. found in 1901. Ryunosuke Akutagawa Rashoumon Rashomon (Japanese: ???) is a short story by Akutagawa Ryunosuke based on essay, tales from the . Youth And Old Age Essay! Konjaku Monogatarishu. A man considering whether or not to become a thief meets a woman stealing hair from corpses. Their conversation explores the morality of best down essay theft.

The story was first published in 1915 in Teikoku Bungaku. Despite its name, it provided no direct plot material for the Akira Kurosawa movie Rashomon , which was based on Akutagawa's 1921 short. Articles of term nubia Confederation , Code of Hammurabi , Constitution 4398 Words | 14 Pages. the distance so far, its end is that of which cannot be perceivable by down essay the naked eye. The Adoption of a Perspective Zhang Yi Mou openly credits the essay qualities, genius . of Akira Kurosawa's innovating and influential masterpiece Rashomon as a key inspiration for Hero.

Those familiar with Rashomon would know that far from being a film centred solely on the discovery of the 'true' version of a story, it is rather a film that explores through the words, use of ingenious cinematic techniques the issue of perspective. Youth And Old! Hero. China , Great Wall of down China , Qin 5293 Words | 13 Pages. Strong indictments toward anti-Semitism were made in Elia Kazan's Gentleman's Agreement (1947) with writer Gregory Peck posing as a Jew, and Crossfire (1947) . about the youth and old, mysterious murder of a Jew. The Japanese film classic from Akira Kurosawa titled Rashomon (1951) examined a violent ambush, murder and rape in 12th century Japan from four different perspectives. Courtroom Dramas: See also AFI's 10 Top 10 - The Top 10 Courtroom Drama Films Courtroom legal dramas, which include dramatic tension in.

Academy Award for Best Director , Academy Award for Best Picture , Citizen Kane 5564 Words | 19 Pages. these westerns and way cut down the ideals they portrayed. Qualities Good Neighbours! Bogdanovich was never to make a movie close to this again. 26. Rashomon One of the great truths . Words! that human beings need to come to grips with at a place topics sometime in their life is that there really are no absolute truths.

There are simply perceptions of the truth depending on many extenuating causes. Once this becomes apparent, they should watch Rashomon . Kurosawa is my favorite foreign film director and this is my favorite of his movies. With Seven Samurai, which. Casablanca , Film , Film director 9519 Words | 16 Pages. Written Report on Japanese Literature and the Happy Mirror: a Japanese Folktale. shared a common characteristic, Humanism. Shiga's style was autobiographical and depicted states of his mind and sometimes classified as I Novel in this . sense. Way Cut Down Words Essay! Ryunosuke Akutagawa, who was highly praised by Soseki, wrote short stories including Rashomon (1915) with an intellectual and analytic attitude, and papers on ancient represented Neo-realism in the mid-1910s. Best Down! During the 1920s and early 1930s the proletarian literary movement, comprising such writers as Takiji Kobayashi, Denji Kuroshima,Yuriko Miyamoto, and Ineko.

2nd millennium , History of word essay Japan , Japan 2626 Words | 9 Pages. transmitted ________. | through the air (p. 304) | The photographs of Ansel Adams have played a major role in: | land conservation efforts (p. Best Down Essay! 284-285) . | This film uses 4 separate and conflicting points of qualities good neighbours view to make a statement about truth. | Rashomon (p. 303) | In a film, the splicing together of a variety of shots at the editing stage is called a: | montage (p. 299) | When a single scene in best down essay a film continues for several minutes with no break it is called: | an extended take (p. Term On Ancient Nubia! 296) . Art , Leonardo da Vinci , Oil painting 13183 Words | 40 Pages. pizzazz. (Hoberman) The use of words wipes as transitions contributes to the emphaSis on the horizontal dimension of the film frame in essay a special person Kurosawa's films. Using . the Auteur Approact, to Interpret and Evaluate Films 415 This emphasis can be seen as early as RashOmon , even though that film was shot in the 1.33:1 aspect ratio. In this film, Kurosawa choreographs the movement of his central characters in way cut words a linear fas hio n rather than emphasizing the person, depth of the frame : one notable example is the scene early in. Akira Kurosawa , Alfred Hitchcock , Andre Bazin 10982 Words | 11 Pages.

Using Facebook to Teach Rhetorical Analysis. Drawing heavily upon myth and what Western readers call “magic,” Erdrich’s unconventional novel features multiple first-person narrators whose versions of . events complicate, enrich, and sometimes even contradict one another, like Kurosawa’s great film, Rashomon . I pair this novel with the feature film Smoke Signals (1998), written for the screen by the Coeur d’Alene Indian Sherman Alexie, based on two stories from his collection The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven (1994). Like Erdrich’s novel. American literature , Composition studies , Ethnic group 7955 Words | 23 Pages. (1931) The Purple Rose of Cairo (1985) Pygmalion (1938) Q Quadrophenia (1979) The Quiet Man (1952) R Rain Man (1988) Raise the Red . Lantern (1991, reviewed 1992) Raising Arizona (1987) Ran (1985) The Rapture (1991) Rashomon (1951) Re-Animator (1985) Rear Window (1954) Rebecca (1940) Rebel Without a Cause (1955) Red (1994) The Red Badge of Courage (1951) Red River (1948) The Red Shoes (1948) Reds (1981) The Remains of the Day (1993) Repo. 1892 , 2007 , December 1 3676 Words | 54 Pages. The Hague: Mouton Publishers. Chomsky, Noam. 1959. Review of Skinner’s Verbal behavior. Best! Language 35:26-58.

Dunkin, Michael J., and Bruce J. Biddle. 1974. The . study of teaching. On Ancient! N e w York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Fanselow, John F. 1977. Beyond Rashomon —conceptualizing and describing the teaching act. TESOL Quarterly 11(1):17-39. Flanders, Ned A, 1960. Interaction analysis in the classroom: a manual for observers. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. Gaies, Stephen J. 1977.

The nature of. Foreign language , Language acquisition , Language education 5456 Words | 15 Pages. that this fragmented style of storytelling was something completely different from any previous film. However, while researching his essay I discovered that . the same narration principles had already been employed in films as diverse as Citizen Kane, Rashomon , The Killing, Four Times That Night and La Jetee. The way that the film has three main stories featuring characters that float in and out appears to way cut down words essay have more in common with a novel than with a film. Tarantino used the chopped up narrative to add. Crime film , Film director , Film genres 4672 Words | 9 Pages. Igbo Metaphysics in Chinua Achebe's. Igbo metaphysical principles in Things Fall Apart.

These principles should not be denied as mythic, fantastic, or as mere figments of narrative imagination. . These principles, to conclude with Jules Chametzky, obviously force us to confront the ' Rashomon ' aspect of experience- that things look different to different observers, and youth age essay that one's very perceptions are shaped by best way cut down words essay the social and cultural context out of which one operates(3). NOTES 1. To Write! Some other critics that should be recognized in these. African literature , Chinua Achebe , Human 4652 Words | 13 Pages. rich world cinema of the same era likewise went some distance towards exploding the Shit Principle. Kurosawa's early samurai masterpieces Yojimbo and Sanjuro . had literary originals, although The Seven Samurai came from an original screenplay; and Rashomon was made by best way cut essay combining two short stories by Ryunosuke Akutagawa. Satyajit Ray took much from classic Bengali literature, and some of his greatest films, such as Charulata and The Home and describing person the World, are adapted more or less faithfully from originals. Adaptation , Cinema of India , Film 5323 Words | 13 Pages.

West 348. The Shadow Line – Joseph Conrad 349. Best Way Cut Down Words! Summer – Edith Wharton 350. Growth of the neighbours, Soil – Knut Hamsen 351. Way Cut Words Essay! Bunner Sisters – Edith Wharton 352. A . Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man – James Joyce 353. Papers On Ancient! Under Fire – Henri Barbusse 354. Rashomon – Akutagawa Ryunosuke 355. The Good Soldier – Ford Madox Ford 356. The Voyage Out – Virginia Woolf 357. Of Human Bondage – William Somerset Maugham 358.

The Rainbow – D.H. Lawrence 359. The Thirty-Nine Steps – John Buchan 360. Kokoro – Natsume. American novelists , Charles Dickens , English novelists 2864 Words | 11 Pages. The World History of way cut words Film Industry. |Akira Kurosawa |Japan | |1951 |Ikiru . |Akira Kurosawa |Japan | |1951 | Rashomon |Akira Kurosawa |Japan | |1952 |Forbidden Games |Rene Clement |France | |1952. Cinema of the United States , Film , History of essays on misrepresentation film 11872 Words | 36 Pages.

everywhere else). One key example was the ninja-and-sorcery mini-epic Shonen Sarutobi Sasuke (1959), the first anime to be released theatrically in the . United States (by MGM, in 1961). Way Cut Down Words Essay! But it didn’t make anywhere near the splash of, say, Akira Kurosawa’s Rashomon , which brought Japan’s movie industry to 1000 word to write the attention of the rest of the world. What really pushed animation to words the fore in Japan was the shift to on ancient TV in the Sixties. The first of Toei’s major animated shows for down words essay TV during this time were adaptations. Animation , Anime , Hayao Miyazaki 5729 Words | 15 Pages.

selfish manner. Thus, the popular and scholarly press is filled with horror stories about yet another egregious infelicity involving some large . multinational. Papers On Ancient Nubia! Recently, Werhane (2000) has suggested that most of these cases look like the story of Rashomon , where the description of way cut what happened depends on the point of view that you have. 1000 Word Essay To Write! While there are some undoubtedly real horror stories,' it is the assumption that business people must be narrowly self-interested that is best way cut essay really doing the damage. Business ethics , Liberalism , Libertarian 9171 Words | 26 Pages. Analysis: A Contribution to Feminist Theory” in 1000 word essay G. Essay! Bowles and essay R. Best Down Essay! D. Klein eds. Theories of Women’s Studies. London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Ritzer, G. 1996. . Modern Sociological Theory, 4th Edition. Youth And Old Age Essay! New York: McGraw-Hill. Roth, W. and J. Mehta 2002. “The Rashomon Effect: Combining Positivist and Interpretativist Approaches in the Analysis of Contested Events”, Sociological Methods and best down words Research 31(2): 131-173.

Rothstein, B. 1996. “Political Institutions: An Overview” in R. Goodin and K. Hans-Dieter (eds) A. Economics , Political science , Qualitative research 8243 Words | 23 Pages. Film Music Analysis and Pedagogy. David Neumeyer. image-track and sound editing-it was not uncommon for passages of age essay music, from two- or three-second tags to entire cues, to way cut down be deleted from the final release . print. Examples are in order. Essays! In the best words, score for term papers on ancient nubia the celebrated but enigmatic Kurosawa film Rashomon (1950), the composer Fumio 26Alfred W. Cochran, Style, Structure, and Tonal Organization in the Early Film Scores of best words Aaron Copland, Ph.D. diss., Catholic University of America, 1986. 27The assertion that large-scale tonal designs in film music. Casablanca , Cinema of the essays on misrepresentation, United States , Film 9185 Words | 31 Pages. always more than one way to way cut down words essay respond to any problem or dilemma. Those who master reframing report a sense of papers nubia choice and power.

Managers are imprisoned only . to best way cut words the extent that their palette of ideas is impoverished. Essay Describing A Special! Akira Kurosawa’s classic ?lm Rashomon recounts the same event through the eyes of down several witnesses. Each tells a different story. Similarly, organizations are ?lled with people who have their own interpretations of what is and should be happening. Each version contains a glimmer. Management 7499 Words | 20 Pages. Japanese cinema.[21] Three Japanese films from this decade ( Rashomon , Seven Samurai and Tokyo Story) made the Sight Sound's 2002 Critics and . Directors Poll for essay describing person the best films of best down all time.[22] The period after the American Occupation led to a rise in diversity in movie distribution thanks to the increased output and popularity of the film studios of essays Toho, Daiei, Shochiku, Nikkatsu, and Toei.

The decade started with Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon (1950), which won the way cut words essay, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language. House , Housing in Japan , Japan 38364 Words | 130 Pages. Literary language and 1000 word essay how long Film language- adaptation and notions of fidelity- Narrative structure and down strategies in film and fiction - time, space, character and . setting - dialogue – music – sound effects. Youth Age Essay! Module 4: Film analysis. Films for close viewing: Rashomon My Fair Lady Chemmeen 28 COURSE MATERIAL Core text: Introduction to Film Studies [Reading the Popular series].

Orient Blackswan, 2013. Reading list: 1. Way Cut Words! Villarejo, Amy. Film Studies: the Basics. Routledge, Indian Reprint, 2009. 2. Hayward, Susan. England , English language , English literature 11470 Words | 57 Pages. English: Literature and Common Courses.

Classic Prophecies in Film and Philosophy ed. K Gopinathan 1. 2. 3. 4. Essay! 5. 6. 4. MODULE V CASE STUDIES OF CLASSIC CINEMA Battleship Potemkin – Silent Cinema, . Best Way Cut Down Words Essay! Montage Bicycle Thieves: Neo Realism The Godfather: Hollywood Classic Charulata: Indian Classic Rashomon : Asian Classic. Japanese Cinema Chemmeen: Malayalam Classic READING LIST:a) RECOMMENDED READING 2. 1000 Essay To Write! 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. Amy Villarejo. Film Studies : The Basics London New York Routledge. 2007 Warren Buckland Teach Yourself Film studies , London , Hadden.

Academic term , Critical thinking , English language 18778 Words | 83 Pages. Historiographical Essay: The China-Japan War. provide opportunities for antiKMT, as well as anti-Japanese, polemics. Daqing Yang is aware of the problem. Faced with all aspects of the Nanking story, . including those inspired by partisan politics, he finds himself confronted with a historical Rashomon , a collection of irreconcilable accounts that he fears might never be synthesized into one narrative.76 Ironically, perhaps the best down, 72. Mark Eykholt, Aggression, Victimization, and Chinese Historiography of the Nanjing Massacre,ibid., 11-69. . Chinese Civil War , Empire of Japan , Imperial Japanese Army 20499 Words | 74 Pages. Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanism. The negotiation process is influenced by our perceptions and our interpretation of reality. Essay! Perceptions are influenced by personal experience, emotional . state of mind, and cultural background. 10 Perception, as shown in Akira Kurosawa’s film Rashomon (1951), varies from one individual to another; we know that four different people who witnessed the same murder may give four totally different accounts of what happened.

The negotiator and mediator have to keep eye contact, listen carefully, and. Alternative dispute resolution , Best alternative to best down words essay a negotiated agreement , Conflict 21953 Words | 62 Pages. Fu- action on Lolas part. Youth And Old Age Essay! Alternative versions of events based on characters' conflicting reco[[ections had already ture films (Robert Zemekis, 1985, . 1989, 1990) posit that Martys friend Doc has invented such a machine, and in the first sawa's Rashomon (.l950) and Alain Resnais's Last Year at Marienbad (.l96.l). film, it accidentally transports Marty back to 1955, a time just before his parents felI in love. By accidentally changing the circumstances that caused their romance, Marty endangers.

Causality , Character , Fiction 23037 Words | 37 Pages.

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Chance and Choice, Biology and Theology in best way cut words Alexander Payne’s Election. Looking back from Election (1999) to his first feature film, Payne saw Citizen Ruth (1996) as “something of essay how long a dry run for” the later one. (1) Indeed, although Election is arguably a richer, more subtle work than Citizen Ruth , the stylistic and thematic connections between them are robust. Neither finally resolves any issues, conflicts among characters, or moral questions. Religion or religious themes permeate both, explicitly in the first film, implicitly through imagery in the second. Way Cut! The Omaha in which Payne set the qualities neighbours, movies—the city in way cut down essay which he grew up—gives each a convincing realism that enlarges its particulars into generalities. (2) In Election , the cultural implications of a high school Student President election expands subtly via shots containing U. S. flags, clusters of red, white, and blue, and other icons of American culture and politics, including a few images of Abraham Lincoln. More emphatically, its broader national implications are highlighted when what happens in a Midwestern high school becomes through the qualities good neighbours, media a source of nationwide diversion. More broadly still, Election expands into a parable of the best way cut down words, central paradoxes of being human.

At the thematic centre of Election wrestle two opposing conceptions of the efficacy of human will: one favours the strictures of fate, the other the freedom of action implied by the concepts of morals and ethics. 1000 How Long To Write! Neither—or perhaps each, paradoxically—prevails. In two of her many voice-overs Tracy Flick (Reese Witherspoon) implicitly acknowledges both: First, “You can’t interfere with destiny; that’s why it’s destiny.” Later, “Win or lose, ethical conduct is the most important thing. Just ask Mr. Best Way Cut Down Words! McAllister.” Tracy and Jim McAllister (Matthew Broderick), “Mr. M” as he is known to his students, at term papers once expound and enact the dilemmas inherent in the ideas of fate and free will. Payne remarked that he wished to way cut down essay associate Jim with circles and person, Tracy with straight lines—a pattern that he doesn’t regard as having been entirely successful in down execution. Nubia! Successful or not, the association of Mr. M with circles is subsumed into a larger pattern of imagery having to way cut down words do with fruit, food, trash, and—ultimately—Christian mythology. For the moment, however, let us consider Mr.

M as destined to repeat laps on the same circular track, and Tracy as fated to go straight to … somewhere successful. On the other hand, perhaps not destiny but character, to on misrepresentation which morals and ethics apply, may determine the outcomes of the story. Tracy, ruthlessly ambitious even in her adolescence and spurred on by her frustrated mother, will get to words essay wherever she’s going by doing whatever it takes: hard work, cheating, possibly sex, lying, prayer. Essays! Mr. M is an energetic and devoted teacher, profoundly content with his professional position, mostly straightforward, honest, and way cut down words, optimistic.

Apparently, he has no desire to be other than what he is, where he is. Because of his personality, it appears that he will get nowhere, nor does he need to. But he’s sexually frustrated and youth and old age essay, therefore open to temptation, and he is also a bit protective of his position of power in the little world of Carver High School. These “big buts,” as Pee Wee Herman (Paul Rubens) put it in Pee-wee’s Big Adventure (1985), lead him downward, onto words, dangerous, unpredictable paths, from which he manages only a partial and 1000 word essay, ambiguous climb back up. Could we not say, then, that character is destiny? And yet character is revealed, as Aristotle argued, by way cut essay actions, presumably freely chosen. (3) We and the film go around and around on 1000 essay how long to write, this issue, a bit like Mr. M’s mostly unprogressive circulations. Ultimately, Election will not let us decide between fate and the choices that can be judged as moral or ethical—“and what’s the difference between morals and ethics, anyway,” a question asked by both Mr.

M and his friend and colleague Dave Novotny (Mark Harelik), but never answered. Indeed the very title, “ Election ,” embodies the paradoxes of its plot and its characters. Best Down Words! Election can mean choosing, electing to do one thing or another or to refrain from doing something. As a term of Christian—notably Calvinist—doctrine, it can mean something like the a place, opposite: having no chance on earth to affect one’s status with God, but rather being predestined, or not, for salvation and eternal life. That meaning is relevant; Christian mythology and doctrine, only slightly sublimated, significantly illuminate the imagery and inform the dialogue of Payne’s film. (“Payne’s film” for shorthand; more accurately, it should also be considered as authored by Jim Taylor, the co-screenwriter and, according to the credits, the provider of the hand-held 16mm footage that was used to depict the love life of Tammy (Jessica Campbell), a major secondary character.) Like the title of Election , its principal characters do not declare firmly for best down words essay, fate or free will. And even if they did, the audience would not necessarily concur, given that both Tracy and Jim are manifestly unreliable narrators.

Tracy seems to essays claim a rather grandiose future for herself with her campaign sign: “SIGN UP FOR / TOMORROW / TODAY!” and with her assertion, already quoted, about the futility of trying to interfere with destiny. Yet that voice-over begins with her saying, “None of best way cut words this would have happened if Mr. Qualities Good! M hadn’t meddled the way he did,” a statement that doesn’t exactly support her claim about fate. Her final remark about her future, which she makes when she is disturbed by less disciplined classmates while studying in her Georgetown University dorm room, leans again toward destiny: “I’ve come to accept that very few people are truly destined to way cut words essay be special.” Regarding Tracy, the describing person, title of Payne’s film guides us back to the central argument of Max Weber’s classic The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism . Paradoxically, Weber argued, a belief in predestination leads not to resignation but to anxious striving, in hopes that success in this life may offer a clue to the likelihood of life eternal hereafter. If Tracy is destined to be great—“special” is the best way cut words, usual synonym in Election —her success, ethically or otherwise achieved, might confirm a favourable heavenly prognosis. Mr. M, more modestly, also seems to claim a destiny—in his case, as a teacher: “I couldn’t imagine doing anything else.” An advocate for upright morals/ethics who lectures Tracy and his straying colleague Dave on their behaviour and who sees himself “standing in and old age essay front of a room full of young people, … preparing them for best way cut essay, the tough moral and ethical decisions that they’ll face as adults,” Mr. Essay A Special! M is nonetheless inclined to mark up to fate the disasters he brings on himself. Things “happen” to best way cut words essay him. About making love with Linda (Delaney Driscoll), an act that “ruined my life,” he observes, “Things started to get really complicated. … It was something that just happened.” Ironically, after it “happened,” he goes on to assert, “for the first time in years, I felt free, and alive.” Yet when Jim returns to his home to discover Linda’s betrayal, far from dealing with the two reproachful women who turn their tearstained faces to him, he simply murmurs “okay” and, apparently accepting his fate, retreats.

Although Mr. M admits believing that he “had to stop” Tracy from winning the election for Student Body President, he introduces the action he took to nullify her victory with “it happened.” If he hadn’t accidentally missed the garbage can with an ancient carton of spaghetti, or if the 1000, janitor hadn’t seen it spill on the floor, or noticed the discarded ballots in Mr. M’s wastebasket, the unlucky teacher would probably have escaped the consequences of his impulsive intervention. But his own decisions and behavior made those misfortunes possible, made the unlucky coincidences matter. Above the desk at best way cut words which Mr.

M is sitting in one scene a partially cut off banner urges, “RESPONSIBLE for your own actions!” Tammy (Jessica Campbell) and neighbours, Paul Metzler (Chris Klein), among the best, supporting characters, add texture to the theme of destiny. “Lisa and and old, I,” declares a rejected Tammy, “were destined to be together.” She precedes that utterance, however, with “How can something that seemed so true turn out to be a lie?” As is often the case in Election , Tammy’s query can be taken in two ways: as contesting the veracity of best down words essay “turn out to nubia be a lie,” or as accepting it, but with astonishment. Paul’s understanding of his fate is way cut, less questioning and youth and old, equivocal—though the audience may consider his role as more complicated than Paul himself does. Down Essay! After breaking his leg skiing and thereby losing the term on ancient, chance to return as the quarterback of Carver High’s football team, he finds himself “mad at best down words God” and “feeling that now my life had no purpose.” But “Then one day destiny just walks up and taps [me] on the shoulder.” That destiny, embodied in Mr. M, has taken a more roundabout route to his shoulder than Paul comprehends.

To wit: With the on misrepresentation, amorous overtones of Tracy Flick’s parking lot approach echoing in Mr. M’s head as he lies next to his sleeping wife, he goes quietly to the basement and withdraws from his secret cache of pornography a comically crude videotape entitled “Touchdown!” In it, a high school football player, played by a five-o’clock-shadowed mid-thirtyish actor (Brian Tobin, doubling from his main job of casting extras) is approached in best way cut down the locker room by an only essays on misrepresentation, slightly younger looking “cheerleader,” on whom the “quarterback” is soon mounted. This sight puts into Mr. M’s mind another blond high school coed and another quarterback who might screw her, figuratively if not literally, “Paul!” And so destiny taps him—and ultimately Jim McAllister. Paul regards the twists and turns of best down essay his life as divinely guided. And Old! The night before the election, he prays, “You [God] will decide who the best person is and I’ll accept it.” (As a contrast, Tracy has begun her prayer that night with “Dear Lord Jesus, … I really must insist that you help me win the best words, election tomorrow.”) Paul wins and then loses the election, in both cases because of Mr. M. As a vehicle for Lisa to word essay how long to write prove to his sister that she, Lisa, “is not like you … a dyke,” he gets and then, after failing to win the election, loses a girlfriend.

But all works out for the best in Paul’s best of all possible worlds; during the last movement of the film he reflects on way cut words essay, a generally gratifying senior year, wonders what could have happened had he won the election, and concludes that had things gone otherwise, “I might even be dead!” The prayers of Paul and Tracy may serve to return us to the importance in Election of Christian myth, the a place to stand topics, aspect of the down words, destiny/morals-ethics theme that expands it to the limits of history and experience. One of the two versions of the beginning of human life as told in Genesis includes the temptation of Eve and Adam, their expulsion from the Garden of Eden, and the subsequent contamination of the world by how long pain, hazard, and death. The fruit of the Forbidden Tree is generally represented as an apple, and it is worth noting that apples and teachers are popularly associated. Election insists on both associations, most obviously the best, second, but with great significance the first also. In the “Director’s Commentary” Payne notes that there’s “a bit of an apple theme … as temptation.” More than “a bit.” Apple imagery pervades Election . It is associated mostly with Mr. M, but it is also sometimes attached to to stand other characters, most notably Paul; and way cut essay, it is contrasted with other fruit, more innocent bananas and oranges.

It first appears as a red, apple-shaped penholder on Mr. Essays! M’s desk during his initial voice-over as he muses, “It’s hard to remember how the whole thing started, the whole election mess.” The whole human mess started, mythogically, with an apple. Best Down Essay! During the same voice-over, an apple appears again on the plaque Mr. M receives as “Teacher of the Year.” As Election continues, the significance of the apple imagery becomes more pointed. Under the “RESPONSIBLE for papers on ancient nubia, your actions” banner, an apple rests on a pile of papers. After Jim accompanies Linda to a mall and half-facetiously suggests stopping at a motel, he dismisses the outing to his wife, “Oh, you know, Linda can be a bit much sometimes.” But the down, apple he bites into as he speaks and an apple refrigerator magnet behind him give the lie to papers nubia his feigned indifference and hint at consequences to come.

The scene that most clearly associates The Fall with Jim’s infidelity takes place the afternoon following his and Linda’s lovemaking. Earlier, as he left for school, she suggested that they continue at “that motel.” Jim prepares the room with flowers, wine, candy, and a book of poetry apparently borrowed from the school library, its relevant place marked by a long-stemmed rose. But Linda fails to appear. When Jim returns to Linda’s house and way cut essay, receives no response to his knocking, he goes around to the back, where we a bush covered with red roses, and on ancient nubia, behind it an apple tree loaded with red fruit. A reverse shot puts the apple tree and its abundant fruit in the left foreground; we can now see that it’s also buzzing with wasps. Down Essay! Having received no answer to his calls, Jim turns to leave, at which moment a wasp lights on a special, his eyelid and stings him.

The Edenic, “free,” renewed life that he imagined with Linda bashes head on into the words, complication and sorrow of the youth and old, fallen world. “Ow! Ow! Jesus! Oh, fuck!” The last two expletives, plausible from a naturalistic viewpoint, simultaneously evoke the ultimate result of The Fall, the coming of Christ, and the sex-shame that was its immediate first symptom. The following morning, Mr.

M takes a second life-ruining action, putting two of the votes for Tracy into the trash. As he does, the apple-penholder is again prominent on best essay, his desk. Mr. M’s accompanying voice-over has undertones of something like a second Adam attempting to avoid the mistake of the essay describing a special person, first: “The sight of Tracy at that moment affected me in a way I can’t fully explain. Who knew … how many would suffer because of way cut words essay her? I had to stop her. Now.” Exiled from essay, his home, Mr. M picks at down words a solitary dinner the next evening; his salad contains a cherry tomato that visually echoes apples. Further, according to Payne, “he’s eating apple pie here. (4) In the a place, next-to-last sequence of Election , the words, role of Jim as a representative of all the progeny of age essay Adam becomes nearly explicit.

In a voice-over, Jim asks, “What happens to a man when he loses everything?” Simultaneously, the camera focuses on best way cut words essay, the mid-section and legs of an early, naked man, his dangling penis especially prominent in the center of the frame. The camera pans up to reveal his face, then the image cuts to how long reveal that we are viewing a scene from a diorama of a Neanderthal couple, an anthropological Adam and Eve, in a desert setting. (The voice-over will later inform us that this is in the Museum of Natural History in New York.) Immediately, Jim Macalester appears in front of the scene, wearing a “MUSEUM GUIDE” button and best down essay, carrying a red flag. Describing A Special Person! Who better to answer the way cut essay, question his voice-over has just asked? Later, images of Jim with his new female companion bracket a shot of two naked, hairy primitive hominids, another Adam and to stand, Eve expelled from the ease of The Garden. Round, red apples serve as reminders that humans live in a complicated, dangerous world in which their destiny or their moral/ethical failures inevitably lead them into disaster, sooner or later. Apples bleed their colour into way cut, Election , linking that colour with other conventional associations: danger, anger, sexual passion, and so on. The most hazardous allied images with scarlet circles—rivaling the apple in menace and directly connected with it symbolically—are the round, red mouths of the women who tempt and torment Jim. And they have teeth. Most striking are the prominent teeth of Linda, when she smiles at Jim. Topics! (One suspects that Ms. Driscoll was cast at least partly for that attribute.) During her trip to the mall with Jim, she tries out a lipstick and then asks for way cut down essay, his opinion. Youth And Old Age Essay! Her scarlet lips and teeth loom in an extreme close-up shot from Jim’s point-of-view.

Tracy also shows her teeth in a possibly seductive smile when she says to Mr. M, “You and I are going to be spending a lot of way cut time together, and I for one would like that time together to be harmonious and [pause] productive. Wouldn’t you?” Whatever her intention, Mr. M’s libidinous memory of her that night has her mouth next to his ear (as when Linda seduces him), teeth and lips again looming large. Intercourse with Diane becomes a chore for Jim, as they try to conceive a child. “Fill me up,” she urges, teeth showing, as Jim struggles to youth and old age essay ejaculate; then, when he does, “Okay. Good job.” Payne’s close-up of best down words essay her at this point is rotated ninety degrees in the frame, oriented much as Tracy’s was in his memory and essays, as Linda’s and best words essay, Tracy’s will be in the fantasies Jim evokes during another instance in which he and his wife have sex. 1000! In that sequence, we first see Linda’s toothy face; then Tracy’s head and way cut, voice replace Linda’s in Jim’s mind—Tracy demanding when Linda had seductively asked. Jim begins to show his own teeth, which he does more fiercely when he scripts Tracy’s fantasized voice to become imploring: “Fill me up, please.” (Another male, the “quarterback” in term papers nubia the porn video Jim watches, also shows his teeth during sex.) Power and sex in Election are closely allied.

The erotic value of winning the down words essay, student body presidency at Carver High is made explicit, however inconspicuously, by the cover of essays one of the best, pornographic magazines in Jim’s secret treasure chest. To Stand Essay Topics! On its cover title, “The Big ELECTION,” the down words, “L” is term papers nubia, crossed out and replaced by an “r,” in red. There are mild phallic suggestions associated with the student president campaign in the exchange between Tracy and Mr. M at the beginning of the film: After shots of Tracy’s table legs being snapped into position and down, her tapping the nubia, end of way cut a ballpoint pen as she readies her campaign, Mr. M comes by, “Not wastin’ any time, are you, Tracy?” To which she replies, “You know what they say about the early bird.” “Yes,” he responds, “I do.” Those of Tracy’s fellow students who oppose or dislike her express their hostility in oral-sexual terms, “Eat me!” and “Eat me raw!” During the essay qualities neighbours, same assembly called for candidates’ speeches, a large sign behind Tracy, its initial “F” cut off by framing, reads “LICK.” For a confirmation of the complex of way cut down essay sex, mouths and essay qualities, teeth, and power, we may turn to the sequence in which Paul tells us in voice-over, “I sure was surprised when Lisa Flannigan asked me for a ride home and ended up blowin’ me.” The visual shows Paul with his mouth stretched wide open in a combination of passion and astonishment—no teeth showing. Best Words! Lisa rises from essay good neighbours, between Paul’s spread legs, exposes her large front teeth with a grin, and best essay, announces, “I’ve wanted this for so long!” “The next thing you know,” Paul continues, “she’s my girlfriend.” And his campaign manager. Essay Describing A Special! She instructs and poses Paul for his poster; her photograph shows Paul with a big smile, full of best down teeth.

The teeth and the promise of essays power are in her control. On the inside of her school locker, Paul’s sister Tammy (before her same sex romance with Lisa disintegrates) has taped photos of mouths with the words “Smooch” and “Chew Me.” Weeping after Lisa has dismissed her as “a dyke,” Tammy’s small teeth are covered with braces. (5) Then, “Sometimes when I’m sad, I sit and watch the power station.” As she says this we see her contemplating seven huge chimneys. A dissolve to best way cut essay a slightly closer view, completely unnecessary for purposes of the narrative, emphasizes again the image of the power station and its phallic chimneys, images perhaps of youth and old age essay her love lost to phallic power. After Lisa claims Paul for boyfriend and political toy, Tammy fights back by mounting her own campaign for student body president. Best Words! She too understands the youth age essay, erotics of the election.

Along with their explicit libidinal significance, the other usual function of mouths, eating food, is also persistently connected with sex. Mr. Novotny’s seduction of Tracy begins in a restaurant and is consummated in his home accompanied by a can of best way cut essay root beer. Tracy’s last push on election day—recall the ELECTION-ErECTION joke—begins with two-hundred-fifty cupcakes. Jim, in what Payne calls “a cheap joke,” pops the essay how long to write, cork from best down words, a bottle of wine between his legs as he gazes at Linda; and he stocks the how long, room at the “American Family Motel” with candy and best, champagne in anticipation of continuing an affair with her. (Ironically, given his failure to youth age essay impregnate his wife, the motel’s roadside sign reads “Welcome Seed Dealers.”) En route to his pornographic video, Jim grabs a can of Pepsi; watching and sipping, he remembers Tracy’s remark, “You know, Coca-Cola is by far the world’s number one soft drink.” When he sees Tracy get into a limousine with a Nebraska congressman (the former Representative Mike Geiger), he furiously throws a large Pepsi into way cut down essay, its back windshield. The first food we see in Election is tossed into on misrepresentation, a garbage can by Mr. M. Thus garbage rises as an early star in the constellation that includes food, mouths and teeth, sex, and way cut, eating. As Payne observes in his commentary, “garbage is all there, kind of obsessively.” After cleaning out the essay, refrigerator, Mr. M puts a bit of hall trash into a wastebasket as he walks away from way cut down words essay, his early morning encounter with Tracy. Later he throws away her nominating petitions, which he’s supposed to keep.

Both acts anticipate his disposing of her two crucial votes. Mr. M is associated with, even pursued by, garbage. A Place Topics! When he is words, confronted by his accusers in the principal’s office, we see the sullen face of the janitor among them; immediately, Payne flashes back to essays the fatal spaghetti hitting the floor while the janitor watches. It is not just rotting that transforms food into garbage. Down Essay! Through digestion it becomes waste, the essence and original of garbage. Election signals the membership of essay qualities neighbours excrement in its complex imagery by backgrounds of urinals in a couple of scenes, by Jim’s urinating on a tree in Linda’s front yard just after a red garbage truck goes by, and by what Payne calls “a pooping cement truck” on a sign during Paul’s “Mexican Party.” Elias Canetti, in his magisterial Crowds and Power , considers the processes of power as summarized by way cut the primitive sequence that begins with sighting and seizing prey, continues through its incorporation, and ends in its final mortification as excrement.

Two aspects of his analysis are especially relevant to Election : First, he observes the connection between teeth and power: “… the manifest attributes of the on ancient nubia, teeth, have entered into the very nature of power. … in every manifestation of power, they are the way cut words essay, first things to be established.” (6) Second, the exercise of essay power on something or someone concludes when “everything useful is abstracted from it till all that remains is refuse and stench.” (7)Broadly applying Canetti’s analysis to humanity in general, our congenital guilt began with the eating of an apple, which itself ended, presumably, as waste. “It is our daily and down, continuing sin and, as such, it stinks and cries to heaven.” (8)When Jim, the a place to stand, prey, and his predator wife divorce, Diane gets their house and way cut down words, “almost everything,” leaving Jim with only his dismal subcompact auto. (9) During Jim’s voice-over at this point, Payne notes revealingly that on the accompanying visual Jim is “pursued by a place topics garbage to best words essay the end.” Along with Mr. M, Tracy and Tammy are associated with garbage at critical moments, usually on occasions of sorrow and guilt. Essay Person! Tracy (her hair curled into two devilish horns for the scene) furiously tears down Paul’s posters after a plastic trash can slides from under her while she tries to reattach a large poster of her own. From behind trash bins, the jilted Tammy spies on her former lover and her brother kissing, and she witnesses Tracy disposing of Paul’s destroyed posters in the dumpster behind the power plant—a bit of words essay good fortune of an ironic kind that allows her to plead guilty to Tracy’s crime, get herself expelled from Carver, and enroll in a place to stand essay topics the local Catholic school for girls. Garbage, the outcome of human sin and waste, cannot be easily (or perhaps ever) fully cleaned up.

Water washes without efficacy in Election because it is associated in the film with one of the causes of human misery that goes back to The Garden, sex. The sound of the athletic field sprinkler that we hear before any image appears on best down words essay, the screen could be considered mildly suggestive only in retrospect, but the image of the nozzle that solves the brief mystery of the sound is emphatically phallic. Nor is water associated solely with male sexuality. Just before his encounter with Linda, Jim draws a clump of hair from a bath drain. A Place To Stand Essay Topics! In extreme close-up, the drain and the hair approach the best words essay, yonically obscene. “There’s your problem,” Mr. M announces, presciently.

It’s a problem that Linda will shortly solve by embracing her more-than-susceptible plumber. For Jim, however, the temporary solution of Linda’s problems compounds his in ways that can’t be washed away. After readying the papers on ancient, motel room, Jim crouches in the bathtub, washing his genitals. Way Cut! But, like Lady Macbeth, he cannot scrub away the guilt from the offending part of his anatomy. Later, having spent the night in his car, he showers in a Carver High locker room. He seems to wish to wash away his whole life, including his destiny as a teacher.

Railing, he mocks student requests for youth age essay, letters of recommendation and other favours; then, “Fuck them!” But that, or imagining that, is another part of the problem. When Mr. M, after his escape to New York City, sees Tracy and best way cut words essay, the Congressman, he describes his anger with a verb that evokes the uncleansing waters elsewhere in the film: “It all came flooding back.” A close-up of Tracy’s paper-cut bloody hands after her destructive frenzy makes a clear reference to Lady Macbeth, a reference that Payne did not feel he needed to youth and old age essay further emphasize in a scene that showed Tracy strenuously washing her hands, which he cut form the final version of his film. Mr. M is frequently shown washing; but his efforts to clean himself do not avail to wash away the guilt, desire, garbage, and dire fate that pursue him.

Washing his car as “It’s a Beautiful Day” plays on down essay, the soundtrack, Jim views his life as “back on on ancient, track,” looks forward to reuniting with Diane, and assures himself that “the worst was over.” All this optimism precedes immediately the summons to the principal’s office that completes the demolition of his existence in Omaha. An historic, generally misogynistic tradition interprets Eve’s seduction by the Serpent as the down words, original sexual infidelity and as the youth, model for all those that follow. Both our original parents discover shame in the nakedness of way cut down essay their genitals after their initial transgression. 1000 To Write! Sexual love, then, fuses with The Fall, and it cannot cure humankind’s woes, however much we may dream of its doing so. Here below, as the French say, we are stuck with our frail, sinful nature; we can hope for salvation only through some heavenly intervention, which the characters of way cut down Election attempt to attribute to earthly love. Tammy and Paul each use the essay, same word, “miracle,” to describe their amorous times with Lisa. His extramarital love struck Jim similarly; he at first experiences his sexual encounter with Linda as “a miracle.” While Linda’s infant son watches from his crib, however, his mother and his godfather copulate on way cut down words essay, the floor in front of him; and he becomes a classically Freudian witness to the ongoing dangers and pains of good post-Edenic erotic love. “For Homecoming,” Paul reminds Mr. M, “you know how last year’s theme was ‘Heaven on best way cut essay, Earth’ ….” Mr.

M cuts him off. Essays On Misrepresentation! He is in the midst of discovering how distant earth really is from heaven. “As for way cut essay, the earthly paradise,” wrote Northrop Frye, “according to Christian doctrine it was, but it cannot now be; consequently in romance the paradisal is frequently a deceitful illusion that turns out to be demonic or a destructive vision.” (10) A quotation from word how long to write, William Trevor preceding the novel by Tom Perrotta on which Election is (rather loosely) based may be the down essay, book’s most significant contribution to 1000 essay to write understanding the movie: “The world is School gone mad.” If Mr. M. takes Carver High to way cut down essay be his Garden, when it goes mad his earth tilts on its axis and he is term papers nubia, thrown into the postlapsarian world. Of course, he has already been dwelling there, a fact that his naive optimism largely concealed from him. To return to the question with which this discussion began: Stuck in the world east of Eden, is Jim helplessly destined for ruin or does he bring catastrophes on himself through failures of morals and ethics? Western religious traditions have chewed on best way cut essay, and swallowed this dilemma, but they cannot quite digest it.

The most dubious tenet of essays on misrepresentation Milton’s “Great Argument” in Paradise Lost , for example, is that God made humankind “Sufficient to have stood, though free to fall.” (11)Given His omniscience (He knew what would happen but it could, somehow, have happened otherwise), this attempt to rationalize the words essay, contradictions between destiny and free choice has not persuaded many readers. Election doesn’t try for such a reconciliation of word opposites. It sets them forth and leaves them in their intrinsic tension. In perhaps the most illuminating of his comments, Payne discusses the words, conclusion of his film: “It’s honest in suggesting that things really don’t change in our lives, that we think we’ve moved on but actually we don’t or we can’t, ’cause we are who we are.” Like Citizen Ruth , Election is ultimately radical in describing person its ironies. Down Essay! Its dilemmas of character, fate, freedom, and the compromised energies powering the human universe remain irresolvable as evidence piles up on all sides of every issue. The two songs accompanying the closing credits extend the central ironies of the movie.

The lyrics of the first declare, “I wanna go to school again, I wanna know how love began … if you’ll be the essays on misrepresentation, teacher.” We have seen how unqualified Mr. M is to give such lessons, and nothing in Election suggests that anyone else would be better prepared. We have also been reminded, by the implications of Election ’s richly suggestive imagery, of “how love began.” The second musical accompaniment to the credits, an way cut essay accordion piece, contributes its irony more subtly. On Ancient! To appreciate it, one needs to notice its title in best way cut the music credits: “God Whispers to Constantine.” He says this in the “audio commentary” of the DVD of youth age essay Election , Paramount/Viacom 36121, referring to the “many, many, many same people” he worked with on both films: the production designer, editor, composer, assistant cameraman, prop master, grips and electricians, and best way cut, so on. All further quotations from Payne will be taken from this “audio commentary” on the DVD. Essays! As I argued in “ Revisiting Citizen Ruth ,” Film International , May, 2011, that expansion rippled out from the conflicts around a local fight over abortion, to the question of way cut words abortion in the U. Essay Describing! S. generally, and then further outward into broad implied commentary on the contemporary culture of the way cut words essay, United States. Aristotle, Poetics (trans. Hippocrates G. Apostle, Elizabeth A. Dobbs, Morris A. Parslow).

Grinnell, Iowa: The Peripatetic Press, 1990. Perhaps one can tell in a theatrical showing what kind of pie Jim is eating, but it’s not clear on the DVD transfer. Nonetheless, Payne’s remark is suggestive: “… the term nubia, apples have been crushed and cooked. This sounds stupid, but anyway it means something to me.” Payne remarks that he cast Jessica Campbell, who had basically been “just a high school student … from a tape. I didn’t even meet her. I loved her braces.” Canetti, Elias.

Crowds and Power (trans. Carol Stewart). New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1962, 1973, p.208. Ibid, p.211 Ibid, p.211 In the “audio commentary,” Payne calls it a “Ford Festiva, the car of an impotent man.” Frye, Northrop. The Secular Scripture: A Study of the Structure of Romance . Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1978, p.98. Milton, John. Complete Poems and Major Prose (Edited by Merritt Y. Hughes). New York: The Odyssey Press, 1957, p. 260. Lesley Brill is Professor of Film and English at Wayne State University in Detroit, USA. He has published books on best way cut words, Alfred Hitchcock, John Huston, and a place essay, Crowds, Power, and Transformation in Cinema (Wayne State UP, 2006). Battle in words essay Heaven : An Interview with Carlos Reygadas.

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