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before the law essay The Power of Independent Thinking. Equality Before the Law and 2012, its Role for Transition to Capitalism Thoughts from Hayekian Epistemology and Social Theory. Junior Faculty Winner. Dnb General. Second Prize ($5,000) II. Hayekian Perspective. III.

The Role of 2012 Order in Society. IV. Knowledge and The Transformation of papers on narrative Order. V. Empirical Study. Olin 2012. VI. Conclusive Remarks. 1. Essay Question. Outline of the Problem. This essay examines the role of the traditional liberal value of Equality before the mba essays, Law for essay to keep the environment the transformation of 2012 former socialistic economies from the perspective of essays about health Hayekian social theory with reference to the Hayekian epistemology. First , we will have look at the idea of Equality before the Law in history and at the systematic place and olin mba essays, the role of this traditional principle within the extended work of the Nobel Prize laureate Friedrich August von Hayek in essay, Part II. An outline of the Hayekian epistemology and the explanation of the olin, relation of his epistemology to his social theory will then make clear the role of knowledge in on how to keep the environment, Hayekian thinking, and with such an understanding we are enabled to understand the role of order in olin mba essays 2012, society.

After gaining this understanding of the importance of knowledge for economic and social issues, we will be able to examine the role of ideas order in mba essays, society in general as well as the differences between kinds of order in argumentative, society with respect to the principle of Equality before the Law in Part III. From the Hayekian and knowledge-oriented point of view, we can show that the olin 2012, specific kind of essay question order that follows the principle of Equality before the 2012, Law possesses economically superior qualities against orders of on narrative Inequality before the law. In Part IV we can then apply these findings to the transformation of economic systems and we will interpret the olin mba essays, development from former socialistic regimes to airline, market economies as a transformation from an 2012 order of airline pilot letter inequality before the law with inferior knowledge processing qualities to an order of Equality before the Law with superior knowledge processing qualities. Part V tries to 2012, support the paul piche, economic relevance of the theoretical considerations empirically, while the olin 2012, conclusion in Part VI offers a recommendation concerning the dnb general thesis, success of 2012 transitional countries. There Word Limit Common. It points out the economic relevance of the fulfillment of Equality before the mba essays, Law for essay ideas economic development and it refers to mba essays, the importance of the realization of basic constitutional and liberal principles necessary for the success of the transition to essay to keep clean, capitalism. 2. Olin Mba Essays. The basic Idea of Equality before the Law.

The idea of Equality before the common application, Law is often associated with the late political philosophers of the enlightenment era. Like the olin mba essays 2012, ideas of democracy , science , critical rationalism and private property , so the french about health, ideas of Equality before the Law and mba essays 2012, of the dnb general thesis, Rule of Law embody an important part of the intellectual and cultural foundation of the Occident. As the historian Phillippe Nemo explains, all these ideas are a product of the #147;morphogenesis of the west#148;, which consisted of cultural inventions of the 2012, old Greeks, the gun control argumentative, humanism of the old Romans, and the eschatological revolutions of the olin mba essays, bible (Nemo 2004). To be able to understand the reasons for the emergence of the question, intellectual and cultural invention of Equality before the Law , we have to have a look to olin, the political changes after 1 200 BC in the ancient Greece, when the Greeks experienced a crisis of sovereignty through which political power became collectivized. Papers Essays. Because more and more decisions of the olin mba essays 2012, #147;Polis#148; became delegated from the central monarch to the public, a #147;space of publicity#148; emerged. And within that space, the arts of on narrative essays rhetoric, logic, and of intellectual reasoning became increasingly important. In such a society the mba essays, moral value and the universability of the argument obtained more and papers essays, more power against the social position of the mba essays 2012, person who was expressing the argument. Essay Question Ideas. Therefore, the people themselves experienced themselves continuously more as equals before the olin mba essays 2012, law , as is oi , and airline cover, as equals , as homoioi (Nemo 2004). Because striking arguments can just as well be stated by the most negligible citizen as from the olin, most notable, citizens became mutually interchangeable.

An abstract concept of ideas a person had emerged, according to olin mba essays, which each human being was seen as equal before the law and equally bound to the same law. There Common. Due to the idea of equality, the number of participants in the political process became bigger, and the number of competing ideas became maximized, so that the competition of ideas as a procedure to discover fruitful problem solving strategies became more effective. Additionally, as a consequence of the mba essays 2012, new idea that law is something that can be constructed according to thesis, the voluntary agreement of people who meet with one another as is oi , the Greeks have realized that man is not only dependent on the physical order of nature, the physis , but that man is also dependent on the order of olin mba essays human conventions, to essay question ideas, the nomos (Hayek 1973:20, 94ff). With the mentioned innovation, the olin 2012, Greeks had invented the principle of government of the essay on how to keep clean, law , and indissolubly connected with that they have introduced the olin mba essays, idea of individual freedom (Nemo 2004)! Instead of obeying the discretionary commands of essay question ideas personal leaders, the people learned to follow an abstract and mutually voluntarily passed law, which was equally valid for olin each citizen, even for those in power.

Because these rules were known to all members of the society from the start, the Greeks became enabled to essay to keep the environment, choose for themselves whether to come into olin mba essays, coercive conflict with the state or not. Since the french about, citizens had the cognitive capacity to anticipate what is allowed and what is olin 2012 not, it became possible for them to take in responsibility for one#146;s own life (Nemo 2004). Argumentative. In accordance with this development, Aristotle stated in the third part of his Politics (16 th paragraph): #147;And the rule of law is preferable to mba essays, that of any individual. French Health. On the same principle, even if it be better for 2012 certain individuals to about, govern, they should be made only olin mba essays, guardians and ministers for donc pas the law. . He who bids the law rule, may be deemed to bid god and reason alone rule, but he who bids man rule adds an element of the olin 2012, beast; for health desire is a wild beast, and passion perverts the mba essays 2012, minds of rulers, even when they are the best of surgery men. The law is 2012 reason unaffected by desire. (Aristotle 2004:266)#148; In the fourth part of the same book (14 th paragraph), he discusses the relationship between the Rule of Law and the power of the there word limit common application essay, majority, and he concluded that the essential characteristic of an order of freedom is that power is olin mba essays 2012 exercised by abstractly formulated and general rules (the rule of law), and not the circumstance that the decisions are approved by a majority . The ideas which arose in the ancient Greek society were discussed and formulated more precisely later by the later English philosophers in the 18 th century.

Most notably, the representatives of the Scottish moral philosophy like David Hume, John Locke, Adam Smith, or Adam Ferguson referred again to basic liberal ideas like Equality before the Law. Moreover, the essay, tradition of Greek philosophy and of Scottish moral philosophy finds a lot of continuity in modern economics, and this continuity is rooted at least in the considerations of Adam Smith, who laid the intellectual foundations for olin 2012 modern economics. In the on narrative, following paragraph we want to 2012, think about the idea of airline pilot central letter Equality before the Law from the standpoint of olin a prominent economist who can be regarded as an french essays advocate of the mentioned classical ideas. 1. Olin Mba Essays. Hayek and Equality. Essay. In his social theory, Hayek refers unequivocally to the tradition of the Scottish moral philosophers (Hayek 1973:20, 22). Olin Mba Essays 2012. Furthermore, it is essay ideas Hayek who gives an epistemological framework, which can be used as a framework to olin mba essays, explain the role of the piche, old idea of Equality before the olin 2012, Law for economic development. The importance of Equality before the Law in Hayek#146;s thinking becomes obvious in essay question ideas, his political main work The Constitution of olin mba essays Liberty when he states: #147;The great aim of the question ideas, struggle for liberty has been Equality before the mba essays 2012, Law. Essay On How To Keep Clean. (Hayek 1960:85)#148; According to him, the equality of the citizens before general rules of law and 2012, conduct which are seen as just is the pilot cover, only kind of 2012 equality which can be secured without destroying liberty.

Further, he refers to the important difference between the different interpretations of equality: #147;It is gun control argumentative of the olin mba essays, essence of the demand for Equality before the Law that people should be treated alike in spite of the essay, fact that they are different. (Hayek 1960:86)#148; Hayek did not believe all men are born equal, but did believe that the widely held uniformity theory of human nature would in time undermine the olin mba essays, very basic ideals of essays freedom (Hayek 1960:86). Because people are very different it follows that, if we treat them equally, the result must be inequality in their actual positions, and mba essays, that the only way to place them in an equal position would be to treat them differently (Hayek 1960:87). Facing the clean, obvious differences between people, if we want to make unequal people equal we need to rely on isolated case decisions to mba essays 2012, determine who gets what. There Common Essay. Thus, the establishment of social conditions, like material equality, necessarily needs deliberate discrimination of redistributing authorities. Thus, such a kind of planning necessarily involves deliberate discrimination between particular needs of different people, and allowing one man to do what another must be prevented to do. As Hayek concludes in olin mba essays 2012, agreement with Aristotle: #147;It is the rule of Law, in the sense of the rule of formal law, the absence of legal privileges of particular people designated by paul piche essaye donc authority, which safeguards that equality before the law which is 2012 the opposite paul donc of arbitrary government. (Hayek 1944:87)#148; Or, in mba essays 2012, other words: #147;Equality before the law and essays, material equality are therefore not only different but are in olin 2012, conflict which each other; and to keep, we can achieve either the olin, one or the other, but not both at the same time. (Hayek 1960:97)#148; With reference to the example that even Hitler acted in accordance with constitutional rules, he explains that the idea of the #147;Rule of essay Law#148; means more than that politicians have to follow rules. Olin 2012. The principle of Rule of Law can safeguard Equality before the Law only under the papers on narrative, condition that it is understood as the olin mba essays, principle that general and abstract law should be the paul piche essaye donc pas, only way of exercising power: #147;The Rule of Law thus implies limits to the scope of legislation: it restricts it to the kind of olin mba essays 2012 general rules known as formal law and essay to keep the environment, excludes legislation either directly aimed at mba essays 2012, particular people or at enabling anybody to papers on narrative essays, use the coercive power of the olin 2012, state for the purpose of such discrimination. (Hayek 1944:92)#148; Thus, the esssays, Rule of olin mba essays 2012 Law and Equality before the there common essay, Law means that the coercive power of the state can be used only in cases defined in advance by the law which is olin mba essays 2012 equal for all.

Hayek supported limited government and on narrative essays, Equality before the Law not only because he thought it was morally just , but because he recognized that limiting government and Equality before the olin, Law prevents corruption and lays the basis for the emergence of paul essaye pas a spontaneous market order and for olin mba essays 2012 a fruitful economic process. Dnb General Surgery. But to reveal the relation between the realization of Equality before the mba essays 2012, Law and the creation of word wealth in olin 2012, Hayek#146;s reasoning, and to to keep the environment clean, be able to apply this relation to the transformation economies, it will be advantageous to have a look at his epistemological ideas. 2. Hayekian Epistemology. In his epistemological work The Sensory Order from 1952, Hayek describes the human mind as an instrument of classification . According to his interpretation, the only way for human beings to mba essays 2012, receive information from their environment is through the process of classification. Thus, according to gun control, Hayek, all we know about the olin 2012, world is known only in the form of paul how our nervous system classifies incoming impulses (Hayek 1952:55ff). The objects of the physical world are not tangible to our mind; rather our mind consists merely of olin a system of argumentative esssays classifications of objects of the physical world. It follows that the only way in 2012, which the ideas, world can affect our mind is that it changes or a refines these classes. If sensory perception must be regarded as an mba essays 2012 act of classification, then what we perceive can never be unique properties of individual objects but must always be only properties which these objects have in on narrative, common with other objects.

Perception is thus always an interpretation , the placing of something into one or several classes of objects. 2012. But referring to classes of #147;something#148; necessarily means to pilot cover, use abstractions of #147;something#148;. For example, if the olin mba essays 2012, class A consists of the single elements a 1 , a 2 , a 3 , and a 4 , talking about properties of A means to gun control argumentative, deviate from the properties of the single elements. Because information about classes of information is, therefore, always abstract, it follows that human perceptions are necessarily abstract from the start. All sensory perception is therefore in olin mba essays, a sense #147;abstract#148; (Hayek 1952:142ff). The inherent abstractness and limited character of the human is paul piche essaye donc not only a central element of Hayek#146;s epistemology . Olin. He also applies his findings to health, his social theory , as we can see in the beginning of olin his main work Law, Legislation and letter, Liberty when he argues: #147;Thus considered, abstraction is not something which the mind produces of mba essays logic from its perception of essay ideas reality, but rather a property of the categories with which it operates#151;not a product of the mind but rather what constitutes the mind.

We never act, and could never act, in full consideration of all the facts of a particular situation, but always by singling out as relevant only some aspects of it. (Hayek 1973:30)#148; The following paragraph is intended to olin mba essays 2012, show the essay, importance of his epistemological reasoning for olin his social theory. 3. Relation of Epistemology and Social Theory. Hayek#146;s epistemological realization of the inevitable abstractness and restrictedness of human perception had a strong influence on his social theory. This becomes obvious when he discusses the different kinds of question orders in society: #147;The chief difficulty is that the order of social events can generally not be perceived by our senses but can only olin 2012, be traced by dnb general our intellect. It is, as we shall say, an abstract and not a concrete order. Olin. (Hayek 1963:457ff)#148; Here he refers to the limited capacity of the single human mind to realize specific features of the real world, and it is for pilot letter that epistemological limitation that human beings are dependent on orderly structures in society!

Given the infinite number of possible interactions of individuals, the performance of the restricted human mind depends on regularities within society; and such regularities, such an order in society is brought forth by olin rules . Thus Hayek describes the solution for the epistemological problem when he relates the problem of the limitations of the human mind to the rules: #147;The only manner in which we can in thesis, fact give our life some order is to adopt certain abstract rules or principles for guidance, and mba essays 2012, then strictly adhere to these rules we have adopted in our dealings with the new situations as they arise. (Hayek 1967:90)#148; While the dnb general, mentioned #147;abstract rules or principles#148; can also be found by means of intellectual construction, we can suppose that the lion#146;s share of the olin mba essays, rules which actually govern our behavior in society can be seen as a heritage from cultural and paul piche essaye donc, biological evolution. The ability to living as members of society is mba essays dependent on the satisfaction of most of our needs from various forms of donc pas co-operation with others. Facing the restrictions of our mind, we depend on the reliability of our expectations concerning the actions of others on which our plans are based. Abstract rules or principles of guidance, may they constructed intellectually or may they be a cultural heritage, can be seen as tools for olin improve the papers essays, quality of our expectations. This matching of the intentions and expectations that determine the actions of different individuals is the form in which order manifests itself in mba essays, social life (Hayek 1973:36). 4. The Role of essay Knowledge. As we have already mentioned, for olin mba essays Hayek economic reasoning is essays health connected with reasoning about epistemological issues, or, with reasoning about knowledge . Olin 2012. In his mentioned book The Sensory Order , he gives reference to his profound experience in thinking about epistemological problems and about health, it would be more than unlikely that these skills have not influenced his reasoning about social issues. But while in his main writings Hayek refers to his epistemology only mba essays 2012, rarely, the importance of knowledge for gun control argumentative his social theory is olin mba essays 2012 evident. Surgery Thesis. I only want to mention here his reasoning on cultural evolution , the role of rules as cognitive tools to mba essays, master environmental problems, the the environment clean, reasons for his rejection of central planning , and his view of the market as an 2012 instrument to discover and to utilize dispersed knowledge . Additionally, in french, early methodological writings such as #147;Economics and Knowledge#148; (Hayek 1937) and in #147;The Use of Knowledge in Society#148; (Hayek 1945) he refers explicitly to olin 2012, his epistemological ideas. Dnb General Surgery. For example, in his important political contribution The Road to 2012, Serfdom Hayek makes an argument against central planning with reference to gun control, the restrictions of human knowledge: #147;If individuals are to be able to use their knowledge effectively in making plans, they must be able to predict actions of the state which may affect these plans.

But if the mba essays, actions of the state are to gun control, be predictable, they must be determined by rules fixed independently of the olin mba essays, concrete circumstances which can be neither foreseen nor taken into clean, account beforehand: and the particular effects of such actions will be unpredictable. (Hayek 1944:84)#148; And he continues that if, on olin the other hand, the state were to essay, direct the mba essays, individual#146;s actions so as to achieve particular ends, its action would have to airline pilot cover letter, be decided on olin mba essays the basis of the full circumstances of the moment and would, therefore, be unpredictable. Essay Ideas. Hayek concludes: #147;Hence the olin mba essays, familiar fact that the more the airline central cover, state #145;plans,#146; the more difficult planning becomes for olin mba essays the individual. French Essays Health. (Hayek 1944:84)#148; And later: #147;The important question is whether the individual can foresee the olin mba essays 2012, action of the state and make use of this knowledge as a datum in airline central cover letter, forming his plans . 2012. (Hayek 1944:89)#148; Since at dnb general thesis, least economic success rests on the possibilities of making economic plans, the relationships between knowledge, order in society, and economic success in mba essays 2012, Hayek#146;s work becomes clear. Finally, it could be said that from a Hayekian point of view the donc pas, fulfillment of Equality before the 2012, Law in a society plays an economic role, which could be explained with reference to the epistemological reasoning about the use of knowledge in society. After we had a look at the general role of knowledge in society in the previous section, the economical relevance of Equality before the Law for on how to keep clean transitional countries will become obvious when we will now have a look to the different kinds of order in olin mba essays, society. 1. Order in esssays, Society. To understand the economic importance of Equality before the olin, Law and the relevance of the realization of french about this principle especially for transformation economies, we want to understand firstly the differences between two different kinds of order in society and mba essays, secondly the epistemological relevance of these differences. The term #147;order#148; is frequently avoided in social sciences, and this avoidance could be explained by essay question several arguments. For instance, the olin mba essays 2012, term could be misinterpreted in an authoritarian and, therefore, in a negative sense, while the imagination of orders which are non-authoritarian seem to gun control argumentative, be comparatively difficult for a lot of people. But in some sense it could even be said that social theory begins with the olin, discovery that there exists orderly structures, which are the piche donc, product of the action of many men, even if they are not necessarily the result of human design.

Here the analysis of the #147;unintended social consequences of 2012 individual behavior#148; by to keep clean Adam Ferguson or the concept of the #147;invisible hand#148; of Adam Smith (Hayek 1973:20) could be mentioned as examples. Irrespective of mba essays 2012 possible misinterpretations of #147;order#148;, Friedrich August von Hayek provides a definition of the papers on narrative, term which is abstractly formulated and, therefore, largely free from olin negative connotations: By ‚#146;order#145; we shall throughout describe a state of affairs in airline cover, which a multiplicity of elements of various kinds are so related to mba essays, each other that we may learn from our acquaintance with some spatial or temporal part of the whole to form correct expectations concerning the essay the environment clean, rest, or at least expectations which have a good chance of olin mba essays 2012 proving correct. (Hayek 1973:36)#147; This specific and essaye pas, very general understanding of #147;order#148; is mba essays 2012 relatively inaccessible for ambiguous valuations until it is applied to social applications like in Hayek#146;s definition of a society : #147;We call a multitude of men a society when their activities are mutually adjusted to one another. . Their relations, in other words, show a certain order. Esssays. (Hayek 1963:457)#148; Now we are going to examine the basic principles of social organization, firstly with respect to mba essays, the realization of on how to keep the environment Equality before the Law in mba essays 2012, each of these principles, and secondly with respect to their characteristics from an epistemological point of view. It has to about, be mentioned that the two basic orders in society, the Organization and mba essays, the Spontaneous Order , will be presented in their pure and extreme forms, while in reality these forms nearly do not exist in the presented pure forms but they typically exist only in argumentative, mixed forms. The first kind of social order in Hayek#146;s thinking is the olin, Organization , or#151;to use the terminology of the old Greeks#151;the Oikonomia or the gun control esssays, Taxis . Olin 2012. Typical examples for question organizations are single companies, armies, departments of mba essays a government, or whole governments of countries. About Health. This kind of olin mba essays order is to be seen as an order, which is gun control esssays #147;made#148; by olin an exogenous agency or actor, in other words it is regularly a social order, which is gun control argumentative esssays deliberately planned (Hayek 1973:36). According to its single planning agency it can be also said that an Organization has a #147; monocentric structure#148;. Because it is mba essays 2012 deliberately planned by a human mind, it is normally also a #147;relatively concrete#148; order, and, therefore, it is piche essaye regularly also perceptible and understandable by the human mind. Olin Mba Essays. An organization typically has a special and definite purpose , which is essay question ideas dependent of the 2012, purposes of the agent which has created the essays about health, organization. Therefore, and olin 2012, with reference to airline pilot cover, the Greek term telos , which means #147;aim#148;, it could be said that an organization is a #147;teleological#148; social order. It follows that the elements of such an order, that is the olin mba essays, members of the organization, have to have aims which are in correspondence with the telos of the organization, so that its members typically have homogeneous aims. On How To Keep The Environment Clean. For example, in an army which has the aim of conquering a certain territory, each soldier of that army has to olin mba essays, share that aim, and within a commercial company the argumentative, aims of each employee have to be in 2012, accordance with the general aim to make profit.

The basic mode of there limit common application essay how power in mba essays, this basic kind of social order is executed is the execution of power over persons , and it follows that the to keep the environment, most fundamental form of social relations in olin mba essays, organizations is the hierarchical relation. The principles of the organization can also be applied to whole societies. Socialism as the political system of the Central Eastern European and piche essaye, former Soviet Union Countries before 1989 were typical applications of 2012 organizational principles to whole societies. They were planned by paul piche donc pas specific actors like a party or a politburo, were led by leaders like Stalin or Tito, and they had a certain telos , an aim , which consisted of wealth and 2012, material equality of the members of the essay question, society. But as Hayek has stated, the 2012, fulfillment of surgery material equality stands in a certain conflict with the fulfillment of olin Equality before the Law (Hayek 1960:97), so it could be said that socialistic systems are orders of material equality , rather than orders of Equality before the ideas, Law . 2012. Important for our actual consideration is the typical type of rules, which are used to form this kind of dnb general thesis order.

The rules are necessary to form an organization are typically prescriptive, relatively concrete, and positively formulated, which means that they say something about what people have to do and instead of only forbidding certain actions. 2012. Hayek uses the airline central letter, Greek term thesis when he refers explicitly to this specific kind of positive rules (Hayek 1973:126ff). And an import feature of these rules which are fundamental for organizations is mba essays 2012 that they normally do not have the same validity for each member of this order: normally neither commands in an army nor orders within a company have the same relevance for all members of the order. Again it can be said that the Organization is the order of In equality before the Law. French Health. The capacity of this kind of social order to process information and knowledge is mba essays limited because it is question bound to the capability of the single planning agency.

Additionally, because of the olin 2012, far-reaching absence of Equality before the Law, the forming of correct expectations besides the single member concerning the french about, future is olin 2012 hindered in on how, an Organization. For example, the application of personal skills within a company depends rather on the changeable strategies of the 2012, company leader than on abstract formulated rules. As a consequence, the ability of this kind of there word common application order to help the olin mba essays 2012, single economic actors to papers on narrative essays, cope with their cognitive limits is mba essays regularly low. In a Hayekian, knowledge oriented and epistemological influenced perspective, this deficit has a negative effect on paul piche donc the efficiency of economic systems. Mba Essays. The second kind of social order which is word common application essay central in Hayek#146;s thinking is the Spontaneous Order , or#151;to use again the mba essays, terminology of the old Greeks#151;the Catallaxia or Kosmos . The term Catallaxia comes from the Greek verb kattalein , which has not only the meaning of exchange but can also mean to make a former enemy to esssays, a friend , or to admit someone into a community . Olin Mba Essays 2012. It is piche essaye pas likely that Hayek has got the inspiration to think about Spontaneous Orders from the mba essays, Epistemologist Michael Polanyi (Polanyi 1951:154-200). A typical example for french essays about health Spontaneous Orders in mba essays, the physical nature could be the order of word common atoms in a crystal, while the typical example for a Spontaneous Order of social relations is the olin mba essays 2012, order of the market with all its division of labor.

Also the human language could serve as an on narrative example for a social Spontaneous Order. Such orders cannot be seen as orders, which are made from an olin exogenous agency or actor; rather they evolve spontaneously and endogenously . French About. (Hayek 1973:36) In other words, these kinds of 2012 orders are regularly not planned, like Hayek expresses it with reference to an example from natural science: #147;We could never produce a crystal by directly placing the individual molecules from argumentative esssays which it is built up. Mba Essays. (Hayek 1963:459)#148; According to the absence of a single planning agency it can be said that a spontaneous order has a polycentri c structure. Dnb General. Because this kind of order is regularly not planned by mba essays deliberate design, it is a relatively abstract order, which means that it is#151;especially for the case of social Spontaneous Orders#151;regularly not necessarily perceptible and not understandable for the human mind. A Spontaneous Order typically has no special and definite purpose , rather it can be said that the french about health, single elements of mba essays Spontaneous Orders have their own purposes and aims. Therefore, it could be said that a Spontaneous Order is a non-teleological social order without a certain collective aim besides the aims of its single elements. It follows that its members can have heterogeneous aims: in a market the buyers and the sellers could have completely different aims, but, nevertheless, they are producing a certain kind of airline pilot cover order . The basic mode of olin 2012 execution of about health power in this basic kind of social order is the 2012, execution of power over things , which means power over property ; and one of the most significant characteristics of the pilot central cover letter, social relations in olin mba essays 2012, spontaneous orders is the Equality before the Law of the single members! Like the essaye pas, principles of the organization , the principles of the Spontaneous Order can also applied to whole societies.

A market economy , a capitalistic system or#151;to follow the olin 2012, terminological preferences of papers Hayek#151;the Catallaxia is such an application. The structures of a Catallaxia are typically not planned by specific actors like a party or a politburo, their elements are independent in determining their aims, its elements are not led by central leaders, and they have no certain telos . Rather the evolution of these structures is dependent upon abstractly formulated rules , which are the same for all elements of that society! Because of the mentioned conflict between the two #147;equalities#148; it could be said that spontaneous market orders#151;in contrast to Organizations#151;are orders of Equality before the Law , rather than orders of material equality . Important for our actual consideration is the typical type of rules , which is used to mba essays, form this kind of esssays order. They are typically proscriptive, relatively abstract, and negative formulated, which means that they say something about what people are not allowed to do, instead of prescribing certain and definite actions. Olin. Hayek uses the Greek term nomos when he refers explicitly to this specific kind of positive rules (Hayek 1973:94ff).

But the essay ideas, most import feature of the olin mba essays 2012, rules which are fundamental for organizations is that they have normally the same validity for each element of the donc pas, order: #147;Rules which are to enable individuals to olin mba essays, find their own places in essays, a spontaneous order of the whole society must be general; they must not assign to particular individuals a status, but rather leave the mba essays, individual to create his own position. There Limit Essay. (Hayek 1963:463)#148; Hayek addresses explicitly this kind of rules when he refers to #147;rules of just conduct#148; (Hayek 1976:197) and mba essays, he explains in detail the evolvement of these rules in the process of pilot cover letter cultural evolution . These rules, the nomos , are necessary to olin 2012, guide a fruitful market process. It can be said that the spontaneous order is the traditional and true order of Equality before the Law ! The capacity to there common application, process information of Spontaneous Orders is regularly higher than the olin mba essays 2012, capacity of an Organization, and piche pas, this is because it is not bound by the capability of any single planning agency. Olin 2012. Rather, Spontaneous Orders of piche essaye donc pas persons under a framework of olin mba essays abstract and general formulated rules, which have the on how the environment, same validity for all people are the most effective way to utilize as much from the mba essays, hidden and economically relevant knowledge about scarcities and ideas, about human needs, the knowledge which is dispersed within society. The mechanism, which is used to transfer and to olin mba essays, process the paul piche, knowledge in 2012, spontaneous market orders is, according to essay to keep, Hayek, the price mechanism . In his view, the olin mba essays 2012, price systems serves as an informational system just as the internal #147;preferences#148; or #147;valuations#148; serve as cognitive instruments within the essay ideas, human mind: #147;Fundamentally, in a system in which the knowledge of the olin 2012, relevant facts is dispersed among many people, prices can act to co-ordinate the dnb general, separate actions of different people in the same way as subjective values help the individual to co-ordinate the parts of olin 2012 his plan. Essay Ideas. (Hayek 1945:85)#148; And while in a planned order of inequality before the law expectations cannot be applied to olin, any member of the on how the environment clean, society in the same way, in mba essays, a catallaxia all participants of the market process meet as equals before the law, and this fact enables the french, full utilization of experience in the market process. Additionally, the principle of mba essays 2012 Equality before the Law of all participants maximizes the number of french essays about health competing alternative problem solving solutions within an economic system and, therefore, the probability to 2012, find the most fruitful product or strategy. As a consequence, the ability of this kind of order to help the single economic actors to french essays about, cope with their cognitive limits is regularly very high. This advantage of spontaneous social orders to process more of the economically relevant knowledge has, as we will see, its effect on mba essays the efficiency of economic systems.

1. Economic Effects of Information Processing Characteristics. As we have seen, the different kinds of rules are economically relevant because they produce different types of orders, and these different orders have different capabilities to essay on how clean, process dispersed knowledge. Thus the mba essays, economic relevance of rules can be described in Hayek#146;s words: #147;The aim of the rules must be to facilitate that matching or tallying of the expectations on which the plans of the individuals depend for their success. (Hayek 1973:98)#148; With reference to the equivalence of classification and abstraction he relates the process of on narrative essays abstraction, the olin mba essays 2012, role of general rules of just conduct, and the idea of liberalism to one another: #147;Although the use of abstraction extends the scope of phenomena which we can master intellectually, it does so by limiting the on how to keep the environment, degree to which we can foresee the effects of our actions, and therefore also by limiting to certain general features the degree to which we can shape the 2012, world to essays about, our liking. Liberalism for olin mba essays this reason restricts deliberate control of the surgery, overall order of society to the enforcement of mba essays 2012 such general rules as are necessary for the formation of a spontaneous order, the details of there limit application which we cannot foresee. Mba Essays. (Hayek 1973:32)#148; Also, he refers explicitly to the spontaneous order of papers on narrative essays Equality before the mba essays, Law when he describes the most effective way to use the dispersed knowledge: #147;It is the only procedure yet discovered in there word common essay, which information widely dispersed among millions of men can be effectively utilized for the benefit of all#151;and used by olin mba essays 2012 assuring to all an limit common essay individual liberty desirable for itself on mba essays 2012 ethical grounds. (Hayek 1976:70)#148; Therefore, from a Hayekian epistemological standpoint it appears to ideas, be economically necessary to olin mba essays 2012, restrict individual behavior by airline pilot cover letter general rules because of the olin mba essays 2012, cognitive limits of the single mind! Or, as Hayek expresses it: #147;It is, in other words, our restricted horizon of essay on how to keep the environment clean knowledge of the olin, concrete facts which makes it necessary to limit application, coordinate our actions by submitting to mba essays 2012, abstract rules rather than to attempt to decide each particular case solely in view of the there word essay, limited set of relevant particular facts which we happen to know. (Hayek 1963:465)#148; It may sound paradoxical that rationality should, thus, require that we deliberately disregard knowledge which we possess, but this is olin mba essays 2012 part of the surgery thesis, necessity of coming to mba essays 2012, terms with our unalterable ignorance of much that would be relevant if we knew it. As the piche, Hayekian epistemology has showed us, this paradox is olin mba essays a result of the fact that, in on how to keep clean, contrast to olin, our superficial, introspective experience, all perception consists of abstractions. With implicit reference to his own epistemology, Hayek states: #147;It is the dnb general surgery thesis, great lesson which science has taught us that we must resort to the abstract where we cannot master the concrete. (Hayek 1963:466)#148; Applying the presented theoretical framework of the different kinds of mba essays orders to real economic systems, the process of transformation from socialism to capitalism can be interpreted as an on narrative institutional change from an oikonomia , which is 2012 based on essays prescriptive rules, and olin mba essays, commands, which are regularly unequal for the members of the society, to a catallaxia , which is there limit application based on olin 2012 proscriptive and abstract formulated rules with the same validity for each member of the to keep clean, society. Olin Mba Essays 2012. Furthermore, according to limit application essay, the Hayekian observation that the mba essays 2012, two possible interpretations of #147;equality#148; are in conflict with each other (Hayek 1960:97), transformation can be interpreted as the transformation from a political system, which follows the cover, idea of material equality into a system, which follows the competing ideal of Equality before the Law . Mba Essays. Facing the papers on narrative essays, different capabilities of the two orders to utilize the olin 2012, dispersed knowledge in society it can be said, that this institutional transformation to an order of Equality before the dnb general surgery, Law also means an improvement of economic success of the olin mba essays 2012, respective order.

Such an interpretation could be fruitful for there limit common application the analysis not only mba essays 2012, with respect to the transitional countries in Central, Eastern or Southern Europe, but also in application essay, other countries which want to strengthen their market economic character, for example Afghanistan, Iraq, or China. 2. Olin Mba Essays. Socialism as an airline cover Oikonomia. Mba Essays. We will now have a look at typical characteristics of socialistic political and economical systems, emphasizing that the ideas of socialism stick to the idea of the #147;organization#148; and that these social orders are necessarily characterized by inequality before the law. Like a typical Organization, the classical socialistic regime followed a definite and paul pas, homogeneous goal, and that goal was expressed through the idea of olin #147;Communism#148;. We can read in the program of the IX. Argumentative Esssays. party conference of the Socialistic Unity Party (SED) of the olin mba essays 2012, German Democratic Republic (DDR) from 1976: #147;Communism#151;that is the airline pilot letter, classless order of society in which .. all members of the olin mba essays 2012, society are footed socially equal . and essay ideas, which is governed by the principle: #145;from each according to olin mba essays, his ability and to each according to his need#146; (SED 1976:73)#148;. The mentioned Marxian idea of #147;from each according to essay to keep the environment clean, his ability and to each according to 2012, his need#148; was translated into french health, public policy by a variety of political instruments. Selective subsidizing of olin mba essays 2012 goods and paul essaye, services, rationing of olin mba essays 2012 goods, and papers on narrative, administratively fixed uniform wages for nearly all occupations are only olin mba essays 2012, a few examples.

Thus, classical socialistic systems typically followed the ideal of material equality rather than the piche essaye pas, ideal of Equality before the mba essays 2012, Law . Typical socialistic regimes tried to essay question, achieve this aim by central planning, a style of administration, which has, according to the socialist ideology, an economic as well as a moral superiority against the #147;anarchy of the market#148;. To exercise the #147;superior#148; central planning according to olin mba essays 2012, the will of the working class, dictatorship was officially accepted and wanted. Airline Pilot Central Cover. But this dictatorship was not exercised by the working class directly; rather it was #147;represented#148; by the party, which was seen as the only authorized #147;interpreter#148; of the 2012, official ideology, the argumentative, #147;Socialistic Scientism#148;. This central power was exercised in mba essays 2012, economic relations through the various state owned companies and agricultural cooperatives. The extent of this power could be imagined, if we have a look at the share of the paul pas, public sector as a percentage of GDP in European Socialistic Countries shortly before the 2012, start of the transitional process in 1989: in pilot central letter, the year 1988, the mba essays, Public Sector produced 99.3% of the GDP in Czechoslovakia, 96.4% in East Germany and 95.5% in Romania (Kornai 1992:72). Additionally, the administration in gun control argumentative, socialistic systems exercised a lot of influence into mba essays 2012, the civil society via #147;mass organizations,#148; which were also led by about the ruling socialistic parties. Neither in mba essays, civil nor in economic life there were independent actors which could be seen as equals before the law. (Kornai 1992:33ff) Since the central planners in such political systems were subject only to the #147;interests of the there word limit application essay, working class#148;, and not to any constitutional law or to the aims of independent individuals, they had exercised their power not according to the Rule of olin 2012 Law but to the rule of dnb general thesis reason #151;which means necessarily that they had to treat different persons unequal ! Or, as Hayek expresses it: #147;A necessary, and only apparently paradoxical, result of this is that formal Equality before the 2012, Law is in conflict, and in essays, fact incompatible, with any activity of the government deliberately aiming at material or substantive equality of different people, and that any policy aiming directly at a substantive ideal of 2012 distributive justice must lead to the destruction of the Rule of Law. (Hayek 1944:87)#148; 1. Rule of Law and essay ideas, Equality before the Law. In our considerations of the olin 2012, role of knowledge we have seen that Equality before the on narrative, Law, the basic principle of the spontaneous market order, is supposed to have certain relevance for economic performance. For Hayek, the idea of olin 2012 a non-discriminating social order in which all people are treated equally before the Law is not only related to, rather it is to be seen as the core of the dnb general surgery thesis, idea of the Rule of mba essays Law (Hayek 1944:87, 92).

Since until now there has been no estimation of the realization of Equality before the Law available, we want to make use of this tight relation between the two principles of liberalism. The realization of the principle of the Rule of essays Law had been estimated by Kaufmann, Kraay, and Mastruzzi in 2003 and we want to use this index as a proxy for the realization of Equality before the Law in single transformation counries. Mba Essays. To estimate economic performance, we will use the Gross National Income in single transformation countries. To see the argumentative, relation between these basic liberal principles and olin, the economic performance we have depicted in essays about health, the following chart on the X-axis the 2012, estimation variable for the realization of the dnb general surgery thesis, principle of the Rule of Law in olin mba essays 2012, the single transformation countries. The variable reaches from -2.5 for countries which treat their people completely unequal up to +2.5 for the (imaginary) country, which provides full Equality before the limit common application essay, Law to its citizens. 2012. At the Y-axis we can see the Gross National Income of surgery thesis each of 2012 these countries, measured by the Worldbank per year and per capita according to the Atlas method (Worldbank 2003).

The above graph clearly shows a positive relationship between the Rule of french Law index of Kaufmann, Kraay, and olin, Mastruzzi at surgery, the X-axis and the income parameter on the Y-axis. 2. Mba Essays. Constitutional Framework. To support this result, we want to compare the Gross National Income also with the parameter for #147;Constitutional, Legislative, and Judicial Framework#148; of the Freedom House#146;s annual #147;Freedom in the World#148; survey, because this parameter explicitly refers to papers on narrative, the fulfillment of Equality before the Law (Freedom House 2004) and could, therefore, serve as an additional proxy. Mba Essays. The mentioned parameter reaches from pas 1 for a good constitutional framework and high Equality before the Law up to 7. Olin 2012. On the french health, Y-axis you will find again the Gross National Income per year and per olin mba essays 2012, capita in gun control esssays, 2002, measured by olin 2012 the Worldbank (Worldbank 2003). Like in the first chart one can see a clear relationship between our proxy for the fulfillment of dnb general Equality before the mba essays 2012, Law and national income. 3. On How Clean. Explanation of the olin mba essays 2012, Results.

As we have pointed out, the donc pas, transformation process of former socialistic states to market economies can be interpreted with reference to the Hayekian kinds of orders as a transformation from olin mba essays 2012 a society, which is organized according to essay to keep clean, the principles of the Organization , to a society, which possesses the characteristics of a Catallaxia . With respect to the institutions and olin mba essays, rules, which form the order in society, it can also be stated that transformation means an institutional change from an ideas order of mainly prescriptive, concrete commands to olin mba essays, an order of essays mainly proscriptive, abstractly formulated rules. Additionally, we have found out olin 2012, that in the Hayekian view the papers on narrative essays, use of knowledge in olin mba essays, society plays a crucial role in affecting the success of the overall economic process. French Essays About Health. Since we have also seen that societies which are organized according to the principles of the Catallaxia, have a higher capacity to process knowledge than those orders which obey the olin 2012, rules of the Organization, it could be expected that the catallactic structures support economic success better. As we have argued, the order of the Oikonomia can be expected to dnb general, have only a low capacity to process economically relevant knowledge. In the real existing socialistic systems that deficit became visible in the poor innovative forces and in 2012, the regular shortages in all markets: while lacking innovation is gun control a phenomenon of the olin 2012, missing discovery of new knowledge , shortages are the phenomenon of dnb general surgery thesis a lacking exchange of knowledge about scarcities and needs! On the other hand, the Catallaxia possesses the necessary characteristics to olin mba essays 2012, discover and to exchange knowledge. In capitalistic and catallactic systems the characteristics are regularly provided by essays the mechanism of olin mba essays competition and gun control, the price system. The price systems serves as information systems just as the internal #147;preferences#148; or #147;valuations#148; serve as cognitive instruments within the human mind.

Or, expressed differently, #147;We need decentralization because only thus can we insure that the knowledge of the particular circumstances of time and place will be promptly used. (Hayek 1945:84)#148; If we describe the transformation process as a institutional change from thesis to olin, nomos , that means a change to an order of pilot cover Equality before the olin 2012, Law, then the french essays, above charts show that the more perfect this change is realized, the more successfully the economy works. Or, in mba essays 2012, other words, the closer an economic order comes to the ideal of the Catallaxia , the thesis, order of Equality before the olin mba essays, Law , the wealthier the participants of the environment clean that order can be. But, on olin 2012 the other hand, if political systems adhere to their organizational principles of the environment socialism and of inequality before the olin, law, they omit the opportunities to discover innovations and to make use of the essays, knowledge which is olin mba essays 2012 dispersed among society. Differences between the success of essay question implementation of the principles of the olin, spontaneous market order in the constitutional framework as well as differences between the economic impact of such implementation can be explained, like Zweynert and Goldschmidt have done recently, with reference to the different cultural legacies and the different #147;informal institutions#148; (also with reference to cognitive reasoning) in the single countries (Zweynert/Goldschmidt 2005). With respect to the intellectual history of the occident and to about, the work of Friedrich August von Hayek we have pointed out the 2012, importance of the principle of Equality of Law for essay to keep liberalism and for economic performance. The systematic place of the olin mba essays, struggle of liberalism for Equality before the piche essaye donc, Law in Hayek#146;s work is to be found in his differentiation between the fundamental principles of order in society. Since in his work the olin, order of argumentative esssays Equality before the mba essays 2012, Law is the Spontaneous Order or the #147;Catallaxia#148;, the transformation from a central planned society to a catallacitic and essays, spontaneous order can in olin mba essays 2012, a Hayekian sense interpreted as a transformation to on how to keep the environment, a liberal order of Equality before the Law! And while the principles of the 2012, Organization can be fruitfully applied in hierarchical social orders like armies or companies , for whole #147;open#148; societies only the thesis, application of the principles of the 2012, Spontaneous Order can cause positive effects to the processing of knowledge in these societies.

The role of on narrative order in olin mba essays 2012, society for the processing of knowledge has been explained with reference to essay question ideas, the Hayekian epistemology, while the role of knowledge for the economic performance of societies has been explained with reference to mba essays 2012, his social theory. Additionally, the theoretical relation between the order of a society and its economic performance has been tried to essays, express with statistical figures. We have shown that those countries, which became better examples for 2012 the realization of the liberal value of the Rule of Law, have regularly a higher income per capita. Question. As a consequence it could be stated that Equality before the 2012, Law is papers on narrative essays not only important with respect to mba essays, the fulfillment of paul pas human rights in an ethical sense. Additionally, the realization of mba essays Equality before the Law is papers has economic importance, which is by no means an argument with less moral value. With respect to the transitional countries it could also be stated that the success of mba essays 2012 transition depends, in addition to a lot of other important parameters, on the grade of the realization of the principle of Equality before the Law and of the Rule of Law in those counties! The recommendation to transitional countries from the standpoint of this article is, that if these countries want to pilot cover, improve the wealth of their citizens, they have to realize the value of olin mba essays 2012 Equality before the to keep clean, Law! Major steps to fulfill this goal would be to install and to respect constitutional structures and to realize and to adhere to the basic principles of liberalism.

Aristotle (2004): Selections from 2012 Nicomachean Ethics and Politics , The Collector#146;s Library of Essential Thinkers, London. Hayek, F. A. (1937): Economics and Knowledge , in: Economica IV 1937, S. 33-54. There Limit. Hayek, F. Olin. A. (1944): The Road to Serfdom , University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Hayek, F. A. Papers. (1945): The Use of Knowledge in Society , in: American Economic Review, XXXV, No. 4, September, S. 519-530. 2012. Reprinted in: Individualism and Economic Order (1948), University of the environment clean Chicago Press. Hayek, F. A. (1952): The Sensory Order: An Inquiry into the Foundations of Theoretical Psychology , University of Chicago, Chicago.

Hayek, F. Olin. A. Question. (1960): The Constitution of Liberty , The University of olin Chicago Press, Chicago. Hayek, F. A. (1963): Kinds of Order in Society , New Individualists Review, Vol. 3(2), pp. 457-466. Central. Hayek, F. A. (1973): Law, Legislation and Liberty, Vol. Olin 2012. I : Rules and thesis, Order, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Hayek, F. Mba Essays. A. (1976): Law, Legislation and word application essay, Liberty , Vol. Olin Mba Essays 2012. II: The Mirage of Social Justice, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Hayek, F. A. (1967): Studies in dnb general, Philosophy, Politics and olin, Economics , University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Kaufmann, D./Kraay, A./Mastruzzi, M. Health. (2003): Governance Matters III: Governance Indicators for 1996-2002 , Worldbank 2003. Kornai, J. (1992): The Socialist System: The Political Economy of mba essays Communism , Claredon Press, Oxford. Nemo, Ph. (2004): Qu#146;est-ce que l#146;Occident? , PUF, collection Quadrige, Paris. SED (1976): Programm der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands , erschienen zum IX. Parteitag der SED, Dietz Verlag, Berlin (own translations). Smith, A. (1759): The Theory of gun control argumentative Moral Sentiments , London. Worldbank (2004): GNI per capita 2003, Atlas method and olin mba essays, PPP , World Development Indicators database, Worldbank, www.worldbank.org.

Zweynert, J./Goldschmidt, N. (2005): The two transitions in Central and dnb general surgery, Eastern Europe and mba essays 2012, the relation between path dependent and politically implemented institutional change , in: Freiburger Diskussionspapiere zur Ordnungsokonomik, http://www.eucken.de. Ideas. 2017 INDEPENDENT INSTITUTE, 100 SWAN WAY, OAKLAND CA 94621#8209;1428 | (510) 632#8209;1366 | (510) 568#8209;6040 FAX | SEND EMAIL.

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Sur Robert Walser et son recours aux « microgrammes » : Le brigand , forme limite et paradoxale du sinthome de l’ecrivain. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Mba Essays 2012? Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. « Une plume prefere dire une chose incongrue plutot que de se reposer ne fut-ce qu’un moment. Peut-etre est-ce la le secret d’une ecriture de qualite, c’est-a-dire qu’il faut toujours que quelque chose d’impulsif entre dans l’ecriture. There Common Application? » La vie de l’ecrivain suisse de langue allemande Robert Walser (Bienne 1878 – Herisau 1956) laisse, en depit de doutes emis par certains de ses biographes [2] [2] C. Olin? Sauvat, Robert Walser, Monaco, Editions du Rocher. Limit Application? , peu de place a une incertitude clinique quant au diagnostic de psychose. Olin 2012? Le destin de Walser est celui d’un ecrivain dont l’existence semble avoir ete progressivement envahie et mortifiee par le declenchement et le developpement de la psychose, en depit du role eminent qu’y joue l’ecriture.

En temoignent ses confidences a Carl Seelig [3] [3] C. There Word Application Essay? Seelig, critique et bienfaiteur d’un certain nombre. Olin 2012? sur les moments qui ont precede sa premiere hospitalisation, en 1929, a l’hospice de la Waldau a Berne : « Durant ma derniere annee a Berne, j’etais tourmente par des reves affreux : fracas de tonnerre, cris, mains etrangleuses cramponnees a ma gorge, eclats de voix hallucinatoires [4] [4] Propos recueillis par C. On Narrative Essays? Seelig, Promenades avec Robert. Olin Mba Essays 2012? . Essay The Environment? » De meme, toujours selon le temoignage de Seelig, Walser s’attribue-t-il dans les mois precedant son hospitalisation quelques tentatives de suicide : « Je n’etais meme pas capable de faire un n?ud coulant digne de ce nom [5] [5] Ibid., p. Olin? 26. There Word Common Essay? . Olin? » Les biographes de Robert Walser [6] [6] C. Papers? Sauvat, ibid., et M.-L. Mba Essays 2012? Audiberti, Le vagabond immobile. Essaye? ont souvent mis l’accent sur l’oscillation constante qui fait alterner chez l’ecrivain des tentatives plus ou moins assidues de frequentation de la vie litteraire et artistique de son temps, marquees notamment par des sejours a Berlin aupres de son frere Karl, peintre et decorateur de theatre, avec des periodes de complet exil et de solitude. Mba Essays 2012? En sont revelateurs, en particulier, les nombreux et surprenants avatars de Walser en commis, domestique, homme de compagnie, voire homme de rien. Essays? Sans doute de tels intermedes pourraient-ils, en un sens, etre consideres comme ne portant pas a consequence chez Walser quant a la « continuite » de son rapport a l’ecriture, ne serait-ce que parce qu’ils forment la matiere meme d’une partie des textes de l’ecrivain et qu’ils peuvent se rattacher a une thematique essentielle chez lui, idealisant certaines formes du service, du renoncement a toute affirmation d’un ego , de la fusion dans l’impersonnel. Au-dela d’un parcours marque du sceau de l’errance geographique, materielle, professionnelle, qui doit etre entendue litteralement, eu egard a sa capacite a se deplacer sur de tres longues distances a pied, ces experiences de Walser n’en sont pas moins indicatives chez lui d’une particuliere difficulte a s’inscrire tant dans la communaute litteraire de son temps – fut-ce par le biais d’une de ses avant-gardes, la Secession dans le Berlin du debut du xx e siecle – que dans un quelconque statut d’ecrivain. Olin Mba Essays? Jusqu’en 1933, date de son transfert de l’hospice de la Waldau a celui d’Herisau, cette difficulte n’affecte en effet pas tant l’activite d’ecriture de Walser ou son choix d’ecrire que sa certitude meme de pouvoir etre un ecrivain a part entiere et de s’inscrire comme tel pour la posterite. Paul Piche Essaye Donc? Ainsi ecrit-il a un correspondant : « Mon nom n’est pas une enseigne, ne representa pas une maison solide, un chateau fort, il me faut chaque fois regagner par le travail mon petit peu de reputation [7] [7] A Adolph Schar-Riss, dans une lettre du 4 octobre . 2012? » ; de meme, dans un texte des annees 1928-1929 : « A ce que je crois, j’avais autrefois une meilleure reputation ; mais je me suis habitue a ce qu’elle soit moins excellente en desirant me declarer d’accord avec la qualification de fournisseur de copie [8] [8] Dans « Meine Bemuhungen », Gesammelte Werke, X, p. Cover? . Olin Mba Essays 2012? » Peter Utz, dans son essai sur Walser [9] [9] Dans Robert Walser : danser dans les marges, Geneve. Question Ideas? , rappelle que, dans le registre d’adresses de Berne, Walser a fait figurer son nom comme etant, non celui d’un ecrivain, mais celui d’un compositeur d’imprimerie. Ce trait semble s’accentuer au fil des annees, conduire Walser a une lente mais irreversible minoration de l’ importance de son ecriture, avant de determiner de sa part, a l’epoque de l’internement a Herisau, des propos qui semblent en constituer la negation meme : « […] il se trouvait assurement a Prague des choses plus captivantes a lire que des walseries de cet acabit [10] [10] C. Olin? Seelig, op. Piche Essaye Donc Pas? cit., p. Olin? 122. Airline Pilot Central Cover? », confie-t-il a Carl Seelig. Walser peut ainsi apparaitre comme une figure antithetique de celle de Joyce, soit que l’ecriture n’ait pas pour lui la fonction de sinthome reconnue par Lacan chez l’ecrivain irlandais [11] [11] J. Olin 2012? Lacan, Le sinthome, seminaire 1975-1976, inedit. Piche Essaye Pas? , soit qu’elle atteste des limites et du caractere labile du sinthome dans le cas de certaines structures psychotiques. Pourtant, d’un autre point de vue, l’ecriture accompagne toute l’existence de Robert Walser, comme si elle lui tenait lieu d’identite : « J’en aurai fini avec moi des que j’en aurai fini avec l’ecriture, et cela me rejouit [12] [12] M.-L.

Audiberti, op. Mba Essays? cit., p. Essaye Donc Pas? 195. Olin 2012? », ecrit-il. Word Limit Common Essay? Presente jusqu’au seuil de la seconde hospitalisation psychiatrique, voire au-dela, selon le temoignage d’un infirmier d’Herisau [13] [13] « On n’a jamais vu ce qu’il ecrivait, on olin, voyait juste. On How To Keep The Environment Clean? , il est apparu que l’ecriture contribuait etroitement, chez l’ecrivain, a la suppleance de la forclusion et a la construction d’un ego [14] [14] Cf. Mba Essays? G. Paul Donc Pas? Morel, « The young man without ego », Art, Sublimation. Mba Essays 2012? . Cette derniere these presente toutefois une difficulte. Essay The Environment? La construction de l’ecriture de Walser en tant que sinthome se developpe a partir du debut des annees 1920 sous une forme eminemment paradoxale – les « microgrammes » – qui voit l’ecrivain cesser progressivement de publier des textes autres que des feuilletons [15] [15] Walser a developpe une intense et constante activite. Olin Mba Essays? et inventer une forme materielle d’ecriture porteuse d’une disjonction entre la forme brute de l’ecrit et le texte accessible a un lecteur et susceptible d’etre publie. The Environment? Precisons des a present que le nom de « microgrammes » n’est pas employe par Walser lui-meme, qui parle dans sa correspondance (en trois occurrences seulement) de « crayonnure » ou de « methode du crayon [16] [16] A Max Rychner, dans une lettre du 20 juin 1927, cite. Olin Mba Essays? », dans un contexte ou il fait etat d’une douleur physique et mentale a laquelle il impute son abandon de l’ecriture a la plume vers les annees 1917-1919 [17] [17] Le mot de « microgrammes » revient a Jochen Greven. Essays About? . La question se pose alors de savoir quels effets specifiques peuvent se voir reconnus a l’ecriture en microgrammes au regard de la fonction plus generale de sinthome de l’ecriture. Mba Essays? Dans la mesure ou certains de ces effets mettent en cause une telle fonction et semblent ainsi precipiter le destin de l’ecrivain vers le moment ou son sinthome cessera d’etre operant, il y a lieu de s’interroger egalement sur les circonstances et les causes du choix par Walser de l’ecriture micrographique. Dans le cadre de cette etude – necessairement limitee car elle ne prend en compte que les ?uvres aujourd’hui disponibles en langue francaise –, j’ai choisi de m’interesser plus particulierement a un texte datant de 1925, Le brigand , dans la mesure ou celui-ci, par ailleurs exemplaire du style de Walser, parait concretiser chez l’ecrivain tout a la fois un moment de basculement de son existence personnelle et une crise aigue de la forme. Constituant l’un des ecrits en microgrammes, Le brigand est en effet une tentative de rediger un texte d’ampleur a une date ou l’ecrivain n’ecrit pratiquement plus que des proses breves.

Il apparait comme jouant le role d’une ?uvre limite dans le corpus walserien et y constitue sans doute un moment unique : s’y conjoignent la fonction de sinthome de l’ecriture – celle-la meme qui aurait du permettre a Walser d’echapper a un enfermement auquel il a partiellement consenti – et le ressurgissement de cette meme ecriture dans une dimension de symptome, dissociee du sinthome et contrariant la fonction qui lui est habituellement reconnue [18] [18] La fonction de l’ecriture micrographique chez Walser. Essay To Keep Clean? . Le brigand , texte originellement sans titre ni rattachement explicite a un genre – ce sont des editeurs allemands qui l’intitulerent Der « Rauber », Roman –, fut ecrit pendant le mois de juillet 1925. Mba Essays 2012? Contrairement a d’autres ecrits de cette periode, il ne fut jamais propose a un editeur par Robert Walser, qui n’y fit jamais allusion. Papers Essays? Son existence resta totalement inconnue jusqu’a sa decouverte et sa premiere publication en 1972 par Jochen Greven et Martin Jurgens. Resumer Le brigand semble une entreprise delicate, sinon impossible. 2012? Le texte met en scene un « brigand » qui n’a pas de nom [19] [19] Cf. Pilot Central? Le brigand, p. Olin? 150. Word Limit Essay? , ce que souligne Walser lui-meme dans le texte, et ses relations complexes avec un narrateur qui s’interesse principalement a lui dans ses rapports a l’amour, au sexe et a l’ecriture. Mba Essays? Du defaut de la signification symbolique que constitue le fait que le brigand n’ait pas de nom, on papers on narrative essays, pourrait rendre compte en disant que « le brigand » est une designation qui fonctionne comme se situant entre nom commun et nom propre. Le brigand est-il a vrai dire un roman ? Certes, par moments, une intrigue se noue, des fils narratifs se tissent : le brigand est amoureux de deux femmes, Edith et Wanda, dont l’une le blessera d’un coup de revolver dans une eglise ou il est monte en chaire a l’invitation d’un cure, avant de se reconcilier avec lui. Cependant, dans ce texte que caracterisent tout a la fois une certaine « illisibilite » et une indeniable maitrise de la forme, le fil de la narration est constamment interrompu par des ruptures, des digressions, des anticipations annoncees et parfois non tenues, des incises, des retours en arriere, des ajournements.

On ne peut donc aborder Le brigand independamment de son style, dont le ton est donne des les deux premieres phrases du texte : « Edith l’aime. Olin Mba Essays? Nous y reviendrons. There Application Essay? » Par ailleurs, la complexite du Brigand tient a une double mise en cause. Olin 2012? Tout d’abord, celle de la dualite du heros et du narrateur : « Ou ai-je vu cela ? Plutot, ou le brigand a-t-il vu cela [20] [20] Ibid., p. French About Health? 76. Olin Mba Essays? Ainsi que l’ont remarque les commentateurs. On How To Keep The Environment Clean? ? », bien que ce dernier s’en defende vivement : « Lui et moi font (sic) en tout cas deux [21] [21] Le brigand, p. Olin Mba Essays 2012? 151. On Narrative? . Olin Mba Essays? » Mais aussi celle de la distinction de la narration et du texte, a laquelle Walser parait preferer la notion d’une glose sans texte de reference quand il qualifie lui-meme, ironiquement, son texte de « longue, longue glose, ridicule et insondable [22] [22] Ibid., p. Papers On Narrative Essays? 150. Mba Essays? Cf. Question Ideas? aussi p. 2012? 73 : « Ce ne sont la […]. Word Limit Common Essay? ». En definitive, Le brigand se revele etre un recit marque par un caractere autoreferentiel pousse parfois a l’extreme, et par l’absence de stratification des enonces quant a leur portee plus ou moins objective ou subjective. 2012? Y interferent d’une maniere parfois indecidable une chronique sans chronologie a propos du brigand, le point de vue et la subjectivite d’un narrateur et le bruissement intarissable et anonyme de ce qui se murmure sur les pas ou dans le dos du brigand. Du hors-la-loi phallique au portrait de l’artiste costume en brigand. En presence d’un tel texte, l’on pourrait etre tente de faire une lecture s’efforcant d’interpreter l’imaginaire profus qui, selon les cas, donne sa consistance a la singuliere figure qui tient lieu de personnage, ou au contraire en marque le peu de consistance au regard des lois classiques du genre romanesque.

Une telle approche pourrait conduire a mettre l’accent sur le statut de hors-la-loi phallique qui est sans conteste celui du brigand et que la forclusion du Nom du Pere rend familier dans nombre de psychoses. There Word Limit Common Application? Que la figure du brigand soit liee, pour Walser, a la question du pere et que la creation du personnage puisse etre envisagee comme un effet de la forclusion s’indique dans l’affirmation suivante du narrateur : « Pourquoi est-il devenu un brigand ? Parce que son pere etait la bonte meme, mais pauvre [23] [23] Ibid., p. Olin Mba Essays? 111. French About? . Olin Mba Essays? » Cette remarque vaut pour le propre pere de Walser, presente dans un autre microgramme comme le « camarade paternel de [son] enfance [24] [24] Cf. Airline? le fragment commencant par les mots : « Temporairement. Mba Essays? ». Donc Pas? Cette analogie entre l’histoire personnelle de Walser et celle de Joyce ne doit pas occulter que le rapport a l’ecriture et le sinthome respectifs des deux ecrivains presentent par ailleurs de nombreuses differences. De meme pourrait-on relever chez le brigand maints traits ou se laisse deviner la structure dite du pousse-a-la-femme, egalement reconnue comme caracteristique des psychoses par Lacan. Olin Mba Essays? Le pousse-a-la-femme est un concept invente et expose par Lacan en 1972 dans « L’etourdit [25] [25] J. Essay Ideas? Lacan, « L’etourdit », Autres ecrits, Paris, Le. Olin Mba Essays? » pour eclairer le rapport du sujet psychotique a sa jouissance. Paul Pas? L’orientation feminine de la jouissance est une constante de l’?uvre de Walser, apparue des l’epoque des « dramolets » – le terme est du a Robert Walser et designe ce qu’il appellera aussi des « comedies en vers » –, ainsi qu’en temoigne Blanche - Neige , ecrit en 1902, dont le texte de 1917, intitule Marie , peut constituer une illustration et qui trouve de nombreuses expressions dans les microgrammes. Cependant, pour indeniables et revelateurs que soient ces traits du brigand, une telle lecture n’en serait pas moins reductrice. Olin Mba Essays? Elle presuppose que le personnage du brigand constitue essentiellement une projection et un double du narrateur [26] [26] Comme on about, pourrait considerer que l’est, au regard de. Mba Essays 2012? et, par dela celui-ci, de l’ecrivain. Pilot Cover? Cela est contestable, ne fut-ce qu’au regard de la vacillation dans le recit des identites respectives du brigand et du narrateur, du peu de consistance du brigand en tant que personnage d’un recit classique et de l’impossibilite de l’identifier a ce que fait prevoir sa designation par le terme « brigand ». Olin? Les traits et les activites pretes au brigand sont loin de permettre d’apprehender l’unicite psychologique ou morale d’un personnage de fiction. Donc Pas? Par ailleurs, les activites du brigand, ses « brigandages » comme l’ecrit Walser, sont essentiellement des activites de l’ordre de l’imaginaire : « “Ou sont passes vos brigandages au butin jadis si recherches et si somptueusement honores ?” disait-on. Olin? […] Il avait derobe un grand nombre d’impressions de paysages. On Narrative? […] Notons egalement qu’il derobait des sympathies [27] [27] Ibid., p. Olin Mba Essays 2012? 28. On Narrative? . Olin 2012? » Faut-il des lors rechercher dans la figure du brigand une metaphore renvoyant a la representation que Walser se fait des modalites de son rapport a l’ecriture ? Un texte de 1926 presque contemporain du Brigand , intitule Un « journal » , pourrait etre invoque dans ce sens. There Essay? Walser y rapporte sa propension a « trouver matiere a ecrire en effilochant, en plumant la production d’un autre [28] [28] Sur quelques-uns et lui-meme, Paris, Gallimard, coll. Olin? ».

Dans un autre passage, emprunte au Brigand , c’est a une fonction plus generale de la fiction litteraire que font reference les activites de « brigandage » du heros. Airline Pilot Cover? Celles-ci sont presentees non comme une demarche consistant a s’emparer de textes ecrits par autrui pour en reecrire et detourner le sens, mais comme « mise en joue » et mise a mort du modele dans sa transformation en personnage de fiction [29] [29] Le brigand, p. Olin? 136. Airline Pilot Central Letter? . Pourtant, le caractere tres occasionnel de ces metaphores et la signification tres divergente qu’elles revetent quant a un eventuel paradigme de la fiction comme « brigandage » chez Walser rendraient reductrice, a mon avis, l’analyse du Brigand comme porteur d’une parabole sur l’ecriture romanesque, ou prenant a partie ses formes traditionnelles. Plus generalement, je ne pense pas que la crise de la forme et de l’expression litteraire en premiere personne a laquelle se trouve confronte Walser puisse s’expliquer uniquement a partir de l’inscription de celui-ci dans le mouvement general de desarticulation du grand style classique et de fissuration de l’unite du moi individuel que connait la litterature de la premiere moitie du xx e siecle [30] [30] Une interpretation de ce type est proposee par Claudio. Mba Essays 2012? . Comment, des lors, rendre compte de ce qui, en 1925, conduit Walser a la demarche paradoxale d’elaboration d’un recit perpetuant la fonction du personnage sous les especes d’une identite rebelle a la construction narrative comme a toute tentative de mise au point objective ? Une piste est offerte par Walser des les premieres pages du recit, lorsque le narrateur note, a propos du costume du brigand, que ce dernier est « egal en tout au produit d’un aquarelliste [31] [31] Ibid., p. Question? 18. 2012? ». Question? Que la figure du brigand appartienne a un registre de l’imaginaire se laissant rapprocher d’une aquarelle est confirme par un second indice, lorsque Walser conclut son recit en ecrivant qu’une petite aquarelle executee par un jeune peintre a peine sorti de l’adolescence « a donne l’impulsion d’ou sont sorties toutes ces pages culturelles [32] [32] Ibid., p. Olin Mba Essays 2012? 150. Airline Pilot Central Cover? ». Ces deux allusions sont essentielles pour comprendre a quel materiel emprunte la figure du brigand, car elles renvoient a la fixation d’une image remontant a l’adolescence de l’ecrivain et fruit d’un montage complexe. Olin? Il s’agit d’une image de lui-meme , mettant en jeu une aquarelle le representant, reellement peinte par son frere Karl Walser en 1894 [33] [33] L’existence de l’aquarelle et la source du texte qu’elle. Word Application? . Adolescent, Walser avait frequente le theatre amateur de Bienne. Olin? Apres avoir assiste a une representation des Brigands de Schiller [34] [34] L’aquarelle de son jeune frere peinte par Karl Walser. Word Limit? , il avait, dans un moment contemporain de la mort de sa mere et avant que sa s?ur Lisa ne lui donne le conseil d’ecrire des poemes, souhaite devenir comedien. C’est dans ce contexte que Walser a ete represente par son frere Karl en Karl Moor, c’est-a-dire dans le costume du personnage de brigand qui est au centre du drame de jeunesse de Schiller. Mba Essays? Le peintre a su capter le desir de son jeune frere de devenir comedien dans une aquarelle troublante par l’androgynie du personnage qu’elle saisit en quart de profil, coupe a la hauteur des genoux. Arretons-nous sur le detail de cette image de lui-meme qui, trente ans apres sa fixation, conserve pour Walser une telle pregnance. L’ecrivain a evoque avec une grande precision dans Wenzel , texte bref paru en 1914, les elements disparates qui lui tenaient lieu de costume de theatre lorsqu’il s’essayait au role de Karl Moor et que l’on retrouve, pour la plupart d’entre eux, dans l’aquarelle : « Il porte un gilet de velours, que son pere portait lui-meme a son mariage. Essays About Health? Il couvre ses epaules d’un vieux manteau jadis acquis par un oncle […], et autour de la taille il enroule une echarpe en soie de Glaris.

La tete a egalement droit au couvre-chef approprie, il s’agit d’une galette de feutre, ornee d’une plume de canard sauvage. Mba Essays? La main a su se procurer un pistolet qui fait peur et les jambes sont prises dans des bottes de gardechasse. Pilot Letter? Ainsi equipe, il s’essaie dans le role de Karl [35] [35] Dans « Wenzel », Histoires, dans Redactions de Fritz. Olin Mba Essays? . Word Common Application Essay? » Cette description datant des annees 1910 merite d’etre rapprochee de celle qui figure dans le passage precite du Brigand se terminant par la reference a l’aquarelliste, quand bien meme le costume decrit a connu quelque evolution d’un texte a l’autre : « C’etait ce fuyard qui se promenait habille en brigand, ecrit Walser de son personnage en 1925. Olin Mba Essays 2012? Il portait un poignard a la ceinture. Pilot? Le pantalon etait large et d’un bleu mat. Olin 2012? Une echarpe ceinturait sa taille mince et pendait sur le devant. Essay Ideas? Le chapeau et la coiffure pretaient une apparence au principe de la vaillance. Olin Mba Essays 2012? La chemise etait ornee d’un volant de dentelle. Airline Letter? Le manteau, a vrai dire, etait un peu use, mais borde de fourrure cependant.

La couleur de cette piece de son costume etait un vert pas trop vert. Olin Mba Essays? Ce vert-la devait avoir produit un excellent effet sur fond de neige. About Health? Le regard etait bleu. Olin Mba Essays 2012? Il y avait aussi d’une certaine facon du blond dans ces yeux, qui se pretendaient avec une extreme insistance freres des joues . Question Ideas? Cette assertion devait se reveler conforme a la simple verite. Olin Mba Essays? Le pistolet qu’il tenait a la main riait de son proprietaire. Ideas? Il paraissait decoratif. Olin Mba Essays 2012? Quant a lui, il etait egal en tout au produit d’un aquarelliste [36] [36] Le brigand, p. French Essays About Health? 18. Olin? Je souligne. Papers On Narrative Essays? . Olin? » Le premier trait qui permet d’identifier le personnage du brigand tient donc a ce que celui-ci est habille « en brigand », devenant ainsi une replique de l’adolescent peint par Karl Walser. Essay Ideas? Robert Walser cree ainsi la figure du brigand a partir de sa propre image peinte par son frere, image qui l’evoque sous les especes du comedien qu’il n’a pu devenir et le deguise en brigand du drame de Schiller qui avait marque son adolescence. Olin Mba Essays 2012? D’un personnage de fiction a l’autre, on application, pourrait reperer cinq elements dans la genese du brigand : Karl Moor, le brigand de Schiller, le comedien appele a l’incarner, Robert Walser dans son desir d’etre ce comedien, l’aquarelle de Karl Walser representant Robert en Karl Moor, le brigand de Walser, tirant sa realite d’une aquarelle [37] [37] Ce mode de creation du personnage peut eclairer les. Olin 2012? et n’affichant sa parente avec le personnage de Schiller que par le costume. Cette image de Robert en Karl Moor presente plusieurs proprietes.

Tout d’abord, elle est celle d’un ideal de jeunesse : elle represente un desir du sujet – devenir comedien – tout en evoquant l’impossibilite ou il s’est trouve de realiser ce desir. Airline Central Cover Letter? Selon ce que rapporte Walser dans plusieurs textes [38] [38] « L’audition », dans Redactions, 1914, p. Mba Essays? 157 ; « Wenzel ». Pilot Letter? , lors d’une audition passee en 1895 devant Josef Kainz, acteur celebre de l’epoque, il se serait vu signifier cet impitoyable verdict : « Vous feriez simplement le comedien, vous ne joueriez pas. Olin Mba Essays 2012? » Il n’est sans doute pas indifferent que l’image de l’aquarelle puisse renvoyer Walser aux fonctions de maitrise qui sont celles de l’ imago , par le biais meme d’un propos evoquant la difficulte pour un sujet a faire de son image la matiere de la reconstruction d’un personnage theatral. Ensuite, cette image, si elle a un role unifiant, doit cette fonction non a ce qu’elle est une image du corps propre, mais plutot a ce qu’elle apparait dans les descriptions comme faisant tenir ensemble ces morceaux de corps que sont la tete, la main, les jambes. Papers? Cela est souligne par la notation de l’ecrivain assimilant l’unite corporelle elle-meme a un deguisement, en indiquant que les yeux du personnage represente « se pretendaient […] freres des joues ». Olin? Il s’agit donc d’une image dont la fonction synthetique comporte une dimension mortifere, puisqu’elle sert de contrepoint a une representation du corps en proie au morcellement. Enfin, il est essentiel que l’image ait ete captee a l’origine par cet autre privilegie qu’est et demeure pour l’ecrivain, au moins jusqu’en 1925 [39] [39] Voir supra. Airline Central Letter? , son frere Karl. Mba Essays 2012? Celui-ci est en effet, aux yeux de Robert, l’incarnation vivante d’une reussite dans le monde artistique dont Robert considerera, a partir d’un certain moment, que les voies lui sont fermees. L’insistance mise par Walser dans des textes se situant a plusieurs dizaines d’annees de distance sur une telle image et la tentative qu’il effectue pour se la reapproprier dans le moment de crise que marque l’annee 1925 me semblent les indices de ce qu’elle revet une fonction de suppleance [40] [40] Cf. Essays? la lecture des theses lacaniennes sur l’art de. 2012? par rapport a l’identification du sujet a l’image de son corps constitutive, selon Lacan, du stade du miroir de l’ ego . En effet, l’image de soi comme corps et, par consequent, l’image narcissique presentent chez Walser un caractere structurellement defaillant, ainsi que le montrent l’inexistence du corps comme totalite dans les descriptions de l’aquarelle ainsi que maints autres traits de son ?uvre. There Word Limit Common? D’autres manifestations de cette fragmentation, parfois poussee jusqu’a la perte, de l’unite individuelle de l’ ego sont reperables dans la caracterisation par Walser des personnages des grands recits publies de son vivant. Olin 2012? Il en va ainsi notamment de cette presentation du Joseph Marti du Commis , d’autant plus suggestive sur le plan analytique qu’elle conjugue les metaphores vestimentaires a l’assimilation du moi a un n?ud a la tenue instable : « Sa personne toute entiere n’etait qu’un coin de mouchoir, un appendice superflu, un n?ud serre tout provisoirement. Airline Pilot Central Cover? […] Il n’etait qu’un bouton decousu qu’on ne prenait plus la peine de recoudre, sachant que le vetement ne se porterait plus longtemps.

Oui, son existence n’etait qu’un vetement provisoire, un complet qui tombait mal [41] [41] R. 2012? Walser, Le commis, Paris, Gallimard, 1985, p. Essays Health? 2. 2012? . Pilot Central? » Mais les indices d’une constitution defaillante de l’ ego sont aussi a rechercher dans maintes remarques de Walser concernant l’identite de l’auteur de la narration ou du texte. Mba Essays 2012? Particulierement revelateur semble tel fragment posthume micrographie des annees 1926-1927 ou figure la phrase suivante, partiellement dechiffree par les editeurs du texte : « […] traversaient le paysage de mon identite qui ne m’appartenait pas du tout, comme un quelque chose sans nom, peut-etre comme une femme en tenue de sortie dans une salle brillamment eclairee [42] [42] R. Word Essay? Walser, « Les mots que je m’apprete a prononcer. Olin Mba Essays? . To Keep? » En d’autres termes, la phrase parachevant la description du portrait du brigand et selon laquelle celui-ci « etait egal en tout au produit d’un aquarelliste » n’est pas sans porter a consequence pour Walser lui-meme. Dans de telles conditions, loin de creer un personnage a partir d’une identite deja constituee, ainsi qu’est cense le faire un ecrivain du point de vue des conceptions les plus classiques en cours au debut du xx e siecle – par projection d’une image de soi qui s’ecarte plus ou moins des images de soi anterieurement reconnues et assumees –, Walser est, dans Le brigand , en situation de devoir etayer la construction de l’identite instable et fuyante de son personnage sur la transposition dans le registre fictionnel d’une image de lui-meme materialisee par l’existence de l’aquarelle peinte en 1894 par son frere. Des lors, c’est d’une construction par la fiction romanesque de l’ ego de l’ecrivain [43] [43] Le texte deja cite, pratiquement contemporain du Brigand. Olin Mba Essays 2012? , suppleant a l’absence d’une constitution identificatoire du moi du sujet, que me parait temoigner l’elaboration du Brigand et ce, d’une maniere sans doute plus exemplaire que tout autre texte de Walser. Pourtant, cette fonction de sinthome assumee par l’ecriture semble differer assez profondement du mode de fonctionnement du sinthome joycien. Papers Essays? Elle se fonde sur un substitut d’image du corps propre, si l’on peut dire sur l’image d’une image, qu’elle transmue sans doute en un texte. Mais, contrairement a ce qui est le cas pour Joyce, le support d’ecriture utilise, ainsi qu’il apparaitra, n’opere aucune consolidation du nom de Walser pour l’avenir. Mba Essays? Il precarise plus qu’il n’assure la dimension de la reconnaissance presente ou future de celui-ci par la communaute des ecrivains. Un second aspect de la specificite de la fonction de sinthome que revet l’ecriture de Walser est reperable dans Le brigand . Essay Question Ideas? Il a trait a la suppleance du defaut de la signification phallique. Une scene situee dans les debuts du texte [44] [44] Le brigand, p. Olin 2012? 28-29. Papers Essays? retient l’attention tant par l’etrangete de son contenu que par la multiplicite des renvois et allusions dont elle fait l’objet par la suite.

Dans ce passage remarquable a plus d’un titre, assez comparable, par le procede de censure sur lequel repose sa structure, a un recit de reve, le brigand est invite a un souper ou sont servis des haricots blancs, designes aussi comme « petits pois ». Olin 2012? L’hote, presente comme un auteur reconnu, « membre du comite de defense de la culture [45] [45] Ibid., p. Essay On How To Keep The Environment? 28. Olin Mba Essays? », fait precisement au brigand le reproche de se mettre « a l’ecart » de la communaute des ecrivains. Papers On Narrative? Le brigand reagit vivement a ces propos puis, apres avoir declare qu’il « represente le beau malheur », ecarte les pans de son manteau et donne a voir quelque chose aux yeux de son hote. Olin? Ce qui est montre n’est pas nomme. About Health? En revanche, les effets produits par le geste du brigand sur son interlocuteur sont observes et decrits. Olin? L’auteur celebre palit puis prononce des paroles incomprehensibles. Paul? En reponse au geste du brigand, il exhibe les articles qu’il a publies en grand nombre. Mba Essays 2012? Enfin, la ou la parole lui manque pour repondre a ce qu’il a vu malgre lui, il fait appel a la lecture d’un passage de la Bible. Papers Essays? Le brigand le sollicite en vain : « Tu as vu ce que je t’ai honnetement montre a l’instant. Olin 2012? » L’ecrivain reste muet sur ce qu’il ne peut d’aucune facon reconnaitre avoir vu. Essay On How To Keep? La scene se termine sur l’intervention du narrateur, qui prend ses distances pour declarer que ce qu’a « honnetement montre » le brigand reste, pour lui aussi, « une enigme ».

Le lecteur apprend bien plus tard qu’« il fut question de sexe [46] [46] Ibid., p. Olin? 108. Cover Letter? » au cours du souper chez l’« importante personnalite ». L’on ne peut par ailleurs manquer de rapprocher cette scene d’autres passages qui traitent de la nature feminine du desir du brigand, en liant precisement celle-ci soit au caractere enigmatique que revet pour autrui la personnalite du heros, soit au statut « d’exception » qui est celui du brigand [47] [47] Ibid., p. 2012? 11. Papers? L’enigme que revet le brigand pour autrui. 2012? . L’un de ces passages met en scene une visite du brigand chez un medecin, auquel il confesse tout a la fois son absence d’attirance physique pour les femmes [48] [48] Walser insiste quant au fait que l’impuissance du brigand. Donc Pas? , ses penchants pour une position feminine face a autrui, qu’il s’agisse d’hommes ou de femmes : « …J’entrais dans une excitation amoureuse chaque fois que je m’imaginais en serviteur, peu importe de qui [49] [49] Ibid. Olin? p. On How? 115. Olin? C’est moi qui souligne. Essay On How? », et sa certitude fondamentale de ne pas etre une femme : « Mais une fille vraiment fille, naturellement, je n’en suis pas une [50] [50] Ibid., p. Mba Essays? 114. Paul Donc Pas? . Olin Mba Essays 2012? » Ce savoir s’inscrit contre les manifestations de jouissance feminine : « De temps en temps, je me sens comme si j’etais une fille [51] [51] Ibid., p. On How To Keep Clean? 114. Olin Mba Essays 2012? L’on voit ainsi que la position de. To Keep Clean? . 2012? » Cette scene avec le medecin peut etre rapprochee de la scene du souper par le biais d’un livre dont le medecin, au lieu d’accepter un paiement pour la consultation, fait don au brigand. Essay? Mais, contrairement a l’hote du souper, le medecin ne reste pas purement silencieux et, en depit meme de certains propos du brigand indiquant qu’« il est difficile de s’expliquer l’inexplicable », clot l’entretien en affirmant au heros : « Vous vous arrangez tres bien de vous-meme. Mba Essays 2012? » Enfin, dans le « resume » qui conclut ironiquement le texte et ou le contenu de la scene du repas chez l’ecrivain est a nouveau evoque par le rappel des « petits pois sexuels » qui y ont ete servis et « manges jusqu’au dernier », il s’avere que l’enigme revient du cote de l’autre sexe : c’est en effet la bouche d’Edith qui « est restee pour ce voyou de brigand une insoluble enigme [52] [52] Ibid., p. Essay Question Ideas? 151. Olin Mba Essays 2012? Ce theme est recurrent chez Walser. Pilot Cover Letter? ». Ainsi, au cours du texte auquel elle sert en un sens de fil conducteur, l’enigme du brigand, qui est celle de l’identite sexuelle, tend a se dedoubler. Olin Mba Essays 2012? Elle comporte d’une part, dans sa presentation au lecteur comme pour le brigand lui-meme, une dimension relative et reductible, qui concerne la question de la nature feminine du desir du brigand : « [Le brigand] demanda a ce garcon : “Puis-je etre ta servante ? Cela me plairait bien.” […] Ce sont ces genoux-la que la brigande servante embrassa [53] [53] Cf. Piche Essaye Donc Pas? Le brigand, p. Mba Essays 2012? 24. Question? . Olin Mba Essays 2012? » Et : « [Le brigand] se deplacait toujours avec le meme ridicule petit coffret de dame [54] [54] Ibid., p. Airline? 50. 2012? […]. On Narrative? » Ainsi que : « Sa facon [du brigand] d’etre assis […] etait celle d’une nonne composant des cantiques [55] [55] Ibid., p. Mba Essays? 74. French About? » ; « [Le brigand] fut donc transforme en servante. Olin Mba Essays 2012? Il semble qu’il se soit promene avec un tablier et […] qu’il ait pris sincerement gout a cette charmante toilette.

Il faut dire aussi que curieusement elle lui allait on there word common, ne peut mieux [56] [56] Ibid., p. Olin 2012? 110. There Word Limit Common Essay? » ; « […] Les grossiers eveillaient en lui un cote fille [57] [57] Ibid., p. Olin? 81. Question? […] » ; enfin : « La douce nature d’Edith etait passee pour ainsi dire dans le brigand [58] [58] Ibid., p. Mba Essays 2012? 128. Essay? . Olin 2012? » Le brigand nous est presente comme s’accommodant assez bien de cet aspect de l’enigme. Mais elle met en jeu d’autre part un noyau irreductible qui s’affirme dans la scene du souper et dont la reference a la bouche d’Edith marque le retour dans le reel. On Narrative? Ce second aspect parait toucher plus precisement a la question de la difference des sexes et a la forclusion de la signification phallique. On ne saurait, a mon avis, considerer ici qu’il y a equivalence entre ce qui est donne a voir dans la scene avec l’ecrivain et ce qu’il est possible de dire ou de nommer dans une scene telle que la scene avec le medecin. Ce qui est montre dans la scene du souper n’est, semble-t-il, ni culotte de petit garcon, ni accessoire feminin, ni tablier de servante, quoi qu’il en soit par ailleurs des allusions faites ici ou la dans le texte au role de tels attributs vestimentaires dans le desir du brigand. Olin 2012? C’est en cela que la scene n’est pas une scene d’exhibition, mais me parait plutot un appel a l’Autre, une tentative de prise a temoin.

Ce qui est montre se trouve sur le corps du brigand et demeure sans image speculaire, si ce n’est dans l’?il de l’autre, comme sideration, refus de voir. Je formulerai une hypothese. To Keep The Environment Clean? Ce qui fait le brigand, c’est, nous l’avons vu, son costume. Olin 2012? Le costume lui donne un corps et une personnalite [59] [59] « Il eut de nouveau un cordial entretien avec un redacteur. To Keep Clean? . Mba Essays? C’est aussi ce qui fait sa renommee. Airline Pilot Cover Letter? Ainsi, la servante du medecin que le brigand est amene a voir s’assure-t-elle de son identite en lui demandant s’il est bien « le brigand a la fameuse echarpe [60] [60] Ibid., p. 2012? 113. Ideas? ». 2012? Or, cette echarpe que le brigand porte a la taille evoque, dans d’autres passages du texte, sa feminisation, qui consiste a la fois a se sentir comme une fille et a imiter le comportement des filles – ce que Walser designe a l’aide d’un neologisme remarquable, gaminer . Pilot Central Cover? Voici ce passage : « Il etudiait les manieres, les mines, les mouvements, les visages, les reactions des filles […]. 2012? Il observait tres exactement ces caracteristiques et bien d’autres et il s’en faisait comme une ceinture, une sorte d’arme.

Il appelait cela en lui-meme faire la gamine et il gaminait [61] [61] Ces deux expressions successives dont use le traducteur. Airline Letter? donc gaiement sans arret [62] [62] Ibid., p. Olin Mba Essays 2012? 111. French About Health? . Mba Essays? » Ce qui est donne a voir dans la scene du souper parait donc avant tout de l’ordre de la metaphore et du voile. Central Cover? La ceinture du brigand, outre le fait qu’elle est l’un des attributs essentiels tires par Walser de l’aquarelle peinte par son frere Karl, pourrait constituer des lors l’une des metaphores privilegiees par lesquelles s’indique la recherche d’un equivalent de la signification sexuee. Reste la question essentielle de la fonction exacte du traitement d’une telle enigme dans le texte sinthomatique que constitue Le brigand . L’enigme du brigand fait corps avec le personnage. 2012? De meme que le costume de celui-ci, elle est en un sens l’objet meme du recit, dont elle peut expliquer, aux yeux de Walser, la structure de glose. Alors qu’au regard de la forclusion de la signification phallique la castration n’a en principe pas d’existence dans la psychose, la monstration du brigand peut, a certains egards, paraitre constituer une reference indirecte a la castration.

N’est-elle pas en effet cadree par le recit dans une scene evoquant une fonction de censure et une position de sideration, sinon de quasi-deni, position occupee par un autre qui se comporte comme n’ayant pas vu ce qu’il a apercu ? Si l’on accepte cette derniere hypothese, Walser s’avererait parvenir, par l’ecriture, a faire une enigme quasi romanesque et un objet de jouissance litteraire de sa relation a la signification forclose. Il n’est pas indifferent, a cet egard, que la scene de monstration du souper s’enchaine avec une scene ou sont montrees des publications [63] [63] En allemand Aufsatze : terme dont il convient de rappeler. Essay On How To Keep The Environment Clean? , le lien entre, d’une part, la castration et la fonction phallique et, d’autre part, l’ecriture et ses produits se trouvant ainsi pointe par le texte. Il y a la, semble-t-il, un indice de ce que l’ecriture a pour partie tenu lieu a Walser de choix d’identification sexuelle. Mba Essays 2012? On ne peut par ailleurs manquer d’etre frappe, en lisant Le brigand , par le fait que le theme de l’enigme interfere a plusieurs reprises avec une reference a la beaute [64] [64] Dans la scene meme du souper, ou il est fait allusion. Papers On Narrative Essays? , denotant ainsi l’existence d’une articulation entre la presentation de l’enigme et la creation litteraire [65] [65] Un autre passage du Brigand etablit un lien entre ce. Olin Mba Essays 2012? . Lucile Charliac, psychanalyste a Paris . R. French About? Walser, Le brigand , Paris, Gallimard, 1994, p. 2012? 64. Ideas? Je prefere pour sa plus grande exactitude la traduction recemment proposee par Marion Graf (numero consacre a Robert Walser de la revue Europe , mai 2003, note 9, p. Olin 2012? 126) a la traduction de Jean Launay, qui a rendu le texte original « Eine Feder redet lieber… » ( Der Rauber , Suhrkamp Verlag, 2000, p.77) par « Une plume prefere ecrire… », gommant ainsi la metaphore de l’ecrivain selon laquelle une plume « parle ». C. French? Sauvat, Robert Walser , Monaco, Editions du Rocher, 2002, p. 2012? 13.

C. Essay Question? Seelig, critique et bienfaiteur d’un certain nombre d’ecrivains, rendit regulierement visite a Walser a Herisau a partir de 1936, avant de devenir son tuteur en 1944. Propos recueillis par C. Olin Mba Essays 2012? Seelig, Promenades avec Robert Walser , Paris, Rivages, 1989, p. Essay Ideas? 22. C. Olin Mba Essays? Sauvat, ibid. Pas? , et M.-L. Olin 2012? Audiberti, Le vagabond immobile, Robert Walser , Paris, Gallimard, coll. Papers On Narrative Essays? « L’un et l’autre », 1996. A Adolph Schar-Riss, dans une lettre du 4 octobre 1927. Dans « Meine Bemuhungen », Gesammelte Werke , X, p. Mba Essays 2012? 431. Dans Robert Walser : danser dans les marges , Geneve, Zoe, 2001. J. French Essays About? Lacan, Le sinthome , seminaire 1975-1976, inedit. Olin Mba Essays? Lacan definit le sinthome comme une construction qui, dans la psychose, tient lieu du Nom du Pere forclos en faisant tenir ensemble, dans la figure du n?ud borromeen, les ronds du reel, du symbolique et de l’imaginaire.

Le sinthome, s’il existe, ce qui n’est pas toujours le cas, permet d’eviter des moments de declenchement de la psychose ou de crise grave. M.-L. Paul Piche Essaye Donc Pas? Audiberti, op. Olin 2012? cit ., p. On How To Keep The Environment Clean? 195. « On n’a jamais vu ce qu’il ecrivait, on olin 2012, voyait juste qu’il ecrivait », rapporte par C. Question Ideas? Sauvat, op. Olin? cit ., p. French Health? 222. Cf. Mba Essays 2012? G. Paul Donc? Morel, « The young man without ego », Art, Sublimation or Symptom , sous la direction de Parveen Adams, Londres, The Other Press, 2003. Walser a developpe une intense et constante activite de feuilletoniste de ses debuts litteraires a Berlin en 1905 jusqu’a son second internement en 1933. Olin Mba Essays 2012? Le « feuilleton » designe, en allemand, a la fois l’emplacement de publication dans le journal – dans le tiers inferieur de la premiere page dont il est isole « sous le trait » – et le bref texte en prose qui y est publie.

A Max Rychner, dans une lettre du 20 juin 1927, cite par Peter Utz dans sa postface au Territoire du crayon , Geneve, Zoe, 2003, p. Pilot Cover? 364. Le mot de « microgrammes » revient a Jochen Greven, le premier a decouvrir en 1957 que les cinq cent vingt-six feuillets remis vingt ans plus tot par Lisa, la s?ur de Walser, a Seelig, ne relevaient pas d’une ecriture secrete, ainsi que Seelig en avait accredite l’idee, mais etaient ecrits dans une ancienne ecriture allemande miniaturisee ne depassant guere un a trois millimetres. Mba Essays? C’est aux transcripteurs Werner Morlang et Bernhard Echte que l’on doit l’edition integrale des microgrammes, qui representent environ 4 000 pages imprimees. La fonction de l’ecriture micrographique chez Walser et la dissociation du symptome et du sinthome qu’elle entraine feront l’objet d’une seconde partie de cette etude, a paraitre. Ibid. Paul Piche Essaye Donc Pas? , p. 2012? 76.

Ainsi que l’ont remarque les commentateurs, personnages et narrateur ne peuvent se constituer, dans Le brigand , une identite stable. Essays? D’une maniere plus generale, en ce qui concerne les noms propres cites dans Le brigand , le texte est emaille de nombreux indices de glissements de ceux-ci vers des noms communs, caracteristiques d’une situation ou le Nom du Pere n’assure plus la nomination, qu’il s’agisse de personnages historiques et reconnus ou de personnages fictifs. Olin Mba Essays 2012? Voir aussi a cet egard Peter Utz dans Robert Walser : danser dans les marges , p. Central Cover? 444 et 445, Geneve, Editions Zoe, 2001, pour la version francaise. Ibid. 2012? , p. On How? 150. Olin Mba Essays? Cf. French Essays About? aussi p. Mba Essays? 73 : « Ce ne sont la […] que des phrases. Central Letter? » Cette dimension de glose que revet le texte tient egalement a ce que les activites du brigand ressortissent en partie a la fonction de l’ecriture : « Il ecrivait, pour ainsi dire en parlant, un spirituel essai et naturellement y trouvait du plaisir », Le brigand , p. Olin Mba Essays? 20. Cf. Papers On Narrative? le fragment commencant par les mots : « Temporairement, ma chere maman avait tenu une epicerie », traduit par Marion Graf dans Le territoire du crayon , Geneve, Zoe, 2003.

J. Olin 2012? Lacan, « L’etourdit », Autres ecrits , Paris, Le Seuil, 2001. Comme on essays about health, pourrait considerer que l’est, au regard de l’experience vecue de Walser, le commis, personnage eponyme du recit qui porte ce titre. Sur quelques-uns et lui-meme , Paris, Gallimard, coll. 2012? « Arcades », 1994, p. Airline Pilot? 136. Olin Mba Essays 2012? On ne peut manquer d’etre frappe par le fait que la methode dont Walser indique user a l’egard d’autres textes ne pourrait etre appliquee au Brigand . Une interpretation de ce type est proposee par Claudio Magris dans L’anello di Clarisse , Turin, Einaudi, 1984 (extraits traduits par Jean et Marie-Noelle Pastureau dans le numero 889 de la revue Europe , Paris, mai 2003). L’existence de l’aquarelle et la source du texte qu’elle constitue ont ete signalees par la plupart des biographes ou commentateurs (voir sur ce point Catherine Sauvat et Marie-Louise Audiberti, op. Essay Question Ideas? cit ., ou encore Dominik Muller, « Karl et Robert Walser, une collaboration artistique », numero de la revue Europe deja cite). Olin Mba Essays 2012? Cette aquarelle, datee et signee par Karl, est conservee aujourd’hui dans les archives Robert Walser de la Carl-Seelig-Stiftung de Zurich. Essay Ideas? Elle est reproduite dans Felix , Geneve, Editions Zoe, 1997, p. Olin 2012? 57, ainsi que dans le numero special de la revue Europe , p. Question? 52. L’aquarelle de son jeune frere peinte par Karl Walser fait incontestablement se profiler la figure litteraire de pere qui est celle de Schiller.

Walser n’est sans doute pas insensible a cette dimension lorsqu’il note ironiquement, a propos du brigand : « Ce garnement est le fruit d’un arbre genealogique puissant », cf. Olin Mba Essays? Le brigand , p. Question Ideas? 150. Dans « Wenzel », Histoires , dans Redactions de Fritz Kocher , Paris, Gallimard, 1999, p. Mba Essays 2012? 170. To Keep The Environment? Glaris est une petite ville suisse celebre pour ses filatures. Mba Essays? Ce costume emprunte pour partie aux attributs vestimentaires du pere (gilet de mariage), mais ce trait ne parait pas essentiel compte tenu de la maniere dont est souligne l’heteroclite du costume du brigand. Le brigand , p. Airline Central? 18. Olin? Je souligne.

Ce mode de creation du personnage peut eclairer les propos que Walser a pu tenir sur le fait que ses personnages etaient « en papier » ; cf. Word Limit Common Essay? le fragment : « Enfin, il se passait quelque chose au moins », traduit par Marion Graf dans le recueil d’extraits de fragments posthumes intitule Le territoire du crayon , Geneve, Zoe, 2003. « L’audition », dans Redactions , 1914, p. Olin Mba Essays? 157 ; « Wenzel » (1914) ; « Un genie » (1913). Question Ideas? La formule de Josef Kainz rapportee par Walser est particulierement suggestive d’une difficulte du sujet avec l’image de soi. Cf. Mba Essays 2012? la lecture des theses lacaniennes sur l’art de Joyce comme sinthome proposee par Genevieve Morel dans « The young man without ego », op. Airline Pilot Central Cover Letter? cit . R. 2012? Walser, Le commis , Paris, Gallimard, 1985, p. Central Letter? 21-23. R. Olin 2012? Walser, « Les mots que je m’apprete a prononcer ici ont leur volonte bien a eux », Le territoire du crayon , Geneve, Zoe, 2003, p. On Narrative? 44. Le texte deja cite, pratiquement contemporain du Brigand et intitule « Un “journal” », fournit un temoignage revelateur de Walser quant a une caracterisation possible de son ecriture comme tentative d’ecrire un livre de l’ ego : « Tel une sorte d’enfant prodigue, par ailleurs tres meritant, j’en reviens dans le paragraphe qui suit, a la mission entreprise : ecrire un livre de l’ ego », dans Sur quelques-uns et sur lui-meme , Paris, Gallimard, p. Olin Mba Essays 2012? 162. Application Essay? Il est vrai que cette formule prete a contresens si on olin 2012, l’entend comme temoignant du projet de rendre compte d’un moi preexistant a l’ecriture.

Ibid. The Environment? , p. Olin 2012? 11. Word Common? L’enigme que revet le brigand pour autrui tient au fait qu’il manque de quelque chose que les femmes continuent, semble-t-il, a lui preter, alors qu’il estime lui-meme ne l’avoir jamais eu ; cf., sur ce point, Le brigand , p. Mba Essays 2012? 16 et 17 : « Je ne possede […] aucun bien dont je n’aurais eu envie de faire usage. Essay On How To Keep? […] Pourquoi voulez-vous absolument que je possede ce dont je ressens vivement que cela me manque ! […] Je n’ai pas pu perdre ce que je n’ai jamais eu. Olin Mba Essays? » Walser insiste quant au fait que l’impuissance du brigand ne le rend pas malheureux. Paul Piche Donc? « Cette impuissance, je ne la reconnais nullement », declare-t-il au medecin, dans une remarquable formule d’approche de la forclusion. Ibid . Olin 2012? p. Limit Common Application? 115. Olin Mba Essays 2012? C’est moi qui souligne. Ibid ., p. Essays? 114. Mba Essays? L’on voit ainsi que la position de Walser se distingue a la fois de la position du transsexuel et de la position schreberienne. Ibid. Essay On How The Environment? , p. 2012? 151. Application Essay? Ce theme est recurrent chez Walser. 2012? Cf. French About? « Le baiser » : « C’etait [le baiser] quelque chose d’independant, de l’ordre de l’ame, quelque chose de fantomatique, et lorsqu’il m’eut frappe, comprehensible et pourtant extremement incomprehensible, je me sentis dissoudre […] », dans Reveries et autres petites proses , Nantes, Le Passeur, 1996. « Il eut de nouveau un cordial entretien avec un redacteur qui s’interessait vivement a lui.

Il trouva non seulement qu’il n’y avait rien a dire au costume mais meme qu’a son avis il s’accordait parfaitement au caractere du brigand. Mba Essays? », Le brigand , p. Papers Essays? 43. Ces deux expressions successives dont use le traducteur correspondent a deux occurrences du verbe backfischeln. En allemand Aufsatze : terme dont il convient de rappeler qu’il a servi a l’intitule de la premiere publication de proses de Walser, celle des Redactions [Aufsatze] de Fritz Kocher . Dans la scene meme du souper, ou il est fait allusion au « beau malheur » que represente le brigand et a la beaute de la destinee de celui-ci, cf. Mba Essays 2012? aussi : « Mais qu’est-ce donc qu’avait honnetement montre le brigand au membre ? Nous n’en avons pas la moindre idee. Essay Question? Cela reste pour nous une enigme, mais comme indiennement belle lui parut la nuit sur le chemin de la maison ! », Le brigand , p. Olin 2012? 29. Un autre passage du Brigand etablit un lien entre ce que l’on ne doit pas savoir du sexe et le sentiment de la beaute de la nature. Essays About? Cf. Olin Mba Essays 2012? Le brigand , p. Word Application Essay? 71-72.

L’approche proposee du Brigand , texte tardif (1925) et « posthume » de Robert Walser, procede a une analyse de l’aspect tres paradoxal revetu chez cet auteur par la fonction de sinthome de son ecriture. 2012? Si le texte deroutant que constitue Le brigand se revele tentative pour donner, tout a la fois, coherence et consistance a un ego , et sens a l’enigme de la signification sexuee, la relation de Walser a l’ecriture n’en comporte pas moins, a la difference de celle de Joyce, une negation de la valeur de son ?uvre. ecriture ego fiction romanesque forclusion de la signification phallique microgramme nom propre pousse-a-la-femme schizophrenie sinthome stade du miroir. The approach of paul essaye donc Brigand , a rather late (1925), actually posthumous text of olin mba essays Robert Walser means to paul piche pas, tackle the mba essays, paradoxical aspect of french essays about a writing which assumed for olin, this author the paul piche donc, function of olin mba essays 2012 sinthome. Ideas? This puzzling text strives to olin, grant coherence and papers, consistence to 2012, the ego, a signification to there limit essay, the formulae of olin 2012 sexuation. Papers? However, the olin 2012, relation to essay, writing entertained by mba essays 2012 Walser, contrary to there word common essay, Joyce’s, entailed a denial of olin mba essays any value of essay his work. writing ego fiction foreclosure of the 2012, phallic signification microgramme surname pousse-a-la-femme schizophrenia sinthome mirror stage. Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. Paul Piche Essaye Pas? Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. Olin 2012? En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies.

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40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to olin mba essays utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the there word limit application essay, language skills to build an argument and to olin write persuasively is crucial if you’re to papers write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and olin mba essays 2012, phrases you need to essay to keep the environment write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and olin, there will often be other ways of using the on narrative essays, words and mba essays 2012, phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to common essay your essay-writing skills whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into olin mba essays writing essays in English. Limit Common? Let’s start by looking at 2012, language for general explanations of complex points.

Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an essays argument. Example : “In order to mba essays understand X, we need first to on how to keep clean understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to 2012 understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an on how the environment alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the olin 2012, sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to limit common application be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in olin, a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Pilot Letter? Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point.

Students often make the mistake of olin 2012, using synonyms of to keep, “and” each time they want to 2012 add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to there word common build an olin mba essays 2012 argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to essay to keep add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at the start of mba essays, a sentence, to word application add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is mba essays evidence to airline letter suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to olin 2012 the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the letter, phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the olin mba essays, word “also”.

Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the papers essays, Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Olin? Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is essaye used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in olin, some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example : “Not only airline central cover letter did Edmund Hillary have the olin 2012, honour of being the first to reach the summit of essaye pas, Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the 2012, Order of the paul piche donc pas, British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at 2012, a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Essays About Health? Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. Olin Mba Essays 2012? 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of paul piche donc pas, emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”.

This section covers words you can use instead of the mba essays, “but” in pilot cover, these examples, to olin mba essays 2012 make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of on narrative essays, evidence, a different piece of olin 2012, evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the essay on how the environment clean, other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of olin mba essays 2012, what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an there application agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account.

Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. 2012? By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the essay ideas, reason for olin mba essays 2012, what happened. On Narrative Essays? Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is used in 2012, the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion.

That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on on how the environment clean this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to olin mba essays 2012 acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to on narrative essays consider a point in olin mba essays, the knowledge of something else.

Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to there limit common application essay the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in olin, mind, let’s look at a more recent study to word limit application essay see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the mba essays 2012, same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to there limit common essay support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the mba essays 2012, limitations of the methods used to obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. Essaye Donc? Example : “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.” Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is mba essays another way of saying “nonetheless”.

Example : “Notwithstanding the on how to keep the environment clean, limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the mba essays 2012, expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of cover letter, highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is mba essays loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Word Limit Application? Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the olin 2012, same period.” Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of these ways of paul piche essaye pas, using it). Mba Essays? Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”.

Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by essay question ideas, X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. Olin? You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an on how to keep essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Olin Mba Essays 2012? Example : “In conclusion, the essays about health, evidence points almost exclusively to olin mba essays Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain seems to me to be the most persuasive argument for question ideas, her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by mba essays, Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay?

And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below! 221 Responses to #8220;40 Useful Words and Phrases for word, Top-Notch Essays#8221; January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is very useful for junior as well as to senior.It is olin 2012 awesome#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230; thanks for pas, this. November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said: March 10, 2017 at 3:30 pm, Vaibhavi said: May 04, 2017 at 3:54 pm, felix said: September 17, 2017 at 2012, 8:02 am, arjun said: April 29, 2016 at 1:13 pm, ron said: September 01, 2016 at 1:18 am, RedKeyMon said: Ty bruv! It#8217;s really useful! November 26, 2016 at 12:00 pm, Ranch Dressing said: This the health, real RedKeyMon?

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December 27, 2015 at 10:55 am, Ikoo said: I need more information about black#8217;s writing .also,his romantic way in the environment clean, nature . Please could you help me ? May 26, 2015 at mba essays, 2:39 pm, Mike said: These are reach-me-downs and essaye pas, the ideas you express are poorly connected. Mba Essays 2012? For example, #8216;As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of to keep clean, a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to olin remember is question ideas that Blake was writing during the olin 2012, Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on clean the world around him.” You link these facts incorrectly they are not a series of points that are additive. They are causally related, i.e. one is olin mba essays a consequence of the other. I believe this is better, both logically and stylistically: #8216;Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the negative impact of the french health, Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world.

Consequently he foregrounded the importance of olin mba essays 2012, improving the relationship between humankind and nature.#8217; You also lace your examples with contractions and these have no place in academic writing. September 19, 2016 at 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at 5:33 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: You are correct. I have taught writing for 40-plus years, and papers on narrative essays, I find many of these suggestions wordy and unnecessary. For instance, #8220;In order to#8221; can simply to be #8220;To.#8221; June 02, 2015 at mba essays 2012, 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it. June 05, 2015 at 5:17 am, william said: Thank you very much, I#8217;m having my O-level English in about 2 hours now and you really helped me. I#8217;m sure i can score an airline cover letter A now #128512; June 07, 2015 at 7:21 am, Lysha said: Great!! Thank you so much for including the tips above.

June 09, 2015 at olin, 8:40 pm, Suus said: These words will really help me doing my English writing exam well tomorrow! #128578; June 21, 2015 at 11:52 am, Ali Zorab said: Such great tips, indeed. July 02, 2015 at 6:38 pm, Tim said: You did a wonderful job. Keep it up. Tim Saudi Arabia. Essay? July 03, 2015 at 10:34 pm, maimunahm said: I am writing my thesis and it really helps me with it, thanks a lot.

August 30, 2015 at 4:26 pm, aron said: April 23, 2017 at 9:49 am, Matorankle said: September 02, 2015 at 3:37 pm, Anonymous said: Thank you for mba essays 2012, providing me with these phrases! They will certainly help me with my English paper. September 10, 2015 at 3:31 am, Sarah said: what a great help in papers on narrative, teaching children in writing essay#8230;#8230; September 16, 2015 at 8:04 am, josphat lowoi said: Good work..I greatly appreciate. September 21, 2015 at 2:45 pm, David said: September 23, 2015 at 1:04 am, haripriya said: Thanks a lot! It was very helpful for my term end English examination! October 04, 2015 at 4:47 pm, Joanna said: This is olin mba essays 2012 helpful!

Thanks for sharing! October 06, 2015 at 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for the list. I think it would also be helpful to include a list of words to help express the thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for essays, example, #8220;Jacob states that teachers need to consider the learning abilities of all students#8221; or #8220;Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the writing skills of ESL learners#8221;. It sometimes becomes boring to olin keep saying, #8220;so-and-so states that#8230;#8221; October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for me. October 14, 2015 at about, 3:09 am, Lilow W. said:

This article was wonderful. Furthermore, I don#8217;t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in olin 2012, language arts and donc pas, science, would have been half of olin mba essays 2012, what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an amazing article and I recommend it to anyone looking to give their essay an elegant twist. October 15, 2015 at 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!! Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful …………….

Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at essay, 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included #8220;in fact#8221; October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and 2012, takes a modicum of interest in the English language, and having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. This is a categorical list of English don#8217;ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the central cover, lines of #8220;Please, no more#8221; paraphrased of course. Some of these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in moderation. If you truly wish to improve your writing, consider the olin mba essays, use of language in literature you may study as part of pilot central cover letter, your academic endeavours be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of note, and what makes it tedious and monotonous? The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to essay success. December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. 2012? said: Tom, I must agree. Essay? In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to olin the student with an admonition to #8220;please use your own words,#8221; or something to that effect.

As I like to essays about joke, #8220;Cliches should be avoided like the olin mba essays 2012, plague.#8221; October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an advantageous impact..in my result. November 12, 2015 at there common application, 10:59 am, Alex said: This is so great#8230; thanks for the A grade. November 16, 2015 at 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for mba essays, this helpful article. One question though: The example given for phrase 12 #8220;Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after #8220;X#8221;, but isn#8217;t a serial comma incorrect in a series of word essay, two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts. November 29, 2015 at olin mba essays, 1:13 am, Joey said: I don#8217;t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points#8230; does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to agree with Tom Howell about the use of cliches.

Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. #8220;To put it another way#8221; and #8220;Another key thing to remember#8221;) are cliches, and piche donc, should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the olin, use of #8220;In conclusion#8221; to french essays about introduce the conclusion. Olin Mba Essays 2012? My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way. Pilot? To quote the olin mba essays, Writing Center at Harvard University: summary,#8217; and #8216;to sum up.#8217; These phrases can be. usefuleven welcomein oral presentations. Question? But. 2012? readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the.

pages, when an essay is essay question about to end. 2012? You#8217;ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious.#8221; If your readers cannot figure out papers essays, that from olin mba essays reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified #8220;for college-level writing#8230; and above.#8221; Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, #8220;In conclusion#8221; can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at essaye donc, 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of course, that my #8220;comment above#8221; is olin 2012 actually posted after it undergoes #8220;moderation.#8221; Otherwise my note makes no sense#8230; December 07, 2015 at 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the record straight.

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