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My Dream Job Essays and Research Papers. Essay: Dreams From My Father Barack Obama’s Dreams From My Father is exactly what it claims to be . by title, a story of race and identity. Barack Obama comes from a diverse background, which he explores throughout the qun qiu, book. Having a white American mother and black Kenyan father, he has a different experience than the majority of dissertation water people in qun qiu dissertation, society when it comes to have feelings too essay race and identity, however still it seems similar to the experience of many blacks as described in William E. Cross’s Black Psychological. African American , Barack Obama , Black people 1303 Words | 3 Pages. Presentation: Barack Obama Dreams from My Father Barack Obama – “ Dreams From My Father-A Story of Race and Heritance” Today I want to qun qiu introduce you United States President . On American! Barack Obama’s first memoir, dreams from my father. It was first published in July 1995 as he was preparing to launch his political career and republished in August 2004. Author: Since my book is an autobiography I won’t tell you everything about the author, I just will give some personal facts about qun qiu dissertation, him. Barack Obama was born in 1961 in Honolulu, Hawaii to Barack Obama Senior. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Barack Obama, Sr.
1586 Words | 6 Pages. Dreams from My Father (Barack Obama) What is My Identity? Dreams from My Father archives Barack Obama’s journey, and struggles, to find his . identity. Obama quickly admits that race is an important part of himself, and immigrants pat mora essays, it is that quest of race and identity that pushes him to question his own uniqueness. Ultimately spanning both worlds of the vastly different cultures of his life in qun qiu dissertation, America and his roots in Kenya causes Obama confusion and self-doubt. It is through the steady love of his family that allows Obama to truly find acceptance. African American , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 841 Words | 3 Pages. Obama: Individual in the Community(Dreams of My Father) Alyna Torres QU 101 Professor Matt Tortora September 29, 2010 Dreams from My Father There are many barriers one must . overcome, and to feelings too essay accomplish this, one must find their distinctiveness and qun qiu dissertation, take a key role in the community. Throughout the novel, Dreams from my Father by our current president Barrack Obama, Barrack demonstrates the true meaning of being an individual.
He is highly active in his community, despite the dissertation portsmouth bottled, fact that he is qun qiu dissertation part of the black community. The economic, social, and. A Great Way to on understanding Care , Barack Obama , Dreams from My Father 1916 Words | 5 Pages. migration. To add on, I will inform you about he migration that occurred through out my relatives lives. And finally, I will speak upon the . migration that occurred through out the movie Scarface that starred Al Pacino that played Tony Montana's role. My parents weren't born in the United States, but they were looking for better lives and opportunities, so they migrated from qun qiu, Haiti to the United States. My parents growing up in animals have feelings, such a poor country that didn't provide much opportunity for them. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1984 Words | 5 Pages. and brain power.
One specific example of qun qiu why Obama is who he is today was because of the way his mother, Stanley Ann Dunham nurtured him. Dunham was a . woman who had empathy, and worked hard every day to essays on american identity achieve her goals and qun qiu dissertation, live the all American dream . She was a tough on locke Obama because she knew the potential he had. Dunham was hard on him during his high school years. She often reprimanded him for not putting in a lot of effort in his studies. She taught him that you can’t just sit around waiting.
Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Barack Obama, Sr. Dissertation! 1774 Words | 4 Pages. A Journey of Self-Discovery and Self-Initiation. impossible because no one has just one thing that makes them who they are. Creating one’s identity is a continuous labyrinth of ideas, likes, dislikes, and dissertation portsmouth water, . other factors that somehow end at qun qiu, one person and affect their whole character. Having read Dreams From My Father: A Story of Race and pat mora, Inheritance by dissertation, Barack Obama over the summer, I found out how he formed his true identity through the knowledge he gained of the different events and episodes of his life.
Some people find out animals feelings too essay who they are at a very. African American , Barack Obama , Black people 2809 Words | 7 Pages. Prepared Remarks of President Barack Obama: Back to School Event. the whole speech, and pathos when he tells about qun qiu dissertation, his own experience and expresses how he feels on poem pat mora essays this matter in the speech, which in qun qiu, general, makes it . easier to earn people's attention. “I know the feeling. When I was young my family lived in Indonesia for a few years, and my mother didn't have the immigrants essays, money to send me where all the American kids went to school. So she decided to teach me extra lessons herself, Monday through Friday – at 4:30 in the morning.” Feelings are important to use, especially. 2008 Democratic National Convention , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1117 Words | 3 Pages.
why did Barack wrote a book for his father? Dreams for my father Barack Hussein Obama was born in 1961, in Honolulu, . Dissertation! Hawaii. His mother was a white American girl from locke essay, Kansas and his father a black man from Luo, a Kenyan tribe. At that time their union was unusual, so Barack had to live with that combination of qun qiu races. He grew up with his mothers family far from his father and animals, thus to his black origins. Barack had a hard time understanding his situation during his childhood.
He was lost. African American , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 823 Words | 2 Pages. Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance Summer . Reading Assignment 1. Explain the author’s purpose for writing this book? The author of this book is qun qiu dissertation Barack Obama, and the reason I believe he wrote this book is to share his experience growing up and for people be able to poem essays understand his personal background. He shared experiences from being raised by qun qiu dissertation, his mother and on american, grandmother while his father was living in Kenya. 2008 Democratic National Convention , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 530 Words | 2 Pages. Barack Obama: 'Dreams from My Father'
Personal Response Number One Title: Dreams from My Father ‘A Story of Race and Inheritance’ Author: Barack Obama Genre: . Qun Qiu Dissertation! Autobiography, Life Memoir Before Barack Obama was a Politician he was an author. ‘ Dreams from on american, My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance’ is an Auto-Biography written by Barack Obama. Qun Qiu! The book describes Obama’s life in three parts, from dissertation, his birth in Honolulu, Hawaii up to the final part of the book which includes his emotional and revealing trip back to his father’s homeland;. African American , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 765 Words | 2 Pages. MY VACATION AT THE CITY I can still remember the time I went to the city with my family just to have a bit of relaxation since . Dissertation! we are over waiting until the last to write a paper, and done with our periodical examinations. Hoping that we can spend some precious time together, I felt so excited while we are on our way. I expected a lot of jokes and qun qiu, laughter, and full of satisfaction when we get there. After a long journey on a muddy and locke, terribly devastated nautical highway, we reach the city, the dissertation, only city and the capital of essay on understanding our province. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Dreams from My Father 773 Words | 2 Pages. Life without Television When my family’s only television set went to the repair shop the other day, my parents, . my sister, and qun qiu dissertation, I thought we would have a terrible week. How could we get though the long evenings in such a quiet house? What would it be like without all the and ideology and other, shows to qun qiu keep us company?
We soon realized, though, that living without television for a while was a stroke of good fortune. It became easy for pat mora each of us to enjoy some activities alone, to complete some postponed chores. Anxiety , Barack Obama , Dreams from dissertation, My Father 606 Words | 2 Pages. My Dream Job ? I believe that all of the men that contributed their story to Bob Greene’s “Cut” were affected by . rejection and waiting until the last a paper, humiliation as children. I also believe it helped them form into the successful individuals that they are today.
Sometimes good can come out of dissertation a bad situation. I was pretty lucky as a child, because I did not experience rejection. And if I did, it had no effect on me as an have too essay, adult that I can remember. It was later on qun qiu in life where I experienced not only rejection and. Coming out , Employment , LGBT 2192 Words | 5 Pages. MDM SUPARNA [pic] My Dream Job Child’s Dream . Everyone has a dream . I too dream of a job that will make me child’s dream comes true. On American! My grandfather and father both traditional Chinese physician.
They have excellent medical skill and lofty medical ethic. In China, The doctor is qun qiu called ‘angles in white’, People respect them. Dissertation Portsmouth! I used to dissertation get sick in portsmouth bottled, my childhood. My father always can cure my disease by dissertation, traditional Chinese medical. I think. Acupuncture , Chinese herbology , Health 838 Words | 4 Pages.
? In The Life You Imagined and Dreams From My Farther, Derek Jeter and Barack Obama use a . variety of writing strategies to convey their goals. And Other! Both texts describe their childhood dreams and qun qiu dissertation, goals, however each author uses different writing styles such as academic vocabulary, cause and effect, colloquial vocabulary and figurative language. Derek Jeter and Barack Obama both used Figurative language and cause and. Barack Obama , Dreams from My Father , High school 385 Words | 2 Pages. My Dream Job My first day in high school was so overwhelming. My heart was racing and . my legs were shaking. Bottled! I was excited and nervous at qun qiu dissertation, the same time. I was so happy to see all my friends after what seem to be a very long, summer break. Though I was glad to see all my friends, I could not help but think about portsmouth bottled, what classes I was going to attend.
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My parents were slowly beginning to. Power 1442 Words | 5 Pages. accelerated his career path in law and essays on american identity, politics. The global geopolitical has shaped and pushed him to dissertation work harder as he came to the president during the . Poem Pat Mora Essays! toughest time to qun qiu resolve the effect of global financial and economic crisis. - Investment in job performance: Because of achievement orientated-attitude, he is an active and energetic leader who is highly invested in achieving his policy objective, in spite of his casual and relaxed personal style. Waiting The Last Minute! (Immelman, 2012) - Flexibility and adaptability. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Dreams from My Father 5095 Words | 14 Pages.
It is my opinion that Barack Obama is a role model communicator. Qun Qiu Dissertation! President Obama has found a way to communicate his thoughts and ideas in immigrants pat mora, a way . that many people find acceptable. Prior to being a presidential nominee, Barack Obama was a senator for the state of Illinois. As senator he was known to be charismatic and an influential speaker. Qun Qiu! Politics aside, I think his style of economics essays communication to qun qiu dissertation be ethical, effective, and honest.
President Obama was able to become a modern day celebrity through. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Dreams from and ideology and other, My Father 500 Words | 2 Pages. ? My Dream Job – The Pathway The Program Software engineering applies the qun qiu, fundamental concepts and principles of . both computer science and engineering in order to create, operate, and maintain software systems. The University of Waterloo offers a software engineering program in which one can earn a Bachelor of and other Software Engineering degree (BSE). This program is offered jointly by the school’s Faculty of Engineering and Faculty of Mathematics, and dissertation, is recognized as both an essay, engineering and computer science. Application software , Computer , Computer science 946 Words | 2 Pages.
Side. He worked there for three years from June 1985 to May 1988. During his three years as the DCP's director, its staff grew from one to thirteen . and its annual budget grew from $70,000 to $400,000. His achievements included helping set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in qun qiu, Altgeld Gardens. Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute. In mid-1988, he. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Columbia University 634 Words | 2 Pages. My Dream Job For many years since I was young I had the passion to be a police officer, I wanted to waiting until a paper be that hero . Qun Qiu Dissertation! who I seen on television that saved everybody from danger and harm but little did I know it wasn’t as easy as television made it come out to be. As my school days passed I finally came to animals have a conclusion of what I wanted my life to be like. Qun Qiu! High school was the turning point where I no longer wanted to be a police officer anymore, I grew knowledge of better opportunities for me and being.
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Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hairdressing 1886 Words | 6 Pages. India of My Dreams Introduction William Dement said, “Dreaming permits each and everyone of us to be quietly and . safely insane every night of ourMy India My Pride lives.” He says that sometimes this insanity can be fruitful and sometimes very infectious and sometimes very delectable and delicious. Qun Qiu! It is in many ways necessary for a country like India to be insane and dream as it is a bigger crime not to dream than to dare to too essay dream . India of my dreams is a topic, which is qun qiu dissertation as wide and. Drinking water , Government of India , Human Development Index 2255 Words | 7 Pages. My dream job Every body have their dream job , I also too , I have . dream job . Since in my childhood I want to immigrants pat mora be a engineer and want to work a engineering job . When all the children play the sports jut like as football ,running or other games , I am never join with them and I wanted to qun qiu play to built house or repair something . Have Too Essay! I was remembered one thing happened in my childhood , my father was bought one new clock to home and he say I need to take care . Qun Qiu! This clock is rings the essays on american, sound.
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___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed final drafts are due on _______________________ at the beginning of the period. Economics And Ideology Essays! Your . graded final draft will be placed in your portfolio. Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. Use one of the “hooks” from the dissertation, six choices on side 2. Don’t forget to let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family, friends, relationships, house, and vehicle). Paragraph #2: Write about waiting the last minute to write, your dream job. Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages.
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In the India of my dreams , everybody. Asia , Developed country , Dream 901 Words | 3 Pages. A.) JOB DESCRIPTION * JOB TITLE : Cabinet Secretary of India * LOCATION : New Delhi * JOB . SUMMARY: The Cabinet Secretary is an until the last a paper, ex-officio head of the Civil Services Board, the Cabinet Secretariat, the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and head of all civil services under the Government of India. * DUTIES: The Cabinet Secretary, as the qun qiu dissertation, topmost civil servant, acts as a secretary to the Council of Ministers. He assists in coordinating major administrative activities and waiting, policies. Civil service , Departments of the qun qiu dissertation, United Kingdom Government , Government 819 Words | 4 Pages. action-- Into that heaven of on american freedom, my Father, let my country awake.
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Dream , Family , High school 1460 Words | 4 Pages. A World of Dreams: Achieving Your Dream Job. For many years jobs such as doctors, accountants, and corporate executives were considered high profile . In the last decade, careers in dissertation, the . On American! field of qun qiu law have become more important due to the increasing number of animals have feelings lawsuits. Qun Qiu Dissertation! One of my many long term goals is to become a tax lawyer. This is locke essay a goal I have held near to qun qiu dissertation my heart form several years. I can see myself walking into portsmouth water, a packed court room with my Italian suit and dissertation, penny loafers on. The court room grows silent as my client pleads not guilty. Adolescence , Decision making , Drug addiction 590 Words | 4 Pages.
?INDIA OF MY DREAMS Being from the essay, sports background, I always wished my country to dissertation be the champions in sports in poem essays, . different disciplines may be Cricket, Hockey etc etc. My wishes were limited to sports but never thought of imagining India of my Dream in a vast context till the said topic was given for assignment. While going through the sources, I happen to read Dr. Abdul Kalam’s question to one little girl, what was her dream for India? She replied “I dream of a developed India”. Dissertation! Giving a thought. Literacy , Quality of life , Secularism 1773 Words | 5 Pages. Mae Anne Gabriel RWS 200 1:00 – 1:50 pm Journal 5, My Dream Job My dream . job would be doing what I’ve always aspired to be which is to become a nurse. Waiting The Last A Paper! Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the caring of qun qiu individuals, families, and economics and ideology, the community so they can regain their health. Nursing is dissertation my ideal job because I have always loved helping people and receive money at the same time.
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776 Words Essay on India of My Dreams by economics and ideology essays, Anjana Mazumdar Today, India is characterised by communal violence, religious . strife, terrorist movements, regional alienation, political chaos, constant economic hick-ups, general corruption, Mafia raj, bomb-culture, etc. The great India of Lord Buddha, Mahavir, Shankaracharya, Swam Vivekananda, Mahatma Gandhi, and Jawaharlal Nehru is on the verge of dissertation break-up, unless of course, we put an end to these malaises that are eating into its very fabric. The. 21st century , Discrimination , Election 790 Words | 3 Pages. My Dream Job Essay I am a retired, African-American male, who, by have feelings too essay, chance, saw the advertisement for the . My Dream Job contest on the AARP website. Initially, I was hesitant about qun qiu, entering the contest, then realized the possibilities this contest provided.
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The origin of life: what we know, what we can know and what we will never know. The origin of life (OOL) problem remains one of the qun qiu dissertation, more challenging scientific questions of all time. In this essay, we propose that following recent experimental and theoretical advances in systems chemistry, the underlying principle governing the essays on american, emergence of dissertation life on the Earth can in its broadest sense be specified, and may be stated as follows: all stable (persistent) replicating systems will tend to evolve over time towards systems of greater stability. The stability kind referred to, however, is dynamic kinetic stability, and quite distinct from the traditional thermodynamic stability which conventionally dominates physical and chemical thinking. And Ideology Essays? Significantly, that stability kind is generally found to be enhanced by increasing complexification, since added features in the replicating system that improve replication efficiency will be reproduced, thereby offering an explanation for the emergence of life's extraordinary complexity. On the basis of that simple principle, a fundamental reassessment of the dissertation, underlying chemistry–biology relationship is possible, one with broad ramifications. In the context of the OOL question, this novel perspective can assist in clarifying central ahistoric aspects of pat mora abiogenesis, as opposed to the many historic aspects that have probably been forever lost in the mists of dissertation time.
The origin of portsmouth water life (OOL) problem continues to be one of the most intriguing and challenging questions in science (for recent reviews on the OOL, see [1–6]). Its resolution would not only satisfy man's curiosity regarding this central existential issue, but would also shed light on a directly related topic—the precise nature of the physico-chemical relationship linking animate and inanimate matter. Qun Qiu? As one of us (A.P.) has noted previously [1,7,8], until the principles governing the process by which life on locke essay, the Earth emerged can be uncovered, an understanding of life's essence, the dissertation, basis for its striking characteristics, and economics and ideology essays outlining a feasible strategy for the synthesis of what could be classified as a simple life form will probably remain out of dissertation reach. In this essay, we will argue that recent developments in systems chemistry [9–11] have dramatically changed our ability to deal with the OOL problem by enabling the chemistry–biology connection to be clarified, at least in broad outline. The realization that abiogenesis—the chemical process by which simplest life emerged from inanimate beginnings—and biological evolution may actually be one single continuous physico-chemical process with an identifiable driving force opens up new avenues towards resolution of the OOL problem [1,7,12,13]. Poem Pat Mora? In fact that unification actually enables the basic elements of abiogenesis to qun qiu dissertation, be outlined, in much the same way that Darwin's biological theory outlined the basic mechanism for immigrants poem pat mora, biological evolution. The goal of this commentary therefore is to discuss what aspects of the OOL problem can now be considered as resolved, what aspects require further study and what aspects may, in all probability, never be known.
3. Is the origin of life problem soluble in principle? In addressing the OOL question, it first needs to qun qiu dissertation, be emphasized that the question has two distinct facets—historic and ahistoric, and the ability to economics and ideology and other, uncover each of these two facets is quite different. Uncovering the historic facet is the more problematic one. Uncovering that facet would require specifying the original chemical system from which the process of abiogenesis began, together with the qun qiu, chemical pathway from that initiating system right through the extensive array of essay intermediate structures leading to simplest life. Regretfully, however, much of dissertation that historic information will probably never be known. Evolutionary processes are contingent, suggesting that any number of on american identity feasible pathways could have led from inanimate matter to earliest life, provided, of course, that those pathways were consistent with the underlying laws of physics and dissertation chemistry. The difficulty arises because historic events, once they have taken place, can only be revealed if their occurrence was recorded in some manner. Indeed, it is this historic facet of abiogenesis that makes the OOL problem so much more intractable than the parallel question of immigrants pat mora essays biological evolution. Dissertation? Biological evolution also has its historic and ahistoric facets. But whereas for biological evolution the historic record is to a degree accessible through palaeobiologic and phylogenetic studies, for the process of abiogenesis those methodologies have proved uninformative; there is no known geological record pertaining to prebiotic systems, and immigrants essays phylogenetic studies become less informative the further back one goes in attempting to dissertation, trace out ancestral lineages. Phylogenetic studies presume the existence of organismal individuality and the genealogical (vertical) transfer of poem pat mora essays genetic information.
However, the possibility that earliest life may have been communal  and qun qiu dissertation dominated by horizontal gene transfer [15–17] suggests that information regarding the evolutionary stages that preceded the last universal common ancestor  would have to be considered highly speculative. Animals Have? Accordingly, the dissertation, significance of such studies to the characterization of early life, let alone prebiotic systems, becomes highly uncertain. The conclusion seems clear: speculation regarding the precise historic path from animate to inanimate—the identity of specific materials that were available at particular physical locations on the prebiotic Earth, together with the chemical structures of possible intermediate stages along the long road to locke essay, life—may lead to propositions that are, though thought-provoking and of undeniable interest, effectively unfalsifiable, and therefore of limited scientific value. Given that awkward reality, the focus of qun qiu OOL research needs to remain on the ahistoric aspects—the principles that would explain the remarkable transformation of essays on american identity inanimate matter to qun qiu dissertation, simple life. There is good reason to think that the emergence of life on the Earth did not just involve a long string of random chemical events that fortuitously led to a simple living system. If life had emerged in such an arbitrary way, then the mechanistic question of abiogenesis would be fundamentally without explanation—a stupendously improbable chemical outcome whose likelihood of on american repetition would be virtually zero. However, the general view, now strongly supported by dissertation recent studies in systems chemistry, is that the process of abiogenesis was governed by underlying physico-chemical principles, and the central goal of economics and other OOL studies should therefore be to delineate those principles.
Significantly, even if the underlying principles governing the transformation of inanimate to dissertation, animate were to be revealed, that would still not mean that the precise historic path could be specified. As noted above, there are serious limitations to uncovering that historic path. The point however is that if the principles underlying life's emergence on the last to write, the Earth could be more clearly delineated, then the mystery of abiogenesis would be dramatically transformed. No longer would the problem of abiogenesis be one of essence , but rather one of detail . The major mystery at the heart of the dissertation, OOL debate would be broadly resolved and the central issue would effectively be replaced by a variety of chemical questions that deal with the particular mechanisms by which those underlying principles could have been expressed. Issues such as identifying historic transitions, the essays on american, definition of life, would become to some extent arbitrary and ruled by scientific conventions, rather than by matters of principle. 4. Qun Qiu? The role of autocatalysis during abiogenesis.
In the context of the OOL debate, there is one single and central historic fact on which there is broad agreement—that life's emergence was initiated by some autocatalytic chemical system. The two competing narratives within the OOL's long-standing debate—‘replication first’ or ‘metabolism first’—though differing in economics and ideology, key elements, both build on that autocatalytic character (see  and dissertation references therein). The ‘replication first’ school of thought stresses the role of oligomeric compounds, which express that autocatalytic capability through their ability to self-replicate, an and ideology, idea that can be traced back almost a century to the work of Troland , while the qun qiu, ‘metabolism first’ school of thought emphasizes the waiting minute a paper, emergence of cyclic networks, as articulated by Kauffman  in the 1980s and reminiscent of the metabolic cycles found in all extant life. With respect to this issue, we have recently pointed out that these two approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive. It could well be that both oligomeric entities and qun qiu dissertation cyclic networks were crucial elements during life's emergence, thereby offering a novel perspective on this long-standing question [1,7]. However, once it is accepted that autocatalysis is a central element in and ideology and other, the process of abiogenesis, it follows that the dissertation, study of autocatalytic systems in general may help uncover the principles that govern their chemical behaviour, regardless of their chemical detail. Indeed, as we will now describe, the generally accepted supposition that life's origins emerged from some prebiotic autocatalytic process can be shown to economics essays, lead to broad insights into the chemistry–biology connection and to the surprising revelation that the qun qiu dissertation, processes of abiogenesis and have feelings too essay biological evolution are directly related to one another. Once established, that connection will enable the underlying principles that governed the emergence of life on qun qiu, the Earth to be uncovered without undue reliance on speculative historic suppositions regarding the precise nature of those prebiotic systems.
5. A previously unrecognized stability kind: dynamic kinetic stability. The realization that the autocatalytic character of the replication reaction can lead to exponential growth and is unsustainable has been long appreciated, going back at least to Thomas Malthus's classic treatise ‘An essay on the principle of population’, published in 1798 . But the immigrants pat mora essays, chemical consequences of that long-recognized powerful kinetic character, although described by qun qiu dissertation Lotka already a century ago , do not seem to have been adequately appreciated. Recently, one of us (A.P.) has described a new stability kind in nature, seemingly overlooked in modern scientific thought, which we have termed dynamic kinetic stability ( DKS ) [1,7,23,24] . That stability kind, applicable solely to persistent replicating systems, whether chemical or biological, derives directly from the powerful kinetic character and the inherent unsustainability of the replication process. However, for the replication reaction to be kinetically unsustainable, the reverse reaction, in which the replicating system reverts back to its component building blocks, must be very slow when compared with the have, forward reaction; the replication reaction must be effectively irreversible. That condition, in turn, means the system must be maintained in a far-from-equilibrium state , and that continuing requirement is satisfied through the replicating system being open and continually fed activated component building blocks. Qun Qiu Dissertation? Note that the above description is waiting until minute to write, consistent with Prigogine's non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach, which stipulates that self-organized behaviour is associated with irreversible processes within the nonlinear regime .
From the above, it follows that the DKS term would not be applicable to an equilibrium mixture of some oligomeric replicating entity together with its interconverting component building blocks. Given the above discussion, it is apparent that the DKS concept is quite distinct from the conventional stability kind in nature, thermodynamic stability. A key feature of DKS is that it characterizes populations of replicators , rather than the individual replicators which make up those populations. Dissertation? Individual replicating entities are inherently unstable , as reflected in their continual turnover, whereas a population of replicators can be remarkably stable, as expressed by the persistence of some replicating populations. Certain life forms (e.g. cyanobacteria) express this stability kind in poem, dramatic fashion, having been able to maintain a conserved function and a readily recognized morphology over billions of years. Indeed, within the world of replicators, there is theoretical and empirical evidence for a selection rule that in some respects parallels the second law of thermodynamics in that less stable replicating systems tend to dissertation, become transformed into more stable ones [1,8]. Economics And Ideology And Other Essays? This stability kind, which is applicable to all persistent replicating systems, whether chemical or biological, is then able to qun qiu dissertation, place biological systems within a more general physico-chemical framework, thereby enabling a physico-chemical merging of replicating chemical systems with biological ones. Studies in systems chemistry in recent years have provided empirical support for such a view by essays demonstrating that chemical and biological replicators show remarkably similar reactivity patterns, thereby reaffirming the existence of a common underlying framework linking chemistry to biology [1,7].
6. Extending Darwinian theory to inanimate chemical systems. The recognition that a distinctly different stability kind, DKS, is applicable to both chemical and biological replicators, together with the fact that both replicator kinds express similar reaction characteristics, leads to qun qiu, the profound conclusion that the so-called chemical phase leading to simplest life and the biological phase appear to poem essays, be one continuous physico-chemical process, as illustrated in qun qiu dissertation, scheme 1. Unification of animals feelings abiogenesis and biological evolution into a single continuous process governed by the drive toward greater DKS. That revelation is dissertation, valuable as it offers insights into the last to write, abiogenesis from studies in dissertation, biological evolution and, vice versa, it can provide new insights into the process of biological evolution from systems chemistry studies of poem simple replicating systems. A single continuous process necessarily means one set of governing principles, which in dissertation, turn means that the two seemingly distinct processes of abiogenesis and evolution can be combined and addressed in animals have feelings too essay, concert. Qun Qiu Dissertation? Significantly, that merging of too essay chemistry and biology suggests that a general theory of qun qiu evolution, expressed in and ideology and other, physico-chemical terms rather than biological ones and applicable to qun qiu dissertation, both chemical and biological systems, may be formulated.
Its essence may be expressed as follows: All stable ( persistent ) replicating systems will tend to evolve over portsmouth, time towards systems of greater DKS. As we have described in some detail in previous publications, there are both empirical and theoretical grounds for believing that oligomeric replicating systems which are less stable (less persistent) will tend to be transformed into more stable (more persistent) forms [1,7,8,24]. In fact that selection rule is just a particular application of the more general law of nature, almost axiomatic in dissertation, character, that systems of all kinds tend from less stable to more stable. That law is inherent in the very definition of the term ‘stability’. So within the global selection rule in nature, normally articulated by the second law of waiting until the last to write a paper thermodynamics, we can articulate a formulation specific to replicative systems, both chemical and biological— from DKS less stable to DKS more stable . A moment's thought then suggests that the Darwinian concept of ‘fitness maximization’ (i.e. less fit to more fit) is just a more specific expression of that general replicative rule as applied specifically to biological replicators.
Whereas, in qun qiu, Darwinian terms, we say that living systems evolve to maximize fitness, the general theory is expressed in physico-chemical terms and stipulates that stable replicating systems, whether chemical or biological, tend to evolve so as to increase their stability, their DKS. Of course such a formulation implies that DKS is quantifiable. As we have previously discussed, quantification is possible, but only for related replicators competing for common resources, for example, a set of structurally related replicating molecules, or a set of genetically related bacterial life forms [1,7]. Immigrants Poem Essays? More generally, when assessing the dissertation, DKS of poem pat mora essays replicating systems in a wider sense, one frequently must make do with qualitative or, at best, semi-quantitative measures. Note that the general theory should not be considered as just one of changing terminology—‘DKS’ replacing ‘fitness’, ‘kinetic selection’ replacing ‘natural selection’.
The physico-chemical description offers new insights as it allows the characterization of both the driving force and the mechanisms of evolution in more fundamental terms. The driving force is the drive of dissertation replicating systems towards greater stability, but the stability kind that is applicable in identity, the replicative world. Dissertation? In fact that driving force can be thought of bottled as a kind of second law analogue, though, as noted, the open character of replicating systems makes its quantification more difficult. And the mechanisms by which that drive is expressed can now be specified. These are complexification and selection , the former being largely overlooked in the traditional Darwinian view, while the latter is, of course, central to that view. A striking insight from this approach to abiogenesis follows directly: just as Darwinian theory broadly explained biological evolution, so an qun qiu, extended theory of portsmouth evolution encompassing both chemical and biological replicators can be considered as broadly explaining abiogenesis. Thus, life on the Earth appears to have emerged through the spontaneous emergence of a simple (unidentified) replicating system, initially fragile, which complexified and qun qiu dissertation evolved towards complex replicating systems exhibiting greater DKS. Essay? In fact, we would claim that in the very broadest of terms, the physico-chemical basis of abiogenesis can be considered explained. But does that simplistic explanation for qun qiu, abiogenesis imply that the economics and other, OOL problem can be considered resolved? Far from it.
Let us now consider why. While Darwin's revolutionary theory changed our understanding of dissertation how biological systems relate to one another through the on american identity, simple concept of natural selection, the Darwinian view has undergone considerable refinement and qun qiu dissertation elaboration since its proposal over 150 years ago. First the genomic revolution, which provided Darwin's ideas with a molecular basis through the first decades of the twentieth century, transformed the subject and led to the neo-Darwinian synthesis, an amalgamation of dissertation bottled classic Darwinism with population genetics and dissertation then with molecular genetics. But in the last minute to write, more recent years, there is a growing realization that a molecular approach to understanding evolutionary dynamics is insufficient, that evolutionary biology's more fundamental challenge is to qun qiu, address the unresolved problem of complexity. How did biological complexity come about, and how can that complexity and on american identity its dynamic nature be understood?
Our point is that Darwin's monumental thesis, with natural selection at qun qiu its core, was just the beginning of a long process of essays identity refinement and elaboration, which has continued unabated to the present day. Precisely the same process will need to operate with respect to the OOL problem. The DKS concept, simple in essence, does outline in dissertation, the broadest terms the pat mora essays, physico-chemical basis for abiogenesis. But that broad outline needs to qun qiu, be elaborated on through experimental investigation, so that the dissertation bottled, detailed mechanisms by which the DKS of simple chemical replicating systems could increase would be clarified. Already at this early stage, central elements of those mechanisms are becoming evident. Thus, there are preliminary indications that the process of abiogenesis was one of DKS enhancement through complexification [1,7]. More complex replicating systems, presenting a diversity of features and functions, appear to qun qiu, be able to replicate more effectively than simpler ones, and so are likely to be more stable in DKS terms (though this should not be interpreted to mean that any form of complexification will necessarily lead to enhanced DKS).
The pertinent question is then: how does that process of complexification manifest itself? And this is where systems chemistry enters the and ideology essays, scene [9–11]. Dissertation? By studying the essays, dynamics of simple replicating molecular systems and the networks they establish, studies in system chemistry are beginning to offer insights into that process of replicative complexification. Following on qun qiu dissertation, from earlier work by Sievers von Kiedrowski  and Lee et al . , more recent studies on RNA replicating systems by Lincoln Joyce  and a paper most recently by Vaidya et al .  suggest that network formation is qun qiu dissertation, crucial. Thus, Lincoln Joyce  observed that a molecular network based on two cross-catalysing RNAs replicated rapidly and could be sustained indefinitely. By contrast, the have too essay, most effective single molecule RNA replicator replicated slowly and was not sustainable. Qun Qiu Dissertation? But in to write a paper, a more recent landmark experiment, Vaidya et al .  demonstrated that a cooperative cycle made up of three self-replicating RNAs could out-compete those same RNAs acting as individual replicators. The conclusion seems clear: molecular networks are more effective in qun qiu, establishing self-sustainable autocatalytic systems than single molecule replicators, just as was postulated by Eigen Schuster  some 40 years ago.
Many key questions remain unanswered, however. What chemical groups would facilitate the emergence of complex holistically replicative networks? Are nucleic acids essential for the establishment of such networks, or could other chemical groups also express this capability? Is template binding the main mechanism by animals feelings which molecular autocatalysis can take place, or can holistically autocatalytic sets be established through cycle closure without a reliance on template binding? How would the emergence of individual self-replicating entities within a larger holistically replicative network contribute to the stability of the network as a whole? How do kinetic and thermodynamic factors inter-relate in qun qiu dissertation, facilitating the locke essay, maintenance of dynamically stable, but thermodynamically unstable, replicating systems [12,13]? As these questions suggest, our understanding of central issues remains rudimentary, and the road to dissertation, discovery will probably be long and arduous. Essays Identity? However, the key point of qun qiu dissertation this essay has been to note that just as Darwin's simple concept of natural selection was able to provide a basis for an ongoing research programme in evolution, one that has been central to biological research for over 150 years, so the DKS concept may be able to offer a basis for ongoing studies in systems chemistry, one that may offer new insights into the rules governing evolutionary dynamics in simple replicating systems and, subsequently, for replicating systems of all kinds. Such a research programme, we believe, promises to further clarify the underlying relationship linking chemical and biological replicators.
In conclusion, it seems probably that we will never know the precise historic path by which life on the Earth emerged, but, very much in the Darwinian tradition, it seems we can now specify the essence of the ahistoric principles by which that process came about. Just as Darwin, in the very simplest of terms, pointed out how natural selection enabled simple life to evolve into complex life, so the recently proposed general theory of evolution [1,7] points out in simplest terms how simple, but fragile, replicating systems could have complexified into the intricate chemical systems of life. But, as discussed earlier, a detailed understanding of that process will have to wait until ongoing studies in systems chemistry reveal both the classes of chemical materials and the kinds of chemical pathways that simple replicating systems are able to follow in their drive towards greater complexity and replicative stability.
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10 Tips for Successful College Marketing. Last updated on dissertation April 28, 2017. I was laying in bed at night and poem thought about where I can help society. And I realized people would appreciate my knowledge in how to get college students attention in a polite way or permission as my homie Seth G says. Qun Qiu! So I racked my brain, ate tons of cheap pizza, did my work really late at until the last, night, spent way too many hours instant messenging, talked to college friends, and qun qiu dissertation drank a lot of beer to put me in the right mind-set to market to college students.
What follows are college marketing strategies and and ideas: Duh! Facebook is the average college student's drug of identity choice. Qun Qiu! I even find myself feeling the pangs of Facebook withdrawal from time to time. Everything on facebook is read, from the useless profile of each and every student to the never-ending lists of groups available. The attention span for the average college student is about 30 seconds (give or take). If it isn't interesting, it's not going to essays be abosorbed. Funny is always interesting. Funny means the student can go home to whoever and retell it; making the student seem cooler and therein receiving even more advertisement through heresay.
The average college student does not have time to dissertation watch tv and essays usually might not even own a tv. Dissertation! It's a waste of money and effort. Referring back to the infinitesimally small range of college student attention spans, if they've seen it before, there's no point in paying attention. Locke On Understanding! My favorite words in college were cancelled, post-poned, beer, party and best of all FREE. Free is the one word that can grab any college students attention, no matter what the context; free beer, free sex, free food, free day, etc. Students (and former students) will do just about anything to get something for free or save $2.
Winning is always fun, and dissertation giving the and other opportunity to win anything, even pride, is good enough for the average college student. Dissertation! Contests are interesting and attention grabbing; always a good approach. 7- School newspapers are a waste of money. Unfortuently, not many college students read the school newspaper (goes back to the whole time restrction and attention span points). Even the ones who do read will most likely spend very little time perusing through the on understanding ads. School newspapers don't really shout out efficacy. One thing college students love is qun qiu, money. Helping out student organizations that they care for will win major brownie points and could help in swaying the attention of the student.
In college, flyers are used for bedding for your pet, toilet paper, scratch paper and dissertation portsmouth maybe blankets for the homeless. Flyering for your cause = killing trees and nothing more. And by Pros I mean the students aka, shameless plug, my company is made of college students and can assist you in getting the word out. anyways at least ask students what they want and go on campus and observe. When you observe, connect and offer value it's easy to dissertation build relationships. Two critical marketing tips that are not included and get their own article are co-marketing and and ideology and other aim. Co-Marketing or word of dissertation mouth marketing as Noah suggested (not me) in comments and using instant messenging are very important in getting college students to know about your product and talk about it. We did something similar when we grew Mint's email list to more than 20,000 people BEFORE it launched.
When the marketing is over until minute a paper make sure your event or product or whatever doesn't suck. Here's how I made $100K+ doing conferences. In the comments below tell me how you use these college marketing strategies and if you have any other ideas to market on college campuses. Get my college marketing checklist. Dissertation! 16 responses to “10 Tips for bottled, Successful College Marketing” Advice me a skit for my college advertisement.
College events are well planned by a group discussion. Everyone shares their views and ideas for dissertation, the event. It is a social service event in a college by and ideology and other essays the teenagers. Qun Qiu! Some of the have feelings too essay activities like to start their own social non-profit,. Make hygiene kits for homeless . Create their own service project and get involved with church related activities. Organise an event to raise money for qun qiu dissertation, charity . Hey! Thanks for the tips. PS - You spelled absorbed wrong under #2. we can make agents or we can say college representives who can work for maerketting as on commission base based salary according to addmission he addmittes by refrenced by on understanding him.
Than you for your tips - i have a college and spent thousands of rands on flyers and only got a few students. Going to try these tips. Thanx. Hello, my friend and qun qiu I are creating a club and wanted some advice for marketing. Do you think you could be of help? what tools can be used to cover advertising and animals have promtion in all the colleges of mumbai ? We are having difficulty with the student turnout at our community college events.
According to some of my peers, it's difficult to motivate students in a community college because they are not invested in the college experience since they're only dissertation, spending 2 years there. Any ideas on how to overcome this? Marketing ideas when dealing with uninterested students perhaps? There are tons of tools and resources being made available to them at these events that I feel they are missing out on. Essays! I was just reading your question about increasing turnout for your institution's Campus events. I may be able to give you some suggestions. I organize and host events for qun qiu dissertation, colleges and universities. Bottled Water! (All of qun qiu dissertation my events are free to economics and other essays the colleges, as all revenue is generated by exhibitors and sponsors, who have paid to qun qiu dissertation be part of the event.) I've formatted my number and email below, in hopes to avoid spam. My number is (5) Five (0) Zero (8) Eight - (9) Nine (8) Eight (1) One - (4) Four (0) Zero (6) Six (3) Three. Feel free to call or text me. My email address is: Info(at)NewEnglandTradeShow(dot)com.
If you are marketing a Cram Jam Test Prep class how would you go about getting the word out? In my institute, we publish newsletter every month as well as a quarterly magazine which helps in marketing but something more must be done to promote the name. so seminars, game tournaments, conferences and talent hunt programs are the best ways towards advertising. Immigrants Pat Mora! Those are great! I'm going to link to this. I agree that some students peruse the newspaper but successful products can completely avoid them and qun qiu better spend there money elsewhere. For example, iPod, Better Luck Tomorrow (movie), Google, Napster, Livestrong numerous more completely avoided the newspaper.
Things that are cool on college campus will be talked about on american, among students and dissertation not read about in the school newspaper unless its completely amazing. Essays! I think there are better ways to spend your $1000 full-page ad that runs for one day. If you co-sponsor a group for $1000 you pretty much own them for the rest of the year. Dissertation! DON'T just show a logo on an event for a group, get INTEGRATED. The Last Minute To Write! easier said than done, right? NO. offer some reward for them helping you with your CONTEST. see how its all coming together. TAKE the dissertation $1000 you saved from your full-page ad and give that in free products and ways that the student group can spread your message.
This is COMPLETELY underutilized, as discussed in a future article AIM and Word of mouth are the killers on college campuses. For facebook it depends on the timing and what you are posting as an announcement. During May-Sept, Dec you are going to have to face mid-terms/finals which make people much less likely to go on the facebook. i advertised for ninajcard.com and economics and ideology sold 4 in one day. some days more some days less. i think group sponsorship is effective for facebook but generic banner advertising in general is lame (my opinion) if you are trying a contest/free stuff out it has to qun qiu dissertation be fun/unique. lets say you are giving a way a FREE tablet/notebook computer. now if students could compete for locke, this with the amount of friends they have to refer to a location on campus then tons of people would attend and you could showcase your latest product. how to dissertation get that started. partner with a student group, person or hfg:) call me 510 866 NOAH. please note i spent around 3 minutes writing this, if you gave me 10-12 min I could come up with even cooler things, i hope. From student monitor - who conducts an annual survey of college students campus newspapers are an excellent tool for dissertation portsmouth, college-oriented marketers. 46% of all students have read at qun qiu dissertation, least 3 of the the last minute to write a paper last 5 issues of their school's newspaper. Also, if you are trying to promote a game or a free something, how do you get the word out? Just using facebook? A co-sponsorship usually just allows you do show a logo, which won't help your case. I've advertised in facebook to very disappointing results. Any suggestions on how others have gotten success from that? I think you pretty much nailed it Noah, one thing I might include is add a mechanism to allow them to become co-marketers.
I think that can mean a way to qun qiu dissertation pass something along online or a way for them to and ideology easily evangalize for dissertation, you.
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CONSTRAINTS ON THE EXPANSION OF THE GLOBAL FOOD SUPPLY. by Henery W Kindall and David Pimentel, from Ambio Vol. 23 No. 3, May 1994. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. We examine whether and how global food production may be increased to qun qiu dissertation provide for a world population expected to double by about 2050. Increasing current food production more than proportional to population growth is required so as to provide most humans with an adequate diet. We examine the possible expansion of on american identity, food supplies to qun qiu the year 2050, the essay on understanding inventory of presently utilized and potentially available arable land, rates of land degradation, and the limitations of water and biological resources. Serious degradation and loss of the world's arable land is taking place and expansion of irrigation, vital for food production, is becoming more costly and qun qiu dissertation difficult.
A business-as-usual scenario points to looming shortages of food. Additional stress from possible climatic alteration and enhanced ultraviolet radiation may make the provision of adequate food supplies extremely difficult to achieve. The nature of the dissertation portsmouth bottled changes that are required to qun qiu make sufficient food available are identified. World population is projected to continue increasing well into the next century. A central question is whether and dissertation portsmouth water how global food production may be increased to provide for the coming population expansion.
It would be necessary to increase current levels of food production more than proportional to population growth so as to provide most humans with an adequate diet. Qun Qiu Dissertation! There are a number of actions that may be taken to help this food expansion, but there are also a number of constraints that make expansion of bottled water, food output difficult. In this paper we examine the expansion of per capita food supplies required in the light of the current range of expectations of population growth, the inventory of currently utilized and potentially available arable land, rates of land degradation, and the limitations of water and biological resources. We make assessments of the prospects of achieving the needed growth of the global food supply to the year 2050, when the world's population is projected to dissertation have about doubled. We examine scenarios of food supply and demand that point to looming shortages. We do not analyze the problems of providing energy, capital, and other needs to support increasing numbers of people. Numbers and Growth. The world's population grew slowly over much of the historic past; it was not until after 1900 that growth accelerated (1). The 1992 population was 5.5 billion. World population is now increasing at about 1.7% yr, corresponding to a doubling time of 40 years. Recently, a gradual decrease in the fertility rate has slowed in a number of countries (2, 3), most notably in China and India (4), which has led to on understanding upward revisions in population forecasts.
The world population will grow by just under 1 billion people during the decade of the 1990s. Figure 1 shows three such projections for world population (5). The United Nations has concluded that if the world's fertility rate were to fall to qun qiu dissertation replacement levels during the period 1990-1995 and animals feelings too essay remained there, the qun qiu world population would reach 7.8 billion in economics and other essays, 2050. This continuing rise is the consequence of having an age distribution presently heavily weighted toward young people. The populations in many developing countries would double in this case. Qun Qiu Dissertation! A population of 7.8 billion, under this implausible assumption, is only slightly less than the low projection for economics and other that year, which thus appears unrealistic. For the dissertation purposes of this paper we will employ the medium fertility estimate. The 2050 world population in this scenario is expected to essay on understanding be 10 billion.
Food: History and Supply. In the early 1960s, most nations were self-sufficient in food; now only a few are. In the period 1950-1984, the qun qiu dissertation introduction of high-yield crops and immigrants pat mora essays energy intensive agriculture ushered in the Green Revolution, leading to increased crop production. World grain output expanded by a factor of 2.6 in this period (6, 7) increasing linearly, within the fluctuations. Except for dissertation parts of Africa, production exceeded population growth throughout the world. Per capita production has now slowed (8) and appears to bottled be declining. Rising growth of population, as shown in Figure 1, and a linearly increasing food production (Figure 2) have persisted over dissertation, the recent 40 years. Such circumstances have been of concern since Thomas R. Malthus first called attention, in 1798, to the consequences of their continuation; decreasing per capita food and great human suffering (9). The success of the Green Revolution lay primarily in its increased use of fossil energy for fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation to raise crops as well as in improved seed. It greatly increased the energy-intensiveness of waiting the last minute, agricultural production, in some cases by dissertation 100 fold or more. Plant breeding was principally aimed at portsmouth water designing plants that could tolerate high levels of fertilizer use and improving the harvest index (10).
The Green Revolution was technologically suited to special circumstances: relatively level land with adequate water for irrigation and fertilizer, and in nations that could acquire the dissertation other needed resources. The Revolution has been implemented in a manner that has not proved to be environmentally sustainable. The technology has enhanced soil erosion, polluted groundwater and surface-water resources, and increased pesticide use has caused serious public health and environmental problems (11-13). Opportunities exist to reduce these negative environmental and social impacts. Research is underway at most of the International Crop Research Centers to make the Revolution more environmentally and socially sustainable.
Since 1980, there has been some improvement in world crop yields with the rate of increase in total grain production declining slightly. Grain production has increased roughly linearly (14) since the early 1950s. World area planted to grain is down 8% since 1981 (15). However, there are a number of important obstacles to a large, further expansion of the energy intensive practices that underlay the expansion based on the Green Revolution, including economics, technology adoption, and environmental degradation. At the present time, 2 of 183 nations are major exporters of grain. the United States and Canada. Food: Availability and Consumption. For most of the world's population, grain is the primary source of nutrition and may become more so in years ahead. It is thus a useful measure in estimating future food needs. The per capita consumption of foods and feed grains supplied per year is shown in Table 1. Data for immigrants poem essays China and the USA are included to show a range in qun qiu, these distributions.
Per capita grain production in Africa is down 12% since 1981 and animals have feelings down 22% since 1967 (15). Some 20 years ago, Africa produced food equal to what it consumed; today it produces only 80% of what it consumes (16). Food from marine sources now provide between 1% and 2% of the world's supply of qun qiu, food (17, 18) and the amount, including the essays identity contribution from aquaculture, is unlikely to double within the next few decades (John Ryther pers. comm.). In line with recent studies (19, 20), we estimate that with the world population at 5.5 billion, food production is adequate to feed 7 billion people a vegetarian diet, with ideal distribution and qun qiu dissertation no grain fed to livestock. Yet possibly as many as two billion people are now living in poverty (V. Abernathy, pers. Economics And Other Essays! comm.), and over I billion in utter poverty live with hunger (7, 19-23). Inadequate distribution of food is a substantial contributing factor to this current situation. It is qun qiu dissertation, clear from the above review that current food supplies, with present patterns of distribution and immigrants pat mora consumption, appear insufficient to provide satisfactory diets to all, although a recent FAO report indicates that chronic undernutrition in developing countries has improved somewhat (24).
It is generally agreed that, among a number of important global changes, economic and qun qiu social well-being must improve for that large fraction of the world's peoples now in poverty. This includes more and better food. A doubling of the population would necessitate the equivalent of a tripling, or more, of our current food supply to ensure that the undernourished were no longer at risk and to bring population growth stabilization within reach in humane ways, without widespread hunger and deprivation. Improved nutrition may be achieved by locke essay dietary shifts and qun qiu improved distribution as well as by an increased quantity of food, as discussed later in this paper. Supply: The world's land devoted to locke essay food production and in forest and savanna is shown in Table 2. Less than one half of the world's land area is suitable for agriculture, including grazing; total arable (crop) land, in qun qiu, use and potential, is poem, estimated to comprise about 3000 million ha (25). However, nearly all of the world's productive land, flat and with water, is already exploited.
Most of the dissertation unexploited land is either too steep, too wet, too dry, or too cold for agriculture (26). There are difficulties in finding new land that could be exploited for agricultural production. Expansion of and other essays, cropland would have to come at qun qiu dissertation the expense of dissertation portsmouth bottled water, forest and rangeland, much of qun qiu dissertation, which is essential in its present uses. In Asia, for example, nearly 80% of potentially arable land is now under cultivation (7, 27). In the 1970s, there was a net annual gain in world cropland of until, nearly 0.7%. The rate of gain has slowed and, in 1990, the net annual gain was about 0.35% yr, largely as a result of deforestation. Dissertation! As much as 70-80% of ongoing deforestation, both tropical and temperate, is associated with the spread of agriculture. For these reasons we estimate that the world's arable land could be expanded at most by 500 million ha, or a net expansion of immigrants poem pat mora, roughly one-third.
However the productivity of this new land would be much below present levels in qun qiu dissertation, land now being cropped. At the present time humans either use, coopt or destroy 40% of the estimated 100 billion tons of organic matter produced annually by the terrestrial ecosystem (28). Quality and Degradation: The loss of productive soil has occurred as long as crops have been cultivated. Lal and Pierce (29) in stating this, report that land degradation has now become a major threat to the sustainability of world food supply. This loss arises from soil erosion, salinization, waterlogging, and urbanization with its associated highway and have road construction.
Nutrient depletion, overcultivation, overgrazing, acidification, and dissertation soil compaction contribute as well. Essays On American Identity! Many of these processes are caused or are aggravated by poor agricultural management practices. Taken together or in various combinations, these factors decrease the productivity of the soil and substantially reduce annual crop yields (30-32), and, more important, will reduce crop productivity for the long term (33). Almost all arable land that is dissertation, currently in on american identity, crop production, especially marginal land, is highly susceptible to degradation. Qun Qiu! We estimate that about one quarter of locke, this land should not be in production (34).
This is depressing food production, as well as requiring increased fossil energy inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation in an effort to offset degradation. Soil erosion, a problem throughout the world, is the single most serious cause of degradation of arable land (35-37), owing to its adverse effect on crop productivity. The major cause is qun qiu dissertation, poor agricultural practices that leave the soil without vegetative cover to protect it against water and wind erosion. Soil loss by erosion is extremely serious because it takes from 200 to 1000 years, averaging about and ideology and other essays 500 years, to form 2.5 cm (1 inch) of topsoil (38) under normal agricultural conditions (39-43). Throughout the world current soil losses range from qun qiu about 20 to essay on understanding 300 t ha yr, with substantial amounts of nitrogen and other vital nutrients also lost (44). Topsoil is being lost at 16 to 300 times faster than it can be replaced (36). Worldwide soil erosion has caused farmers to abandon about 430 million ha of arable land during the last 40 years, an area equivalent to about one-third of dissertation, all present cropland (6, 7). Each year at least 10 million ha are lost to land degradation that includes the essays spread of dissertation, urbanization (45). For example, Tolba (46) reported that the rate of feelings too essay, soil loss in qun qiu dissertation, Africa has increased 20-fold during the past 30 years.
The estimated rate of world soil erosion in excess of new soil production is 23 billion t yr, or about 0.7% loss of the world's soil inventory each year (47; Table 3). The continuing application of fertilizers (48) has so far masked much of the deterioration and loss of productivity from this process, so that world cropland yield is remaining roughly constant. This appears likely to continue in the next decades. Continued erosion at the current rate will result in the loss of over 30% of the global soil inventory by the year 2050, a truly severe damage and loss, obviously unsustainable over the long run. Erosion reduces the availability of water (31), as well as nutrients to growing plants and diminishes organic matter and soil biota (29, 49). Reduction of the water available to growing plants is the most harmful effect of erosion.
Soil degradation is animals have feelings too essay, affecting 15% of the earth's cropland area (29). In developing countries, the dissertation degradation of soil is locke essay, growing worse owing to increased burning of qun qiu dissertation, crop residues and dung for fuel. Have Feelings Too Essay! This reduces soil nutrients (50, 51) and qun qiu dissertation quickly intensifies soil erosion. Water: Resources and Irrigation. Supply and and ideology and other Use: Water is the major limiting factor for world agricultural production. Qun Qiu Dissertation! Crops require and transpire massive amounts of water. For example, a corn crop that produces about 7000 kg ha of grain will take up and transpire about 4.2 million L ha of water during its growing season (52). To supply this much water to the crop, assuming no use of irrigation, not only must 10 million liters (1000 mm) of rain fall per ha, but it must be reasonably evenly distributed during the year and especially during the growing season. Irrigation: irrigation is on understanding, vital to global food production: About 16% of the world's cropland is under irrigation. This area contributes about dissertation one-third of crop production, yielding about 2 1/2 times as much per ha as nonirrigated land.
In arid lands crops must be irrigated and this requires large quantities of water and energy (53). For example, the production of 1 kg of the following food and fiber products requires: 1400 liters of irrigation water for corn; 4700 liters for rice, and locke 17 000 liters for cotton (54). About 70% of the fresh water used by humans is expended for qun qiu dissertation irrigation (55). Much of the world's irrigated land is being damaged by salinization and waterlogging from improper irrigation techniques (56). It is sufficiently severe over 10% of the area to suppress crop yields (57). This damage, together with reduced irrigation development and population growth, has led, since 1978, to declining world irrigated area per capita (58, 59). Serious salinization problems already exist in India, Pakistan, Egypt, Mexico, Australia. and and other the United States. Because salt levels are naturally high in these regions, the problem of qun qiu dissertation, salt build-up is essays identity, particularly severe. Recent research puts the dissertation current loss of world farmland due to immigrants poem salinization alone at 1.5 million ha yr (60) or almost 1 % yr, a loss presently being more than made up by expansion of irrigation. If the damage continues, nearly 30% of the world's presently irrigated acreage will be lost by dissertation 2025 and nearly 50% lost by and ideology 2050, losses increasingly difficult to qun qiu dissertation make up. Another damaging side effect of irrigation is the pollution of river and stream waters by the addition of salts.
Water Shortages: Pressures from growing populations have strained water resources in many areas of the world (59). Worldwide, 214 river or lake basins, containing 40% of the world's population, now compete for water (55, 61). In many areas of the world, irrigation water is drawn from fossil aquifers, underground water resources, at rates much in excess of the natural recharge rates. The average recharge rate for the world's aquifers is 0.007% yr (62). Economics And Ideology And Other! As the qun qiu dissertation aquifers' water levels decline, they become too costly to pump or they become exhausted, forcing abandonment of the and other irrigated land (55). Africa and several countries in the Middle East, especially Israel and Jordan, as well as other countries, are depleting fossil groundwater resources. China has severe agricultural problems (13). In China, ground water levels are falling as much as 1 m yr in major wheat and corn growing regions of the north China Plain (64). Tianjin, China, reports a drop in ground water levels of 4.4 m yr (58, 59), while in southern India, groundwater levels are falling 2.5 to 3 m yr; in the Gujarat aquifer depletion has induced salt contamination (6, 7). The prospect for future expansion of irrigation to increase food supplies, worldwide and in the US, is not encouraging because per capita irrigated land has declined about 6% since 1978 (57). Greatly expanded irrigation is a difficult, and probably unsustainable solution to the need for expansion of agriculture output (59) because of the rapidly accelerating costs of irrigation (57).
The continuing emission of a number of gases into the atmosphere from qun qiu dissertation human activities, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, and, most important, carbon dioxide, is now thought likely to alter the immigrants poem essays global climate in the years ahead, a consequence arising from the greenhouse effect (65, 66). Worldwide changes in qun qiu dissertation, rainfall distribution are expected, including drying of some continental interiors as well as possible increases in climatic variability. Increased variability in temperature and rainfall can, in many circumstances, be damaging to agricultural productivity. There are expected to be CO2-induced effects on productivity and growth of plants, including crops and weeds, and collateral effects on plant pathogens and insect pests. There may be decline or loss of ecosystems that are unable to waiting until the last accommodate a rapid climate change. The major impact will be caused by changes in rainfall and water availability to crops. Most crops can tolerate the higher temperatures projected from greenhouse-induced climate change. The detailed consequences are difficult to predict, in part because the expected global average temperature rise and changes in weather patterns have substantial uncertainties. Dissertation! The temperature rise expected from a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 level#151;which, in the absence of carbon emission controls, will occur a decade or so before the year 2100#151;is unlikely to lie outside the range 1.5- to on american 4.5-C (67). If the rise were only 2-C (a degree of warming not experienced in qun qiu dissertation, the last 8000 years), there could still be pronounced adverse effects (68).
The 1988 US experience is enlightening. Locke Essay! It was the hottest year on record to that time which, accompanied by qun qiu dissertation a mid-continent drought, resulted in a 30% decrease in grain yield, dropping US production below consumption for the first time in waiting minute, some 300 years. Similarly, Canadian production dropped about 37% (69). Laboratory studies under favorable conditions indicate that enhanced CO2 levels can improve growth rates and water utilization of crops significantly (70). Under field conditions, the estimated increase in yields are projected to be only one-quarter to one-third of that observed in the controlled greenhouse conditions without taking into consideration other deleterious consequences of dissertation, climate change that also may be present and yields may, in fact not improve at all (71).
Ground-level ultraviolet enhancement arising from O3 loss in the upper atmosphere from the anthropogenic emission of chlorofluorocarbons can affect natural systems' productivity, alter pest balances, as well as affect the health of humans and have feelings too essay surface and marine animals. The current ozone loss, as well as its seasonal variation, over equatorial and mid-latitude regions is not yet well known but is dissertation, expected to increase, perhaps greatly (72). The US Environmental Protection Agency reported in April 1991, a winter-spring O3 column density depletion of 4.5-5% in mid-latitudes. More recently, there is evidence of a slow but steady ozone depletion over on american, most of the globe; between 40- and 50-N the decline is as great as 8% per decade (73, 74). Qun Qiu! Each percent decrease in O3 results in about a 3% increase in ground-level ultraviolet intensity. Even if the O3 depleting chemical releases were halted now, O3 depletion would continue to increase for decades, with effects lasting a century or more (M. McElroy pers. comm.).
Increased ozone levels may already have decreased phytoplankton yields in the Antarctic ocean (75). Plant responses to ultraviolet radiation include reduced leaf size, stunted growth, poor seed quality, and increased susceptibility to weeds, disease, and pests. Of some 200 plant species studied, two thirds show sensitivity to ozone damage (76). A 25% O3 depletion is expected to reduce yields of soybean, one of civilization's staple crops, 20% (77). Red Hard disease infection rates in wheat increased from 9% to portsmouth 20% when experimental ozone loss increased from 8% to 16% above ambient levels (78). Clearly, the potential exists for a significant decrease in crop yields in dissertation, the period to 2050 from enhanced surface ultraviolet levels. Adjusting to modifications of global climate or to altered growing conditions. caused by greenhouse gases or from portsmouth enhanced ultraviolet, might stress management of agricultural systems greatly, especially if wholly new crops, and new procedures had to be developed for large areas of the world. Important uncertainties in the magnitudes of the effects expected may persist for a decade or so. Currently ruminant livestock like cattle and sheep, graze about dissertation half of the earth's total land area (79).
In addition, about one-quarter of world cropland is devoted to producing grains and other feed for livestock. About 38% of the the last minute to write a paper world's grain production is now fed to dissertation livestock (79). In the United States, for example, this amounts about 135 million tons yr of grain, of a total production of 312 million tons yr, sufficient to animals too essay feed a population of 400 million on dissertation a vegetarian diet. If humans, especially in developed countries, moved toward more vegetable protein diets rather than their present diets, which are high in animal protein foods, a substantial amount of grain would become available for direct human consumption. There are numerous ways by which cropland productivity may be raised that do not induce injury over and ideology and other, the long term, that is, are sustainable (26, 80-82). If these technologies were put into common use in agriculture, some of the negative impacts of degradation in the agro-ecosystem could be reduced and the yields of many crops increased. These technologies include: Energy-Intensive Farming.
While continuation of the rapid increases in dissertation, yields of the Green Revolution is no longer possible in many regions of the world, increased crop yields are possible by locke essay increasing the use of fertilizers and pesticides in some developing countries in Africa, Latin America, and Asia (83). However, recent reports indicate a possible problem of declining yields in dissertation, the rice-wheat systems in the high production areas of poem, South Asia (J. M. Duxbury pers. comm.) Livestock Management and Fertilizer Sources: Livestock serve two important functions in agriculture and dissertation food production. First, ruminant livestock convert grass and immigrants poem pat mora shrub forages, which are unsuitable for human food, into milk, blood, and meat for use by humans. They also produce enormous amounts of manure useful for crop production. Soil and Water Conservation: The high rate of soil erosion now typical of world agricultural land emphasizes the urgency of stemming this loss, which in itself is probably the most threatening to sustained levels of food production. Improved conservation of water can enhance rainfed and irrigated crop yields, as discussed below. Crop Varieties and qun qiu dissertation Genetic Engineering: The application of biotechnology to alter certain crop characteristics is expected to increase yields for immigrants poem pat mora some crops, such as developing new crop varieties with better harvest index and crops that have improved resistance to insect and plant pathogen attack. Maintaining Biodiversity: Conserving biodiversity of plant and animal species is essential to maintaining a productive and attractive environment for qun qiu agriculture and other human activities. Greater effort is also needed to conserve the genetic diversity that exists in crops worldwide.
This diversity has proven extremely valuable in improving crop productivity and will continue to until to write do so in future. Improved Pest Control: Because insects, diseases, and weeds destroy about 35% of potential preharvest crop production in the world (84), the implementation of appropriate technologies to reduce pest and disease losses would substantially increase crop yields and food supplies. Irrigation: Irrigation can be used successfully to increase yields as noted earlier, but only qun qiu if abundant water and energy resources are available. Bottled Water! The problems facing irrigation suggest that its worldwide expansion will be limited (57). Owing to developing shortages of water, improved irrigation practices that lead to qun qiu increased water in plant's root zones are urgently needed. A number of difficulties in expanding food supplies have been touched on above. Others are presented below: There is a need to decrease global fossil-fuel use and to halt deforestation, in animals too essay, order to lessen carbon emissions to the atmosphere (85).
These steps are in direct competition with the need to provide sufficient energy for intensive agriculture and for cooking and heating using firewood. A major decrease in fossil-fuel use by the industrial countries would require adoption of qun qiu, new technologies based on new energy sources, with improved conversion and end-use efficiencies, on immigrants a scale that would require 40 years at minimum to dissertation implement fully, even in favorable circumstances (86). Yet a three- or fourfold increase in feelings, effective energy services to the earth's peoples would be required to yield the improvements needed in the quality of life in a world of roughly doubled population. We do not consider here the dissertation considerable challenge that this provides (87). Even assuming that sufficient fossil or other fuels were available in the future to support energy-intensive agriculture in developing countries, several constraints appear to on american make this difficult. These include: the high economic costs of the energy inputs to those countries that already have serious debt problems; the lack of qun qiu, rainfall and/or irrigation water preventing effective use of the portsmouth bottled inputs; and farmers in developing nations who are not educated in the use of intensive agricultural methods and who change their ways slowly. A slowing of deforestation would mean less new cropland added to the present world inventory, so that the processes now degrading and destroying cropland could not be compensated by new acreage.
Population growth remains a basic problem. About 0.5 ha capita of qun qiu, cropland is needed to animals have feelings too essay provide a balanced plant/animal diet for humans worldwide (88). For the 1990 population of 5.5 billion, only 0.27 ha capita is dissertation, now available and this is likely to decline further. Moreover, the rate of population growth itself, especially in many developing nations, intensifies the problems of and other, coping with shortages owing to the difficulty of providing the economic expansion required (89). A major difficulty arises simply from the rate with which food supplies would have to be expanded to pace or to exceed population growth rates in those countries experiencing high growth rates. In order to stay even with population growth it will be necessary to expand food supplies, globally, by the rate of qun qiu dissertation, population increase. For many countries the rate of population expansion is in the range 2-3% yr.
As an example, in order to animals feelings achieve an increase of qun qiu, 50% in the per capita food production, by the end of a population doubling, the rate of expansion of agricultural production must be appropriately larger. Pat Mora Essays! If the population grows at 2% yr, the food production must increase at dissertation 3.2% yr, if it is 3% yr, the food production must grow at 4.8% yr. During the Green Revolution the have too essay world grain yield expanded at 2.8% yr. As noted earlier, this rate of expansion has slowed and, it appears, is unlikely to be resumed (90) although some countries in Asia and qun qiu Latin America are still gaining total annual increases in grain yield. In the US, which has one of the best records with corn, the rate of increase from 1945 to dissertation 1990 was about 3% yr. Dissertation! Since 1980, this rate has slowed. However, with wheat the waiting the last minute to write record is not as good as with corn, the increase in world grain yield is less than 2% yr. If the historical record is any guide, no nation with a population growth rate above 2% yr has much hope of improving its per capita supply of food unless it receives very substantial external aid and support. Of course these rates of increase for both population and qun qiu food production, if achieved. cannot be sustained indefinitely. Projections of future grain production depend on a host of variables most of which are uncertain. It is not possible to locke essay on understanding make useful forecasts.
As an alternative we consider three scenarios, for the period to the year 2050. The first assumes a continuation of present trends, patterns, and activities. This is referred to as Business-As-Usual, or BAU. Qun Qiu! Population growth is assumed to follow the UN medium projection leading to economics and other essays about 10 billion people by qun qiu dissertation 2050, soil erosion continues to degrade land productivity, salinization and waterlogging of the soil continues, and groundwater overdraft continues with supplies in some aquifers being depleted; there is a modest expansion of cropland at the expense of animals have feelings too essay, world forests, and qun qiu a slight expansion of irrigation. In BAU, the consequences of the greenhouse effect and pat mora of ultraviolet injury are ignored, and the developed world does not provide significantly more aid to the developing world than at present, nor does the developing world continue, on balance, its current rate of economic development (91). A pessimistic scenario considers qualitatively the dissertation possible consequences of climatic changes and ground-level ultraviolet radiation increase that could depress crop yields, coupled with the high UN population growth projection, leading to nearly 13 billion people in 2050. Feelings! The economic debt that many nations face today continues to worsen, especially limiting developing nations in the purchase of fertilizer and other agricultural goods to enhance productivity.
An optimistic scenario assumes rapid population growth stabilization with a 2050 population of 7.8 billion, significant expansion of energy-intensive agriculture and improved soil and water conservation with some reclamation of now-abandoned land. In this scenario, the developed countries provide the developing nations with increased financial resources and technology and a more equitable distribution of qun qiu dissertation, food is achieved. There is a shift from high animal protein to more plant protein consumption in the developed countries, freeing more grain for the developing nations. In these scenarios we make use of extrapolations of current trends consistent with the range of assumptions we have adopted. This procedure is and ideology essays, inherently unsatisfactory owing both to the difficulty of determining trends from fluctuating historical data and qun qiu because few trends continue for periods comparable to the interval of interest to us. Feelings! Nevertheless, it does over a number of scenarios, shed light on the range of achievable futures. Business As Usual (BAU) Grainland declined from 718 million ha in 1980 to 704 million ha in 1991 (92), a decline we assume continues, leading to 620 million ha in 2050. There is 0.06 ha capital available for grain production in that year, or less than half of that available in 1991.
This will create major obstacles to increasing grain food production, especially if land degradation continues (Table 3). The rate of dissertation, loss we assume is water, about half that projected for the next 25 years in The Netherlands report on the National Environmental Outlook 1990-2010, (93) In BAU, we make the qun qiu dissertation optimistic assumption that a modest expansion of irrigation will continue as it has recently. The fraction of land irrigated in 2050 we estimate will be 18% in BAU, 17% in the pessimistic case, 19% in the optimistic case. Estimates suggest that degradation can be expected to depress food production in the developing world between 15% and 30% over dissertation portsmouth bottled, the next 25-year period, unless sound conservation practices are instituted now, and that the total loss in productivity of rainfed cropland would amount to a daunting 29% due to erosion of topsoil during the same time period (94). Despite the increased use of fertilizers. the rate of increase in grain production appears to be slowing (55, 95).Figure 2 shows the world's grain yield from 1950 to 1991 as well as the per capita grain yield (x96). In recent years, 1985 to 1991, the total growth rate has dropped below 1.4% yr, less than the current rate of world population growth. Based on past trends we estimate a 300% increase in the use of nitrogen and other fertilizer by the year 2050 and about 12% expansion of irrigated land, consistent with BAU.
In view of the constraints we have identified we conclude that an expansion of qun qiu dissertation, 0.7% yr in grain production is achievable in the decades ahead. With this rate of expansion, there would be a 50% increase in annual grain production by 2050 compared to 1991, with the world per capita grain production decreasing about 20%. These projections are shown in Figure 3. The 2050 per capita number is about the same as it was in locke essay on understanding, 1960. Dissertation! In our scenario, however, the industrial world's per capita grain production increases about 13%. If the distribution patterns remain the same as today's, as BAU assumes, then the per capita grain production in Africa, China, India, and other Asian nations, will, on average, decrease more than 25%. In BAU, most developing nations suffer reductions in and other, per capita grain production. Many nations today are not producing sufficient food and in this scenario many more will join them by 2050.
This conclusion is consistent with other assessments (15). One study concluded that if the African population continues to grow, and qun qiu agricultural production remains roughly constant, the food produced would, in dissertation bottled water, 25 years, support about 50% of its year 2000 population; for the Middle East about 60% of its population. In BAU, some developed nations suffer small declines whereas others have gains in grain production. In general, it appears that Africa, as noted earlier, as well as China and India, will face particularly severe problems in qun qiu dissertation, expanding their food supplies in the coming decades. The people of these regions are likely to comprise almost two thirds of the developing countries', and over half of the world's, population, both in 2025 and 2050.
The US appears to have the potential of generating food surpluses for some years, a potential that it shares with parts of Europe, including Eastern Europe, Canada, and possibly other regions. Immigrants! The longer term prospects are unknown in view of difficulties which may appear later. Pessimistic Scenario (PS) Scenario PS adopts most of the assumptions in BAU, but includes several other factors which may decrease the rate of grain production in the years ahead. If the population growth rate continues only slightly lower than it is today to the year 2050, the world population will rise to about 13 billion (Figure 1), more than double the present population. A recent analysis (97, 98) of the consequences of climatic change on world food production, not including problems arising from the availability of irrigation water, concluded that decreases in qun qiu dissertation, global food production would. be small, but with developing countries suffering decreases of as much as 10%. We believe that, in the period to 2050, the have greenhouse effect and ozone loss could together depress grain yields on a global basis by 10% to 20%. We base our estimates (Table 4) on current rates of cropland loss (Table 3), continued decline in per capita irrigation (59), degradation of irrigated land (Table 3), and continued decline on the rate of fertilizer use by some farmers in developing countries (26,99).
A moderate combination of these adverse factors leads to grain production in 2050 about 15% below BAU. While this represents nearly a 30% increase in dissertation, grain production over 1991, it means per animals capita production would be down over 40%. There is, in this scenario, little hope of providing adequate food for the majority of humanity by the middle or later decades of the qun qiu dissertation period we consider. Optimistic Scenario (OS) If rapid population growth stabilization can be effected, leading to a world population of 7.8 billion instead of until the last a paper, 13 billion by the year 2050, then grain production adequate for the population might be achievable. This would require a near doubling of dissertation, today's production (Table 4). Essay On Understanding! Soil and dissertation water conservation programs would have to be implemented to halt soil degradation and the abandonment of cropland. Developing countries would have to be provided with fossil fuels or alternative energy sources to alleviate the burning of crop residues and dung.
Increasing oil and and other essays other fossil fuels for qun qiu dissertation this purpose will aggravate the problem of controlling greenhouse gases. Irrigation would have to economics and ideology be expanded by about 20%. The area planted to grains would be expanded by 20% and the amount of nitrogen and other fertilizers expanded 450%. Both the developed and developing nations would have to give high priority to food production and protecting the environment so as to maintain a productive agriculture. The developed countries would have to dissertation help finance these changes and minute also provide technology to the developing nations. At the same time, with diet shifts in the developed world, the 2050 population of 7.8 billion might be fed an adequate diet. If efforts were made to triple world food production, compared to today's yield, then all of the above changes would have to be made, plus increasing the level of energy intensiveness in the developing world's agriculture by 50- to 100-fold. Dissertation! This would include a major expansion in world irrigation. Such increases appear to be unrealistic. Environmental degradation from such expansions could not be constrained or controlled even if expansion were feasible.
The human race now appears to be getting close to the limits of global food productive capacity based on present technologies. Substantial damage already has been done to the biological and physical systems that we depend on for food production. This damage is continuing, and in some areas is essay, accelerating. Because of its direct impact on global food production injury and dissertation loss of arable land has become one of the most urgent problems facing humanity. Of these problems, this is perhaps the most neglected. Controlling these damaging activities and increasing food production must now receive priority and resources commensurate with their importance if humanity is to avoid harsh difficulties in the decades ahead.
Attempts to markedly expand global food production would require massive programs to conserve land, much larger energy inputs than at dissertation portsmouth bottled present, and new sources as well as more efficient use of fresh water. all of which would demand large capital expenditures. The rates of food grain growth required to increase the per capita food available, in the light of present projections of population growth, are greater than have been achieved under any but the most favorable circumstances in developed countries. Our business-as-usual scenario suggests that the world is unlikely to see food production keep pace with population growth if things continue as they have. If they do continue then the world will experience a declining per capita food production in the decades ahead. This decline would include spreading malnutrition and increased pressure on agricultural, range, and forest resources.
Should climatic alteration from greenhouse warming and enhanced ultraviolet levels impose further stress on agricultural systems, the prospects for increased food production would become even less favorable than they are at present. In our opinion. a tripling of the world's food production by qun qiu the year 2050 is such a remote prospect that it cannot be considered a realistic possibility. If present food distribution patterns persist the economics and ideology and other essays chance of bettering the lot of the majority of the world's peoples vanishes. Dissertation! The likelihood of a graceful and humane stabilization of world population vanishes as well. Fertility and population growth in numerous developing countries will then be forced downward by severe shortages of economics and ideology essays, food, disease, and by other processes set in motion by shortages of vital resources and irreversible environmental damage. A major expansion in dissertation, food supply would require a highly organized global effort-by both the developed and on understanding the developing countries-that has no historic precedent. As yet a major commitment from the developed nations to support the needed changes is missing, and inadequate commitment in both developing and developed nations has been made for population stabilization. Governments so far appear to lack the discipline and qun qiu vision needed to make a major commitment of animals feelings too essay, resources to increase food supplies, while at the same time reducing population growth and protecting land, water, and qun qiu biological resources.
While a rough doubling of food production by 2050 is perhaps achievable in principle, in accord with optimistic assumptions, the elements to accomplish it are not now in place or on the way. A large number of supportive policy initiatives and investments in research and infrastructure as well as socioeconomic and cultural changes would be required for it to become feasible. A major reordering of world priorities is thus a prerequisite for meeting the until problems that we now face. References and Notes. 1. Horiuchi, S. 1992. Stagnation in dissertation, the decline of the world population growth rate during the 1980s Science 257, 761-765. 2. United Nations Population Fund, 1991. Population, Resources and the Environment, United Nations, NY.
3. UNFPA, UN Population Fund, 1991. The State of World Population 1991, UN, New York. 4. Homer-Dixon, T.F. 1991. India's population growth rate has leveled off at 2.1%/year and China's at 1.3%/year. On the essays on american identity threshold: environmental changes as causes of acute conflict. Inter. Sec. 16, 76-116. 5. Long-range World Population Projections.
Department of international and Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, 1992. Document Number ST/ESA/SER.A/125. 6. World Watch Institute, 1990. State of The World, 1990, Washington. The 430 M ha estimated to dissertation have been abandoned during a 40 year period is further confirmed by the World Resources Institute's estimation that 10 M ha/yr of cropland is lost by erosion.
7. A Report by The World Resources Institute, 1990. World Resources 1990-1991, Oxford University Press, New York. Additional losses and abandonment of agricultural land are caused by essays identity water logging, salinization, urbanization and others processes as discussed later in the text. 8. Moffat, A. S. 1992. Does global change threaten the qun qiu world food supply? Science 256, 1140-1141. 9. Malthus, T.R. 1970.
An Essay on the Principle of Population. Locke Essay On Understanding! Penguin Books, New York. 10. Dissertation! CIMMYT, 1987. The Future Development of Maize and Wheat in the Third World, Mexico, DF. 11. Dahlberg, K.A. 1979.
Beyond the Green Revolution: the Ecology and Politics of Global Agricultural Development, Plenum Press, New York. 12. Dahlberg, K A. Immigrants Pat Mora! 1985. Dissertation! Environment and portsmouth bottled the Global Arena: Actors Values, Policies, Duke University Press, Durham. NC. 13. Qun Qiu! World Health Organization/United Nations Environment Programme, 1989.
Public Health Impact of Pesticides Used in Agriculture. WHO/UNEP, Geneva. 14. A quantity that increases linearly exhibits a declining rate of expansion, expressed in per cent per year. A constant rate of growth implies exponential increase. 15.
Global Ecology Handbook, Beacon Press, Boston, 1990. 16. Cherfas, J. 1990. FAO proposes a new plan for feeding Africa, Science 250, 748. 17. The 1989 world marine catch was 99.5 metric tons. Current Fisheries Statistics #9000, Fisheries of the United. States, 1990. Supplemental May 1991.
National Marine Fisheries Service. NOAA. The estimate in text based on. weight. Less than 1% of world food based on calories is obtained from the aquatic environment. 18. Food Balance Sheets. Food and animals have feelings Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1991.
The total yield is considered by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization as at the maximum sustainable yield from the oceans. A number of important world fisheries have started to collapse. 19. Kales, R.W. et al. Qun Qiu Dissertation! 1988. The Hunger Report, Brown University Hunger Project, Brown University, Providence. Rhode Island. 20. Kates, R.W. et al. Locke Essay! 1989. Qun Qiu Dissertation! The Hunger Report: Update 1989, Brown University Hunger Project, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
21. Essay On Understanding! Ehrlich, P. in On Global Warming, First Presidential Symposium on World Issues, Virginia Polytechnic Institute State University, September 1989. In the early 1980s the World Bank and UNFAO estimated that from 700 mill, to qun qiu dissertation 1 bill. persons lived in waiting until the last a paper, absolute poverty. Qun Qiu Dissertation! In 1989 the number was 1.225B, or 23% of world population. In that year poverty increased dramatically in sub-Saharan Africa. Latin America, and parts of animals feelings, Asia, swamping reductions in China and India. 22.
McNamara, R.S. 1991. Rafael M. Salas Memorial Lecture, United Nations, New York. 23 Administrative Committee on Coordination - Subcommittee on Nutrition, 1992. Second Report on qun qiu the World Nutrition Situation, (Vol 1), U.N. United Nations, NY. 24. Essays On American! Statistical Analysis Service, Statistical Division, Economic and Social Policy Dept., UN Food and Agriculture Organization, 1992. World Food Supplies and Prevalence of Chronic Undernutrition in Developing Regions as Assessed in 1992, United Nations, New York.
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Buringh, P. 1989. Availability of dissertation, agricultural land for crop and livestock production In: Food and Natural Resources. Dissertation Portsmouth! Pimentel. D. and Hall. C.W. (eds), Academic Press, San Diego, p. 69-83. 27. Sehgal, J.L. et al. 1990.
Agro-ecological regions of qun qiu, India. Technical Bulletin 24, NBSSLUP, New Delhi, 1-76. 28. Poem Pat Mora Essays! Vitousek, P.M. et al. 1986. Human appropriation of the dissertation products of photosynthesis, Bioscience 36, 368-373. 29.
Lai, R. and Pierce, F.J. And Ideology Essays! 1991. Qun Qiu! Soil Management for Sustainability, Ankeny, Iowa: Sod and Water Conservation Soc. In: Coop. with World Assoc. of Soil and Water Conservation and essay on understanding Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. 30. McDaniel, T.A. and Hajek. B.F. 1985. Soil erosion effects on crop productivity and qun qiu soil properties in Alabama.
48-58. In: Erosion and Soil Productivity. Economics And Other Essays! ASAE Publication 885. St. Qun Qiu Dissertation! Joseph, Ml. 31. Follett, R.F. and Stewart, B.A. 1985. Soil Erosion and Crop Productivity. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy. Crop Science Society of America.
32. Pimentel, D. 1990. Environmental and social implications of waste in agriculture, J. Agr. Environ. Ethics 3, 5-20. 33. Troeh, F.R., Hobbs, J.A. and Donahue, R.L. 1991. Soil and essays on american identity Water Conservation. Dissertation! 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
34. Dregne, H.E. 1982. Historical Perspective of poem pat mora essays, Accelerated Erosion and Effect on dissertation World Civilization Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison. Wisc. 35. Economic Research Service, AR-23. 1991.
Agricultural Resources: Cropland Water, and Conservation Situation and Outlook Report, US Department of Agriculture, Wash. 36. Barrow, C.J. 1991. Land Degradation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
37. Pimentel, D. 1993. World Soil Erosion and Conservation. Cambridge University Press, 38. 1 cm of soil over one hectare weighs 112 tons and 2.5 cm weighs about 280 tons. Thus a soil loss of 16 t ha yr, as in the US, will result in the loss of an inch of soil in 17.5. 39.
Office of Technology Assessment. 1982. Impacts of Technology on U.S. Cropland and Rangeland Productivity US Congress, Washington, DC. 40. Hudson, N.W. 1981. Soil Conservation. 2nd ed Cornell University Press, Ithaca. NY. 41.
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42. Lai, R. 1984 Soil erosion from tropical arable lands and its control. Adv. Agron. 37, 183. 43. Until Minute To Write A Paper! Elwell, H.A. 1985. An assessment of soil erosion in qun qiu dissertation, Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Sci. News 19, 27-31. 44.
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1991. Freshwater Pollution, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya. 63. Smil, V. 1993. China's Environmental Crisis, An Inquiry into the Limits of National Development, M.E. Sharpe/East Gate Books, New York. 64. Postel, S. 1990. Saving water for dissertation agriculture. In: State of the dissertation portsmouth bottled water World. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC.
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Reported at the MIT Conference The World at Risk: Natural Hazards and Climate Change. MIT, Cambridge. Mass. Jan 14-16, 1992. 69. US Dept. of dissertation, Agriculture, 1990. Dissertation! Agricultural Statistics, US Gov't Printing Office. 70. Martin, P., Rosenberg, N. and McKenney, M. 1989. Sensitivity of dissertation, evapotranspiradon in until the last to write, a wheat field, a forest and a grassland to changes in climatic and direct effects of qun qiu, carbon dioxide, Climate Change 14, 117-152. 71.
Bazzaz, F.A. and Fajer. E.D. 1992. Plant life in a CO2-rich world. Sci Am. 266, 68-74. 72. Kerr, R.A. Economics And Ideology And Other! 1992. New assaults seen on qun qiu dissertation earth's ozone shield. Science 255, 797-798. 73. Levi, B. G. 1992.
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Analysis Of Political Cartoons In R.K.Laxman's Work. 'Political cartoons are vivid primary sources that offer intriguing and entertaining insights into the public mood, the underlying cultural assumptions of an age, and attitudes toward key events or trends of the times. Since the 18th century, political cartoons have offered a highly useful window into the past. Just about every school history textbook now has its quota of political cartoons'' ' Jonathan Burack. Burack says that the simplicity of the cartoons is qun qiu dissertation, what makes cartoons deceptive, the more simplicity of the drawing or visual, the bottled water, more complex the thought behind it. Qun Qiu. He points out essay on understanding that cartoons have evolved from the 1700's where they were elaborate heavy on qun qiu dissertation dialogues and obscure visuals.
He says cartoons in short, are visual strategies to make a point in small spaces. Cartoon is an economics and other imprecise term applied to a multitude of graphic forms. Qun Qiu Dissertation. Though being better than other terms such as caricature, it can be broadly divided into essays on american two categories: cartoons of opinion and dissertation, joke cartoons. Cartoons of opinion are primarily visual mean of communicating opinions and attitudes, humour may be present but not a necessary part of it. On the other hand, joke cartoons are designed to communicate humour. This art form dates back to at least 3300 years. The world's oldest caricature was unearthed in Egypt where the subject of mockery was none other than the Egyptian king 'Pharaoh Akhenaton'. And it happened when he tried to to write a paper, give his country a new religion, new government and a new capital city around 1360 BC. Caricatures were always there, they have been found on Ancient Greek pottery depictions, lampooning both political leaders and overweight Olympian gods.
The Roman Empire's political discontent appeared scrawled on walls, mocking strict or incompetent military commanders as well as fringe religious movements. Ancient Indian rulers also were no less immune to dissertation, caricatures that attacked political elites and their Hindu gods. What is significant in portsmouth, these manifestations is qun qiu, that these cartoons were produced independent of editorial control or profit motive and appeared on mediums other than newsprint. Political cartoons are made of two elements ' caricature, in which the and other essays, subject is dissertation, parodied and allusion, in which the subject is placed under the situation or context. Caricature is a western art which dates back to Leonardo da Vinci's artistic explorations of the ideal type of deformity namely grotesque that he used to explain the concept of ideal beauty. As the time goes the established principles of form by Leonardo became so ingrained into the portraiture method that several other artists rebelled against portsmouth water him. So in qun qiu, order to make satire more lighthearted caricature came as a counter art. It was a new genre which was quick, impressionistic and exaggerating prominent physical characteristics to humorous effect, bringing out the subject's inner self in a kind of physiognomic satire. Caricatures started to become popular with collectors, perceiving the fanciful exercises as curiosities rather than an artistic work, so instead of displaying it publicly they were shown in parlors and drawing rooms.
The printing press invention profoundly changed the scene of political cartoons. Printing led to the emergence of the broadsheet, which circulated throughout Renaissance Europe. During the 17th century, William Hogarth was perceived as the precursor of political cartoons. His cartoons were loaded with satire and sequential artistic scenes, aimed for social criticism. His cartoons brought out the corruption of early 18th century Britain politics. His works includes the iconic portray of the disastrous 1720's stock market crash known as the 'South Sea Bubble' leading to loss a great deal of money. His masterpiece 'A Rake's Progress' had a strong moral tone that shows how cartoons were becoming a vehicle of setting social agenda. The art of cartooning started to develop in the latter part of animals 18th century. James Gillray was a well-known name during this time who explored the medium of cartooning especially during French Revolution. His works ridiculed the dissertation, ambitions of the revolutionary and Napoleon's motifs through lampooning and caricatures.
Gillray's incomparable wit and on american identity, humour, his use of knowledge of life, keen sense of the ludicrous, and beauty of execution, put him amongst the qun qiu dissertation, top cartoonists once. It shows how cartooning was becoming influential and gaining widespread acclaim. Magazines like 'Punch' started to publish in 1941 became a national institution due to its influential and widely acclaimed artists such as John Leech, Richard Doyle, John Tenniel and locke essay on understanding, Charles Keene. By the qun qiu, mid-19th century, magazines were evolved into newspaper and publishers printed their take upon day to day politics. One of them was the famous influential cartoonist Thomas Nast from New York whose cartoons attacked the criminal activities 'Boss Tweed' political machinery. By the late 19th century cartoonists started to draw inspiration from other sources such as Shakespeare, Bible, sports, mythology and other contexts. According to economics and ideology essays, Charles Press, author of Political Cartooning, in order to make a political cartoon effective it must have the four following qualities ' ' Artistic quality - but the artistry must not get in the way of the dissertation, message. ' Genuine sentiment - but it should not feel phony.
' Fresh, uncomplicated imagery - should be striking, forceful, and amusing. ' Lasting importance - the subject of the cartoon should be important so the cartoon can be understood by future readers. Following are the other significant elements that goes into the making of political cartoons - ' SATIRE - Political cartoons uses satire in order to make an locke observation about qun qiu, a situation. It touches those issues that may not be suited for commentary by an editor. A cartoon is endorsed by a newspaper and is definitely a questioning and decisive piece that at times may even be biased.
A good cartoon says what the editorial may try to avoid, cartoons are safe as the prevalent humour quotient brings certain balance to controversies and that is why any newspaper tries at getting out the best artwork. Cartoonists use specific devises to get their message across. ' HUMOUR ' Humour is the most prevalent subject matter in immigrants poem pat mora essays, political cartoons. The effectiveness of a cartoon depends significantly upon the element of humour it contains. Through humour, absurdity and hypocrisy are exposed and when a reader laugh at qun qiu dissertation, those who are in power, he becomes less afraid. The element of humour act as a sugar coating upon portsmouth, the bitter pill. And it also brings certain balance to controversies. As satire can hurt people, cartoonist uses humour subversively as an agent of dissertation change and until the last to write a paper, reflection.
' SYMBOLS ' Symbols are important, as sometimes people are not sure how they feel and unable to make a decision. Studies shows that there is a high frequency of emotional symbolism in editorial cartoons as explained by the DeMause's theory. Manipulation of shared symbols is likely to qun qiu, be important in directing public attention and shaping public opinion, especially in modern democracies. ' IRONY ' The use of political irony often points out the dissertation portsmouth, contradictions in dissertation, politics in a wry way. Dissertation Portsmouth Bottled Water. Rhetoric is often used in text with irony, this sort of irony is qun qiu, often seen in political cartoons. Sometimes it is humorous, and other times it can be quite hostile. Burack says that irony makes cartoons witty and point out the flaws in the system. He says cartoons must entail irony as they can make a contradiction and argument. ' STEREOTYPING - Stereotyping is a routine in cartoons, it's in a stereotype that the locke essay, cartoonist tries, explains and simplifies a largely applicable point of view.
Though being offensive, it largely helps a cartoonist to qun qiu dissertation, convey and establish an idea, making a strong point open for until to write a paper discussions and debates. ' AN ARGUMENT NOT A SLOGAN - Cartoons are pointed taking a jab at issues, they are not merely slogans that state a fact. Slogans are different for ex. Adidas has 'Impossible Is Nothing' slogan. But a cartoon subverts it explaining how this is achieved. In some cases it's opinionated and qun qiu, blunt. So even though if it's biased, the cartoon provides one, grounds for responding and even arguing back. ' DISTORTION - Exaggeration and distortion are the primary tools employed by a cartoonist which shows someone's power or weak??ness, the importance or the essay, insignificance, dangerousness or helplessness of qun qiu dissertation a person, group, or social force. In other words, distortion and exaggeration help to emphasise extremes in personalities or actions. R K Laxman is an dissertation bottled water Indian cartoonist, illustrator, and humorist.
He is best known for his creation The Common Man, for his daily cartoon strip, You Said It in dissertation, The Times of India, which started in 1951. He is a pioneer of political cartooning in India. He is dissertation water, a legendary cartoonist not because of the paper he is associated with but because of the cartoons he put on it. His cartoons were effective yet less controversial. The Times of India owes Laxman for highlighting such issues that otherwise would have lost in a country like ours. The book written by R K Laxman, titled 'The Common Man Seeks Justice' shows the complex life of the common man, who is a silent spectator to all that goes around him. Qun Qiu Dissertation. Common man is a famous caricature by Laxman as a spectator to the situation he faces. The common man is portrayed as a submissive character with deep insights who is economics and ideology, hopeful and usually disappointed in qun qiu dissertation, what he receives in the end. 'The Common Man Seeks Justice'' is about the essays identity, battles of dissertation this extraordinary spirit. The face of the have feelings, common man is one that everybody recognises and relates to. The common man, the iconic symbol of resilience and adaptability, who is a silent spectator to all that is wrong, looking at politicians and bureaucrats and is stumped by their actions. The common man however takes it in his stride and moves on with what he has to do making peace with corruption and qun qiu dissertation, apathy.
He is okay with congestion and overpopulation; he genuinely understands the problems of his fellow citizens and tries not to judge. This book shows how cartoons are drawn and how they influence the minds of the readers. How the common man is a meek and dissertation portsmouth bottled water, submissive yet jolly character. It leaves to the imagination of the reader on qun qiu how to interpret the cartoon. The cartoons in the series can be seen as all accepting, highly corrupt, sometimes stupid and unreasonable. The book is more like an exercise to understand subtle hints and inclinations of political cartoons.
R K Laxman being a social cartoonist, makes a commentary upon the lives of millions of Indians who live in challenging times politically, socially, economically. Laxman is known for his artistic talent which brings to life the problems of the common man, Laxman's readers found him to be realistic, a casual reader may see it as a slapstick, and waiting until to write, this could be because the common man witnesses absurd events that have no logical explanations. Laxman's followers understands that this is to bring to notice the dissertation, problems, not merely humour. Political cartoons are an important part in any newspaper, though the position of this piece is small, the impact is huge. It conveys a lot of bottled water information with very few words. Even if the qun qiu dissertation, emotions behind them is harsh it would be oftenly taken with a sense of humour and understanding the essay, humor of people gives definition to the society, definition not readily available in dissertation, traditional history. Cartoons are complex, the reason why newspaper invests in them when writing would do the waiting until the last minute a paper, job is the qun qiu, reason for their popularity. In India, political cartoons are used to have feelings too essay, propagate ideas and change. The press and political cartoons becomes mediums to convey the dissertation, change and information. Even freedom fighters used this platform to convey their thought, not just during pre-independence time but also after it as well. Artists like BalaSaheb Thackeray and R.K.Laxman comments upon various things in and ideology and other essays, the independent India.
The emergency of 1984 is an example from the Indian context where cartoonists played a greater role in putting out opinions when Editorials were curbed and could not present their point of dissertation view independently. Dissertation Water. The purpose of dissertation cartoons usually is to promote social welfare and social well-being. Cartoonist draws attention to some wrong in the hope of stimulating activity to economics essays, correct it. Political cartoons serves social functionalism. Historic and recent examples demonstrate the continued ability of the political cartoon to draw attention, spark controversy, and qun qiu dissertation, trouble leaders across the globe. It is the ability of cartoons to undermine the legitimacy of rulers, leaving an immigrants poem pat mora indelible stain on their public image, that remains one of their most potent and feared attributes.
Occasionally, both governments and elites have attempted to harness the medium's power for political ends. Reportedly French artists were encouraged by Napoleon to create cartoons that sanctioned his policies (Lester 1995, 222). Social inequalities doesn't allow the citizens to enjoy and exercise their rights as an qun qiu equal citizen of a country which therefore make the common man silenced and unacknowledged, completely absent from political equation remained being an indelible fact. Cartooning is a subversive art as dictators and political leaders are scared people, they can't risk ridicule that's why the totalitarian establishment suppress it. It's the ability of cartoons to subvert the authorization of immigrants poem rulers, leaving an indelible stain on their public images. So as an active nature of a democratic life, it's pulsated through visual satiric political representation. So drawing in the comical aspect of dissertation a functioning democracy, draws out a democracy alive to its inherent possibilities; a democracy laughing at portsmouth water, himself despite all of the limitations and bringing out the best potential attributes, offering a social functionalism. Analyzing the qun qiu, Purpose and Meaning of Political Cartoons - ReadWriteThink. readwritethink.org. N.p., n.d. Web. . Until A Paper. http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/analyzing-purpose-meaning-political-794.html#tabs. Chatterjee, Sushmita.
Cartooning Democracy: The Images of qun qiu dissertation R. K. Laxman. PS: Political Science Politics (): 303. Print. Editorial cartoon - Top Videos. Editorial cartoon - Top Videos. N.p., n.d. Web. . http://www.mashpedia.com/Editorial_cartoon. IMPORTANCE OF POLITICAL CARTOONS TO NEWSPAPERS. - Christ University Institutional Repository.
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Chatterjee, Sushmita. Cartooning Democracy: The Images of R. K. Laxman. PS: Political Science Politics (): 303. Print. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Language essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qun qiu, qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to economics and ideology essays, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Language work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This English Language essay was submitted to us by qun qiu, a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
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