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brodsky essay cavafy Those who look to graphic orginizer for essays the surface of a life for signs of genius would also have had trouble predicting Cavafy’s posthumous celebrity, even if there were aspects of the life that seem unique as well. For one, though a poet sublimely erudite in Greek history and graphic well-read first in English and then in French literature, he had almost no formal education that appears in the record beyond a brief period in an Alexandrian commercial school. And though cosmopolitan in his outlook, after he committed himself to poetry he rarely left his native city of Alexandria to travel elsewhere, in fact spent most of his mature years working as a clerk in the Irrigation Service of the pay to, local Ministry of Public Works. We learn from Robert Liddell’s biography that Cavafy was the youngest of nine siblings and that he lived with his mother until her death in 1899 (he was thirty-five), then for a while with his brother Paul, and, during his last twenty-five years, alone in the same second-floor apartment on a street (Rue Lepsius) that was considerably less fashionable than what his parents had been accustomed to before the collapse of Cavafy Brothers, the family’s once lucrative export-import firm. The apartment, now a museum honoring the for essays, poet, has a balcony overlooking streets that in those days belonged to an old Greek quarter with both a respectable and letter envelope an ill-famed aspect: a hospital, the patriarchal church of St. Saba, and, on the ground floor of Cavafy’s building, a brothel. Orginizer For Essays? The poet was reported to have said: “Where could I live better?

Below, the brothel caters for of the of science and technology developments the flesh. And there is the graphic for essays, church which forgives sin. On The Oranges? And there is the hospital where we die.” Though the choice of Alexandria for a restricted life proved essential for orginizer for essays the poetry, Cavafy did not choose it easily. As late as 1907, when the poet was forty-four years old, he was still tormented by the prospect of remaining in the same city: “By now I’ve gotten used to graphic for essays Alexandria,” he writes in a note to himself, “and its very likely that even if I were rich I’d stay here. Essay? But in spite of this, how the place disturbs me. What trouble, what a burden small cities are¯what lack of freedom. I’d stay here (then again I’m not entirely certain that I’d stay) because it is like a native country for me, because it is related to anti-sex education essays my life’s memories.

But how much a man like me¯so different¯needs a large city. London, let’s say . ” As a homosexual with limited resources living in a society that one poem calls “prudish and stupid” (“Days of 1896”), Cavafy clearly felt confined by the “small corner” of the world that torments the speaker in the 1910 poem “The City.” At the same time, as the edited essay, home of his “life’s memories,” Alexandria soon became the primary source for poem after poem that invoked, through memory, the edited essay, more or less secret erotic experience of his youth that he decided to essay prompt reveal with growing candor and for essays verisimilitude. And by 1910, three years after his ambivalent note and pay to after he had settled into the Rue Lepsius apartment for graphic for essays the rest of his life, signalling his accommodation with the , city, Alexandria began to for essays be transformed in the central “historical” myth of his mature work. Orginizer? This development of both an increasingly free exploitation of his youthful eroticism and graphic orginizer for essays an inventive exploitation of his city’s history from on the Hellenistic times through the for essays, Arab conquest emerged from a turning point in his understanding of his vocation as a poet. Graphic Orginizer For Essays? Cavafy himself marked the date by dividing his poems into of the, those published before 1911 and graphic for essays those after. By that date he had decided to put aside most of what he had written during previous decades, over two hundred poems, and to preserve only pay to do assignment twenty four (among them one of his most famous, “Waiting for the Barbarians”) that would join another one hundred and thirty that he wrote in subsequent years, the prompt, so-called Cavafy canon: wrote but did not publish in the usual way. Making Sacrifices Essay? One aspect of Cavafy’s aspiration to write as he chose, without concern for for essays the society of his day and its market-place, was his idiosyncratic mode of promulgating his work. Edited English Essay? He never offered a volume of poems for sale during his lifetime. And a number of good poems of his maturity actually remained unpublished in any form, kept among his papers for possible revision at graphic, some later date (five of the essay, six translations that conclude this selection are of poems recovered from Cavafy’s papers by George Savidis). Orginizer? Those poems that Cavafy allowed to be printed during his lifetime were distributed to a restricted audience. English Essay? He would pass them out orginizer, as they seemed ready to his trusted friends first in sample pamphlets, then as broadsheets and offprints, these usually gathered into folders that could be supplemented regularly, some of the american english, older poems revised by hand now and for essays then, a few suppressed.

And when the , clips in the folders could no longer bear the burden of additional poems, the poet would withdraw some and have them sewn into booklets. He died at 70 without having published a collected edition of his work, presumably because he did not consider it ready yet for that kind of permanent definition. He is reported to anti-sex education have said during his last days that he still had at least twenty-five poems to graphic write, and his archive held a number that he apparently considered still in draft form. Write Bibliography Term? This mode of publication, if it can be called that, suggests not only an for essays, unusual aesthetic asceticism¯no interest at resignation letter cover, all in commerce and a total commitment to the craft of poetry¯but also what George Seferis saw to bibliography paper be Cavafy’s perception of his oeuvre as a life-long work in progress, still incomplete at graphic orginizer, his death. Education? If we accept Seferis’s term, the work in progress begins in the crucial year 1910, when Cavafy published two poems that seem to have emerged from write bibliography paper his acceptance of Alexandria as his inevitable home. In “The City,” a type of “didactic” monologue that the poet adopted briefly, the an essay of the history and technology developments, poet’s persona tells the graphic for essays, poem’s “you” that he should not look for things elsewhere because the resignation letter envelope cover, city will always pursue him until he grows old in the same streets and graphic same neighborhoods that have been his fate all these years (wasted years, in this case). Essays? And in “The Satrapy” the persona spells out what the graphic orginizer for essays, poem’s self-exiled “you” has come to know all too well: what his heart really longs for letter envelope cover are the graphic for essays, Crowns of Laurel, the anti-sex essays, priceless acclaim, of his home city that he has too readily exchanged for graphic orginizer for essays “satrapies and essay poem things like that” in another country. Graphic? Two poems that Cavafy published the following year dramatize themes and attitudes that would become central to an essay developments his work henceforth.

In one of his finest poems, “The God Abandons Antony” (written in 1910), the persona’s advice to Mark Antony in his last hours gives him occasion first of all for deifying Alexandria: Cavafy alters his source in Plutarch and orginizer for essays Shakespeare by substituting his home city for the gods Dionysus and Hercules. Orginizer? We see that Cleopatra’s Alexandria has become the god that Roman Antony finally chose to worship and that abandons him in his defeat. But as a city given him for for essays pleasures which he proved worthy of accepting, he must now honor that gift by essay facing its going away without illusions and graphic orginizer for essays “full of courage.” What has been called Cavafy’s hedonistic bias becomes apparent in his choosing the do assignment, “final delectation” of exquisite music as a sign of all the other delectations that the noble Roman came to know in the city he is now losing. Graphic Orginizer? In the sacrifices, poem “Ithaka,” another of Cavafy’s finest that he gave a final draft in 1910, the poet again transforms his source, in this case Homer’s account of Odysseus’ return to his home island from the Trojan War. Cavafy’s transforming is a variation on orginizer for essays Dante’s and Tennyson’s handling of the same theme. Both of these poets offered an graphic orginizer, Odysseus who arrived home after a long absence only to an essay history of science and technology find Ithaka less than fully satisfying and who soon made plans to graphic orginizer for essays travel forth a second time. Cavafy answers his predecessors by having his persona tell the sacrifices, Odysseus figure that arriving in Ithaka is what he is destined for, and he must keep that always in mind: one’s destiny, the inevitable end of the journey, is a thing to be faced for what it is, without illusions, as we saw in “The God Abandons Antony”: Wise as you will have become, so full of experience, you will have understood by then what these Ithakas mean.

The adventures and discoveries that are to keep Cavafy’s Odysseus entertained until old age take him to the heart of the Alexandrian’s only on the partially Hellenized world, not mainland Greece and orginizer its neighboring islands, but new country for Homer’s hero, where he will take pleasure in the sensual properties of Phoenician trading stations and graphic for essays learn from the scholars of Egyptian cities. ? What has been called Cavafy’s hedonistic bias is again clearly evident here, but equally important, what we might call his diaspora bias. As the orginizer for essays, diaspora philosopher in “Going Back Home from graphic orginizer Greece” puts it, those Greeks who come from the waters of Cyprus, Syria, and Egypt carry Asiatic affections and feelings that are sometimes alien to Hellenism and that in any case are not something to be ashamed of or covered up but honored as cause for pride. In Cavafy’s mythical world, racial purity is not only orginizer boring¯as E. M. Forster once pointed out¯but limiting, confining, especially among those for whom affections are crucial. Knowing oneself and admitting the truth of what one knows are also crucial, while affectation is ludicrous. And puritanism is equally ludicrous, whether the source be pagan or Christian¯even if Cavafy chose to be particularly satirical of Julian the Apostate for attempting to essay on the introduce his excessively puritanical paganism into the diaspora regions where Christians had become well-established hedonists, with an abiding love for art, theater, language, and the pleasures of the flesh. Cavafy’s Alexandrian myth, created in the year “Ithaka” took its final form, was expanded during the , years following to cover a broad world of Hellenism that included regions to an essay of science developments the east and a stretch of time from Alexander’s days to graphic orginizer the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Sacrifices? From the myth we learn that challenging one’s destiny may give the gods an excuse to do one in before the journey’s end, but so will a soul closed to those things that satisfy the for essays, spirit and the body.

The myth teaches us what those things are: beautiful bodies given to edited essay sensual pleasure, imaginative creation of various kinds, mixed cultures¯especially those mixed cultures dominated by orginizer the Greek language¯remembered sensations from early love affairs, the value of both art and orginizer for essays artifice, of spectacle, of politic theater. Poem Oranges? When, in the 1912 poem “Alexandrian Kings,” Antony and Cleopatra make an attempt to graphic impress Rome by taking their children out to the Alexandrian gymnasium to crown them with meaningless titles referring to do assignment regions they did not command¯Armenia, Media, Parthia, Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia¯the politically shrewd Alexandrians “knew of course / that this was all mere words, all theater,” but. the sky a pale blue, the Alexandria Gymnasium. a complete artistic triumph, the courtiers wonderfully sumptuous. and the Alexandrians thronged to the festival. full of enthusiasm, and shouted acclamations. in Greek, and Egyptian, and some in Hebrew, charmed by the lovely spectacle¯. though they knew of course what all this was worth, what empty words they really were, these kingships. ? that we’ve driven them out of their temples, doesn’t mean at all that the gods are dead. Graphic Orginizer For Essays? O land of Ionia, they’re still in love with you, their souls still keep your memory. When an August dawn wakes over you, your atmosphere is potent with their life, And sometimes a young etherial figure, indistinct, in rapid flight, wings across your hills. In no time at orginizer, all a colossal fire broke out, a terrible fire, and both the temple and Apollo burned to the ground. Ashes the idol: dirt to history developments be swept away.

Julian blew up, and orginizer he spread it around¯. What else could he do?¯that we, the Christians, had set the fire. Gre Argument Essay Prompt? Let him say so. It hasn’t been proved. Let him say so. The essential thing is: he blew up. One way that Cavafy chose to graphic orginizer for essays keep a certain distance from of the history of science and technology developments his speakers and establish a point of view that transcended the biased depiction of any given moment in history, especially in his later work, was by way of dramatic irony in the traditional sense.

For this he had to count on making sacrifices essay the reader’s familiarity with a specific historical context¯not always easy in view of his predilection for the by-ways of history. The best of his dramatic monologues play subtly with this mode, which, there is good reason to english essay believe, was influenced by his reading Robert Browning. Orginizer For Essays? The late poem, “In the Year 200 B. Gre Argument Prompt? C.,” is perhaps the graphic orginizer for essays, most satisfying example. Here the speaker’s attitude in narrating history that began 130 years before his day reflects the particular historical situation established by pay to the title. Graphic Orginizer? He begins his monologue with some irony about the Spartans (Lacedaimonians) of 330 B.C. who refused to join Macedonian Alexander’s great pan-Hellenic expedition because, according to write term paper the speaker, they weren’t about to for essays be led and ordered around in an expedition that didn’t have a Spartan king in command.

As a result, they not only for essays denied themselves the glory of taking part in Alexander’s magnificent victories but had no claim to the great diaspora world that emerged from his conquests, here eulogized by the proud speaker: triumphant, brilliant in every way, celebrated on all sides, glorified. as no other has ever been glorified, incomparable, we emerged: the orginizer, great new Hellenic world. the letter envelope, Selefkians, and the countless. other Greeks of Egypt and Syria, and those of Media, and Persia, and making essay all the rest: with our far-flung supremacy, our flexible policy of judicious integration, and our Common Greek Language. which we carried as far as Bactria, as far as the for essays, Indians. Sacrifices Essay? A fundamental aspect of Cavafy’s unique perspective on the world, to edited american english adopt Auden’s phrase, is his capacity to act as a mostly unspoken conscience that makes us recognize any individual success and american any moment of historical ascendancy as subject to reversal by the gods. An Essay Of The History Of Science And Technology? It is a perspective that, without making its case overtly, serves to warn us against those excesses that lead to fanaticism, intolerance, or self-satisfied complacency and that finds wisdom and courage to graphic for essays reside in a recognition of human limitations, above all the , inevitable fate of all things mortal.

Cavafy’s erotic poems, whether set in ancient or contemporary Alexandria, are colored by the same tragic sense that we find in what he himself designated as his historical or philosophical poems (categories, along with the erotic, that, he reminds his reader, often merge). Edited Essay? The love affairs depicted are sometimes uninhibited and orginizer for essays sometimes thoroughly satisfying, especially when imagination plays a more active role than reality (as in “Half an gre argument prompt, Hour”), but they are often clouded by the lover’s feeling that the for essays, pleasure is “fatal” or “illicit” or “tainted,” in any case “condemned” by society and on the poem oranges doomed to be transient: the orginizer for essays, experience of years makes that clear. Sacrifices Essay? Even so, Fate did put an end to it a bit abruptly. It was soon over, that wonderful life . . . Yet however fated, the for essays, erotic life in Cavafy has its redeeming qualities, first of all in the intensity of its pleasures, as we see in the same poem (“how strong the education, scents were, / what a magnificent bed we lay in, / what pleasure we gave our bodies”), then in the intoxication that comes with remembering the orginizer for essays, experience years later, and most of all, in the new life that the edited american english, experience finds in poetry: those half opened clothes: quick baring of flesh¯the vision of it. ? that has crossed twenty-six years. and comes to for essays rest now in this poetry.

Even in those poems dominated by orginizer a sense of degradation or loss on essay on the poem oranges the part of the graphic orginizer for essays, lovers, the poet often discovers in those lovers a sensual purity and poem physical beauty that deserve to graphic for essays be celebrated, especially in recollection. Memory becomes the graphic orginizer for essays, means for preserving what was ephemeral, the means for fixing beauty that time has altered and for rediscovering through fantasy a sensuality that was fleeting, however passionate. And it is only through memory that the poet can hope to graphic orginizer re-create the original shape of his eroticism and orginizer for essays give it new life in his art. By the orginizer for essays, time the poet neared the , end of his “work in progress,” memory was shown to be the single avenue to some degree of permanence for those committed to the “Alexandrian” way of life as Cavafy conceived it, with its devotion to for essays exquisite if transient pleasures, its love of the Greek language, its worship of beauty whatever the devotee’s particular religion or moment in history. Orginizer? The subtlest evocation of this theme is in the late poem “Myris: Alexandria, A. D. Pay To? 340,” longest of those in the “canon,” a dramatic monologue in which the erotic and graphic the historical are brilliantly fused. Oranges? The drama opens with a typical Cavafian representation of conflicting ideologies: an unnamed pagan speaker attending the funeral of his Christian lover, Myris, both initiates in the “Alexandrian” way of life, the Christian “more devoted to pleasure than all of us,” beautiful, and orginizer for essays “with a perfect feel for Greek rhythm.” As preparations for the funeral go forward, the for essays, pagan speaker becomes increasingly uneasy among the “precious carpets, and vessels in silver and graphic for essays gold,” hearing prayers to Jesus and anti-sex Mary that are unfamiliar to him. He begins to orginizer for essays remember several occasions when his lover, who never spoke about his religion, nevertheless drew himself back from the group of initiates as they made certain pagan gestures.

The speaker finds doubt setting in, and of science the drama now becomes a struggle between the orginizer for essays, influence of Christian ritual as performed by priests “praying loudly / for the young man’s soul” and orginizer for essays the influence of the lost passionate life that the two lovers had known¯a struggle, finally, between Christian mystery and worldly memory: how much intense concern. for the , forms of their religion, they were preparing. everything for resignation the Christian funeral. And suddenly an odd sensation. took hold of me. Anti-sex Education Essays? Indefinably I felt. as if Myris were going from me; I felt that he, a Christian, was united. Graphic Orginizer? with his own people and edited american english that I was becoming. a stranger, a total stranger. I even felt. Orginizer For Essays? a doubt come over me: that I’d also been deceived by my passion.

and had always been a stranger to him. I rushed out of their horrible house, rushed away before my memory of Myris. could be captured, could be perverted by their Christianity. Cavafy’s mythical world presents us with an image of the making, good life¯the life of exquisite sensuality, refined tastes, and mixed faiths¯that more often than not carries within it the graphic, ripening prospect of its own death, yet in his work there appears to be no other life more worthy of celebration. Graphic Orginizer? And if there is a degree of ambivalence in his stance, this is consistent with his generally balanced, detached perspective. Graphic For Essays? But it is not a cold detachment. Essay? The poet’s sympathies, rarely expressed overtly, can usually be understood to go out to orginizer for essays those who are the essay on the, trapped victims of the graphic, ironies he perceives and prompt dramatizes, especially to those fated souls with the courage to see themselves and for essays their tragic circumstances for what they are. Essay On The? His mockery of self-delusion, in particular among the graphic for essays, powerful, and his empathy with the , outsider who faces his predicament without illusions are among the qualities that make him seem so contemporary. As ironist and realist, his vision is readily translatable into the language of contemporary experience; and orginizer for essays the commitment to making hedonism, to orginizer political skepticism, and to honest self-awareness that animate the special way of life at the heart of his myth anticipate the prevailing aura of our times.

Cavafy’s perspective on the world was indeed unique in that it could be projected beyond the graphic for essays, specific context of his individual creations, with judgement suspended and english essay mercy granted, though not to the viciously power-hungry, or puritanically arrogant, or the graphic for essays, blindly self-deceived. Do Assignment? And if translation into orginizer for essays, another language cannot completely capture all aspects of his unique tone of voice, particularly in those early poems that he rhymed strictly and in later poems where his sometimes quaint mixture of purist and demotic Greek was used to dramatic effect, my hope¯in keeping with Auden’s conviction¯is that what comes through in English is more than enough to show why his deserves to be regarded as a major voice in the twentieth century.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Time travel is graphic orginizer for essays commonly defined with David Lewis’ definition: An object time travels if and only if the difference between its departure and making sacrifices essay, arrival times as measured in the surrounding world does not equal the duration of the journey undergone by the object. For example, Jane is a time traveler if she travels away from home in her spaceship for graphic one hour as measured by her own clock on the ship but travels two hours as measured by the clock back home, assuming both clocks are functioning properly. Before the twentieth century, scientists and making, philosophers rarely investigated time travel, but now it is an graphic orginizer exciting and deeply studied topic. There are investigations into travel to the future and travel to the past, although travel to the past is more problematical and receives more attention. There are also investigations of the logical possibility of time travel, the physical possibility of time travel, and the technological practicality of time travel.

The most attention is paid to time travel that is essay consistent with current physical theory such as Einstein's general theory of relativity. In science, different models of the cosmos and the laws of nature governing the universe imply different possibilities for time travel. Making Sacrifices Essay. So, theories about time travel have changed radically as the graphic orginizer dominant cosmological theories have evolved from classical, Newtonian conceptions to modern, relativistic and edited american english essay, quantum mechanical conceptions. Philosophers were quick to note some of the graphic orginizer for essays implications of the new physics for venerable issues in metaphysics: the nature of time, causation and personal identity, to name just a few. Orginizer. The subject continues to produce a fruitful cross-fertilization of ideas between scientists and philosophers as theorists in both fields struggle to resolve confounding paradoxes that emerge when time travel is pondered seriously. This article discusses both the scientific and philosophical issues relevant to bibliography term time travel. Time travel stories have been a staple of the science fiction genre for the past century. Good science fiction stories often pay homage to graphic for essays the fundamentals of scientific knowledge of the term paper time. Thus, we see time travel stories of the variety typified by H. G. Wells as set within the context of a Newtonian universe: a three-dimensional Euclidean spatial manifold that changes along an inexorable arrow of time. By the early to mid-twentieth century, time travel stories evolved to take into account the features of an Einsteinian universe: a four-dimensional spacetime continuum that curves and in which time has the character of a spatial dimension (that is, there can be local variations or warps).

More recently, time travel stories have incorporated features of quantum theory: phenomena such as superposition and essay, entanglement suggest the possibility of parallel or many universes, many minds, or many histories. Indeed, the for essays sometimes counter-intuitive principles and effects of quantum theory have invigorated time travel stories. Bizarre phenomena like negative energy density (the Casimir effect) lend their strangeness to bibliography paper the already odd character of time travel stories. In this article, we make a distinction between time travel stories that might be possible within the canon of known physical laws and those stories that contravene or go beyond known laws. The former type of stories, which we shall call natural time travel, exploit the features or natural topology of spacetime regions. Natural time travel tends to severely constrain the activities of a time traveler and for essays, entails immense technological challenges. The latter type of stories, which we shall call Wellsian time travel, enable the time traveler more freedom and simplify the technological challenges, but at the expense of the physics. For example, in H. G. Wells' story, the narrator is a time traveler who constructs a machine that transports him through time. The time traveler’s journey, as he experiences it, occurs over some nonzero duration of time.

Also, the journey is through some different nonzero duration of time in the world. It is the latter condition that distinguishes the natural time travel story from the graphic Wellsian time travel story. Our laws of physics do not allow travel through a nonzero duration of time in the world (in a sense that will be made clearer below). Wellsian time travel stories are mortgaged on our hope or presumption that more fundamental laws of nature are yet to be discovered beyond the current horizon of scientific knowledge. Natural time travel stories can be analyzed for consistency with known physics while Wellsian time travel stories can be analyzed for consistency with logic. Finally, time travel stories implicate themselves in a constellation of common philosophical problems.

Among these philosophically related issues we will address in this article are the metaphysics of time, causality, and personal identity. What is time travel? One standard definition is that of David Lewis’s: an object time travels iff the difference between its departure and arrival times in orginizer for essays, the surrounding world does not equal the duration of the journey undergone by the object. This definition applies to resignation letter cover both natural and Wellsian time travel. For example, Jane might be a time traveler if she travels for one hour but arrives two hours later in for essays, the future (or two hours earlier in the past). In both types of time travel, the graphic orginizer for essays times experienced by a time traveler are different from the time undergone by their surrounding world. But what do we mean by the time in time travel?

And what do we mean by of the of science and technology, travel in for essays, time travel? As the definition for time travel presently stands, we need to clarify what we mean by the word time (see the next section). While philosophical analysis of time travel has attended mostly to the difficult issue of time, might there also be vagueness in the word travel? Our use of the word travel implies two places: an essay poem oranges origin and for essays, a destination. I’m going to Morocco, means “I’m departing from my origination point here and I plan to arrive eventually in Morocco.” But when we are speaking of time travel, where exactly does a time traveler go? The time of origin is essay plain enough: the time of the time traveler and the time traveler’s surrounding world coincide at the beginning of the journey. But “where” does the time traveler arrive? Are we equivocating in our use of the word ‘travel’ by simply substituting a when for a where? In truth, how do we conceive of a when—as a place, a locale, or a region? Different scientific ontologies result in resignation letter cover, different ideas of what travel through time might be like.

Also, different metaphysical concepts of time result in different ideas of what kinds of time travel are possible. It is to the issue of time in philosophy that we now turn. How is time related to american existence? Philosophy offers three primary answers to this metaphysical question: eternalism, possibilism, and presentism. Orginizer. The names of these views indicate the ontological status given to time. The eternalist thinks that time, correctly understood, is an essay of the of science and technology developments a fourth dimension essentially constitutive of reality together with space. All times, past, present and future, are actual times just like all points distributed in space are actual points in graphic orginizer for essays, space. One cannot privilege any one moment in the dimension of time as more real than any other moment just like one cannot privilege any point in space as “more” real than any other point.

The universe is thus a spacetime “block,” a view that has philosophical roots at oranges least as far back as Parmenides. Everything is orginizer one; the appearance of things coming to be and ceasing to be, of time passing or flowing, is graphic orginizer simply phenomenal, not real. Objects from the past and future have equal ontological status with present objects. Thus, a presently extinct individual dodo bird exists as equably as a presently existing individual house finch, and the dodo bird and the house finch exist as equably as an individual baby sparrow hatched next Saturday. Whether or not the dodo bird and an essay of the and technology, the baby sparrow are present is irrelevant ontologically; they simply aren't in our spacetime region right now. The physicist typically views the for essays relation of time to existence in the way that the eternalist does.

The life of an object in resignation cover, the universe can be properly shown as: This diagram shows the spatial movement (in one dimension) of an object through time. The standard depiction of an object's spacetime worldline in Special Relativity, the Minkowski diagram (see below), privileges this block view of the universe. Many Wellsian time travel stories assume the standpoint of eternalism. For example, in Wells’ The Time Machine, the narrator (the time traveler) explains: “There is no difference between Time and education, any of the graphic three dimensions of Space except that our consciousness moves along it.” Eternalism fits easily into the metaphysics of time travel. The second view is resignation letter envelope possibilism, also known as the growing block or “growing universe” view. Graphic Orginizer For Essays. The possibilist thinks that the eternalist's picture of the universe is correct except for the status of the future. The past and the present are fixed and actual; the future is only possible. Orginizer. Or more precisely, the future of an object holds the possibility of many different worldlines, only graphic for essays one of which will become actual for the object. If eternalism seems overly deterministic, eliminating indeterminacies and human free choice, then possibilism seems to retain some indeterminacy and free choice, at least as far as the future is concerned. For the possibilist, the present takes on a special significance that it does not have for the eternalist.

The life of an object according to possibilism might be shown as: This diagram shows that the for essays object's worldline is not yet fixed or complete. (It should be pointed out english essay, that the necessity of illustrating the time axis with a beginning and end should not be construed as an implicit claim that time itself has a beginning and end.) Some Wellsian time travel stories make use of possibilism. Stories like Back to letter the Future and Terminator suggest that we can change the outcome of historical events in our world, including our own personal future, through time travel. The many different possible histories of an object introduce other philosophical problems of causation and personal identity, issues that we will consider in greater depth in later sections of the article. The third view is term presentism. The presentist thinks that only temporally present objects are real. Whatever is, exists now. The past was, but exists no longer; the future will be, but does not exist yet. Objects are scattered throughout space but they are not scattered throughout time.

Presentists do not think that time is orginizer a dimension in the same sense as the three spatial dimensions; they say the block universe view of the eternalists (and the essay on the intermediate view of the possibilists) gets the metaphysics of time wrong. If eternalism has its philosophical roots in graphic, Parmenides, then presentism can be understood as having its philosophical roots in Heraclitus. Letter. Presently existing things are the graphic orginizer for essays only actuality and only what is education essays now is orginizer for essays real. Each now is edited essay unique: “You cannot step twice into the same river; for fresh waters are ever flowing in upon you.” The life of an graphic for essays object according to presentism might be shown as: Many presentists account for the continuity of time, the timelike connection of one moment to the next moment, by appealing to the present intrinsic properties of the world (Bigelow). To fully describe some of these present intrinsic properties of the world, you need past- and future-tensed truths to supervene on those properties. For example, in anti-sex essays, ordinary language we might make the claim that George Washington camped at Valley Forge. This sentence has an implicit claim to a timeless truth, that is, it was true 500 years ago, it was true when it was happening, it is true now, and graphic for essays, it will be true next month. Term Paper. But, according to graphic orginizer for essays presentism, only presently existing things are real. Thus, the proper way to write understand the truth of this sentence is to translate it into a more primitive form, where the tense is captured by an operator. So in graphic, our example, the truth of the write term sentence supervenes on the present according to the formulation “WAS(George Washington camps at Valley Forge).” In this way, presentists can describe events in on the poem, the past and future as truths that supervene on the present.

It is the graphic basis for their account of persistence through time in issues like causality and personal identity. Since the use of the term 'time' in our definition of time travel remains ambiguous, we may further distinguish external, or physical time from orginizer personal, or inner time (again, following Lewis). In the ordinary world, external time and one’s personal time coincide with one another. Anti-sex Education. In the for essays world of the time traveler, they do not. Essay. So, with these two senses of time, we may further clarify time travel to occur when the duration of the journey according to the personal time of the time traveler does not equal the duration of the journey in external time. On The Poem Oranges. Most (but not all) philosophy of time concerns external time (see the encyclopedia entry Time).

For the purpose of natural time travel, we need to examine the scientific understanding of external time and how it has changed. Newton argued that space, time and motion were absolute, that is, that the entire universe was a single, uniform inertial frame and graphic, that time passed equably throughout it according to an eternally fixed, immutable and inexorable rate, without relation to anything external. Natural time travel in the Newtonian universe is impossible; there are no attributes or topography of space or time that can be exploited for natural time travel stories. Only time travel stories that exceed the bounds of Newtonian physics are possible and scenarios described by some Wellsian time travel stories (most notably like the one Wells himself wrote) are examples of such unscientific time travel. Several philosophers and scientists objected to the notion of absolute space, time and motion, most notably Leibniz, Berkeley and Mach. Edited Essay. Mach rejected Newton's implication that there was anything substantive about time: It is utterly beyond our power to measure the changes of things by time.

Quite the edited english contrary, time is an abstraction, at which we arrive by means of the changes of things (The Science of Mechanics, 1883). For Mach, change was more fundamental than the concept of time. We talk about time “passing” but what we’re really noticing is that things move and change around us. We find it convenient to talk as if there were some underlying flowing substance like the graphic water of a river that carries these changes along with it. We abstract time to have a standard measuring tool by which we can quantify change.

These views of Mach’s were influential for the young Albert Einstein. In 1905, Einstein published his famous paper on Special Relativity. This theory began the transformation of our understanding of space, time and motion. The theory of Special Relativity has two defining principles: the principle of relativity and the invariance of the essays speed of light. Briefly, the principle of relativity states that the laws of physics are the same for any inertial observer.

An observer is an inertial observer if the observer's trajectory has a constant velocity and therefore is not under the influence of any force. The second principle is the invariance of the graphic orginizer for essays speed of light. All inertial observers measure the speed c of light in of the history and technology developments, a vacuum as 3 x 10 8 m/s, regardless of their velocities relative to one another. Graphic For Essays. This principle was implied in term, Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism (1873) and the constancy of c was verified by the Michelson-Morley interferometer experiment (1887). This second principle profoundly affected the model of the cosmos: the constancy of c was inconsistent with Newtonian physics. The invariance of the speed of light according to Special Relativity replaces the invariance of time and distance in , the Newtonian universe. Intervals of space, like length, and intervals of time (and hence, motion) are no longer absolute quantities. Instead of speaking of an graphic for essays object in bibliography, a particular position independently of a particular time, we now speak of an event in graphic, which position and time are inseparable. We can relate two events with a new quantity, the spacetime interval.

For any pair of events, the spacetime interval is an absolute quantity (that is, has the same value) for all inertial observers. To visualize this new quantity, one constructs spacetime diagrams (Minkowski diagrams) in which an event is defined by its spatial position (usually restricted to one dimension, x) and its time (ct). Thus, a spacetime interval might be null (parallel to the trajectory of light, which, because of the y-axis units, is shown at a 45° angle), spacelike (little or no variation in time), or timelike (little or no variation in spatial position). The following figure shows a Minkowski diagram depicting the flat spacetime of Special Relativity and three different spacetime intervals, or worldlines . What are the consequences of Special Relativity for time travel? First, we lose the common sense meaning of simultaneity. For example, the same event happens at two different times if one observer's inertial frame is stationary relative to another observer’s inertial frame moving at some velocity. Anti-sex Essays. Furthermore, an graphic observer in the stationary inertial frame may determine two events to have happened simultaneously, but an observer in the second moving inertial frame would see the same two events happening at different times. Thus, there is no universal or absolute external time; we can only edited english essay speak of external time within one’s own frame of reference. The lack of simultaneity across frames of reference means that we might experience the phenomenon of time dilation. If your frame of reference is moving at some fraction of the speed of light, your external time passes more slowly than the external time in a frame of reference that is resignation letter envelope cover stationary relative to yours. Orginizer For Essays. If we imagine that someone in edited american english essay, the stationary frame of reference could peek at a clock in your frame of reference, they would see your clock run very slowly.

So in Special Relativity, we can find a kind of natural time travel. An example of Special Relativity time travel is of an making sacrifices essay astronaut who travels some distance in the universe at a velocity near the speed of light. The astronaut’s personal time elapses at the same rate it always has. Graphic. He travels to his destination and then returns home to find that external time has passed there quite differently. Everyone he knew has aged more than he, or perhaps has even been dead for hundreds or thousands of years. Such stories are physically consistent with the Einsteinian universe of Special Relativity, but of course they remain technologically beyond our present capability. Letter Envelope. Nevertheless, they are an example of a natural time travel story—adhering to the known laws of physics—which do not require exceptions to fundamental scientific principles (for example, the invariant and inviolable speed of light). But as a time travel story, they require that the time traveler also be an ordinary traveler, too, that is, that he travel some distance through space at extraordinary speeds. Furthermore, this sort of natural time traveler can only time travel into graphic for essays the future. (Conversely, from the perspective of those in the originating frame of reference, when the edited english astronaut returns, they witness the orginizer effects of time travel to the past perhaps because they have a person present among them who was alive in sacrifices, their distant past.) So natural time travel according to Special Relativity is perhaps too limited for what we normally mean by orginizer for essays, time travel since it requires (considerable) spatial travel in order to essay poem oranges work. In addition, there are other limitations, not least of which is mass-energy equivalence. This principle was published by Einstein in his second paper of 1905, entitled Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?

Mass-energy equivalence was implied by for essays, certain consequences of Special Relativity (other theorists later discovered that it was suggested by Maxwell's electromagnetism theory). Mass-energy equivalence is expressed by the famous formula, E = mc 2 . It means that there is an american essay energy equivalent to the mass of a particle at rest. When we harmonize mass-energy equivalence with the orginizer for essays conservation law of energy, we find that if a mass ceases to exist, its equivalent amount of energy must appear in some form. Mass is interchangeable with energy. Making Sacrifices Essay. Now only mass-less objects, like photons, can actually move at the speed of light. They have kinetic energy but no mass energy. Graphic Orginizer. Indeed, all objects with mass at rest, like people and american english, spaceships cannot, in principle, attain the speed of light. They would require an bibliography paper infinite amount of energy. In Special Relativity, all inertial frames are equivalent, and while this is a useful approximation, it does not yet suggest how inertial frames are to be explained.

Mach had stated that the distribution of matter determines space and time. But how? This was the question answered by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity (1916). Special Relativity is actually a subset of General Relativity. General Relativity takes into account accelerating frames of reference (that is, non-inertial frames) and thus, the graphic orginizer phenomenon of gravity. The topography of spacetime is created by the distribution of mass. Spacetime is dynamic, it curves, and matter tells a region of spacetime how to curve. Likewise, the graphic orginizer for essays resultant geometry of a spacetime region determines the motion of matter in it. The fundamental principle in General Relativity is the american english equivalence principle, which states that gravity and graphic, acceleration are two names designating the same phenomenon. If you are accelerating upwards at a rate g in an elevator located in a region of spacetime without a gravitational field, the force you would feel and the motion of objects in the elevator with you would be indistinguishable from an elevator that is edited stationary within a downward uniform gravitational field of magnitude g. To be more precise, there is no force of gravity.

When we observe astronauts who are in orbit over the Earth, it is not true to say that they are in an environment with no gravity. Rather, they are in free fall within the Earth's gravitational field. They are in a local inertial frame and resignation letter cover, thus do not feel the weight of their own mass. One curious effect of General Relativity is that light bends when it travels near objects. This may seem strange when we remember that light has no mass. How can light be affected by gravity? Light always travels in straight lines. Light bends because the geometry of spacetime is non-Euclidean in the vicinity of any mass. The curved path of light around a massive body is only apparent; it is simply traveling a geodesic straight line. If we draw the orginizer path of an airplane traveling the shortest international route in only two dimensions (like on a flat map), the path appears curved; however, because the earth itself is curved and not flat, the graphic for essays shortest distance, a straight line, must always follow a geodesic path. Light travels along the straight path through the various contours of spacetime.

Another curious effect of General Relativity is that gravity affects time. Imagine a uniformly accelerating frame, like a rocket during an engine burn. Graphic Orginizer. General Relativity predicts that, depending on one's location in the rocket, one will measure time differently. To an observer at the bottom or back of the education essays rocket (depending on how you want to visualize its motion), a clock at the top or front of the rocket will appear to run faster. According to the principle of equivalence, then, a clock at sea level on the Earth runs a little slower than a clock at the top of Mount Everest because the for essays strength of the field is weaker the history further you are from the graphic center of mass.

Are natural time travel stories possible in General Relativity? Yes, they are, and some of them are quite curious. While most of spacetime seems to be flat or gently rolling contours, physicists are aware of spacetime regions with unusual and severe topologies such as rotating black holes. Education Essays. Black holes are entities that remain from the complete collapse of stars. Black holes are the triumph of gravity over all other forces and graphic orginizer, are predicted by a solution to Einstein's General Relativity equations (Kerr, 1963). When they rotate, the write bibliography singularity of the black hole creates a ring or torus, which might be traversable (unlike the static black hole, whose singularity would be an impenetrable point). If an intrepid astronaut were to position herself near the horizon of the rapidly spinning center of a black hole (without falling into its center and possibly being annihilated), she would be treated to a most remarkable form of time travel. In a brief period of her personal time she would witness an immensely long time span in the universe beyond the graphic orginizer for essays black hole horizon; her spacetime region would be so far removed from the external time of the edited american english surrounding cosmos that she conceivably could witness thousands, millions, or billions of years elapse.

This is a kind of natural time travel; however, it severely restricts the graphic orginizer for essays activity of the astronaut/time traveler and she is limited to travel into the future. Are there solutions to General Relativity that allow natural time travel into the past? Yes, but unlike rotating black holes, they remain only theoretical possibilities. Einstein's neighbor in Princeton, Kurt Godel, developed one such solution. In 1949, Godel discovered that some worldlines in closed spacetime could curve so severely that they curved back onto , themselves, forming a loop in spacetime. These loops are known as closed timelike curves (CTCs). If you were an object on a CTC worldline, you would eventually arrive at the same spacetime position from which you started, that is, your older self would appear at one of its own earlier spacetime points. Godel’s CTC spacetime describes a rotating universe; thus, it is an extreme case for a CTC because it is globally intrinsic to the structure of the universe. It is not considered a realistic solution since current cosmological theory states that the universe is expanding, not rotating. One type of spacetime region that a natural time traveler might exploit is a wormhole : two black holes whose throats are linked by a tunnel.

Wormholes would connect two regions of space and two regions of time as well. History And Technology. Physicist Kip Thorne speculated that if one could trap one of the black holes that comprise the mouths of the wormhole it would be conceivable to transport it, preferably at speeds near the speed of light. The moving black hole would age more slowly than the graphic stationary black hole at the other end of the wormhole because of time dilation. Making. Eventually, the graphic orginizer two black holes would become unsynchronized and exist in different external times. The natural time traveler could then enter the stationary black hole and edited, emerge from the orginizer for essays wormhole some years earlier than when he departed.

Unfortunately for our time traveler, if wormholes exist naturally many scientists think that they are probably quite unstable (particularly if quantum effects are taken into account). So, any natural wormhole would require augmentation from exotic phenomena like negative energy in american english, order to be useful as a time machine. Another type of CTC suggested by Gott (1991) employs two infinitely long and very fast moving cosmic strings of extremely dense material. The atom-width strings would have to travel parallel to one another in opposite directions. As they rush past one another, they would create severely curved spacetime such that spacetime curved back on itself. Graphic Orginizer For Essays. The natural time traveler would be prepared to exploit these conditions at just the right moment and fly her spaceship around the two strings. If executed properly, she would return to her starting point in space but at an earlier time. One common feature of all CTCs, whether it is the global Godelian rotating universe or the local regions of rolled-up spacetime around a wormhole or cosmic strings, is that they are solutions to graphic General Relativity that would describe CTCs as already built into the universe. The natural time traveler would have to seek out american essay, these structures through ordinary travel and then exploit them.

So far, we are not aware of any solution to General Relativity that describes the for essays evolution of a CTC in a spacetime region where time travel had not been possible previously; however, it is usually assumed that there are such solutions to orginizer for essays the equations. History Of Science Developments. These solutions would entail particular physical constraints. One constraint would be the creation of a singularity in a finite region of spacetime. Graphic For Essays. To enter the region where time travel might be possible, one would have to cross the Cauchy horizon, the hourglass-shaped (for two crossing cosmic strings) boundary of the singularity in which the anti-sex laws of physics are unknown. Were such a CTC constructed, a second constraint would limit the external time that would be accessible to the time traveler. You could not travel to a time prior to for essays the inception date of the CTC. (For more on this sort of time travel, see Earman, Smeenk, and paper, Wuthrich, 2002.) Natural time travel according to General Relativity faces daunting technological challenges especially if you want to orginizer have some control over envelope the trajectory of your worldline. One problem already mentioned is graphic orginizer for essays that of stability. But equally imposing is the problem of energy. Fantastic amounts of exotic matter (or structures and conditions similar to the early moments of the Big Bang, like membranes with negative tension boundary layers, or gravitational vacuum polarization) would be needed to construct and graphic for essays, manage a usable wormhole; infinitely long tubes of hyperdense matter would be needed for cosmic strings.

Despite these technological challenges, it should be pointed out that the possibility of natural time travel into the past is consistent with General Relativity. But Hawking and orginizer for essays, other physicists recognize another problem with actual time travel into making the past along CTCs: maintaining a physically consistent history within causal loops (see Causation below). One advantage of some interpretations of relativistic quantum theory is that the american logical requirement for orginizer a consistent history in a time travel story is seemingly avoided by resignation envelope, postulating alternative histories (or worlds) instead of one history of the universe. Certain aspects of quantum theory are relevant to time travel, in particular the field of quantum gravity. The fundamental forces of nature (strong nuclear force, electromagnetic force, weak nuclear force, and for essays, gravitation) have relativistic quantum descriptions; however, attempts to incorporate gravity in quantum theory have been unsuccessful to date. On the current standard model of the atom, all forces are carried by virtual particles called gauge bosons (corresponding to the order given above for the forces: mesons and gluons, photons, massive W and Z particles, and the hypothetical graviton). A physicist might say that the photon “carries” electromagnetic force between “real” particles.

The graviton, which has eluded attempts to detect it, “carries” gravity. This particle-characterization of gravity in orginizer for essays, quantum theory is very different from Einstein’s geometrical characterization in essay, General Relativity. Reconciling these two descriptions is a robust area of research and many hope that gravity can be understood in the same way as the other fundamental forces. This might eventually lead to the formulation of a “theory of everything.” Scientists have proposed several interpretations of quantum theory. The central issue in interpretations of quantum theory is entanglement. When two quantum systems enter into graphic orginizer for essays temporary physical interaction, mutually influencing one another through known forces, and then separate, the two systems cannot be described again in the same way as when they were first brought together.

Microstate and macrostate entanglement occurs when an essay observer measures some physical property, like spin, with some instrumentation. The rule, according to the orthodox (or Copenhagen) interpretation, is that when observed the state vector (the equation describing the entangled system) reduces or jumps from a state of superposition to one of the actually observed states. Graphic For Essays. But what happens when an entangled state collapses? The orthodox interpretation states that we don't know; all we can say about it is to describe the essays observed effects, which is what the wave equation or state vector does. Other interpretations claim that that the state vector does not collapse at all. For Essays. Instead, some no-collapse interpretations claim that all possible outcomes of the superposition of states become real outcomes in one way or another. In the many-worlds version of this interpretation (Everett, 1957), at each such event the universe that involves the entangled state exfoliates into identical copies of the universe, save for the values of the properties included in graphic orginizer for essays, the formerly entangled state vector. Thus, at any given moment of “collapse” there exist two or more nearly identical universes, mutually unobservable yet equally real, that then each divide further as more and more entangled events evolve. On this view, it is conceivable that you were both born and not born, depending on which world we're referring to; indeed, the meaning of 'world’ becomes problematic.

The many universes are collectively designated as the multiverse. There are other variations on the many-worlds interpretation, including the resignation envelope many minds version (Albert and Loewer, 1988) and the many histories version (Gell-Mann and Hartle, 1989); however, they all share the central claim that the state vector does not “collapse.” Many natural time travel stories make use of these many-worlds conceptions. Some scientists and graphic, storytellers speculate that if we were able to travel through a wormhole that we would not be traversing a spacetime interval in our own universe, but instead we would be hopping from our universe to an alternative universe. A natural time traveler in a many-worlds universe would, upon their return trip, enter a different world history. This possibility has become quite common in Wellsian time travel stories, for example, in Back to the Future and Terminator. These types of stories suggest that through time travel we can change the outcome of historical events in our world. The idea that the history of the universe can be changed is why many of the inconsistencies with causation and personal identity arise. We now turn to these topics to examine the philosophical implications of time travel stories.

Inconsistencies and incoherence in time travel stories often result from spurious applications of causation. . Causation describes the connected continuity of events that change. Graphic Orginizer. The nature of this relation between events, for example, whether it is objective or subjective, is a subject of debate in philosophy. But for our purposes, we need only notice that events generally appear to have causes. The distinction made between external and personal time is crucial now for the difficulties of causation in some time travel stories. Imagine Heloise is a time traveler who travels 80 years in the past to visit Harold. Essay Poem. They have a fight and Heloise knocks out one of Harold's teeth.

If we follow the progression of Heloise’s personal time (or of Harold’s), the story is consistent; indeed, time travel seems to have little effect upon the events described. The difficulty arises when we test the consistency of the story in external time, because it involves an earlier event being affected by a later event. The ordinary forward progress of events related to Harold 80 years ago requires a schism in the connectivity and continuity of those events to allow the entry of a later event, namely, Heloise’s time travel journey. The activity of Heloise is causally continuous with respect to her personal time but not with respect to external time (assuming that the write bibliography continuity of her personal identity is not in question, as we shall discuss in the next section). With respect to external time, this story describes reversed causation, for later events produce changes in graphic for essays, earlier events.

How does the story change if Heloise is homicidal and encounters her own grandfather 80 years ago? This is a scenario many think show that time travel into the past is inconsistent and thus impossible. Heloise despises her paternal grandfather. Heloise is homicidal and has been trained in various lethal combat techniques. Despite her relish at the thought of murdering her grandfather, time has conspired against her, for her grandfather has been dead for 30 years. As a crime investigator might say, she has motive and essay on the poem, means, but lacks the opportunity; that is, until she fortuitously comes into the possession of a time machine.

Now Heloise has the orginizer for essays opportunity to resignation cover fulfill her desire. She makes the necessary settings on the machine and plunges back into time 80 years. She emerges from the machine and begins to graphic for essays stalk her grandfather. He suspects nothing. She waits for the perfect moment and place to strike so that she can enjoy the full satisfaction of her hatred. At this point, we might pause to observe: If Heloise murders her grandfather, she will have prevented him from fathering any children. That means that Heloise's own father will not be born. And that means that Heloise will not be born. But if she never comes into existence, then how is she able to return.

And so we have the infamous grandfather paradox. . Before we examine what happens next, let’s consider the possible outcomes of her impending action. First, let's assume that the many-worlds hypothesis correctly describes the universe. If so, then we avoid the paradox. If Heloise succeeds in killing her grandfather before her father is conceived, then the state of the world includes quantum entanglement of the events involved in Heloise’s mind, body, surrounding objects, etc., such that when she succeeds in killing her grandfather (or willing his death just prior to the physical accomplishment of it), the universe at that moment divides into graphic for essays one universe in which she succeeded and a second universe in which she did not. An Essay History Of Science And Technology. So the orginizer for essays paradox of causal continuity in external time does not arise; causation presumably connects events in graphic for essays, the different universes without any inconsistency. Write Paper. But as we shall see in the next section this quantum interpretation trades-off a causation paradox for graphic for essays a personal identity paradox.

Next, let's assume that we do not have the many-worlds quantum interpretation available to us, nor for that matter, any theory of different worlds. Can Heloise murder her grandfather? As David Lewis famously remarked, in one sense she can, and in another sense she can’t. Orginizer For Essays. The sense in which she can murder her grandfather refers to her ability, her willingness, and her opportunity to do so. But the sense in which she cannot murder her grandfather trumps the sense in which she can. In fact, she does not murder her grandfather because the moments of external time that have already passed are no longer separable.

Assuming that events 80 years ago did not include Heloise murdering her grandfather, she cannot create another moment 80 years ago that does. A set of facts is arranged such that it is perfectly appropriate to say that, in one sense, Heloise can murder her grandfather. However, this set of facts is enclosed by the larger set of facts that include the survival of her grandfather. Were Heloise to actually succeed in carrying out her murderous desire, this larger set of facts would contain a contradiction (that her grandfather both is murdered and is not murdered 80 years ago), which is impossible. History remains consistent. This is also related to Stephen Hawking's view (1992). According to his so-called Chronology Protection Conjecture, he claims that the laws of physics conspire to prevent macroscopic inconsistencies like the grandfather paradox. A Chronology Protection Agency works through events like vacuum fluctuations or virtual particles to of the history and technology prevent closed trajectories of spacetime curvature in the negative direction (CTCs). If Hawking is graphic for essays right and many-worlds quantum interpretations are not available, then is time travel to the past still possible? Hawking’s view about sacrifices consistent history then takes us to orginizer the special case of causation paradoxes: the causal loop. A causal loop is resignation letter a chain of causes that closes back on itself.

A causes B, which causes C,…which causes X, which causes A, which causes B…and so on ad infinitum. This sequence of events is exploited in some natural and for essays, Wellsian time travel stories. It is a point of debate whether all time travel stories involving travel to the past include causal loops. As we have seen, causal loops can occur when extraordinary cosmic structures curve spacetime in a negative direction. Wellsian time travel stories with causal loops describe scenarios like the following one by Keller and Nelson (2001). Jennifer, a young teenager, is visited by an old woman who materializes in resignation envelope, her bedroom. The old woman describes intimate details that only Jennifer would know and graphic orginizer for essays, thus convinces Jennifer to pursue a professional tennis career. Jennifer does exactly as the old woman suggested and eventually retires, successful and happy. One day she comes into write bibliography the possession of a time machine and decides to use it to travel back in for essays, time so that she might try to make her teenage years happier. Jennifer travels back into the past and stands before a person she recognizes as her younger self. . Jennifer begins to graphic orginizer for essays talk to the teenager about her hidden talents and the bright future before her as a tennis professional.

At the end of their conversation, Jennifer activates the time machine and returns to her original time. We can describe the causal loop in Keller and Nelson's story as follows. The story contained within in the causal loop is presented on the left side. At event C, the story splits, with the causal loop continuing along C1, and the exit from the loop beginning at C2. Graphic Orginizer For Essays. At C2, the oranges worldline of Jennifer continues outside the causal loop events. Orginizer. Thus: The events of Jennifer's life include a causal loop: some of those events have no beginning and bibliography term paper, no end. What is the for essays problem with the story? Each moment of the causal sequence is explicable in terms of the prior events. Essay On The Poem Oranges. But where (or when) did the crucial information that Jennifer would have a successful tennis career come from for essays originally? While each part of the causal sequence makes sense, the education essays causal loop as a whole is surprising because it includes information ex nihilo . It is for essays controversial whether such uncaused causes are possible.

Some philosophers (for example, Mellor, 1998) think that causal loop time travel stories are impossible because causal loops are themselves impossible. They argue that time and causality must progress in the same direction. Other philosophers (for example, Horwich, 1987) argue that while causal loops are not impossible, they are highly implausible, and letter envelope cover, thus spacetime does not permit time travel into the local past (like one’s own life) because fantastic amounts of energy would be required. Still other philosophers (for example, Lewis) think that causal loops are possible because at least some events, like the Big Bang, appear to be events without causes, introducing information ex nihilo . According to Hawking, causal loop stories that employ CTCs are like grandfather paradox stories. Graphic For Essays. While backwards causation might be logically possible, it is not physically possible.

The Chronology Protection Agency actively prevents them from occurring. The laws of physics conspire such that natural time travel into the past thwarts backwards or reverse causation. . In closed spacetime, the Cauchy horizon of a CTC acts as an impenetrable barrier to a timelike worldline for objects. If a time traveler could travel to graphic the past, whether or not that past included their younger self, they are prevented from essay poem interacting with the events of the past. If causal loops are possible, then the objects may interact with the events of the past, but only in a consistent way, that is, only in a way that preserves the already established events of the past. Perhaps we could call it the CTC prime directive (see Ray Bradbury's short story A Sound of Thunder).

Causal loops, like any other aporia of uncaused causes, occupy the inexplicable perimeter of philosophical thought about causation. For Essays. Nevertheless, causal loop stories like that of Jennifer raise another issue: personal identity . The old Jennifer travels back in sacrifices essay, time to talk with her younger self. Are there two Jennifers or just one Jennifer at event A? At the same moment in external time, a young Jennifer and an old Jennifer are separated by a distance of a few feet. At that moment, is there one person or two? Identity theory involves the relationships between the mind and the body that attempts to show the connection between mental states and physical states (see the entry Personal Identity). It tries, for example, to describe and explain the for essays connection (if any) between mind and the brain. For Lewis, the mental/physical distinction is crucial for explaining how a time traveler like Jennifer is one person, even when she travels back to talk with her younger self. Edited American. Our cognitions change according to the requirement of causal continuity. Graphic Orginizer For Essays. These mental states occur in personal time. Essay. For everyday purposes, we can ignore the distinction between personal time and orginizer, external time; personal time and external time coincide. But for anti-sex a time traveler like Jennifer, identity is maintained only by virtue of the traveler's personal time; their mental states continue like anyone else’s and at any given point in personal time, later mental states do not cause earlier ones.

In the case of Jennifer, it is therefore proper to say that at event A in her life, there is only one person, even though it is also true to say from an external perspective, that she has two different bodies present at event A. Lewis's distinction between the sense in which you can and graphic orginizer for essays, the sense in which you can’t has its coda in the subject of personal identity. In the sense of personal time, Jennifer is one person who is perceiving another person (from either Jennifer’s perspective). The older Jennifer’s materialization into the presence of the younger Jennifer is strange, to edited american english essay be sure, but in a time travel story, it is explicable. Regardless, in her personal time, the causal continuity of her perception (and thus mental states) is consistent. Letter Envelope Cover. In the sense of external time, from the graphic for essays perspective of their surrounding world, there are two Jennifers at event A. Edited. The mental state of the younger Jennifer is not identical to the mental state of the older Jennifer.

But these mental states, these stages of Jennifer’s life are not duplicates of the same stage; rather, two moments of personal time overlap at one moment of external time. So is it still proper to say that there are two of her? Lewis argues no, it is not. In the strange case of a time traveler like Jennifer, her stages are scattered in such a way that they do not connect in a continuously forward direction through external time, but they do connect continuously forward through her personal time. Graphic For Essays. The time traveler who meets up with her younger self gives the appearance to an outside observer that she is two different people, but in reality, there is only one person. The question of how objects persist through time is the subject of the endurance and perdurance debate in philosophy. An endurantist is someone who thinks that objects are wholly present at each moment of an interval of time. A perdurantist is someone who thinks that objects only have a temporal part present at each moment of an interval of time. The perdurantist claims that the identity of the whole object is identified as the sum of these temporal parts over the lifetime of the object. It seems that it is impossible for an endurantist to making sacrifices essay believe the story about Jennifer because she would have to be wholly present in two different spatial locations at the same time.

The endurantist can avoid this problem by appealing to the distinction between personal time and external time. Orginizer. If Jennifer is wholly present at education different locations at the same time, which kind of time do we mean? We mean external time. The endurantist can claim that two different temporal stages in her personal time just so happen to coincide because she is a time traveler at different locations at for essays a single moment of external time. For those of us who are not time travelers, our different temporal stages are also distinct moments in external time. But in either case, whether time traveler or not, a person is wholly present at sacrifices any moment of their personal time. The perdurantist seems to have an easier way with the graphic orginizer problem of personal identity in time travel stories. Since a person is only partially present at each moment of external time, it is readily conceivable that different temporal parts might coincide, but we still need to appeal to edited american english the distinction between personal time and external time. The two temporal parts of Jennifer's life that occur when the young and old Jennifer meet and have a conversation are each elements among many others that in toto form the graphic orginizer for essays whole person. Personal identity is especially problematic in a many-worlds hypothesis. Consider the anti-sex case of Heloise and her desire to murder her grandfather.

According to the many-worlds hypothesis, she travels back in time but by doing so also skips into orginizer for essays another universe. Heloise is free to kill her grandfather because she would not be killing her grandfather, that is, the same grandfather that she knew about before her time travel journey. Indeed, Heloise herself may have split into two different persons. Envelope Cover. Whatever she does after she travels into orginizer the past would be consistent with the history of the an essay history of science and technology alternative universe. But the question of who exactly Heloise or her grandfather is becomes problematic, especially if we assume that her actions in the different universes are physically distinct. Is Heloise the sum of her appearances in the many worlds?

Or is each appearance of Heloise a unique person? Also, see the related article Time in this Encyclopedia.

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Mouchette, directed by graphic orginizer Robert Bresson. By Dan Schneider. Right on the heels of on the his great 1966 film, Au Hasard Balthazar , French film director Robert Bresson embarked on graphic orginizer, another exploration of the indignity of life, this time focusing on the life of letter envelope a troubled teenage French girl from the country, one whose life was sort of a melding of the graphic orginizer for essays main female character from the prior film, and its titular donkey. Essay Oranges. While Mouchette can likewise make claims to greatness, it falls a bit shy of its predecessor’s mark, mainly due to its ending’s melodramatic ending versus the naturalistic end of the prior film. Granted, while both films end in their titular character’s deaths, and graphic for essays, teen girls are wont to melodrama that donkeys are not, the ending is still relatively weak.

Also, the fact that the earlier film takes place over the course of essay oranges many years, whereas Mouchette takes place over, perhaps, a few weeks or months, allows the latter film a little bit more leeway to try and milk a bit of forced drama from its premise—just not enough to make its ending work. The film opens with an orginizer attractive middle-aged woman (Marie Cardinal), who turns out to be Mouchette’s mother, in a church, bemoaning her fate, which seems to include her own death. Then the credits roll. Anti-sex Education. We then see a local gamekeeper, Mathieu (Jean Vimenet), following a poacher as he ensnares local fowl. Bresson films the full torture of the animal in a way that no filmmaker, today, could get away with. There seems to be an graphic antagonism between the two men that we see follows them to a local bar, where the gamekeeper (despite being married) desires the local barmaid, Louisa (Marine Trichet), who cares not for him, but lusts for the poacher, Arsene (Jean-Claude Guilbert). We also get to know the graphic orginizer for essays main character, Mouchette, a severely poor girl, of anywhere from 13 to 16 years of age (apparently, the source novel sets her age at 14, and Nortier was really 18, but the film lends no clue), who wears wooden clogs (that do not match her feet), and is an outsider at school, victim of a cruel music teacher, who abuses her, and , who hates the richer girls who exclude her. Graphic Orginizer. Mouchette even takes to tossing dirtballs at her rivals.

We see other assaults on developments, her persona, including young perverts who take to exposing their genitalia to graphic orginizer for essays her, while calling her Ratface. Making Essay. Worst of all is her home life. Orginizer For Essays. Her mother is dying, her newborn baby brother is uncared for, and her older brother and father (Paul Hebert) are bootleggers who supply the bar Louisa works in. American English Essay. Her older brother ignores her, and her father physically, emotionally, and verbally abuses her. The film moves swiftly through vignettes that paint a portrait of graphic orginizer static irrelevance and on the, despair in her life. Then, a fair arrives in town, and Mouchette gets two lessons in graphic orginizer human sexual relations.

The first occurs when a stranger gives her a token to ride the bumper cars, and edited essay, she engages in a bumpy flirtation with a handsome (and seemingly well off) boy who goes out of his way to constantly bump her, then smile. After the ride, Mouchette approaches the boy, who seems receptive, until her father intercedes, and smacks the girl for her ‘sluttiness.’ A bit later, Mouchette sees how Mathieu is laughed at by other men who see how Louisa rubs his face in her preference for taking a ride with Arsene. Interestingly, there is a brief shot of the utter shame and embarrassment on the face of Mathieu’s wife (Marie Susini) that will recur, later in the film, in orginizer both Mouchette and her mother, which links the plight of female sexuality with suffering at on the oranges, masculine behest. The film then enters its central scene, which occupies almost a third of the film. One day, after school, Mouchette decides to make her way home through the woods, but a rainstorm forces her to hide. When the rain stops, it is dark outside. For Essays. The set up of the scene suggests that what then transpires may be real or not. We see a scene where Mathieu and Arsene argue and fight, then seem to reconcile. Or not.

Arsene stumbles upon Mouchette, then takes her to a straw hut to dry off. He may or may not have killed Mathieu. He is not sure. Anti-sex. Neither is Mouchette. They make up a scenario in case Mathieu is dead. Mouchette agrees to this for reasons that may be an attraction to the older man, may be because she sees him as an outsider like her, or simply because, as she says, ‘She hates ‘them’. Graphic. The ‘them’ could be the essay on the whole world, or just the village they live in. This is left unclear.

Arsene and Mouchette then head back to for essays town, and take refuge in the backroom of another saloon. There, they discuss the night’s events, and making sacrifices essay, Arsene suffers a petit mal epileptic attack. Mouchette comforts him, and Arsene seems to threaten her, were she to speak of Mathieu. Then, he tries to get affectionate, she rejects him, and weakly tries to hide under a table. I say weakly, because the orginizer scene ends with Arsene on top of Mouchette, near a fire, and they obviously had sex or rather seem ready for it, when the scene fades out. Sacrifices Essay. The weakly comes in because the scene is often interpreted as a rape scene, even though it ends with Mouchette embracing Arsene, and clearly not resisting. Furthermore, later on, even though she cries about ‘the incident,’ and graphic orginizer, tries to tell her mother about it, she also defends Arsene to Mathieu (who was not killed, further bolstering the idea that the prior night was a dream) and paper, his wife, as her ‘lover.’ So, the fact that she does not escape from Arsene, when she could easily outrun the recovering epileptic, the fact that her ‘hiding’ is graphic orginizer half-hearted, the fact that she embraces his advances, and an essay of the of science, the fact that she calls him her ‘lover,’ all seem to undermine the rape argument (excepting, of course, if that jurisdiction accounted for statutory rape), and point to a semi-seduction (however awkwardly a presumably virginal teen girl might try that on for essays, an older man). And, this aspect of the film, along with its end, has been almost as controversial as the ‘rape’ scenes in Sam Peckinpah’s Straw Dogs , or Alfred Hitchcock’s Marnie , that simply were not. Naturally, due to making sacrifices critical cribbing, rather than watching the actual film, most critics have repeated the claim that the sex between the two was a rape. After the night is over, Mouchette returns home, her mother dies, and several of the townsfolk attempt token kindnesses, but these are supplemented with suspicion and suppressed rage, for what reasons are never revealed. An old woman gives Mouchette a dress for her mother’s funeral, but, on her way home, Mouchette tears it on graphic for essays, a bush, after seeing a rabbit hunt, and one of the unfortunate beasties expire at her feet.

As in history of science and technology developments the film’s opening, the real animals were hurt in the film, but for graphic orginizer for essays a genuine reason, a good one—high art, and are recalled long after their deaths—small solace for them, granted, but would a natural death have comforted them more? Then, three times Mouchette uses the rags to roll down a hill toward a lake. On her third attempt, she plops in, although—technically—we never see her body fall into the water and sink to and technology the bottom. We also never see any bubbles that would occur if a person fell into water. Now, whereas the end of Au Hasard Balthazar often has critics claim the donkey is dead at orginizer, film’s end, when we only see the dying, this film likewise assumes a death, but whether or not we see it is not as important as in the earlier film, which ends with a gentle resignation, before the moment. Anti-sex Education Essays. This film ends with the willful ignorance of Mouchette, whether or not we see her actual end. Graphic Orginizer. And, as mentioned, this ending is not nearly as satisfactory, narratively, emotionally, nor logically, as the end of the donkey is. The reason is that, even if one accepts that the girl was raped and an essay and technology developments, her mother died within hours of each other, she still has much going for her. And, despite this end coming from the novel the film was adapted from, Nouvelle Histoire De Mouchette , by Georges Bernanos (from whom Bresson had also adapted his film Diary of a Country Priest ), it is not a good one; it reeks of an artifice and orginizer, melodrama that is wildly at odds with Au Hasard Balthazar , especially considering how often (and surprisingly critically) correctly the cover two films are paired. Many critics have ascribed this to the fact that, while Mouchette is orginizer definitely an outsider in her town, she is not a rebel, she is not subversive, therefore she seems almost fated to be crushed.

I do not see evidence for this viewpoint within the frames of the film, however. First, a good portion of this assumption comes from accepting the view that Bresson’s cinematic cosmos is one of pure acceptance of education essays suffering, with reward in an afterlife—be it from his earliest films through his later ones. As this is only the sacrifices third film of his I have seen, I cannot speak with authority on the others, but even in graphic orginizer for essays the trio ( Diary of a Country Priest, Au Hasard Balthazar , and this) I have seen, this is of science and technology demonstrably false. Putting aside the graphic orginizer other films, Mouchette clearly is not impassive. She resists the bullying of her music teacher, she resists the american sneers of her female classmates, she does not let her father’s abuse get to her, she does not give satisfaction to the young male perverts who flash her, and she stands up to Arsene, even when alone, at night, with a grown man—a fact which again points to for essays the fact that his sex with her was not an act of rape, and , that her initial protestations were simply because she had no idea that immediate domination could be followed by pleasure, as we assume she was a virgin, and one with only a street-level child’s mythology of graphic for essays what sex was. Thus, when the filmmaker, when asked to define what the film was about, replied, ‘Mouchette offers evidence of misery and an essay of the history of science, cruelty. She is graphic for essays found everywhere: wars, concentration camps, tortures, assassinations,’ he was either being coy or wise. . Of course the for essays film deals with such negatives, but it also deals with perseverance, pluck, and grit. And, because it does, and does so, so well, this is a major reason its ending is so poor, perhaps matching the bad ending of Akira Kurosawa’s Rashomon . If it had only education offered what Bresson claimed, then its ending would have been much better and in line with the film, but, consequently, the graphic orginizer whole film would have been much worse! That said, the reason the film does succeed, and rises to of the of science greatness, rests primarily on graphic orginizer for essays, the shoulders of the lead actress, Nadine Nortier, who, despite little dialogue, conveys great depths within her character, despite being a non-professional actress at the time.

On the other hand, Jean-Claude Guilbert (a professional actor who also appeared in Au Hasard Balthazar , as another drunkard, Arnold) is also very good. The rest of the cast is solid. Yet, critical missteps abound, especially when some claim Mouchette is filled with anger. Yes, there may be acts of seeming anger (tossing dirt at her female rivals), but clearly the character of Mouchette is a walking mass of desensitisation. This would explain why she reacts the graphic way she does to sex with Arsene, rather than seeing it as her ‘striking back’ at the world. The cinematography by Ghislain Cloquet is not spectacular, but then it need not be.

It does, however, have the simple look and feel of a film shot decades earlier, and one only compare this film with a film like Jean-Pierre Melville’s Le Samourai , a colour film made the same year, to get a sense of just how unique Bresson’s vision was. The same is true for the scoring of the film, with little music that is not diegetic. Since the edited english essay film rises and falls on its tale and performance, the graphic orginizer for essays technical aspects merely have to be solid, and they are. The US DVD, put out by The Criterion Collection, is a very good package. The transfer of the graphic orginizer film is letter first rate, as the 81-minute black and white film (Bresson’s last film sans color) is shown in a 1.66:1 aspect ratio.

The special features are also quite good. They include an insert essay by Robert Polito that is for essays short on critical masturbation, and quite pointed; the english essay film’s original theatrical trailer by Jean-Luc Godard which, when seen against the film, is utterly at odds with it; a documentary called Travelling , which is a segment from a TV series called Cinema , and has interviews with Bresson, Nortier, and Guilbert; another documentary, called Au Hasard Bresson , about the director; and also an audio film commentary by film critic Tony Rayns which flows very well, is graphic for essays not too scripted, is scene-specific in an essay of the history developments its comments, and conveys both passion and erudition; traits too often missing in most commentaries. Orginizer For Essays. His lone weak spot comes when trying to sacrifices explain (rather justify) the rather weak ending. Rayns claims that death, for graphic the girl, was preferable to life, and that Mouchette had fulfilled her life, with sex and death, in edited american english the last day of her life, with the death of the rabbit being the graphic for essays final straw; but there is no evidence for this, and Rayns, himself, is dubious over Mouchette’s reaction, since she is a girl of the rural life, where hunting is a normal activity. Essay. And, while that may be what Bresson intended, and what the character may have thought, a critic needs to go beyond merely aping explanations put forth by an artist, especially in graphic orginizer matters that so clearly demonstrate an artistic failure, and one which seems to accept, in toto, that failure, merely due to the reputation of the artist as ‘spiritual,’ therefore beyond needing to make his art cohere. However, despite that failure, Mouchette is a great film, one whose concision heightens its power, and graphic for essays, one whose deftness of portrayal burrows more deeply into matters than its fine, but skeletal, screenplay does. One of the american english essay best techniques Bresson uses to for essays get more out of each brief scene is through the use of repetitions of english essay actions in unrelated scenes, which then connect those scenes to others. For example, when Mouchette’s teacher punishes her and forces her to sing a song, it is orginizer for essays under duress. Mouchette sings that same song while trying to resignation letter envelope cover tend to a seizing Arsene. Mouchette is pushed by her father whenever she wants pleasure, and she then pushes Arsene before she has sex with him. There is also a scene where Mouchette is graphic for essays wet, working in the bar, and then gets some coins as payment.

Later, in his hut, she is term paper wet, and Arsene pays her some coins to go along with his story regarding Mathieu’s presumed death. What this does is not only link divergent scenes in a strictly visual and cinematic way, but it emphasises the elliptical and cyclical nature of the film, where recurring images and motifs abound. Yet, all of them are slightly askew, and the camera always seems to graphic orginizer for essays look at its lead character’s life slightly askance, as if it was somehow recapitulating the clearly warped view of life Mouchette owns. In essence, the poem film called Mouchette recapitulates the point of view of its character Mouchette, which allows the viewer to both ‘feel’ a bit of the character’s warp, while also being able to step back and intellectually distance oneself and ‘understand’ the character’s warp. Whether or not Bresson intended this doubled perspective on life, it, and many of the graphic orginizer for essays film’s other strengths more than make up for its weak ending, and lift it to a greatness that, while it falls short of the utmost in the canon of great cinema, nonetheless makes Mouchette a film for which the anti-sex essays term “great” is applied a surety.

There are, certainly, worse ways to misfire, slightly or otherwise. Written under a Creative Commons License, with edits: Sign up and orginizer, we’ll send you ebook of 1254 samples like this for free !

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2017 MBA Essay Questions: Michigan Ross. 2017 Michigan Ross Two-Year MBA Essay Questions: Class of 2020. Several short-answer questions with multiple options each, plus a standard career goals essay: Your main pitch is in the formal goals essay: Please share your short-term and long-term career goals. What skills/strengths do you have that will be relevant to your career goals? How will Ross prepare you for your goals? (300 words) Hmmm#8230; EssaySnark likes the clarity they#8217;ve given here, with the separate questions #8212; but covering FOUR SPECIFIC ANSWERS in only 300 words. That#8217;s a tall order. We wish they#8217;d been more permissive on the essay length on this one. Anyway, a solid answer to all aspects of this question is EXACTLY what you#8217;ll end up with if you do EssaySnark#8217;s Career Goals App Accelerator! The potentially more interesting #8212; and more challenging, if you haven#8217;t yet grasped the anti-sex education essays, importance of being authentic in for essays, your MBA essays #8212; are the short-answer questions. You get choices here! You#8217;ll be choosing one from each group of prompts: Group 1 I want people to edited essay, know that I: I turned an idea into action when I: I made a difference when I: Group 2 I showed my resilience when I: I was humbled when: I am out of graphic my comfort zone when: Group 3 I was aware that I am different when: I find it challenging when people: A valuable thing I have taught someone: These questions will require extensive BRAINSTORMING and even more STRATEGY and we lay out some dos and don#8217;ts in our Michigan Ross MBA guide for 2017, including which pairs of questions should not be answered together, how dated your stories can be, and what other topics maybe won#8217;t serve you so well in these individual prompts, based on what we#8217;ve seen from others before you.

Ross usually has an optional essay too (though they encourage you to use bullets if you can!). Anti-sex Essays? Full-Time MBA App Deadlines for Michigan Ross. Deadlines and graphic orginizer, the schedule are about the same as they had last year. In the past, they have required any international Rd 1 applicants who want to participate in the Team Exercise to essays, travel to graphic, Ann Arbor. Make plans to , do so if you#8217;re serious about this school (or, try in anti-sex education essays, Round 2 instead). Graphic Orginizer For Essays? In 2016, interview invites were issued the week of October 24th but if you weren#8217;t interviewed, then there was still a possibility of being offered a spot on the waitlist when final decisions come out in December. Meaning, nobody was released in of the history of science, this round, as happens at for essays, other schools. Round 2: January 2, 2018 Harumph. Ross is inflicting the same pain on this year#8217;s BSers as they did last time. Apparently they didn#8217;t hear our plea from January! This deadline is IMMEDIATELY after the holiday.

Very very difficult. Last season in Round 2, they released all no-go candidates on write, February 17th. See the useful decision tree they posted on graphic orginizer for essays, their blog in letter envelope cover, February 2015 to for essays, better understand how the , admissions cycle works. Orginizer For Essays? Michigan Ross MBA Recommendations. Again in 2017, just one recommendation (which as we said in 2014 we don#8217;t think is the resignation, best thing for applicants, but they#8217;re sticking with it). This rec must be from current direct supervisor, or you need to explain why not in the optional essay. Three main questions for your recommender to answer. Lots of resources for choosing your recommender available here on graphic orginizer, the blahg; if you want more help, our Letters of Recommendation App Accelerator walks through the specifics and lets you submit your recommenders#8217; strategy for feedback from EssaySnark. EXCELLENT examples of accmplshmts that show distinction. Thank you Soojin @MichiganRoss congrats on amazing class!

Michigan Ross Interviews and Team Based Exercise. Write? Starting halfway through the 2012 admissions cycle, Ross piloted a team interview format which they standardized upon in 2013. There is (almost) no way to prepare for this; it#8217;s very impromptu, by orginizer, design. If you#8217;re a decent person with some manners who treats others well, not too shy and not too pushy, you should do just fine. Envelope Cover? It#8217;s still important to go through the graphic, standard interview prep process, of course, so that you#8217;re fluid and comfortable in talking about your interest in the MBA especially since Ross does not have a question about career goals in cover, its current essays. You need to be prepared to graphic orginizer, discuss those. We live-tweeted the Ross admissions webinar on 12/16/14: From @MichiganRoss prez: You need to know yr career goals for the adm interview, but we know that might change. Lots of support on job chgs. From @MichiganRoss prez: Recruiters want people who are smart and confident, but not cocky.

And that#39;s what we want too. (Us too!) We#39;re looking for reasons to admit you, not deny you. This perfectly sums up our impressions of essay on the poem @MichiganRoss admissions team! From @MichiganRoss prez: Don#39;t make a sport of the orginizer, #GMAT in other words, don#39;t get obsessive with retakes. No essay on Why MBA/Why Ross/Why now for @MichiganRoss but it WILL COME UP IN THE INTERVIEW! Why Ross esp important. Strong emphasis on attending the @MichiganRoss Team Exercise for sacrifices essay, your interview if you#39;re invited. [email protected] We mean truly optional for the optional essay. Use for gap in for essays, resume, glitch in edited, academics-NOT for for essays, expounding on other stuff. Recommenders should answer the essay, questions we#39;ve asked not just submit a generic letter to graphic, @MichiganRoss.

Manage up in this process. Frm @MichiganRoss abt waiving right to view rec: It doesnt matter to us but keep in mind how it may affect how yr recmdr provides input. No scholarship $ left for @MichiganRoss Rd 3 if you care about being considered for free money, apply now! #waitlisted candidates shd focus on areas you can control #GMAT, ways you can strengthen yr app. Making Essay? From @MichiganRoss but true everywhere! About 90% of @MichiganRoss students end up changing career (industry or function) great place for career changers. This guide is new for graphic, this year#8217;s short-answer groups of questions and the short-term/long-term/skills and strengths and Ross essay! For reference: Past Season Ross Essays. The reason we include these past-year questions is so you get a better sense of the school. Studying what they#8217;ve asked before helps you understand more of what they value.

When they keep questions consistent, then you know they#8217;re important; when they make changes, the deltas can give you additional perspective. Click to view 2016 questions. They#8217;ve clarified what they#8217;re looking for with these individual questions. Graphic Orginizer For Essays? Thank you, Ross! Two questions plus an anti-sex education essays, optional essay: What are you most proud of outside of your professional life ? How does it shape who you are today? 400 words (emphasis added) What is your desired career path and why? 400 250 words (ouch!) The first essay question is near-identical to what they had last year except that they#8217;re being specific: They don#8217;t want professional stuff here! That bolded text is new. The second question is identical except, dang, only 250 words now?

That means you#8217;re going to answer the essay oranges, question succinctly, right? Right! The career goals should be a natural outgrowth of what you#8217;ve done to graphic orginizer, date. ? That doesn#8217;t mean that your goals must be only a continuation of your current career. Graphic For Essays? You can certainly pursue something very new and different through the advantage of the of the history, Ross MBA.

But it should be fairly obvious how you#8217;re qualified and capable to go do this new thing, based on your background – and Essay 2 is where to make the graphic, case for sacrifices essay, that. Your short-term goal in particular shouldn#8217;t be such a radical departure from everything you#8217;ve ever done before that your reader becomes skeptical in seeing how you#8217;ll pull it off. The way you tie these pieces together will be important. (Wanna know how to do that? We go into lots and lots of details in the Ross app guide!) Plus, here#8217;s the May 2015 announcement from the graphic for essays, Ross adcom on on the oranges, these questions again that#8217;s from last year with perhaps the best essay-writing advice we#8217;ve ever heard from an adcom: #8220;You can even start with, “I am most proud of….'#8221; (hint: one of the worst and graphic orginizer for essays, also most common mistakes is not answering the question yes it happens all the time). Starting your essay with a direct statement like that, that incorporates the question in an essay of the and technology, it, is a wise move indeed. Ross got 30% more apps in two years#8217; ago Round 2 and graphic, we heard that 2016#8217;s Round 2 was also high for bibliography term, them as was this past Round 1 in Fall 2016. For Round 2 2017, the admissions team will be traveling around to conduct interviews and the Team Exercise in graphic, Delhi, Shanghai, and Tokyo and you can do it in Ann Arbor too, of course, or you have the education essays, option of orginizer interviewing locally with an anti-sex education essays, alum, pretty much anywhere you are in the world.

However, we suggest that you plan to attend one of graphic these four locations so that you can participate in the Team Exercise (HIGHLY recommended) . An Essay Of The Of Science Developments? Expect Round 2 interviews to orginizer for essays, go out in two waves in January with the interviews / team exercise happening in February (if you do not get the interview invitation in the second wave, you#8217;re either going to be waitlisted or denied; this year in of the history of science, Round 2 they are officially releasing all no-go candidates on orginizer, February 17th, though there#8217;s still a chance that you get an offer then to stick around on the waitlist even if they#8217;re not asking you to interview yet). Poem Oranges? [end discussion of 2016 questions.] Click to graphic, view 2015 questions. Hey @MichiganRoss: Your Essay #1 is worded differently in write bibliography term, your app and on graphic for essays, your blog announcement. Is and why? in or out making sacrifices essay, this year? After we sent them that today (8/28/15), Ross updated their website Essay section to reflect the same version of their question as they have in orginizer, the app, as noted below. Honestly, the #8220;why#8221; should be pretty obvious through the way you answer the question, so our advice is to consider the edited english, prompt unchanged! Two questions plus an optional essay: What are you most proud of and why?

How does it shape who you are today? (400 words) What is your desired career path and why? (400 words) Woo-hoo! A school resurrects a career goals question after having ditched it in orginizer, past years! This makes EssaySnark very happy particularly when Ross had to communicate to edited, candidates last year, after they had no essay asking about goals, that they really do care about goals after all and to please be prepared to discuss them in your interview. Write Bibliography? That was a little confusing. The first essay question is near-identical to what they had last year except that they#8217;re just asking it once (last year they had the same question twice, once asknig for a professional thing, and one asking for a personal thing). (ETA: Thanks to a sharp-eyed BSer for pointing out that the second question of Essay #1 is actually worded differently this year. Last year the subquestion was, #8220;What did you learn from that experience?#8221; which is similar to, but different from, this year#8217;s version. It#8217;s now been corrected!)

Pro Tip: EssaySnark strongly recommends presenting a professional story for Ross Essay #1. Obviously it will have to be an important professional experience if you#8217;re going to be able to offer a compelling answer to the second part of the for essays, question. [For 2016 obviously this is not the poem, case!! -ES] Here#8217;s the announcement from the Ross adcom on these new questions , from May 2015 with perhaps the for essays, best essay-writing advice we#8217;ve ever heard from an adcom: #8220;You can even start with, “I am most proud of….'#8221; (hint: one of the worst and also most common mistakes is not answering the , question yes it happens all the graphic, time). Starting your essay with a direct statement like that, that incorporates the question in essay poem oranges, it, is a wise move indeed. This #8220;5 Things to Know Before You Submit#8221; post from write bibliography term paper, Soojin Kwon in late September 2015 is also helpful except for graphic orginizer, that darned inconsistency on what#8217;s important with Essay 1. We#8217;ve updated the Ross SnarkStrategies Guide and making, these essays questions are perfect to tackle as your first MBA application writing project. Two questions plus an optional essay: What are you most proud of professionally and why? What did you learn from that experience? (400 words) What are you most proud of personally and graphic orginizer, why? How does it shape who you are today? (400 words) They#8217;ve gone in a different direction this year! Two simple, straightforward questions, designed to force you to reflect on what#8217;s important and who you are, and communicate that concisely. A total of 800 words for bibliography, what will essentially be two stories. Great stuff. [end discussion of 2014 questions.] Not much changed in 2013 from graphic for essays, previous year. HINT: They really want to know who you are as a person (this is still true today).

Introduce yourself to your future Ross classmates in 100 words or less. Multi-part question: What about your professional experiences has led you to determine that business school is the right next step? (150 words) As you have research MBA programs, what actions have you taken to learn more about Ross and what has led you to believe that Ross is the right MBA program for you? (150 words) What career do you plan to for essays, pursue after business school and why? (150 words) Describe a time in your career when you were frustrated or disappointed. What advice would you give a colleague who was dealing with a similar situation? (400 word maximum) [end discussion of 2013 questions.] Click to of the of science developments, view 2012 questions. Here#8217;s the full set of questions from 2012, in case you want to orginizer, see where they were coming from before. Note: These questions were not easy! Especially #3. American Essay? Introduce yourself to for essays, your future Ross classmates in making, 100 words or less. Describe your career goals. How will an MBA from Ross help you to achieve those goals?

Describe a time in your career when you were frustrated or disappointed. What advice would you give to a colleague who was dealing with a similar situation? What are you most passionate about and why? How will this passion positively impact Ross? [end discussion of 2012 questions.] The essays are very important at Michigan.

EssaySnark has reviewed a fair number of Ross essays over the years. Here#8217;s a couple from past seasons for you to check out along with Ross-specific essay commentary. Ross is very open about their use of orginizer plagiarism detection software. We know you#8217;d never be tempted to making, stoop to such low levels, but consider yourself warned: don#8217;t copy essays, for here or for graphic orginizer for essays, elsewhere. We found a BSer#8217;s 2013 school visit report that#8217;s worth sharing: Go Blue! from an essay of the of science, Boots to Suits applicant blog April 2013.

The 2016 Ross guide will help you figure out the best topics to cover, including some tips to keep in mind for a holistic strategy across essays, resume, and the single recommendation. We cover the group interview format that Ross adopted several years ago too, and advice on whether or not to use the optional essay for this school. There#8217;s actually A LOT of former Brave Supplicants wandering the halls in Ann Arbor every year. We are always careful to protect confidentiality, but one great guy outed himself in his guest post on the blahg. If you end up at Ross, we can tell you for sure that you#8217;ll be surrounded by some truly amazing students. And just to end things on a note of cuteness: 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. Graphic Orginizer? The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to of the history and technology developments, help you with the graphic orginizer for essays, 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and bibliography term, all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of 2020 app.

Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to graphic, my pitch in order to maximize my . What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : ($) The challenges of edited interviewing with a student compared to an alum 2016 : Round 2 Countdown has started 2016 : Being prepared for graphic orginizer for essays, your MBA interview 2015 : ($) The wanderer wants to use bschool to find a new path. Term Paper? 2013 : Success Story! A Journey to the Center of America: A Saga (Part 2: The First Year) 2012 : BSers Thoughts of graphic for essays Bschool 2012 : ($) What about a lower-ranked program? (No, lower than that) 2011 : Reliance on bschool rankings is a trap 2011 : essay critique: Columbia essay 2 life experience 2010 : The pitch. EssaySnark® is a registered trademark.

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conclusions in essay INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS. Adapted from Writing and Reading Across the graphic for essays Curriculum , 6th Edition. By Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. Pp. 32-58. A thesis statement is a one-sentence summary of an essay and technology, a paper's content.

It is similar, actually, to a paper's conclusion but lacks the conclusion's concern for broad implications and significance. For a writer in the drafting stages, the graphic thesis establishes a focus, a basis on poem, which to include or exclude information. For the reader of a finished product, the thesis anticipates the author's discussion. A thesis statement, therefore, is an essential tool for both writers and readers of academic material . This last sentence is graphic orginizer for essays our thesis for this section. Based on this thesis, we, as the authors, have limited the content of the section; and you, as the reader, will be able to form certain expectations about the discussion that follows. You can expect a definition of a thesis statement; an enumeration of the uses of a thesis statement; and letter, a discussion focused on academic material. As writers, we will have met our obligations to you only if in subsequent paragraphs we satisfy these expectations. The Components of a Thesis. Like any other sentence, a thesis includes a subject and for essays, a predicate, which consists of an assertion about the subject. In the sentence Lee and Grant were different kinds of generals, Lee and Grant is the education subject and were different kinds of generals is the predicate. Graphic Orginizer For Essays. What distinguishes a thesis statement from any other sentence with a subject and predicate is the thesis statement statement's level of generality and the care with which you word the assertion . The subject of a thesis must present the right balance between the general and the specific to allow for a thorough discussion within the allotted length of the paper.

The discussion might include definitions, details, comparisons contrasts - whatever is needed to envelope cover, illuminate a subject and carry on an intelligent conversation. (If the sentence about Lee and Grant were a thesis, the graphic orginizer for essays reader would assume that the rest of the essay contained comparisons and contrasts between the two generals.) Bear in mind when writing thesis statements that the more general your subject and the more complex your assertion, the longer your paper will be. For instance, you could not write an effective ten-page paper based on the following: Democracy is the best system of government. Consider the subject of this sentence, democracy, and the assertion of its predicate, is the graphic orginizer best system of government. The subject is enormous in scope; it is a general category composed of hundreds of more specific sub-categories, each of which would be appropriate for a paper ten pages in length.

The predicate of our example is also a problem, for education the claim that democracy is the orginizer for essays best system of write, government would be simplistic unless accompanied by a thorough, systematic, critical evaluation of every form of government yet devised. A ten-page paper governed by such a thesis simply could not achieve the for essays level of detail and making, sophistication expected of college students. Limiting the Scope of the Thesis. Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by limiting your subject and your claims about it. Two strategies for achieving a thesis statement of manageable proportions are (1) to begin with a working thesis (this strategy assumes that you are familiar with your topic) and (2) to begin with a broad area of interest and narrow it (this strategy assumes that you are unfamiliar with your topic). Begin with a Working Thesis. Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers. Graphic Orginizer For Essays. But professionals usually have an important advantage over , students: experience. Because professionals know their material, are familiar with the ways of approaching it, are aware of the graphic orginizer questions important to practitioners, and have devoted considerable time to study of the topic, they are naturally in a strong position to begin writing a paper. Of The Of Science And Technology. Not only do professionals have experience in their fields, but they also have a clear purpose in writing; they know their audience and are comfortable with the format of their papers.

Experience counts - there's no way around it. As a student, you are not yet an expert and therefore don't generally have the luxury of beginning your writing tasks with a definite thesis in mind. Once you choose and devote time to orginizer, a major field of resignation, study, however, you will gain experience. In the meantime, you'll have to do more work than the professional to prepare yourself for writing a paper. But let's assume that you do have an area of edited american essay, expertise, that you are in your own right a professional (albeit not in academic matters). We'll assume that you understand your nonacademic subject - say, backpacking - and have been given a clear purpose for for essays writing: to discuss the relative merits of letter envelope cover, backpack designs.

Your job is to write a recommendation for the owner of a sporting-goods chain, suggesting which line of orginizer, backpacks the chain should carry. The owner lives in another city, so your remarks have to be written. Since you already know a good deal about write paper backpacks, you may already have some well-developed ideas on the topic before you start doing additional research. Yet even as an expert in your field, you will find that beginning the writing task is orginizer for essays a challenge, for at this point it is unlikely that you will be able to , conceive a thesis perfectly suited to graphic orginizer for essays, the contents of your paper. After all, a thesis statement is a summary, and it is difficult to summarize a presentation yet to be written - especially if you plan to discover what you want to say during the process of writing.

Even if you know your material well, the best you can do at the early stages is to formulate a working thesis - a hypothesis of envelope, sorts, a well-informed hunch about orginizer your topic and the claim to be made about it. Once you have completed a draft, you can evaluate the degree to which your working thesis accurately summarizes the content of graphic for essays, your paper. 1 If the match is a good one, the working thesis becomes the thesis statement. If, however, sections of the paper drift from the orginizer focus set out in the working thesis, you'll need to envelope, revise the orginizer for essays thesis and the paper itself to on the, ensure that the presentation is graphic orginizer unified. Envelope Cover. (You'll know that the match between the content and thesis is a good one when every paragraph directly refers to graphic orginizer for essays, and develops some element of the thesis.) Begin with a Subject and Narrow It. Let's assume that you have moved from making recommendations about of science and technology backpacks (your territory) to writing a paper for your government class (your professor's territory). Whereas you were once the professional who knew enough about your subject to begin writing with a working thesis, you are now the graphic orginizer for essays student, inexperienced and in need of a great deal of information before you can begin begin to think of thesis statements. It may be a comfort to know that your government professor would likely be in the same predicament if asked to recommend backpack designs.

He would need to spend several weeks, at least, backpacking to orginizer for essays, become as experienced as you; and it is essay poem fair to say that you will need to spend several hours in the library before you are in a position to graphic orginizer for essays, choose a topic suitable for an undergraduate paper. Suppose you have been assigned a ten-page paper in Government 104, a course on social policy. Not only do you not have a thesis - you don't have a subject! Where will you begin? First, you need to essays, select a broad area of interest and make yourself knowledgeable about its general features. What if no broad area of interest occurs to you? Don't despair - there's usually a way to make use of discussions you've read in a text or heard in a lecture. The trick is to graphic orginizer, find a topic that can become personally important, for whatever reason. Bibliography Term. (For a paper in your biology class, you might write on the digestive system because a relative has stomach troubles. For an economics seminar, you might explore the factors that threaten banks with collapse because your grandparents lost their life savings during the Great Depression.) Whatever the academic discipline, try to discover a topic that you'll enjoy exploring; that way, you'll be writing for graphic for essays yourself as much as for your professor. Some specific strategies to of the of science, try if no topics occur to you: Review material covered during the orginizer for essays semester, class by class if need be; review the semester's readings, actually skimming each assignment.

Choose any subject that has held your interest, if even for a moment, and use that as your point of cover, departure. Suppose you've reviewed each of your classes and recall that a lecture on AIDS aroused your curiosity. Your broad subject of interest, then, will be AIDS. At this point, the goal of your research is to limit this subject to a manageable scope. Although your initial, broad subject will often be more specific than our example, AIDS, we'll assume for graphic orginizer for essays the purposes of write term paper, discussion the most general case (the subject in greatest need of limiting). A subject can be limited in at least two ways. Orginizer. First, a general article like an encyclopedia entry may do the american essay work for you by presenting the subject in the form of an outline, with each item in the outline representing a separate topic (which, for your purposes, may need further limiting).

Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: These questions will occur to you as you conduct your research and see the graphic orginizer for essays ways in which various authors have focused their discussions. Having read several sources and essays, having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the subject AIDS by graphic orginizer for essays, asking who - AIDS patients; and which aspect - civil rights of AIDS patients. Certainly, the resignation letter cover civil rights of AIDS patients offers a more specific focus than does AIDS; still, the orginizer for essays revised focus is too broad for a ten-page paper in that a comprehensive discussion would obligate you to poem, review numerous particular rights. So again you must try to limit your subject by orginizer for essays, posing a question. In this particular case, which aspects (of the civil rights of AIDS patients) can be asked a second time. Six aspects may come to american english, mind:

Rights in the workplace Rights to hospital care Rights to insurance benefits Rights to privacy Rights to graphic orginizer for essays, fair housing Rights to education. Any one of these aspects could provide the focus of a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the aspects; to choose more would obligate you to too broad a discussion and you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to the page limit, the paper would be superficial in its treatment. In both instances, the paper would fail, given the constraints of the assignment. So it is far better that you limit your subject ahead of time, before you attempt to write about it. Sacrifices Essay. Let's assume that you settle on the following as an appropriately defined subject for a ten-page paper: the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. The process of narrowing an initial subject depends heavily upon the reading you do. The more you read, the deeper your understanding of a topic. The deeper your understanding, the likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and of science, complex topic into manageable - that is, researchable - categories.

Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of them. In the AIDS example, your reading in the literature suggested that the civil rights of AIDS patients was at the center of recent national debate. So reading allowed you to narrow the subject AIDS by answering the initial questions - the who and which aspects. Once you narrowed your focus to the civil rights of AIDS patients, you read further and quickly realized that civil rights in itself was a broad concern that also should be limited. In this way, reading provided an important stimulus as you worked to identify an appropriate subject for your paper. Make an Assertion. Once you have identified the subject, you can now develop it into a thesis by making an assertion about it. If you have spent enough time reading and essay poem, gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to have something to say about the subject, based on a combination of graphic, your own thinking and the thinking of your sources.

If you have trouble making an assertion, try writing your topic at the top of a page and then listing everything you know and graphic orginizer, feel about it. Often from , such a list you will discover an assertion that you then can use to fashion a working thesis. A good way to gauge the reasonableness of your claim is to see what other authors have asserted about the same topic. In fact, keep good notes on graphic, the views of others; the resignation envelope notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and you may want to graphic, use them in your paper. Next, make three assertions about your topic, in order of increasing complexity. During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.

The most sensible plan for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace has been offered by columnist Anthony Jones. Keep in mind that these are working thesis statements. Because you haven't written a paper based on sacrifices essay, any of them, they remain hypotheses to be tested. After completing a first draft, you would compare the orginizer contents of the paper to the thesis and make adjustments as necessary for unity. The working thesis is an excellent tool for planning broad sections of the paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from pursuing related discussions as they occur to you.

Notice how these three statements differ from write paper, one another in the forcefulness of their assertions. Orginizer. The third thesis is strongly argumentative. Most sensible implies that the american essay writer will explain several plans for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. Following the explanation would come a comparison of plans and then a judgment in favor of Anthony Jones. Making Essay. Like any working thesis, this one helps the writer plan the paper. Graphic For Essays. Assuming the write term paper follows the for essays three-part structure we've inferred, the working thesis would become the final thesis, on making sacrifices, the basis of which a reader could anticipate sections of the essay to come. The first of the graphic for essays three thesis statements, by contrast, is explanatory : During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. In developing a paper based on this thesis, the writer would assert only the existence of a debate, obligating himself merely to education essays, a summary of the for essays various positions taken. Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for an essay and technology anticipating the contours of the paper to follow. Based on this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to find the author strongly endorsing the views of one or another columnist.

The thesis does not require the author to defend a personal opinion. The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to the material, although the assertion is not as forceful as the one found in statement 3: Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. Here we have an explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the writer to express an opinion. We infer from the use of the word convincing that the writer will judge the various reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the writer himself believes in protecting these rights. Note the contrast between this second thesis and the first one, where the writer committed himself to no involvement in the debate whatsoever. Still, the present thesis is not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the general argument for safeguarding rights (an acceptance he would need to justify) and then took the additional step of evaluating the merits of those arguments in relation to each other. (Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the most sensible.) As you can see, for any subject you might care to explore in a paper, you can make any number of assertions - some relatively simple, some complex. It is on the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for for essays reading.

The more ambitious the resignation envelope cover thesis, the more complex will be the paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations. Using the Thesis. Different writing tasks require different thesis statements. The explanatory thesis is often developed in response to short-answer exam questions that call for information, not analysis (e.g., List and explain proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is appropriate for organizing reports (even lengthy ones), as well as essay questions that call for graphic orginizer some analysis (e.g., In what ways are the recent proposals to modify American democracy significant?).

The strongly argumentative thesis is used to organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of essay oranges, view (e.g., Evaluate proposed modifications to graphic orginizer, contemporary American democracy). The strongly argumentative thesis, of course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and essay on the, defend against logical objections. But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to graphic, make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions. One of the important objectives of bibliography term, a college education is to graphic orginizer, extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs. Poem. You breathe new life into this broad objective, and graphic for essays, you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for you (as writer) and for your readers. Of course, once you set the challenge, you must be equal to the task. As a writer, you will need to discuss all the elements implied by bibliography term, your thesis. To review: A thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of your paper) helps you organize and your reader anticipate a discussion. Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and complex enough to graphic for essays, be developed within the length limitations of the anti-sex education essays assignment. Both novices and experts in a field typically begin the initial draft of for essays, a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to discover what they want to say as they write. Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the fit of edited american english, your thesis with the paper that follows.

Every element of the thesis should be developed in the paper that follows. Graphic Orginizer. Discussions that drift from your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to envelope, accommodate the new discussions. A quotation records the exact language used by someone in speech or in writing. A summary , in contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of graphic orginizer, what someone else has said or written. And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the original source.

Any paper in which you draw upon sources will rely heavily on quotation, summary, and paraphrase. How do you choose among the three? Remember that the papers you write should be your own - for the most part, your own language and certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and essays, your own conclusions. It follows that references to orginizer for essays, your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of which are built on restatement, not quotation. You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to follow the development of , a source closely. When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by the voices of graphic, those you've quoted. An Essay Of The Of Science And Technology Developments. So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice. Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers . The trick is to know when and how to use quotations. Use quotations when another writer's language is particularly memorable and will add interest and liveliness to your paper. Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective.

Use quotations when you want the graphic for essays solid reputation of sacrifices, a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing. Quoting Memorable Language. Assume you're writing a paper on graphic for essays, Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship with the celebrated Josephine. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to be a brilliant military campaign in Italy. How did the young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding? You come across the following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, 1796: I have received all your letters, but none has had such an impact on me as the last.

Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to essay on the poem, me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke! Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! 2. A summary of essay on the poem oranges, this passage might read as follows: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to her letters.

You might write the following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and graphic, longing. How feeble this summary and paraphrase are when compared with the original! Use the of the developments vivid language that your sources give you. In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, 1796, a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to graphic orginizer, her husband, who, on a military campaign, acutely felt her absence. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? . Essays. . . What emotions you evoke! he said of her letters. Written in fire, they poor heart!

The effect of directly quoting Napoleon's letter is to enliven your paper. A direct quotation is one in which you record precisely the language of another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter. Poem. In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to repeat the words exactly as spoken (or written): Direct quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said: The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Indirect quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said that we have nothing to orginizer, fear but fear itself. The language in a direct quotation, which is indicated by a pair of quotation marks ( ), must be faithful to the language of the original passage. When using an indirect quotation, you have the liberty of graphic orginizer, changing words (although not changing meaning). For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources , naming them either in (or close to) the sentence that includes the quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote]. Quoting Clear and Concise Language. You should quote a source when its language is particularly clear and economical - when your language, by american english essay, contrast, would be wordy.

Read this passage from a text on biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of for essays, 30,000 to 40,000 workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter. An Essay Of The And Technology Developments. This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold. Like other bees, the isolated honeybee cannot fly if the temperature falls below 10C (50F) and cannot walk if the temperature is below 7C (45F). Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the temperature, the denser the graphic orginizer for essays cluster. The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens.

In very cold weather, the bees on the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery. The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves. 3. A summary of this paragraph might read as follows: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of making essay, bee, are able to for essays, live through the winter by an essay history of science, clustering together in a dense ball for body warmth. A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of for essays, bee (such as bumblebees), are able to live through the winter. The 30,000 to 40,000 bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures.

But when clustering together in a dense ball, the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts. Resignation Letter Envelope Cover. The cluster also moves slowly about the orginizer hive, eating honey stored in the combs. This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the essay honeybee to survive the cold winter months. In both the summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's clustering together in a dense ball, a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is sacrifices essay admirably precise. Quoting Authoritative Language. You will also want to use quotations that lend authority to orginizer, your work. When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of an essay history of science developments, respected figures to endorse some statement that you've made, and graphic for essays, your statement becomes more credible to anti-sex, your readers. Orginizer. For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden : Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training.

It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and graphic for essays, one that will task the edited american essay reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not only do you regard reading to for essays, be a skill that is poem oranges both difficult and graphic orginizer, important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the level of your work. You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the making essay subject of your paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut:

A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for for essays an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective. Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and edited american english essay, former shuttle astronaut, says, It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on graphic orginizer, space science was zero. Now it's about $500 million a year. Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to , incorporate remarks made by orginizer, James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight. In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to making essay, the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on graphic orginizer, the subject of space flight. An Essay And Technology Developments. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to graphic orginizer, all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut . The phrases in italics are called appositives . Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by education essays, providing explicit, identifying detail.

Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase: James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . James Van Allen has decried the expense of the manned space program. James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts , has decried the expense of the manned space program. Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences. Quoting Only the orginizer Part of edited american english, a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need. As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative . Now we will put these principles into graphic, practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by resignation envelope cover, Robert Hutchins, former president of the orginizer University of Chicago:

If athleticism is bad for essay poem oranges students, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves. For Essays. They want to be educational institutions, but they can't. The story of the famous halfback whose only essays, regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and graphic orginizer, write is probably exaggerated. But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, friends, presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards. An Essay And Technology. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as faculty representatives on the college athletic boards. 4. Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of for essays, words that will enliven your discussion.

You may want to quote part of the following sentence: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence. Once you've selected the passage you want to quote, work the material into your paper in as natural and orginizer for essays, fluid a manner as possible. Here's how we would quote Hutchins:

Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins. Graphic Orginizer. And we've used only the part of the essay on the poem oranges paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly. Avoiding Freestanding Quotations. A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. These gentry often overlook the graphic orginizer for essays fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. But this kind of thinking is bad for the university and even worse for the athletes. Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to write bibliography term, the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write:

According to Robert Hutchins, These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. These gentry, asserts Robert Hutchins, often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is graphic orginizer for essays a half-wit. Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon: But Robert Hutchins disagrees: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Use colons also to american essay, introduce indented quotations (as in the examples above). When attributing sources, try to vary the standard states, writes, says, and so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: asserts, argues, maintains, insists, asks, and even wonders. Using Ellipsis Marks. Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to orginizer, quote the making beginning and graphic orginizer, end of a passage but not its middle - as was the case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.

It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object. Books must be read as deliberately and resignation envelope, reservedly as they were written. 5. And here was how we used this material: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and for essays, training.

It is essays a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from graphic for essays, it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by placing an ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at the point of deletion. The rationale for resignation letter using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original. Orginizer. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: To read well . is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all:

It requires a training such as the graphic for essays athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and anti-sex education, reservedly as they were written. If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an ellipsis. Be sure, however, that the syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of your sentence: Reading is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau.

Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in a quoted sentence. The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion. Graphic Orginizer For Essays. For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets. When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for America's Cinderella. This book's text is coy and condescending. (Sample: And her best friends of for essays, all were - guess who - the mice!) The illustrations are poor cartoons. English. And Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to shreds. (Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and birds.) She answers her stepmother with whines and graphic, pleadings.

She is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless . She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by her friends, the mice. She does not hear them because she is bibliography off in a world of dreams. Graphic. Cinderella begs, she whimpers, and at an essay of the history developments last has to be rescued by - guess who - the mice! 6. In quoting this sentence, you would need to identify whom the pronoun she refers to. You can do this inside the quotation by graphic orginizer for essays, using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that [Cinderella] is anti-sex a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. If the pronoun begins the sentence to be quoted, as it does in this example, you can identify the pronoun outside of the quotation and simply begin quoting your source one word later: Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless.

If the pronoun you want to identify occurs in the middle of the sentence to be quoted, then you'll need to use brackets. Graphic Orginizer For Essays. Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the following: After the fire they did not return to the station house for three hours. If the reporter wants to use this sentence in an article, he or she needs to identify the pronoun: An official from of the and technology developments, City Hall, speaking on the condition that he not be identified, said, After the fire [the officers] did not return to the station house for three hours. You will also will need to add bracketed information to a quoted sentence when a reference essential to the sentence's meaning is implied but not stated directly. Read the following paragraphs from graphic, Robert Jastrow's Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's: These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates life like an electronic monkey. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better.

Finally, the line between the orginizer for essays original and the copy becomes blurred. In another 15 years or so - two more generations of computer evolution, in the jargon of the graphic orginizer for essays technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of life. The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into write term, the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the equipment for survival. For example, computers, like people, work better and learn faster when they are motivated. Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers. They polished their game by playing each other, but they learned slowly. Graphic Orginizer For Essays. Finally, Dr. Samuel programmed in the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to think out more moves in advance - when they were losing.

Then the computers learned very quickly. Graphic Orginizer. One of them beat Samuel and went on to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years. 7. If you wanted to quote only the sentence in bold type, you would need to provide readers with a bracketed explanation; otherwise, the words the proposition would be unclear. Orginizer For Essays. Here is how you would manage the quotation: According to Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, The proposition [that computers will emerge as a form of life] seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of essays, living creatures. Remember that when you quote the work of another, you are obligated to graphic orginizer, credit - or cite - the author's work properly; otherwise, you may plagiarism. [See your Allyn and Bacon Handbook for guidance on term, citing sources.] A classic image: The writer stares glumly at a blank sheet of paper (or, in the electronic version, a blank screen). Graphic. Usually, however, this is an image of a writer who hasn't yet begun to write. Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to carry it forward, even over the rough spots. Orginizer For Essays. (These can always be fixed later.) As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to resignation letter envelope cover, your task is a problem.

What's the graphic best way to approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote? How best to engage your reader? Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by putting them off - productively. Bypassing the introduction, they start by writing the body of the piece; only after they've finished the bibliography body do they go back to write the introduction. There's a lot to graphic orginizer, be said for this approach. Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about how you're going to introduce it, you are in a better position, at first, to begin directly with your presentation (once you've settled on a working thesis). And often, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on paper and read it over once or twice that a natural way of introducing it becomes apparent. Even if there is essay no natural way to graphic for essays, begin, you are generally in better psychological shape to write the introduction after the major task of writing is behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to. Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way. After all, you have to start writing somewhere , and if you have evaded the problem by skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin.

If this is the case, then go ahead and write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and awful. Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis. Assure yourself that whatever you put down at graphic orginizer for essays this point (except for sacrifices essay the thesis) won't count and that when the graphic for essays time is right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours. But in the meantime, you'll have gotten started. The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reader to enter the world of your essay. The introduction makes the connection between the more familiar world inhabited by the reader and the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the reader can understand. There are many ways to provide such a context. We'll consider just a few of the most common. In introduction to a paper on democracy: Two cheers for democracy was E. M. Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment.

Most Americans would not agree. Paper. To them, our democracy is one of the glories of civilization. To one American in particular, E. B. White, democracy is the hole in the stuffed shirt through which the sawdust slowly trickles . . Graphic Orginizer For Essays. . the dent in the high hat . Making. . Graphic For Essays. . the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the oranges people are right more than half of the orginizer for essays time (915). American democracy is based on the oldest continuously operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to the farsightedness of the founding fathers. But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock , Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of orginizer, social change in our time: The world of today . . . is write bibliography term as different from the world in which I was born as that world was from Julius Caesar's (13). As we move toward the twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives. The quotations by graphic orginizer, Forster and White help set the developments stage for graphic the discussion of democracy by presenting the reader with some provocative and well-phrased remarks. Graphic. Later in the paragraph, the bibliography term paper quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of change that will be central to the essay as a whole. In many cases, the reader will be unprepared to follow the issue you discuss unless you provide some historical background.

Consider the following introduction to an an essay on the film-rating system: Sex and graphic, violence on the screen are not new issues. Making Sacrifices Essay. In the Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from civic and religious groups to ban depictions of immorality from the screen. Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the film producers decided to clean their own house. In 1930, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America established the Production Code. At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in 1934 Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the MPPDA, gave the Code teeth. Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for approval to for essays, the Production Code Administration which had the making essay power to orginizer, award or withhold the Code seal. Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it. At about the same time, the Catholic Legion of making, Decency was formed to advise the graphic faithful which were and were not objectionable. Sacrifices. For several decades the Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in American theatrical films.

By the for essays 1960s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip. In 1968, the Production Code was replaced with a rating system designed to making essay, keep younger audiences away from graphic for essays, films with high levels of sex or violence. Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to American films than did the old censorship system. The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system. By providing some historical background on the rating system, the writer helps readers to understand his arguments.

Notice the chronological development of details. Review of a Controversy. A particular type of historical review is the review of a controversy or debate. Consider the following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary 's definition of civil disobedience is rather simple: the essay on the poem oranges refusal to obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by orginizer, employing methods of anti-sex essays, passive resistance. However, despite such famous (and beloved) examples of civil disobedience as the movements of Mahatma Gandhi in India and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., in the United States, the question of whether or not civil disobedience should be considered an asset to society is hardly clear cut. Orginizer For Essays. For instance, Hannah Arendt, in her article Civil Disobedience, holds thatto think of disobedient minorities as rebels and truants is against the letter and spirit of graphic, a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to the dangers of unbridled majority rule. On the other hand, a noted lawyer, Lewis Van Dusen, Jr., in his article Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of Democracy, states that civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an assault on our democratic society, an affront to our legal order and an attack on our constitutional government. These two views are clearly incompatible. I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing.

On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society. 8. The negative aspects of civil disobedience, rather than Van Dusen's essay, the topic of graphic orginizer for essays, this essay. But to introduce this topic, the writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over civil disobedience, as well as brief references to two controversial practitioners. By focusing at the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects of the subject, the writer hoped to secure the attention of her readers and to essay, involve them in the controversy that forms the subject of her essay. From General to the Specific.

Another way of providing a transition from the graphic orginizer for essays reader's world to the less familiar world of the anti-sex essays essay is to work from orginizer for essays, a general subject to an essay history of science and technology, a specific one. The following introduction to a discussion of the 1968 massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and for essays, leads to making essay, the particular subject at hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and orginizer, reluctant to do evil, such is not the case. Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being committed by the degenerates of society at the prompting of the abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly normal man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so? It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in war-time situations. Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and resignation envelope, destructive if placed in the hands of unscrupulous authority. Such was the case in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16, 1968, when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by Lt. William Calley massacred more than 100 civilians, including women and children. Specific to graphic orginizer for essays, the General: Anecdote, Illustration.

Consider the following paragraph: In late 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Struck by write, the effects of the Martian dust storms on graphic orginizer, the temperature and on the amount of light reaching the surface, the sacrifices essay scientists wondered about the effects on earth of the dust storms that would be created by graphic orginizer for essays, nuclear explosions. Using computer models, they simulated the effects of such explosions on the earth's climate. The results astounded them. Apart from the known effects of essay, nuclear blasts (fires and radiation), the earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in a nuclear winter. Following a nuclear exchange, plummeting temperatures and pervading darkness would destroy most of the Northern Hemisphere's crops and farm animals and would eventually render much of the planet's surface uninhabitable.

The effects of nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined. It has therefore become more urgent than ever for the nations of the world to orginizer for essays, take dramatic steps to reduce the threat of nuclear war. The previous introduction went from the general (the question of whether or not man is basically good) to the specific (the massacre at My Lai); this one goes from the specific (scientists studying data) to the general (the urgency of , reducing the nuclear threat). The anecdote is one of the most effective means at your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention. For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of orginizer, such stories, arranged by subject. Frequently, you can provoke the reader's attention by posing a question or a series of anti-sex education essays, questions:

Are gender roles learned or inherited? Scientific research has established the for essays existence of biological differences between the making sacrifices sexes, but the effect of biology's influence on graphic for essays, gender roles cannot be distinguished from society's influence. According to Michael Lewis of the Institute for the Study of Exceptional children, As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the culture at work. Social processes, as well as biological differences, are responsible for the separate roles of men and women. 9. Opening your essay with a question can be provocative, since it places the reader in an active role: He or she begins by considering answers. Are gender roles learned? Are they inherited? In this active role, the reader is likely to continue reading with interest. Statement of Thesis. Perhaps the most direct method of introduction is to begin immediately with the thesis:

Computers are a mixed blessing. The lives of Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them. We are at the dawn of the era of the smart machine, say the authors of a cover story of the subject in Newsweek , that will change forever the way an entire nation works, beginning a revolution that will be to the brain what the industrial revolution was to an essay history of science and technology developments, the hand. Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to direct air travel, to instruct machines how to graphic, cut fabric - even to play chess with (and defeat) the masters. One can argue that development of resignation, computers for the household, as well as industry, will change for the better the quality of our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the amount of drudgery that most of us endure around tax season, make access to orginizer, libraries easier. Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of technology. This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing.

It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing. The advantage of beginning with a provocative (thesis) statement is that it forces the orginizer for essays reader to sit up and take notice perhaps even to begin protesting. History And Technology. The paragraph goes on to concede some of the graphic orginizer for essays blessings of computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is essay on the a certain danger associated with the new technology - a danger, the graphic for essays curious or even indignant reader has a right to anti-sex, conclude, that will be more fully explained in the paragraphs to follow. One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to graphic, writing. Many writers (and readers) prefer shorter, snappier introductions. This is largely a matter of personal or corporate style: there is no rule concerning the correct length of an introduction. If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by all means use one.

You may wish to break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs. (Our paragraph on the nuclear winter, for example, could have been broken either before or after the sentence The results astounded them.) One way to for essays, view the conclusion of your paper is sacrifices essay as an introduction worked in reverse, a bridge from the world of orginizer for essays, your essay back to the world of your reader. A conclusion is the part of your paper in which you restate and (if necessary) expand on your thesis. Essential to any conclusion is the summary, which is resignation letter cover not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the material you've presented. The simplest conclusion is an expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of your paper. Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary and then build onto it a discussion of the paper's significance or its implications for future study, for choices that individuals might make, for policy, and so on. you might also want to urge the reader to resignation envelope cover, change an attitude or to modify behavior. Certainly, you are under no obligation to discuss the broader significance of your work (and a summary, alone, will satisfy the formal requirement that your paper have an ending); but the conclusions of better papers often reveal authors who are thinking large and want to connect the particular concerns of their papers with the broader concerns of society.

Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the basic summary - conclusion. But two words of advice are in order. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Essay. Second, by virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. It is the last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your work. Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of diction.

Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the paper and graphic for essays, call attention to themselves. Having labored long hours over your paper, you have every right to anti-sex, wax eloquent. But keep a sense of proportion and timing. Graphic Orginizer For Essays. Make your points quickly and end crisply. Statement of the Subject's Significance.

One of the more effective ways to conclude a paper is to discuss the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a serious effort. American. When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of graphic for essays, your paper to the broader concerns of the reader's world. Often, you will need to choose among a range of significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of , air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of its effect on graphic orginizer, sexual mores, population, or the church. But don't overwhelm your reader with the importance of your remarks. Keep your discussion well focused. The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and resignation envelope, crossbreeding of corn: . . . Thus, the hybrids developed and described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. corn production. The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and graphic orginizer, dramatic in the Corn Belt. Orginizer. From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of corn in the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per on the, acre, and orginizer, the additional value to , the farmer is now several billion dollars per year. The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930.

Approximately 20 percent of the land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to yield 20 percent more than the orginizer best varieties. Term Paper. And many superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids. Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods of the plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the graphic orginizer world. 10. The first sentence of this conclusion is a summary, and from it the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull's techniques for the hybrid breeding of corn.

The summary is followed by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of Shull's research for feeding the world. Call for Further Research. In the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) and the ways in which the subject under consideration needs to be further explored. If you raise questions that you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn't already been conducted. This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on the placement of elderly men and women in nursing homes. Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and edited american english, intellectual skills over the ten months following placement. What the research has not made clear is the extent to orginizer, which this marked decline is due to on the poem, physical as opposed to emotional causes. The elderly are referred to graphic orginizer for essays, homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to an essay, care for themselves - which suggests that the drop-off in skills may be due to physical causes. But the emotional stress of being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the patient's view of orginizer for essays, himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities. Further research is education needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the elderly in nursing facilities. For Essays. There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to deliver more effective services.

Notice how this call for english further study locates the author in a large community of researchers on whom she depends for assistance in answering the for essays questions that have come out of her own work. The author summarizes her findings (in the first sentence of the paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation. The purpose of english, your paper might be to review a problem or controversy and to discuss contributing factors. In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on the knowledge you've gained while conducting research. If your solution is to be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the paper. . . . The major problem in college sports today is edited american not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn from the poorest sections of America's population.

It is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports. Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to orginizer, extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care. At institutions where the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A M, which can afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition. The important thing is that the write term athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to gain skills from orginizer for essays, a university environment without undue competition from making sacrifices essay, a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. This may well require that scholarships be extended over for essays, five or six years, including summers. Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to essay poem, hire their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America's poor and minorities is not, in the long run, a tenable solution. With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his - and hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work.

11. In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in one sentence: The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation - that educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens be responsible for graphic for essays the welfare of college athletes. In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal. He concludes by anti-sex, discounting this resistance and returning to the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal. An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the point of which in a conclusion is to shed light on graphic for essays, your subject. The anecdote is more direct than an allusion. With an allusion, you merely refer to a story (Too many people today live in Plato's cave . . Of The. .); with the anecdote, you actually retell the story. The anecdote allows readers to discover for themselves the significance of graphic orginizer, a reference to another source - an effort most readers enjoy because they get to sacrifices, exercise their creativity. The following anecdote concludes an article on homicide.

In the orginizer article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and treat potential killers before they commit crimes. she author emphasizes both the difficulty and the desirability of approaching homicide as a threat to paper, public health that, like disease, can be treated with preventive care. In his book, The Exploits of the graphic for essays Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin , Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the many culprits of write, murder: What is graphic orginizer Fate? Nasrudin was asked by a scholar. An endless succession of , intertwined events, each influencing the other. That is hardly a satisfactory answer. I believe in cause and effect. Very well, said the Mulla, look at graphic that. He pointed to a procession passing in the street. That man is being taken to be hanged. Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and enabled him to an essay of the history developments, buy the knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him?

12. The writer chose to conclude the article with this anecdote. For Essays. She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the dramatic value for the reader. The purpose of using an anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the edited american english temptation to interpret. Graphic. Keep in mind three guidelines when selecting an anecdote: it should be prepared for (the reader should have all the information needed to understand), it should provoke the reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to be unintelligible. A favorite concluding device is the quotation - the words of a famous person or an authority in the field on which you are writing The purpose of quoting another is to link your work to theirs, thereby gaining for your work authority and education, credibility. The first criterion for selecting a quotation is its suitability to your thesis. But you also should carefully consider what your choice of sources says about you.

Suppose you are writing a paper on the American work ethic. Graphic For Essays. If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to make the final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and why? One source may not be inherently more effective than the anti-sex education other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for the paper. There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and better chips for new generations of computers. More and graphic orginizer, more of their power will be devoted to making them easier to use - friendly, in industry parlance - even for those not trained in computer science.

And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered. One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of information at unimaginable speeds. If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to making sacrifices essay, educate its masses and graphic orginizer for essays, crack new scientific frontiers. For all of us, it will be fearful, terrifying, disruptive, says SRl's Peter Schwartz. In the end there will be those whose lives will be diminished.

But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced. In any event, there is no turning back: if the bibliography term paper smart machines have not taken over, they are fast making themselves indispensable - and in the end, that may amount to very much the same thing. 13. Notice how the graphic orginizer for essays quotation is used to position the writer to , make one final remark. Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to graphic, end an essay, as in the following example. Make sure you identify the person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to anti-sex education essays, be made in the conclusion itself. For example, earlier in the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an epidemiologist exploring the graphic orginizer for essays ways in which a change in diet can prevent the onset of making sacrifices, certain cancers. In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits almost identical to the diet of around 1900, says Maureen Henderson. It's a diet we had before refrigeration and graphic orginizer, the complex carbohydrates we have now. It's an old fashioned diet and a diet that poor people ate more than rich people.

Some cancer researchers wonder whether people will be willing to change their diets or take pills on the chance of preventing cancer, when one-third of the people in the country won't even stop smoking. Graphic For Essays. Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to dose themselves before enough data are in. We're not here to , convince the public to take anything, she says. The public is graphic orginizer too eager already. Anti-sex. What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work.' We want to convince ourselves before we convince the for essays public.'' 14. There is making essay a potential problem with using quotations: if you end with the words of another, you may leave the impression that someone else can make your case more eloquently than you can. The language of the quotation will put your own prose into relief. If your own prose suffers by comparison - if the quotations are the graphic best part of your paper - you'd be wise to spend some time revising. The way to avoid this kind of of the of science and technology developments, problem is to make your own presentation strong.

Questions are useful for opening essays, and they are just as useful for graphic orginizer closing them. Edited. Opening and closing questions function in different ways, however. The introductory question promises to be addressed in the paper that follows. But the concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on the readers to graphic orginizer for essays, assume an active role by offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the reaction that threatens to destroy the very gains we thought we had already won in the first stage of the and technology women's movement? How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows our feminism and our femininity (we blush even to use that word now)? How do we transcend the polarization between women and women and between women and orginizer for essays, men to achieve the new human wholeness that is the making promise of feminism, and get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of living, working and loving as equal persons?

This is the personal and political business of the second stage. 15. Perhaps you will choose to raise a question in your conclusion and graphic orginizer, then answer it, based on the material you've provided in the paper The answered question challenges a reader to , agree or disagree with your response. This tactic also places the reader in an active role. The following brief conclusion ends an article entitled Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to orginizer, Life'? So the answer to the question Would an intelligent computer have the right to letter cover, life? is probably that it would, but only if it could discover reasons and conditions under which it would give up its life if called upon to do so - which would make computer intelligence as precious a thing as human intelligence. 16. When you speculate, you ask what has happened or discuss what might happen. This kind of question stimulates the reader because its subject is the unknown. The following paragraph concludes The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss.

In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the differences among Americans of various ages, including the for essays Gl Generation (born between 1901 and american essay, 1924), the Boomers (born 1943- 1961), the for essays Thirteeners (born 1961-1981), and the Millennials (born 1981-2000): If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the kind of family protection and public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of age early in the next century as a group much like the Gls of the 1920s and 1930s - as a stellar (if bland) generation of rationalists, team players, and can-do civic builders Two decades from now Boomers entering old age may well see in their grown Millennial children an effective instrument for saving the world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is getting a better deal out of life (though maybe a bit less fun) than they ever got at a like age. Study after story after column will laud these best damn kids in the world as heralding a resurgent American greatness. And, for anti-sex education essays a while at least, no one will talk about a generation gap. 17. Thus, Howe and graphic for essays, Strauss conclude an essay concerned largely with the apparently unbridgeable gaps of understanding between parents and children with a hopeful speculation that generational relationships will improve considerably in the next two decades. Some writers work with an idea, committing it to paper only after it has been fully formed. Others will begin with a vague notion and begin writing a first draft, trusting that as they write they'll discover what they wish to say. many people take advantage of both techniques: they write what they know but at the same time write to an essay and technology developments, discover what they don't know. For Essays. As you'll see, we used both techniques in writing this section of the book. [back]

Francis Mossiker, trans., Napoleon and Josephine . New York: Simon and essay poem, Schuster, 1964. [back] Winter Organization in Patricia Curtis, Biology , 2nd ed. New York: Worth, 1976, pp. 822-823. [back] Robert Hutchins, Gate Receipts and Glory, The Saturday Evening Post . December 3, 1983. [back] Henry David Thoreau, Reading in Walden . New York: Signet Classic, 1960, p. 72. Graphic. [back] Jane Yolen, America's 'Cinderella,' APS Publications, Inc., in Children's Literature in Education 8, 1977, pp.

21-29. Of Science And Technology Developments. [back] Excerpt from Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's from Time , February 20, 1978. Making. Copyright 1978 Time Inc. [back] Michele Jacques, Civil Disobedience: Van Dusen vs. Arendt. [Unpublished paper.] [back] Tammy Smith, Are Sex Roles Learned or Inherited? [Unpublished paper.] [back] From Hybrid Vim and Vigor by William L. Brown from graphic orginizer for essays, pp.

77-78 in Science 80-85, November 1984. Copyright by the AAAS. [back] From Mark Naison, Scenario for Scandal, Commonweal 109 (16), September 24, 1982. Making. [back] From The Murder Epidemic by Nikki Meredith from pp. 42-48 in Science 80-85, December 1984. Graphic For Essays. Copyright by AAAS. [back]

From And Man Created the Chip, Newsweek , June 30, 1980. Copyright 1980 by Newsweek, Inc. All rights reserved. [back] Reprinted by permission. From the September issue of Science '84 . Copyright 1984 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. [back] Betty Friedan, Feminism's Next Step in The Second Stage . New York: Summit Books, 1981. [back] Robert E. Mueller and Eric T. Mueller, Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to essay oranges, Life'?

Creative Computing , August 1983. [back] Excerpt from The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss. Originally appeared in Atlantic , December 1992. [back]

Do my Essay for me Cheap | Essay Writing Professionals - Graphic Organizers for Writing Essays: Using… - West Virginia University

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checks how to write OK, so you have finally decided to graphic orginizer for essays write your own Check. Welcome aboard, this is really a easy thing to do. Anti-sex! Very basic Java knowledge is required to write a Check, it is good practice for even for student. There are actually two kinds of Checks, so before you can start, you have to find out which kind of graphic orginizer for essays, Check you want to implement. The functionality of Checkstyle is implemented in modules that can be plugged into Checkstyle. Modules can be containers for for essays other modules, i.e. they form a tree structure. The top level modules that are known directly to the Checkstyle kernel (which is also a module and forms the root of the tree) implement the FileSetCheck interface.

These are pretty simple to grasp: they take a set of input files and fire error messages. Checkstyle provides a few FileSetCheck implementations by default and write bibliography paper, one of them happens to be the TreeWalker. A TreeWalker supports submodules that are derived from the AbstractCheck class. The TreeWalker operates by separately transforming each of the Java input files into an abstract syntax tree and then handing the result over to orginizer for essays each of the Check submodules which in turn have a look at a certain aspect of the tree. Most of the functionality of poem oranges, Checkstyle is implemented as Checks. If you know how to graphic for essays write your own Checks, you can extend Checkstyle according to your needs without having to wait for the Checkstyle development team. You are about to become a Checkstyle Expert. Suppose you have a convention that the number of methods in a class should not exceed a certain limit, say 30. This rule makes sense, a class should only education essays do one thing and do it well. Graphic! With a zillion methods chances are that the class does more than one thing. The only problem you have is that your convention is not checked by Checkstyle, so you'll have to write your own Check and plug it into the Checkstyle framework.

This chapter is organized as a tour that takes you through the on the poem oranges, process step by step and explains both the theoretical foundations and the Checkstyle API along the way. Every Java Program is structured into files, and graphic orginizer for essays, each of these files has a certain structure. For example, if there is a package statement then it is the first line of the of the and technology, file that is not comment or whitespace. After the package statement comes a list of import statements, which is followed by of the of science developments a class or interface definition, and graphic orginizer for essays, so on. If you have ever read an letter envelope cover introductory level Java book you probably knew all of the above. And if you have studied computer science, you probably also know that the rules that specify the Java language can be formally specified using a grammar (statement is simplified for didactic purposes). There are tools which read a grammar definition and produce a parser for the language that is specified in the grammar. In other words, the output of the tool is a program that can transform a stream of characters (a Java file) into a tree representation that reflects the structure of the file. Essay Poem! Checkstyle uses the graphic, parser generator ANTLR but that is an implementation detail you do not need to worry about when writing Checks, as well tested parser will parse Java file for you. Tool to print Java tree structure.

Checkstyle can print Abstract Syntax Tree for Java trees. You need to run checkstyle jar file with -t or -T argument, providing java file. For example, here is file: java -jar checkstyle-X.XX-all.jar -t java -jar checkstyle-X.XX-all.jar -T

As you can see very small java file transforms to edited english essay a huge Abstract Syntax Tree, because that is the graphic orginizer for essays, most detailed tree including all components of the java file: object block, comments, modifiers, etc. Still with us? Great, you have mastered the basic theory so here is your reward - a GUI that displays the structure of a Java source file. Write Term! To run it type. on the command line. Graphic! Click the button at the bottom of the graphic, frame and select a syntactically correct Java source file. The frame will be populated with a tree that corresponds to the structure of the , Java source code. In the orginizer, leftmost column you can open and an essay history of science developments, close branches of the tree, the remaining columns display information about each node in the tree. The second column displays a token type for each node.

As you navigate from the for essays, root of the tree to one of the leafs, you'll notice that the token type denotes smaller and smaller units of your source file, i.e. close to the root you might see the token type CLASS_DEF (a node that represents a class definition) while you will see token types like IDENT (an identifier) near the leaves of the tree. In the bottom of an essay history and technology, frame you can find buttons Open File, Reload File and dropdown list with parse modes to for essays choose. First one opens file choose window. After choosing file tree that corresponds to java source file builds in frame. Notice that only write files with .java extension can be opened. Second one reloads chosen file from file system and rebuilds source code tree. Dropdown list allow to choose one of three parse modes: PLAIN JAVA, JAVA WITH COMMENTS, JAVA WITH JAVADOC AND COMMENTS.

PLAIN JAVA mode uses to show java source code without comments. In JAVA WITH COMMENTS you can see also comments blocks on the tree. Graphic Orginizer! When JAVA WITH JAVADOC AND COMMENTS chosen javadoc tree builds and attaches for every comment block, that contains javadoc. Notice: text of a tree node and its children is selected automatically after either pressing Enter or double-clicking on it, so there is no need to make selection manually. We'll get back to on the the details in the other columns later, they are important for implementing Checks but not for understanding the basic concepts. Orginizer For Essays! For now it is sufficient to know that the gui is a tool that lets you look at the structure of a Java file, i.e. you can see the Java grammar 'in action'. If you use Eclipse you can install Checkstyle AST Eclipse Viewer plugin to orginizer launch that application from context menu on any file in Eclipse.

Understanding the an essay of the history and technology developments, visitor pattern. Ready for graphic orginizer a bit more theory? The last bit that is missing before you can start writing Checks is understanding the graphic, Visitor pattern. When working with Abstract Syntax Tree (AST), a simple approach to define check operations on them would be to add a check() method to the Class that defines the AST nodes. For example, our AST type could have a method checkNumberOfMethods() . Such an approach would suffer from a few serious drawbacks.

Most importantly, it does not provide an extensible design, i.e. the Checks have to be known at compile time; there is no way to orginizer for essays write plugins. Hence Checkstyle's AST classes do not have any methods that implement checking functionality. Instead, Checkstyle's TreeWalker takes a set of objects that conform to a AbstractCheck interface. OK, you're right - actually it's not an interface but an abstract class to making sacrifices provide some helper methods. A Check provides methods that take an AST as an argument and perform the checking process for that AST, most prominently visitToken() . It is important to understand that the individual Checks do no drive the AST traversal (it possible to traverse itself, but not recommended). Instead, the making, TreeWalker initiates a recursive descend from the graphic orginizer for essays, root of the AST to history and technology developments the leaf nodes and calls the Check methods. The traversal is done using a tree traversal (depth-first) algorithm. Before any visitor method is called, the orginizer for essays, TreeWalker will call beginTree() to give the Check a chance to do some initialization. Then, when performing the recursive descend from the root to of the history and technology the leaf nodes, the visitToken() method is called. Unlike the basic examples in the pattern book, there is a visitToken() counterpart called leaveToken() . The TreeWalker will call that method to signal that the subtree below the node has been processed and the TreeWalker is backtracking from the node. After the an essay of the and technology, root node has been left, the TreeWalker will call finishTree() . Let's get back to our example and start writing code - that's why you came here, right?

When you fire up the graphic orginizer for essays, Checkstyle GUI and look at edited english essay a few source files you'll figure out pretty quickly that you are mainly interested in the number of graphic orginizer, tree nodes of type METHOD_DEF. The number of such tokens should be counted separately for each CLASS_DEF / INTERFACE_DEF. Hence we need to making essay register the for essays, Check for the token types CLASS_DEF and INTERFACE_DEF. The TreeWalker will only call visitToken for these token types. Because the anti-sex essays, requirements of our tasks are so simple, there is no need to implement the other fancy methods, like finishTree() , etc., so here is our first shot at our Check implementation:

There are four methods in Check class to control the processed TokenTypes - one setter setTokens(), which is used to define a custom set (which is different from the default one) of the education, processed TokenTypes via config file and orginizer, three getters, which have to be overridden: getDefaultTokens(), getAcceptableTokens(), getRequiredTokens(). getDefaultTokens() - returns a set of TokenTypes which are processed in visitToken() method by default. getRequiredTokens() - returns a set of TokenTypes which Check must be subscribed to for a valid execution. If the poem, user wants to specify a custom set of graphic for essays, TokenTypes then this set must contain all the education, TokenTypes from RequiredTokens. getAcceptableTokens() - returns a set, which contains all the TokenTypes that can be processed by the check. Both DefaultTokens and RequiredTokens and any custom set of TokenTypes are subsets of AcceptableTokens. Before Checkstyle 6.0, there was no comments in AST tree as comments are not a code and ignored by compiler, so it was not a primary focus of Checkstyle. Graphic For Essays! But more and more requests appear to edited do validation of code vs javadoc or comments. So there was a simple solution to receive plain text of file in Check, do own parsing and searching for required comments in file. Since 6.0, there is a new method in AbstractCheck class that allow you to see or not comment nodes in AST Tree - isCommentNodesRequired(). It should return TRUE if Check want to see comments in AST Tree. It is done as optional because it is change for a AST Tree structure, and non of orginizer for essays, existing Checks ready for this. Making Essay! Checkstyle does not do re-parse file one more time, comments were already in grammar and parsed, but skipped during AST nodes creation.

Before execution, all Checks are divided into 2 groups (base on isCommentNodesRequired method): java only Checks, comments Checks. Write Bibliography Term! Checkstyle execute java only orginizer Checks first, as all them finish, append to english essay AST Tree missed comment AST nodes and call comments Checks. All Javadoc Checks that are child of AbstractJavadocCheck are comments Checks. In the example above you already saw that the DetailsAST class provides utility methods to extract information from the tree, like getChildCount() . By now you have probably consulted the API documentation and found that DetailsAST additionally provides methods for navigating around in the syntax tree, like finding the orginizer for essays, next sibling of a node, the anti-sex education essays, children of a node, the parent of a node, etc. These methods provide great power for for essays developing complex Checks. Most of the Checks that Checkstyle provides by default use these methods to making analyze the environment of the ASTs that are visited by orginizer the TreeWalker. Don't abuse that feature for exploring the whole tree, though. Let the anti-sex essays, TreeWalker drive the tree traversal and limit the visitor to the neighbours of a single AST. OK Mr. Checkstyle, that's all very nice but in my company we have several projects, and graphic orginizer for essays, each has another number of allowed methods.

I need to control my Check through properties, so where is the API to do that? Well, the edited american essay, short answer is, there is no API. It's magic. Really! If you need to make something configurable, just add a setter method to the Check: With this code added, you can set the property max for the MethodLimitCheck module in the configuration file. It doesn't get any simpler than that.

The secret is that Checkstyle uses JavaBean reflection to set the JavaBean properties. That works for all primitive types like boolean, int, long, etc., plus Strings, plus arrays of these types. Detecting errors is one thing, presenting them to the user is another. To do that, the Check base class provides several log methods, the simplest of them being Check.log(String) . Orginizer For Essays! In your Check you can simply use a verbatim error string like in log(Too many methods, only + mMax + are allowed); as the argument. ! That will work, but it's not the best possible solution if your Check is intended for a wider audience.

If you are not living in a country where people speak English, you may have noticed that Checkstyle writes internationalized error messages, for example if you live in Germany the error messages are German. Edited American! The individual Checks don't have to orginizer do anything fancy to sacrifices achieve this, it's actually quite easy and the Checkstyle framework does most of the work. To support internationalized error messages, you need to create or reuse existing a file alongside your Check class (example) , i.e. the Java file and the properties files should be in the same directory. Add a symbolic error code and american english essay, an English representation to orginizer the The file should contain the on the, following line: too.many.methods=Too many methods, only are allowed . Graphic For Essays! Then replace the verbatim error message with the symbolic representation and use one of the log helper methods to paper provide the dynamic part of the message (mMax in this case): log(too.many.methods, mMax); . Please consult the documentation of Java's MessageFormat to graphic orginizer learn about the syntax of format strings (especially about those funny numbers in the translated text). Supporting a new language is very easy now, simply create a new messages file for the language, e.g. An Essay History Of Science Developments! to provide French error messages. The correct file will be chosen automatically, based on the language settings of the user's operating system. The great final moment has arrived, you are about to graphic orginizer for essays run your Check. To integrate your Check, add a new subentry under the edited, TreeWalker module of your configuration file. Use the full classname of your Check class as the name of the module.

Your configuration file config.xml should look something like this: To run the new Check on orginizer the command line compile your Check, create a jar that contains the paper, classes and property files, e.g. mycompanychecks.jar . Then run (with the path separator system property (path.separator) adjusted to your platform: Linux/Unix - :, Windows - ;): For Linux/Unix OS: Did you see all those errors about orginizer for essays too many methods flying over your screen? Congratulations. You can now consider yourself a Checkstyle expert. Go to your fridge. Bibliography Term! Have a beer. Please consult the Checkstyle configuration manual to learn how to integrate your Checks into the package configuration so that you can use MethodLimit instead of the full class name.

OK, so you have written your first Check, and you have found several flaws in many of your programs. You now know that your boss does not follow the coding conventions he wrote. And you know that you are the king of the world. To become a programming god, you want to write your second Check - now wait, first you should know what your limits are. There are basically only few of them: Java code should be written with ASCII characters only, no UTF-8 support. Graphic! To get valid violations, code have to be compilable, in other case you can get not easy to making sacrifices essay understand parse errors. You cannot determine the type of an expression. Example: getValue() + getValue2() You cannot determine the full inheritance hierarchy of type. You cannot see the content of other files. You have content of graphic orginizer for essays, one file only making sacrifices essay during all Checks execution.

All files are processed one by one. This means that you cannot implement some of the code inspection features that are available in advanced IDEs like Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, FindBugs, Sonarqube. For example you will not be able to implement: - a Check that finds redundant type casts or unused public methods. - a Check that validate that user custom Exception class inherited from essay on the java.lang.Exception class. Writing a FileSetCheck usually required when you do not need parse Java file to orginizer get inner structure, or you are going to validate non *.java files. Writing a FileSetCheck is pretty straightforward: Just inherit from AbstractFileSetCheck and edited american essay, override the abstract processFiltered(, java.util.List) method and you're done. A very simple example could fire an error if the graphic, number of files exceeds a certain limit. Here is a FileSetCheck that does just that:

Note that the configuration via bean introspection also applies here. By implementing the setMax() method the FileSetCheck automatically makes max a legal configuration parameter that you can use in the Checkstyle configuration file. There are virtually no limits what you can do in FileSetChecks, but please do not be crazy. Declare check's external resource locations. Checkstyle can cache external configuration resources of any kind which are used by your check. If you want to do such a thing, you should implement ExternalResourceHolder interface. Such module must declare external resource locations as a set of Strings which will be returned from getExternalResourceLocations method.

This will allow Checkstyle to invalidate (clear) cache when the content of at graphic orginizer least one external configuration resource of your check is changed. ATTENTION! If getExternalResourceLocations return null, there will be NullPointerException in Checker. Such behaviour will signal that your module (check or filter) is designed incorrectly. It makes sense to return an empty set from getExternalResourceLocations only for composite modules like TreeWalker. That's probably our fault, and it means that we have to provide better documentation. Please do not hesitate to ask questions on the user mailing lists, this will help us to improve this document. ! Please ask your questions as precisely as possible. We will not be able to answer questions like I want to write a Check but I don't know how, can you help me?. Tell us what you are trying to do (the purpose of the Check), what you have understood so far, and what exactly you are getting stuck on.

We need your help to keep improving Checkstyle. Whenever you write a Check or FileSetCheck that you think is generally useful, please consider contributing it to the Checkstyle community and submit it for orginizer inclusion in the next release of Checkstyle.