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Qbittorrent - Stalled (troubleshooting included) #1220. I have been using qbittorrent for a while and spanish american I hit the thesis, Stalled issue recently. Essay War 1898? After investigating on responsibility statement, the forums and american troubleshooting for essay a while, I hope I am able to shed some light on war 1898, this. Et Essayer? Backstory: I recently upgraded my broadband and essay american war 1898 getting trus 1 Gbps speed in essay on reforms in education, the metropolitan area, and up to 500 Mbps outside the city limits, with speeds as high as 200 Mbps outside the spanish american, country as well. Essay? Since then, utorrent (which I was using at the time) started to essay war 1898 act weird. Et Essayer? For example, after adding a few large torrents (usually over american war 1898 10 GB in et essayer, size) and spanish war 1898 starting to download, the client uses HDD continously and responsibility thesis statement doesn't download. First I thought it's all about essay spanish, preallocating space, but it sits still even after 24h and after HDD stops churning.

I moved to Qbittorrent and it was better, but a couple days ago I added some really large torrents (8 of them, around 80 GB each - it's a TV series that I already own in Bluray format but I want to stream it to my mobile devices using PLEX media Server). Qbittorrent started behaving exactly like uTorrent. Thesis Tab? Qbittorrent attempts to download; Download works for american war 1898 a few seconds (up to 30 seconds) at Ok speeds (even up to 20 MBps) Download speed goes gradually down to zero; HDD light is always ON; Qbittorrent shows all torrents as Stalled; Closing Qbittorrent leaves qbittorrent.exe process alive in processes list; trying to end process yields no results, I have to restart the et essayer, OS to get it out american war 1898 of the way. Schools? If I don't restart and essay spanish american war 1898 try to open Qbittorrent again, it starts and on reforms in education creates another process in the process list which actually can be killed. My guess is that Qbittorrent tries to preallocate files (although I told it not to) OR it has issues trying to download at high speeds and war 1898 somehow craps out. Descriptive Prompts? I have gone as low as allowing only 2 torrents to war 1898 download at the same time, which maked Qbittorrent set all but 2 torrents as Queued but the et essayer, two remaining ones are. Essay American? yes, you guessed right: Stalled.

Same behavior is essay visible for 3.1.2 and essay american 3.1.4. Descriptive Prompts? Smaller torrents (e.g. Essay American? DVD-sized) work fine. usually I am getting single-torrent download speed of 60-70 MBps, which probably is et essayer capped by HDD transfer capabilities. qBittorrent stays open as a buggy hidden process #1200. Essay Spanish? sledgehammer999 commented Jan 1, 2014. Tools-Options. Et Essayer? -Downloads-pre-allocate bla bla. Spanish American War 1898? Is it disabled? If not, disable it and try again. Uw Graduate School Submit? Also is the HDD internal or external? What is the spanish, connection type with the thesis, pc?

Pre-allocate is disabled, always was. Internal HDD, WD20EARX, 2 TB, about 1 TB free space. Spanish American War 1898? I have another eSATA HDD, WD20EARX as well, same behavior there. Connection is wired, Gigabit LAN to responsibility thesis a TP-Link 3600 and from there a CAT6 cable goes into american war 1898, an optic fiber box. For smaller torrents Qbittorrent works fine, for black-focused schools essay large torrents (e.g. a torrent 133 GB large) this behavior appears. I can consistently replicate it. Essay Spanish American? Maybe the logs would tell a story? sledgehammer999 commented Jan 1, 2014. Maybe the responsibility, logs would tell a story? I don't know, do you see anything interesting in spanish war 1898, there? (view-execution log) This is descriptive school probably a libtorrent issue. Essay Spanish American War 1898? Connection is wired, Gigabit LAN to black-focused a TP-Link 3600 and spanish american from there a CAT6 cable goes into weight loss, an optic fiber box.

I meant how to essay american war 1898 you connect the essay word count, HDD. Probably SATA 2/3 (oops you say eSATA) One HDD is SATA3, the other is essay spanish eSATA which is also SATA3. In Education? 01/01/2014 01:01:50 - qBittorrent is successfully listening on interface fe80::b8c0:47ad:4c1d:8327%11 port: TCP/60101. Essay Spanish American? 01/01/2014 01:01:51 - UPnP/NAT-PMP: Port mapping successful, message: successfully mapped port using UPnP. external port: 60101. 01/01/2014 01:01:50 - UPnP/NAT-PMP: Port mapping failure, message: could not map port using UPnP: Invalid Arguments.

01/01/2014 01:01:50 - UPnP/NAT-PMP: Port mapping successful, message: successfully mapped port using UPnP. external port: 60101. 01/01/2014 01:01:50 - External IP: 84.232.211.167. 01/01/2014 01:01:50 - Reason: [torrent name] fast resume rejected: missing or invalid 'file sizes' entry. 01/01/2014 01:01:50 - Fast resume data was rejected for descriptive school torrent [torrent name], checking again. 01/01/2014 01:01:50 - Reason: [torrent name] fast resume rejected: missing or invalid 'file sizes' entry. 01/01/2014 01:01:50 - Fast resume data was rejected for torrent [torrent name], checking again. 01/01/2014 01:01:50 - qBittorrent failed listening on spanish american, interface fe80::b8c0:47ad:4c1d:8327%11 port: TCP/60101. Uw Graduate Submit Dissertation? Reason: An attempt was made to essay access a socket in essay, a way forbidden by its access permissions.

This last line is essay weird. Essay Weight? ok, after a reinstall I am now getting this: 01/01/2014 04:40:19 - UPnP/NAT-PMP: Port mapping failure, message: could not map port using UPnP: Invalid Arguments. And Qbittorrent doesn't do anything. All downloads are now Stalled, nothing goes in, nothing goes out. American? Trackers are shown as not working. Responsibility Statement? I fired up Vuze, with the same torrent, from essay same tracker, it works perfectly. Essay Prompts? Exact same problem. Every time. Essay? 128GB SSDD primary drive. Responsibility Thesis Statement? 1 TB 2.5 TB SATA internal storage. War 1898? 2TB eSATA external storage. utorrent works with no problem. Essay On Reforms A Necessity? I also have stalled issue.

I ran utorrent first, downloaded the file, then closed it. American? Started up qbittorent, and tried to schools dl the file, but it's in essay spanish american war 1898, a stalled state for like 1 hour already. Nothing changing. Trying to essay prompts high use an spanish american, external hard drive. Angel? I've tried this many times and spanish american qbittorrent always stalls. I've googled it and there are definitely people experiencing this. Essay On Reforms? Port forwarding is disabled on essay spanish american war 1898, router, but ports were opened manually. The exceution log just shows this. Descriptive Essay Prompts? 15/06/2014 14:24:19 - qBittorrent is spanish american successfully listening on schools essay, interface xx::xxx port: TCP/15823.

15/06/2014 14:24:18 - 'C:xxxx.torrent' resumed. Spanish American War 1898? (fast resume) 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - 'C:xxxx.torrent' resumed. Et Essayer? (fast resume) 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - 'C:xxxx.torrent' resumed. (fast resume) 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - 'C:xxxx.torrent' resumed. Essay? (fast resume) 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - 'C:xxxx.torrent' resumed. Black-focused? (fast resume) 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - 'C:xxxx.torrent' resumed. (fast resume) 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - Options were saved successfully. 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - Embedded Tracker [OFF] 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - Encryption support [ON] 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - Local Peer Discovery support [ON] 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - PeX support [ON] 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - DHT support [ON], port: UDP/15823. War 1898? 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - Anonymous mode [OFF] 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - HTTP user agent is weight loss ads qBittorrent v3.1.9.2. Essay American? 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - UPnP / NAT-PMP support [OFF] 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - qBittorrent is trying to essay weight listen on essay spanish, interface xx::xxx port: TCP/15823. 15/06/2014 14:24:18 - Peer ID: -qB3192- Has anyone found a fix for black-focused this yet?

I still seem to be getting this problem, on essay spanish american war 1898, both Linux as well as Windows. sledgehammer999 commented Dec 3, 2014. Responsibility Thesis Statement? @Zer0t3ch Don't spam every thread you find. I imagine your problem is essay spanish just a settings/network problem. Tab? Go to our forum and describe what is american your settings and what you are seeing in the log. Thesis? Forum: http://forum.qbittorrent.org/ No, it's not a network/settings problem. It's a libtorrent issue which remained unresolved for spanish years, I'd wager. School Submit? It only happens when multiple torrents are started on a very high speed internet connection (I personally have a Gigabit connection).

If only essay american ONE torrent is started, the schools essay, issue doesn't manifest. When 2 torrents are started, it rarely manifests, but when 3 or more torrents are started at spanish, the same time, almost invariably I end up with Stalled, a continuously working HDD and process which can't be closed, even forcefully. I have to fully restart my machine to angel thesis tab get things in spanish american war 1898, order again. sledgehammer999 commented Dec 3, 2014. a continuously working HDD and extended essay process which can't be closed. Do you have preallocation enabled? It doesn't matter if I have it or not, the spanish war 1898, same behavior is the essay word bibliography, same. War 1898? The HDD doesn't do any actual writing, I checked using Sysinternals' Process Explorer and Process Monitor, as well as Windows' perfmon. Thesis Statement? I saw huge amounts of reading data, looks like it's a process hook which reads stuff over and over essay spanish american war 1898 from somewhere. Prompts High School? The process hook remains hanging when attempting to essay war 1898 close the process forcefully. HDD keeps churning forever. Descriptive Essay Prompts? sledgehammer999 commented Dec 3, 2014. I re-read your first post.

Obviously I cannot test your circumstances because a) I don't such a fast internet connection and b)I don't have readily available torrent that big. However, when using v3.1.11 and it shows as stalled and the HDD working can you post a screen of war 1898 what is going on responsibility thesis statement, in Tools-Statistics ? Interestingly, after updating my qbittorrent to american 3.1.11 (had 3.1.5) I can't seem to replicate. I'll keep trying and thesis come back with a screenshot if this happens again. Essay American War 1898? Fingers crossed! Try to extended word turn off OS Cache in essay spanish war 1898, advanced preferences. Black-focused Schools? sledgehammer999 commented Dec 4, 2014. Essay Spanish War 1898? I am closing.

If it still stalls, comment here and angel thesis tab I'll reopen. Spanish War 1898? I have the same problem, running on descriptive school, Windows 8.1, qBittorrent 3.1.9.2. The ports are open, while the spanish american war 1898, connection is a 100/100 Mbps due to descriptive school router it is essay spanish american war 1898 limited to extended bibliography 56/56 Mbps. Essay Spanish American War 1898? Execution log shows that the et essayer, torrent has been added to the list and after a minute gives a [UPnP/NAT-PMP: Port mapping failure, message: could not map port using UPnP: no router found] I have tested with pre-allocation on and off, both give the same result. Spanish American? Funnily, two of the torrents (20.3 GB and 9.2 GB) started working after the 17th time I think it was, while the four others (15.0 GB, 1.3 GB, 5.4 GB and 23.5 GB) are still giving stalled. Submit? When the two started working, I had pre-allocation on, along with [Options Connection Listening Port Use UPnP / NAT-PMP port forwarding from spanish american my router] I apologise for not posting direct logs, with what posting from et essayer phone.

Also apologies if I was not supposed to comment, but the essay spanish war 1898, thread fit from what I saw. @imadaman Try turning UPNP off. Thesis Statement? I did that and limited the total connection limit and essay spanish american war 1898 everything works now. Extended Word Include Bibliography? sledgehammer999 commented Dec 5, 2014. Essay Spanish American War 1898? With UPNP off, global connection maximum of black-focused schools essay 20, maximum connection per torrent of essay spanish war 1898 4, global upload slots of 10 and upload slots per uw graduate torrent of essay spanish 4, the same four torrents still Stall on statement, resuming and after removing and essay war 1898 adding again. Angel Tab? Tried reinstalling qBT, which didn't help either. dezza commented Feb 19, 2015 #8226; edited. Essay Spanish American? Same problem here. Essay Weight Ads? I can't get it to american war 1898 continue with any settings. Extended Count Include? Stalled. It seems random. I tried it on different connections.

With or without disk allocation and essay spanish american upnp. Black-focused Essay? They didn't affect nothing. Right now, I don't know if it's a coincidence or not but when I disabled Anonymous mode and Local Peer Discovery my stalled torrents started to essay spanish run again. Extended Word? But on the other hand, before disabling these, I have added other torrents from various trackers, some worked some stalled. War 1898? chrishirst commented Apr 21, 2015. when I disabled Anonymous mode . Et Essayer? Which indicates that Anonymous Mode is making your client unable to communicate with other peers. I have added other torrents from american war 1898 various trackers, some worked some stalled. Try changing the port. Tools Options Connections Random button from the thesis, top. American War 1898? That fixed it for et essayer me. Essay? Same happens to me.

Tried disabling os cache and uw graduate play with the essay spanish, cache settings. Black-focused Essay? Download just oscillates between stalled to. When it stops, it stalls for around 5 minutes and then starts again. Spanish American? Had the same problem (v3.2.3) - solved by disabling OS Cache in advance settings. Same Issue (v3.3.6) - solved by disabling OS Cache in advance settings. Weight? I had the same issue, and spanish I cleared my log files and it worked. High School? Just unchecked the log tick box, hit apply then rechecked it and war 1898 hit ok. fi3nds commented Oct 2, 2016 #8226; edited. Weight Ads? tried everything above, every cache increment imaginable. Upgrade your network card driver.

I have an asus board and essay spanish war 1898 was using the extended word include, built-in windows driver, went to asus's website, downloaded and spanish installed it and extended now my downloads no longer stall, turned OS cache back on and still no stall. Spanish American? Not only that but I am now getting even better torrent speeds :) To upgrade your driver, if it's onboard network, you'll need the on reforms a necessity, motherboard model, easiest way is on war 1898, the receipt for schools your computer, or motherboard box but if youre like me, I had to pop the essay spanish, case open and read it off the board. So glad I finally figured this out count . War 1898? EDIT: had same issue on pc a second pc, asus network driver solved it, never trusting ms gigabit drivers again. Black-focused? ryannathans commented Oct 18, 2016. Just encountered the war 1898, same problem after first time install. 80GB torrent and essay in education 1MiB/s download speeds (seems to be limited by american, seeders available, not relevant to the problem).

Disabling OS cache fixed it for prompts school me. My server had the same symptoms. Essay American? Ended up being the essay count include bibliography, SATA port which had broken, making the HDD go to 100% activity, but not reading or writing anything, whenever the essay, HDD wrote to extended essay word count bibliography itself (the temp- and finished-folders are on the same drive). Essay War 1898? I solved it, by thesis tab, simply moving the essay, SATA cable for the affected harddrive to prompts school another port. American War 1898? It did NOT only descriptive essay school happen when a download finished. It happened as soon as the initially cached downloaded data was attempted written to war 1898 disk. So it downloaded about thesis, 1-5 megabytes, then died. ryannathans commented Jan 16, 2017. Essay War 1898? @Ultroman you'll probably find it was the thesis tab, controller IC, not specially the port itself. Spanish American? A lot of et essayer motherboards have two different controllers hooked up to different sata ports.

Maybe the true issue lies with some controllers. American War 1898? WilliamArmstrong commented Apr 14, 2017. Had the same problem with torrents stalling. When I paused them they would Error. On Reforms In Education A Necessity? Found out that the american, entire process was being blocked by essay loss ads, BitDefender's Ransomware protection. War 1898? Disabled that and on reforms a necessity everything was working fine again. Essay War 1898? You can't perform that action at this time.

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Essay spanish american war 1898

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Journey to Aleppo: How the war ripped Syria#039;s biggest city apart. Peter Oborne speaks to residents of government-held areas about their fighting for ‘civilisation’ and latest drive to american root out ‘terrorism’ in Syria. ALEPPO, Syria – Before the war you could have a leisurely breakfast in Syria’s capital Damascus and be in Aleppo in time for a late lunch at et essayer one of american, its famous restaurants. Today the fast, direct route has been cut. For several weeks this winter, the uw graduate school government-held areas of Aleppo were completely isolated as has often been the case since the conflict began. Thanks to essay recent Syrian army successes the route has been reopened, but the essay weight loss ads journey involves long and sometimes unpredictable diversions. We made the first leg of the journey, the essay american war 1898 160km drive north from Damascus to Homs, with no difficulty, pausing on the way to pick up a Syrian army lieutenant, Ali.

The 22-year-old officer was returning to duty after eight days leave. He told us how he had abandoned his university engineering course three years earlier to volunteer for uw graduate school, the army. It was more than two years till Ali saw his parents again. He was assigned to the defence of Kweiris military airport to the east of essay spanish american war 1898, Aleppo. Et Essayer! Ali spoke of daily battles against the Nusra Front, al-Qaeda’s affiliate in essay spanish american Syria, and more recently Islamic State opponents. The airbase was inaccessible by land, so the soldiers were supplied with ammunition and supplies by helicopter.

When Islamic State joined the siege in angel thesis tab the summer of 2014, it brought sophisticated weapons that could shoot down the american war 1898 helicopters. Thereafter supplies were dropped by parachute from planes. Often they drifted off target and were by picked up by the rebels. Responsibility Thesis Statement! When Ali was struck in the chest by a bullet there was no evacuation. He spent 15 days convalescing inside the fort before returning to the fight.

He said of IS: “They are non-humans. They are not afraid. They are not affected by injuries. Some say they take special drugs. “They have more men than Nusra and they are more ferocious.

They must maim the corpses of those they kill or they do not believe they are dead. “When we catch them we find ammunition, dates, drugs and essay american war 1898, ladies underwear for the virgins waiting for them in heaven.” Ali took out his mobile phone and showed me footage of gun battles against Islamic State opponents who he said were just 75 metres away. “The secret behind Kweiris was the loyalty of the soldiers. Statement! We had no tanks but stood fast over essay four years. I lost 82 comrades,” Ali said. The siege was lifted late last year, in a signal that the tide has turned in favour of the government of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, who has been supported by Russian air strikes since September last year.

Ali is now involved in thesis mopping up Islamic State positions around al-Bab, a town east of Aleppo which many say is spanish american more important in military terms to IS than its Syrian headquarters in loss Raqqa because of its proximity to Aleppo. I had been wanting to spanish american war 1898 travel to Aleppo for more than a year, but was unable to make the journey because I was told it was too dangerous. This changed at the start of the year as Syrian government victories meant that there was a safe road into essay on reforms, the city. In the old days, the direct route to Aleppo would have headed through Homs to Hama but these days there are many diversions along the way. To reach Aleppo now, one has to turn onto essay war 1898, the road headed for IS-held Raqqa and drive directly along it. Our driver, Abdullah, made the journey several times a week and was very experienced. This was essential: one error of navigation can lead you to angel thesis an Islamic State or al-Nusra checkpoint. Abdullah said he had owned a textile business in the old city of Aleppo.

When his house and essay american, business was destroyed, his car was his only remaining asset. Et Essayer! “I had to face reality. I became a driver,” he told Middle East Eye. It meant a loss of status. “At first I found it hard to being called ‘the driver’. It’s a job at the end of the day and I am not ashamed,” he said. Abdullah told me what he has faced on essay american, the road: the roadside bombs; being caught up in clashes; fake checkpoints manned by insurgents or criminals. “They loot you or they sell you for ransom.” We were now in angel thesis bandit country. The driver said that al-Nusra positions started just a kilometre or so to the north while Islamic State was to essay spanish american the south. There are frequent checkpoints and many improvised roadside forts, artificially raised areas that are all well-armed, with a panoramic view of the surrounding countryside.

Between the checkpoints Abdullah drove at breakneck speed. Then, to his frustration but my relief, we found ourselves marooned behind a military convoy. A soldier stood at the back of the uw graduate dissertation final truck waving his machine gun menacingly at any car which came to close. Though I had no way of telling, my companions told me that the convoy contained Russian as well as Syrian troops. Moscow has stepped up its military presence inside Syria in recent months, but it has been reported that its troops were concentrated in the western provinces. Eventually we turned north. I watched shepherds herding their goats as the sun set behind a range of low hills, and fell asleep. When I woke up it was dark and Ali had been dropped off. Spanish American! We had arrived at the entrance to Aleppo. Though there was no street lighting, and the apartment blocks were dark, through the darkness I could see the destruction all around. Less than four years ago, Aleppo was a prosperous and beautiful city.

Christians and Muslims lived side by side, as did Sunni and Shia. A tolerant culture was sustained by a massive industrial centre. Aleppo’s dynamic business community had developed thousands of factories in the industrial suburb of Sheikh Najjar, which employed one million Aleppans. Inside the city there were some of the greatest treasures of world civilisation: ancient churches, mosques, the famous covered market and essay on reforms in education, the incomparable citadel in the heart of the city. Almost everything has now been destroyed. In Damascus, the Old City survives but many of the suburbs lie in essay spanish war 1898 ruins. In Aleppo, the centre has been gutted, and thesis, much of what remains is in the hands of rebels. A journey from the east of the city to essay spanish american the town centre used to take half an hour. Now it lasts a day, and sometimes much more because of the road blocks and checkpoints.

For the last few years the government has ruled over the western parts of the city, while a collection of rebel forces have dominated the east. Many government areas are under regular mortar bombardment. Word Include! Some of these attacks involve small mortars which inflict localised damage. The pockmarked city landscape reveals how the rebels are now using improvised gas canisters, more like missiles than conventional mortars. These can bring down buildings or cause carnage if they land in a crowd. Aleppo’s remaining hospitals are on permanent standby for an influx of mass casualties – 100 or more at a time.

These lethal weapons can fall anywhere. They are one reason more than one million residents have fled. Essay Spanish American! Meanwhile, in rebel-held areas human rights groups accuse the Syrian government of pummeling the responsibility thesis statement city from the sky and dropping so-called barrel bombs that are often filled with shrapnel that can rip through human flesh with ease. Amnesty International has called the widespread use of the bombs a crime against humanity. The most urgent problems in Aleppo are power and water.

When I arrived in late January there had been no electricity for american, 112 days (with the et essayer exception of a tantalising period when it had flickered on briefly for essay war 1898, about half an hour a day). The power station which used to supply the city’s population of more than two million is in the hands of Islamic State. The army is trying, so far without success, to recapture it. If not destroyed already, it certainly will be by angel tab the time IS fighters are driven out. It is thought that last year the warring parties agreed to essay spanish an energy-sharing deal that gave all the sides limited access to power but this seems to have collapsed because of the difficulty of reconciling all the divergent groups. Aleppo’s second source of power used to weight ads be the national grid linking it through Hama to Damascus. Theoretically this could still operate, but once again only if the government and the numerous rebel groups were to cooperate. That seems out of the question. I asked for an interview with the spanish director of electricity, but was told that he “had nothing to talk about”. No surprise, because this unfortunate man is one of the most unpopular men in Aleppo. Meanwhile those Aleppans who can afford to do so employ private generators.

In residential areas there is et essayer a chaotic mass of american war 1898, wires just above street level linking these generators to essay in education private apartments. Peter Oborne in Aleppo next to american the complicated network of wires (MEE / Peter Oborne) However, just two amps of electricity cost about essay in education, 6,000 Syrian lira ($20) a month, in spanish american war 1898 a country where incomes have collapsed and extended essay word include bibliography, aid delivery is essay sporadic. This is essay word include enough to spanish power lighting, but not electrical appliances let alone central heating to et essayer mitigate Aleppo’s winter chill. Private homes are dank and for some reason seem even colder than the street outside. The latest water problem was 12 days old when I reached the city. Once again the problem is Islamic State. Essay! Aleppo’s water supply comes from the Euphrates via a reservoir called Assad’s lake 90km to the north-east. There is a processing plant there, from extended essay word count which water is pumped via Nusra-controlled areas into the heart of the city.

Water has been cut off by spanish american the fighting before. This time all attempts to on reforms in education negotiate a solution with IS have failed. This tactic does not make IS any more popular and spanish american, can be interpreted as a sign of desperation in the face of recent military setbacks - small consolation to Aleppans. They have responded by digging wells. Thesis Statement! As with electricity, this adds hugely to war 1898 the cost of living. Residents told me they pay 1,500 lira ($5) for 1,000 litres, enough to meet the basic needs of a family for about a week. Essay Weight! To put this in perspective, water consumption in the US is about 340 litres per head every day. In Aleppo it is less than 20 litres per head. Many people don’t have enough water to wash: doctors say there is an epidemic of american war 1898, fleas in the city. A man carries water in government-held Aleppo (MEE / Peter Oborne)

These costs mount up. The salary of a state employee is about 30,000 Syrian lira a month ($100). Out of thesis statement, this he or she will spend 6,000 on water and a further 6,000 on electricity. But rents start at 15,000 a month for even the most squalid accommodation. At Jamilla market in downtown Aleppo, I bought some pens and notepaper off Mahmood, a street vendor. He said that he and his extended family lived in a single room in a nearby apartment occupied by four different families, or about 25 people. Essay Spanish American War 1898! How did he get by? “We’re alive,” he said. Like the majority of people I met, newly married Mahmood was a refugee from weight loss a rebel-held area south of the city where he had had a good job in a jeans factory, now destroyed. Aleppo University has set aside 17 out of american, its 20 dormitory blocks for refugees. This is bad luck for the students who are forced to sleep eight to et essayer a room intended for spanish american war 1898, two as they try to continue their studies. One man, a tailor before the war, shared a small room with his wife and seven children.

He described how Free Syrian Army fighters burned down their house - leaving one daughter with terrible burns - after he refused to join them. He recalls that when they invaded his area of essay on reforms, Aleppo province on 5 July, 2012 they “treated us like infidels. Essay American! Made men grow long beards and women cover their faces”. “This room here is better than a citadel in one of their places,” he added. The family managed to escape but his cousins in the FSA continue to weight ads harass him even at essay spanish war 1898 the university. He said they tried to abduct one of his daughters, but neighbours intervened. In a nearby room a man from essay in education a necessity a family of olive oil merchants told me that al-Nusra has murdered three of his brothers-in-law for alleged pro-government sympathies.

One was beheaded, one was ripped to spanish war 1898 pieces after being tied between an electricity poll and a moving car. A fourth brother has been kidnapped and count include, no one knows where he is. Persecution of women and minorities. All the internally displaced Syrians in government-held Aleppo had the same story to tell about the essay spanish american areas they had fled: women covered and confined to the home; foreign fighters enforcing a reign of statement, terror. They are sometimes unclear about which group they fled from. The patchwork of alliances among rebels groups is extremely complex and essay war 1898, constantly changing. There are US-approved groups as well as hardline Islamists factions.

All oppose the Assad government, and will not work with Islamic State, but they are divided over angel tab tactics and ideology. Human rights groups and essay spanish american war 1898, the UN have levelled the responsibility worst accusations of essay spanish war 1898, war crimes at IS, Nusra and the government. However, all armed groups in Syria have been accused of gross human rights violations. “I consider myself a Syrian,” said one refugee who did not want to tab give his name. “We have got all kinds of religion. War 1898! We don’t believe in sectarian politics because that’s just a pretext they use to attack us.” No wonder so many have fled. Aleppo (in common with the rest of Syria) has suffered a demographic catastrophe over the last 12 months. Angel Thesis Tab! How many remain of the city’s once-flourishing population of two million plus? Everyone speaks of the multiple loss of friends who are now in exile.

Alaa al-Sayed, a civil rights campaigner who focuses on the protection of the city’s religious minority, estimates that there are just 5,000 Armenian Christians left, compared to a pre-war population of 60,000. There were 200,000 Christians - made up of ethnically Arab Christians and Christian Armenians – with the Christian community in the city drawing its roots to the early years after the death of Christ. Now Sayed estimates there are just 25,000. On current trends the essay spanish american war 1898 multi-confessional tolerance that has been a feature of life in Aleppo for two millennia will soon no longer exist. The churches are encouraging worshippers to stay. “One of our principles is that we shouldn’t leave the country when it is passing through difficult times,” said Reverend Selimian, pastor of the Armenian Evangelical Church. “When your mother gets sick do you get another mother? We as church leaders are staying here, we say there is no reason for you to go.” Rev Selimian, a graduate of angel, Chicago University, told me: “We distribute food, and pay for apartments rents. We pay for the electricity of essay american war 1898, more than 200 families. We provide medication free of charge.”

He added, however, that his churchgoers must ultimately make their own decisions. Et Essayer! The poor make perilous journeys on makeshift boats across the essay spanish american sea from Turkey to Greece. The rich pay $7,000 for safe journeys across the same stretch of water on luxurious motor launches. Many have no choice but to flee, and school submit dissertation, the last week has seen a fresh surge of refugees from the spanish greater Aleppo area, reportedly caused by uw graduate indiscriminate Russian bombing. Refugee tales speak of Assad crimes. Determined to hear the other side of the story, after leaving the government-held areas of Aleppo I travelled to refugee camps in Jordan. There I heard stories of mass slaughter by pro-government militias. I have met amputees whose life has been destroyed by barrel bombs, learnt of attacks by gangs carrying machetes, of essay war 1898, mass rape as a weapon of war. One sheep farmer from a south of Aleppo recalled the day (3 December, 2012) when the Syrian air force started bombing his village.

He said they killed 1,500 people. He insisted there were no armed groups operating in the immediate vicinity. Now he lives in a makeshift camp in tab north Jordan. A mother of eight children from a village near Hama in northern Syria told how she, her husband and eight children were driven out of her village by bombing. “They slaughtered us, they dispossessed us, they destroyed everything we had. They entered into our homes,” she said. She spoke of Iranian gangs with machetes looting and maiming: “I saw it with my own eyes. Essay! Either they chop off your right arm or your head.” There is uw graduate school submit no excusing or ignoring the spanish crimes and barbarity of the Assad government and its allies. Destruction in angel tab rebel-held Aleppo allegedly caused by essay spanish american government strikes in 2015 (AFP)

Russian bombing in essay Deraa, the southern Syrian city where the revolt against the Assad government began in the spring of essay spanish war 1898, 2011, has caused a fresh wave of refugees to flee across the border into Jordan. At a centre for essay on reforms a necessity, amputees, I spoke to a young man who had lost his leg in essay american a bombing raid. I asked him what he would do when he had recovered. Et Essayer! There was no question in essay american his mind. He would return to on reforms a necessity Deraa and fight, on a mission to take revenge for the killing of family members. But the citizens of the government-held areas of essay war 1898, Aleppo have another story to tell. They too say they are victims of angel, terror and barbarism. They too have experienced immeasurable loss and intimidation. They believe they are fighting to save civilization. I should state that I stayed exclusively in essay spanish war 1898 government-held areas.

I made no attempt to cross the lines into rebel zones (I would have been kidnapped). Government minders accompanied me throughout the trip and were present at almost every conversation. But I am as certain as I can be that people told me the truth as they saw it. What follows is their story. In the paragraphs that follow I will tell the story as I heard it from dozens of residents - schoolteachers, shopkeepers, imams, priests, businessmen, doctors, university professors, students and thesis, jobless refugees who have fled to government areas from the surrounding countryside. When the Syrian uprising began in the early summer of 2011, Aleppo did not join. Essay! There were a handful of demonstrations but they were dealt with relatively gently. Some protestors were jailed but there was no armed response as took place in some other parts of Syria.

At the start of 2012, by which time much of Damascus was at thesis war, the Aleppan business community says it was targeted in a series of assassinations and killings. Political and religious leaders say they were threatened with death or torture unless they went across to the rebels. “We knew we were being targeted,” says Fares Shehabi, head of essay spanish american, Aleppo’s chamber of industry. “We knew what was coming. We sent a message for the army to be sent to et essayer Aleppo.” The request was ignored. On 5 July of that year an armed convoy - the Brigade of essay spanish, Tawheed, an Islamist group that has previously praised Nusra - rolled into statement, ancient Aleppo.

It dispersed, burnt down police stations, set up road blocks. Within a few weeks, the rebel brigades had taken over most of the city. “At first we thought they were Syrians,” said Shehabi. War 1898! “But after a few weeks we got reports about foreigners. Fighters from Chechnya, Uzbekistan, Jordan, Saudi, Iraq, Eqypt.” “This was not regime change, it was invasion. And why was it taking a religious theme? Why does it have a beard? We are not ready to replace a secular society with a religious one.” The newcomers established religious courts. Women were confined to their home and made to cover up. Alcohol and smoking were banned. “I’m a Sunni, yet they consider me an infidel,” Shehabi said.

The Aleppo businessman argues that the thesis tab paradigm of the Syrian conflict favoured by Western governments and media is false. UK Prime Minister David Cameron and essay spanish american, his ministers have repeatedly portrayed the war as a murderous war waged by a fanatical minority loyal to President Assad against the overwhelming majority of the Syrian people. Since the president belongs to et essayer the minority Alawite interpretation of Islam, this implies that the war is essay spanish war 1898 a sectarian conflict between supporters of the Alawite sect and the mass of Sunni Muslims. Shehabi challenges this. He argues that the angel real divide is essay war 1898 between a culture of religious tolerance - including moderate Sunnis like him - and essay ads, the Wahhabi interpretation of Islam sponsored by essay Saudi Arabia. “This is not a war about President Assad and his regime or state.

I am not a member of the Baath Party. Angel! This is american about identity and et essayer, lifestyle,” he said. For Shehabi and every other Aleppo resident I met, the war should be understood in a radically different way. They stress that in Aleppo there is a culture of tolerance and understanding embracing Christians, Shia, Alawites and ordinary Sunnis – an intermingling which has existed since time immemorial. Again and essay, again, residents asked me why the British government and NATO were on the side of militant Islam and terrorism.

“Go to Idlib today,” says Shehabi about the northeastern city seized with the help of the Western-sponsored Free Syrian forces last year. “It is et essayer like Kandahar [in Afghanistan]. Essay Spanish American! How can you claim that you want to make Syria a democracy if you impose religious courts which do not recognise our religions or our ethnic variety.” Shehabi further asserts that what he believes that the extended insurgency in Aleppo was not part of a Syrian uprising but was instead deliberately supplied and orchestrated from Turkey. “The Turks gave them weapons,” he said. “They allowed the essay american war 1898 fighters across the border. They nursed the wounded in et essayer their hospitals.” He claims that Turkey was motivated by spanish american war 1898 economic gain, deliberately setting out to destroy Aleppo which it sees as an angel tab, economic rival. Shehabi says that he has cast-iron evidence that Turkish-backed fighters systematically stripped the production lines in Aleppo’s industrial centre and shipped the machinery back across the border.

He complained publicly about the stripping of Aleppo’s factories shortly after the attacks began and, in his capacity as head of the Aleppo chamber of Industry, issued writs against Turkish President Erdogan for damages. American War 1898! He says that two weeks later the grand offices of the et essayer chamber were completely destroyed in a massive bomb attack. The demolition of spanish, Aleppo’s industrial infrastructure is only one part of the story. Before the revolution it was a sophisticated city. There was a system of free public health that offered a broad range of treatment from et essayer daily diseases to more complex problems like cancers. I met Dr Mahamad al-Hazouri, head of the department of health, in his office at Aleppo’s Razi Hospital.

“In July 2012,” he told me, “terrorism hit at american war 1898 the infrastructure of our health centres. They put six out of our 16 hospitals out of service as well as 100 out of thesis statement, 201 primary health centres and 12 out of american, 14 comprehensive centres. They also wiped out the et essayer ambulance service.” He gave the example of Aleppo’s eye hospital: “It had been one of the great hospitals in the north of Syria, and essay spanish american, was turned by rebels into a jail for detainees.” Hazouri and his colleagues described their efforts to continue to provide a comprehensive service to the general population. Staff make heroic trips to rebel areas as part of their vaccination programme: “They get humiliated. Insurgents say that they are infidel. They refuse to let us in.” As a result diseases that have long been forgotten are making a return. Hazouri said that polio was eradicated from Syria more than 10 years ago: there are now cases in Islamic State-occupied areas. Meanwhile there is a chronic shortage of drugs and medical equipment.

The school system has suffered comparable devastation. Ibrahim Maso, head of the education directorate, told me how his department had supervised 4,400 schools before the war, with 1.5 million students in the greater Aleppo area. Some 3,000 of those schools are now under rebel control. Et Essayer! “Only 915 schools are now teaching the government curriculum,” said Maso, who was an Arabic teacher for 17 years and spanish, school principal for a decade. He continues to pay the salaries of teachers stranded in the rebel areas, even when they are prevented from count teaching. Children in Aleppo are still trying to go to school amidst the chaos although many no longer have the opportunity (MEE / Peter Oborne) I met one such teacher, who had travelled from her Islamic State-held village to the east of Aleppo in order to collect her 30,000 lira ($100) monthly salary. Before the spanish american war, the journey would have taken less than an hour. Uw Graduate School Submit! Instead, she had to spend five days traversing Islamic State and al-Nusra checkpoints to get to the education department. She was still wearing the black robes which the Islamic State enforces: IS confine all women to their home unless completely covered in black with not a centimetre of flesh showing.

She told how she had heard British and French accents among the IS fighters and war 1898, well as “very blond Americans and black ones, speaking classical Arabic”. Often these fighters drive round the thesis streets in spanish american Toyota pick-up trucks ordering people out of their houses to “come and see the punishment” - usually a beheading or crucifixion. “Everything behind the curtain is allowed. Sex, smoking and wine. Some women from our town go into their houses alone,” she said. She described how they knock on doors asking permission to marry the essay on reforms in education daughters of the town. One man who refused was beheaded.

The schools have been closed, but IS enforces its own education system: “The teenagers are taken to mosques for spanish, religious teaching. They brainwash the young men. They are told to attack their parents.” Yet this brave and stoical teacher told me that she was not afraid because she was sustained by her Islamic faith: “When you are with God you fear no one.” She was preparing to make the journey back to rejoin her husband and statement, children, and spoke of her fears for the future. The Syrian army is approaching her town as it regains ground from Islamic State across eastern Aleppo: “The fighters are preparing ambushes with explosives. Essay Spanish American! They are moving their wives and families out.

They are keeping us as human shields for them.” The heroism of some of the people I met is beyond computation. One headmaster told me how he has tried to keep his school open in an Islamic State area. Et Essayer! He was held in spanish american solitary confinement for 30 days in a cell with no toilet. Occasionally, he was beaten with an electric cable. Once a box full of scorpions was put into his cell. He was told that “this was the uw graduate school fate of every Shahiba [government worker]. You will be an example to essay spanish everyone who works for the government.” Aleppo traces its history back 7,000 years and is one of the oldest constantly inhabited cities in the world.

During that time, it has endured countless catastrophes. It was sacked twice by the Mongols and once by Central Asian emperor Timur at the start of the 15 th century. It has been destroyed by responsibility thesis statement earthquake. The events of the Syrian civil war are comparable in scale and horror to those past catastrophes. Of course, peace will be restored at some point and the city rebuilt. Essay Spanish! During the time I spent in Aleppo, the et essayer Syrian army was cutting off the routes between the Turkish border and the city. This means that supply lines from Turkey to al-Nusra and essay spanish, Islamic State were no longer functioning. Slowly - as in Stalingrad in 1942 - the extended word include bibliography besiegers are turning into the besieged. Edward Dark, an Aleppo-based contributor for american, Middle East Eye, tweeted out on last week: “This is the beginning of the end of jihadi presence in Aleppo.

After four years of war and angel, terror, people can finally see the end in spanish american sight.” There was still stalemate in Aleppo city itself as I drove out of the city, but in the countryside around events are moving very fast. - Peter Oborne was British Press Awards Columnist of the essay loss Year 2013. He recently resigned as chief political columnist of the Daily Telegraph. His books include The Triumph of the Political Class; The Rise of Political Lying;and Why the West is Wrong about Nuclear Iran. The views expressed in this article belong to the author and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of Middle East Eye. Photo Credit: Syrian army soldiers walk through government-held Aleppo in essay spanish american war 1898 2015 (AFP) 'Hundreds killed' in battle for Aleppo as air strikes pound villages #SyriaWar. Turkey fears influx of 600,000 refugees from loss Aleppo bombing #SyriaWar.

'There is no hope': Residents in Aleppo say world has abandoned them #SyriaWar. © Middle East Eye 2014 - all rights reserved. Only England and Wales jurisdiction apply in all legal matters.

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The Role of Formative Evaluation in Implementation Research and the QUERI Experience. VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA University of essay spanish Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Search for more papers by this author. VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA Search for more papers by this author. Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA Search for more papers by this author. VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA Search for more papers by this author. First published: February 2006 Full publication history DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00355.x View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 0 articles Check for updates. An earlier version of this article was included in materials to responsibility thesis statement, support the war 1898, State of the Art of Implementation Conference. The conference was conducted by the Department of essay count include bibliography Veterans Affairs, Office of Research and essay american war 1898 Development, Health Services Research and Development Service, and was held in extended include, Washington, DC, from August 30 to essay spanish american, September 1 2004. Address correspondence and requests for reprints to Dr. Stetler: 321 Middle Street, Amherst, MA 01002 (e-mail: [email protected]). This article describes the importance and role of 4 stages of formative evaluation in extended word include, our growing understanding of how to american, implement research findings into practice in order to improve the quality of clinical care.

It reviews limitations of traditional approaches to implementation research and presents a rationale for new thinking and use of new methods. Developmental, implementation-focused, progress-focused, and interpretive evaluations are then defined and illustrated with examples from Veterans Health Administration Quality Enhancement Research Initiative projects. This article also provides methodologic details and highlights challenges encountered in et essayer, actualizing formative evaluation within implementation research. As health care systems struggle to provide care based on essay spanish war 1898, well-founded evidence, there is increasing recognition of the inherent complexity of implementing research into practice. Health care managers and decision makers find they need a better understanding of what it takes to responsibility thesis statement, achieve successful implementation, and american war 1898 they look to uw graduate submit, health care researchers to provide this information. Researchers in turn need to fill this need through collection of war 1898 new, diverse sets of data to responsibility statement, enhance understanding and essay american management of the complex process of implementation. A measurement approach capable of providing critical information about implementation is formative evaluation (FE). Formative evaluation, used in other social sciences, is submit dissertation herein defined as a rigorous assessment process designed to identify potential and war 1898 actual influences on the progress and effectiveness of implementation efforts . Formative evaluation enables researchers to explicitly study the complexity of implementation projects and suggests ways to answer questions about context, adaptations, and response to change. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) has integrated FE into its implementation program. 13 This article introduces QUERI and thesis tab its implementation focus. It then describes research challenges that call for the use of FE in this specialized field of essay american war 1898 study, reviews FE relative to on reforms in education, QUERI implementation research, identifies 4 evaluative stages, and presents challenges to the conduct of FE.

THE VETERAN HEALTH ADMINISTRATION'S QUERI PROGRAM. The Quality Enhancement Research Initiative, begun in 1998, is a comprehensive, data-driven, outcomes-based, and output-oriented improvement initiative. 2,3 It focuses on identification and implementation of empirically based practices for high-risk/high-volume conditions among the veteran population and on essay spanish war 1898, the evaluation and refinement of thesis tab these implementation efforts. 3 The Quality Enhancement Research Initiative's innovative approach 14 calls upon researchers to work toward rapid, significant improvements through the spanish american war 1898, systematic application of best clinical practices. It also calls upon researchers to study the implementation process to enhance and continuously refine these quality improvement (QI) efforts. Essay Count Include. 14.

Classic intervention research methods 5,6 provide the means to essay war 1898, evaluate targeted outcomes of implementation/QI efforts. From an evaluation perspective, studies using intervention designs, such as a cluster-randomized trial or quasi-experimental approaches, routinely include a summative evaluation . Summative evaluation is a systematic process of thesis tab collecting data on the impacts, outputs, products, or outcomes hypothesized in a study. American. 7 Resulting data provide information on the degree of success, effectiveness, or goal achievement of an school submit dissertation, implementation program. In an action-oriented improvement program, such as QUERI, summative data are essential but insufficient to meet the needs of implementation/QI researchers. Evaluative information is needed beyond clinical impact of the change effort and beyond discovering whether a chosen adoption strategy worked.

Implementation researchers need to essay american war 1898, answer critical questions about the feasibility of implementation strategies, degree of real-time implementation, status and in education a necessity potential influence of contextual factors, response of project participants, and any adaptations necessary to achieve optimal change. Formative evaluation provides techniques for obtaining such information and for overcoming limitations identified in essay spanish war 1898, early implementation/QI studies. NEED FOR FE IN IMPLEMENTATION/QI RESEARCH. The RE-AIM framework of uw graduate school Glasgow and essay spanish american war 1898 colleagues highlights critical information that is missing from current research publicationsi.e.,information needed to evaluate a study's potential for translation and public health impact . 8,9 Such information includes the efficacy/effectiveness of an intervention, its reach relative to actual/representative subject participation rate, its adoption relative to angel thesis, actual/representative setting participation rate, its implementation or intervention fidelity , and its maintenance over american war 1898, time. The focus of the thesis tab, RE-AIM framework is the spanish, study of health promotion interventions. Similar issues must be addressed during implementation research if potential adopters are to replicate critical implementation processes.

In addition, implementation researchers need to capture in-depth information on participant and contextual factors that facilitate or hinder successful implementation. Such factors can be used during the project to optimize implementation and inform post hoc interpretation. As implementation efforts can be a relatively messy and et essayer complex process, traditional study designs alone are often inadequate to the task of obtaining evaluative information. Essay. For example, randomized clinical trials (RCT) may leave questions important to responsibility statement, system-wide uptake of targeted research unanswered. As Stead et al. 10,11 suggest, traditional intervention research can fail to american, “capture the et essayer, detail and complexity of intervention inputs and tactics” (10, p. 354), thereby missing the true nature of interventions as well as significant organizational factors important for replication. 10,11. Another argument for performing FE has been highlighted in guideline/QI literature, i.e., the american, need to address potential interpretive weaknesses. Such weaknesses relate to a failure to account for key elements of the implementation process and may lead to unexplainable and/or poor results.

For example, Ovretveit and Gustafson 12 identified implementation assessment failure, explanation failure , and outcome attribution failure . Implementation assessment failure can lead to a “Type III” error, where erroneous study interpretations occur because the intervention was not implemented as planned. Thesis Statement. 12,13 Explanation and outcome attribution relate to failures to explore the black box of implementation. Spanish War 1898. Specifically, what actually did/did not happen within the study relative to school, the implementation plan, and american what factors in the implementation setting, anticipated or unanticipated, influenced the actual degree of implementation? By failing to collect such data, potential study users have little understanding of a particular implementation strategy. For example, 1 study regarding opinion leadership did not report the concurrent implementation of standing orders.

14. Use of a traditional intervention design does not obviate collection of the critical information cited above. Rather, complementary use of FE within an experimental study can create a dual or hybrid style approach for implementation research. 15 The experimental design is thus combined with descriptive or observational research that employs a mix of qualitative and quantitative techniques, creating a richer dataset for weight ads interpreting study results. FORMATIVE EVALUATION WITHIN QUERI. As with many methodologic concepts, there is no single definition/approach to FE. In fact, as Dehar et al. 16 stated, there is a decided “lack of clarity and some disagreement among evaluation authors as to the meaning and scope” of related concepts (16, p. 204; see Table 1 for a sampling).

Variations include differences in terminology, e.g., an author may refer to essay spanish american war 1898, FE , process evaluation , or formative research . 16,17. Given a mission to make rapid, evidence-based improvements to achieve better health outcomes, the thesis tab, authors have defined FE as a rigorous assessment process designed to identify potential and war 1898 actual influences on the progress and effectiveness of implementation efforts . Related data collection occurs before, during, and after implementation to optimize the potential for success and to better understand the nature of the initiative, need for refinements, and the worth of extending the project to in education, other settings. This approach to spanish american war 1898, FE incorporates aspects of the last 2 definitions in Table 1 and weight concurs with the view that formative connotes action. American War 1898. 16 In QUERI, this action focus differentiates FE from essay weight “process” evaluations where data are not intended for spanish american war 1898 concurrent use. Various uses of FE for implementation research are listed in Table 2. Uses span the timeframe or stages of a project, i.e., development/diagnosis, implementation, progress, and interpretation. Within QUERI, these stages are progressive, integrated components of a single hybrid project. Each stage is described below, in the context of statement a single project, and illustrated by QUERI examples (Tables 3, 4, and 610). Each table provides an american war 1898, example of 1 or more FE stages. However, as indicated in some of the angel, examples, various evaluative activities can serve multiple stages, which then merge in practice. Formative evaluation at any stage requires distinct plans for adequate measurement and analysis.

QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; SCI, spinal cord injury; VHA, Veterans Health Administration; CCR,computerized clinical reminder; FE, formative evaluation . QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; FE, formative evaluation; CHF, congestive heart failure . QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; FE, formative evaluation; QI, quality improvement . QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; FE, formative evaluation; SCI, spinal cord injury . QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; FE, formative evaluation; QI, quality improvement; NH, mental health; ATIP, antipsychotic treatment improvement program . QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; FE, formative evaluation; CR, clinical reminder; SAS, site activation scale . QUERI, quality enhancement research initiative; FE, formative evaluation . Developmental evaluation occurs during the first stage of essay war 1898 a project and is termed a diagnostic analysis . 1,28 It is focused on enhancing the likelihood of success in the particular setting/s of a project, and involves collection of data on 4 potential influences: (a) actual degree of less-than-best practice; (b) determinants of current practice; (c) potential barriers and facilitators to practice change and to a necessity, implementation of the adoption strategy; and essay spanish american (d) strategy feasibility, including perceived utility of the project. (Note: studies conducted to et essayer, obtain generic diagnostic information prior to development of an implementation study are considered formative research, not FE. Essay Spanish War 1898. Even if available, a diagnostic analysis is suggested given the likelihood that generically identified factors will vary across implementation sites.) Activity at this stage may involve assessment of known prerequisites or other factors related to the targeted uptake of evidence, e.g., perceptions regarding the evidence, attributes of the proposed innovation, and/or administrative commitment. 11,21,2931 Examples of formative diagnostic tools used within QUERI projects include organizational readiness and attitude/belief surveys 32,33 (also see Tables 3 and 7). Such developmental data enable researchers to understand potential problems and, where possible, overcome them prior to initiation of et essayer interventions in essay american war 1898, study sites. In addition to information available from existent databases about current practice or setting characteristics, formative data can be collected from on reforms in education experts and representative clinicians/administrators. For example, negative unintended consequences might be prospectively identified by key informant or focus group interviews. This participatory approach may also facilitate commitment among targeted users. 34. This type of FE occurs throughout implementation of the project plan. It focuses on essay spanish, analysis of discrepancies between the plan and its operationalization and identifies influences that may not have been anticipated through developmental activity.

As Hulscher et al. In Education. note in a relevant overview of “process” evaluation, FE allows “researchers and implementers to american war 1898, (a) describe the intervention in detail, (b) evaluate and responsibility thesis measure actual exposure to the intervention, and (c) describe the experience of war 1898 those exposed (13, p. 40)” concurrently. It also focuses on the dynamic context within which change is taking place, an uw graduate school submit dissertation, increasingly recognized element of implementation. 3740. Implementation-focused formative data enable researchers to describe and understand more fully the major barriers to goal achievement and what it actually takes to achieve change, including the timing of project activities. By describing the actuality of implementation, new interventions may be revealed. In terms of timing, formative data can clarify the essay, true length of time needed to complete an intervention, as failure to thesis tab, achieve results could relate to insufficient intervention time.

Implementation-focused formative data also are used to spanish war 1898, keep the strategies on extended essay word, track and as a result optimize the likelihood of affecting change by resolving actionable barriers, enhancing identified levers of change, and refining components of the essay spanish, implementation interventions. Rather than identify such modifiable components on a post hoc basis, FE provides timely feedback to essay, lessen the likelihood of type III errors (see Tables 4, 6, 7, and 9). In summary, FE data collected at spanish american, this stage offer several advantages. They can (a) highlight actual versus planned interventions, (b) enable implementation through identification of modifiable barriers, (c) facilitate any needed refinements in the original implementation intervention, (d) enhance interpretation of project results, and (e) identify critical details and guidance necessary for replication of results in ads, other clinical settings. Measurement within this stage can be a simple or complex task. Table 5 describes several critical issues that researchers should consider. As with other aspects of essay spanish american FE, both quantitative and qualitative approaches can be used. This type of FE occurs during implementation of study strategies, but focuses on monitoring impacts and indicators of progress toward goals. The proactive nature of FE is et essayer emphasized, as progress data become feedback about the degree of essay spanish american movement toward desired outcomes.

Using implementation data on responsibility thesis statement, dose, intensity, and barriers, factors blocking progress may be identified. Essay American War 1898. Steps can then be taken to optimize the intervention and/or reinforce progress via positive feedback to extended word count include bibliography, key players. Essay American War 1898. As Krumholz and Herrin 49 suggest, waiting until implementation is completed to assess results “obscures potentially important information about angel thesis tab trends in spanish, practice during the study [that] could demonstrate if an responsibility, effort is gaining momentumor that it is not sustainable” (see Tables 6 and 7). This stage is usually not considered a type of FE but deserves separate attention, given its role in the illumination of the black box of implementation/change. Specifically, FE data provide alternative explanations for results, help to clarify the meaning of success in implementation, and enhance understanding of an implementation strategy's impact or “worth.” Such “black box” interpretation occurs through the end point triangulation of qualitative and quantitative FE data, including associational relationships with impacts. Interpretive FE uses the results of spanish all other FE stages. In addition, interpretive information can be collected at the end of the project about key stakeholder experiences. Stakeholders include individuals expected to put evidence into in education a necessity practice as well as those individuals expected to support that effort. These individuals can be asked about their perceptions of the implementation program, its interventions, and changes required of them and their colleagues.

10,13,27,38,46,54 Information can be obtained on stakeholder views regarding (a) usefulness or value of each intervention, (b) satisfaction or dissatisfaction with various aspects of the process, (c) reasons for their own program-related action or inaction, (d) additional barriers and facilitators, and (e) recommendations for war 1898 further refinements. Information can also be obtained regarding the degree to which stakeholders believe the implementation project was successful, as well as the overall “worth” of the loss, implementation effort. Statistical significance will be calculated using the summative data. However, as inferential statistical significance does not necessarily equate with clinical significance, it is useful to obtain perceptions of stakeholders relative to the “meaning” of statistical findings. For some stakeholders, this meaning will be placed in the context of the cost of essay american war 1898 obtaining the change relative to its perceived benefits (see Tables 810). Formative evaluation, as a descriptive assessment activity, does not per se test hypotheses.

However, within an et essayer, experimental study, in-depth data from a concurrent FE can provide working hypotheses to essay spanish american war 1898, explain successes or failures, particularly when the tab, implementation and evaluation plans are grounded in essay american war 1898, a conceptual framework. 5557 In this respect, interpretive FE may be considered as case study data that contribute to theory building. 58 Overall, FE data may provide evidence regarding targeted components of a conceptual framework, insights into the determinants of behavior or system change, and hypotheses for future testing. Formative evaluation is a new concept as applied to health services research and as such presents multiple challenges. Some researchers may need help in understanding how FE can be incorporated into a study design.

Formative evaluation is also a time-consuming activity and project leaders may need to extended count include, be convinced of its utility before committing study resources.In addition, much is american yet to be learned about effective approaches to responsibility thesis statement, the following types of issues: 1 In the well-controlled RCT, researchers do not typically modify an experimental intervention once approved. Essay Spanish. However, in improvement-oriented research, critical problems that prevent an optimal test of the tab, planned implementation can be identified and essay resolved. Such actions may result in alterations to et essayer, the original plan. Essay Spanish American War 1898. The challenge for the researcher is to identify that point at which modifications create a different intervention or add an additional intervention. Likewise, when the researcher builds in “local adaptation,” the challenge is to determine its limits or clarify statistical methods available to control for the differences. An implementation framework and clear identification of the underlying conceptual nature of school submit dissertation each intervention can facilitate this process. Essay American War 1898. As Hawe et al.

43 suggest, the count bibliography, researcher has to think carefully about the essay war 1898, “essence of the intervention” in order to understand the actual nature of implementation and the significance of formative modifications. Extended. 2 Implementation and QI researchers may encounter the erroneous view that FE involves only qualitative research or that it is not rigorous, e.g., that it consists of “just talking to a few people”. However, FE does not lack rigor nor is it simply a matter of qualitative research or a specific qualitative methodology. American. Rather, FE involves selecting among rigorous qualitative and quantitative methods to responsibility thesis statement, accomplish a specific set of essay spanish war 1898 aims, with a plan designed to produce credible data relative to include bibliography, explicit formative questions. 61 3 A critical challenge for essay spanish american measurement planning is selection or development of methods that yield quantitative data for the following types of issues: (a) assessment of associations between outcome findings and the intensity, dose, or exposure to interventions and (b) measurement of the adaptations of a “standard” protocol across diverse implementation settings. 62 Whether flexibility is a planned or unplanned component of a study, it should be measured in some consistent, quantifiable fashion that enables cross-site comparisons.

Goal attainment scaling is on reforms a necessity 1 possibility. 47,48 4 A final issue facing implementation researchers is how to determine the degree to which FE activities influence the results of an implementation project. If FE itself is an explicit intervention, it will need to be incorporated into recommendations for others who wish to replicate the study's results. Essay. More specifically, the dissertation, researcher must systematically reflect upon why formative data were collected, how they were used, by whom they were used, and to what end. For example, to what extent did FE enable refinement to the implementation intervention such that the likelihood of encountering barriers in the future is adequately diminished? Or, in examining implementation issues across study sites, to what extent did FE provide information that led to modifications at individual sites? If the data and subsequent adjustments at individual sites were deemed critical to project success, upon broader dissemination to additional sites, what specific FE activities should be replicated, and by whom? Formative evaluation is a study approach that is often key to spanish american, the success, interpretation, and replication of the results of implementation/QI projects. Formative evaluation can save time and thesis tab frustration as data highlight factors that impede the ability of clinicians to implement best practices. It can also identify at an early stage whether desired outcomes are being achieved so that implementation strategies can be refined as needed; it can make the realities and american war 1898 black box nature of implementation more transparent to decision makers; and it can increase the likelihood of obtaining credible summative results about essay loss ads effectiveness and transferability of an implementation strategy.

Formative evaluation helps to meet the spanish american, many challenges to effective implementation and its scientific study, thereby facilitating integration of research findings into bibliography practice and improvement of patient care. The work reported here was supported by essay american, the Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Health Services Research and Development Service. Extended Word. The views expressed in this article are those of the american, authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs. process assessment (health care); evaluation methodology; evaluation studies. Issue online: 24 March 2006 Version of responsibility record online: 24 March 2006. 1 QUERI. HSRD special solicitation for service directed projects (SDP) on implementation of research into practice (posted 2003). Essay American War 1898. Available at: http://www.hsrd.research.va.gov/for_researchers/funding/solicitations/.

Accessed August 10, 2005. 2 Demakis JG , McQueen L , Kizer KW , Feussner JR. Uw Graduate. Quality enhancement research initiative (QUERI) : a collaboration between research and clinical practice . Med Care. 2000 ; 38 (suppl 1) : I17 25 . PubMed | CAS 3 McQueen L , Mittman BS , Demakis JG. Overview of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) . Essay Spanish American War 1898. J Am Med Inform Assoc . 2004 ; 11 : 339 43 . CrossRef | PubMed | Web of tab Science® 4 QUERI.

QUERI program description (posted July 2003). Available at: http://www1.va.gov/hsrd/queri/. Essay Spanish American. Accessed August 10, 2005. 5 Cook TD , Campbell DT. Quasi-Experimentation: Design Analysis Issues for Field Settings . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company; 1979 . 6 Campbell DT , Stanley JC. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for responsibility statement Research . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company; 1963 . 7 Isaac S , Michael W. Handbook in Research and Evaluation: For Education and the Behavioral Sciences . San Diego: EdITS Publishers; 1982 . Essay American War 1898. 8 Dzewaltowski D , Estabrooks P , Glasgow R , Klesges L. Workgoup to et essayer, evaluate and enhance the reach and essay spanish american war 1898 dissemination of health promotion interventions (RE-AIM). Angel Thesis. Available at: http://www.re-aim.org/2003/whoweare.html. Accessed July 9, 2005. 9 Glasgow RE , Lichtenstein E , Marcus A. Essay American. Why don't we see more translation of thesis health promotion research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition . Am J Pub Health . 2003 ; 93 : 1261 7 . CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® 10 Stead M , Hastings G , Eadie D. The challenge of spanish american evaluating complex interventions : a framework for evaluating media advocacy . Essay On Reforms In Education. Health Educ Res. 2002 ; 17 : 351 64 . PubMed | Web of Science® 11 Zapka J , Goins KV , Pbert L , Ockene JK.

Translating efficacy research to essay spanish american war 1898, effectiveness studies in practice : lessons from research to promote smoking cessation in community health centers . Health Promot Pract. 2004 ; 5 : 245 55 . PubMed 12 Ovretveit J , Gustafson D. Using research to count, inform quality programmes . BMJ . 2003 ; 326 : 759 61 . CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® 13 Hulscher M , Laurant M , Grol R. Spanish. Process evaluation on bibliography, quality improvement interventions . Essay. Qual Saf Health Care . 2002 ; 12 : 40 6 . CrossRef | Web of extended essay word include Science® 14 Solberg LI. Guideline implementation : what the spanish, literature doesn't tell us . Jt Comm J Qual Improv. 2000 ; 26 : 525 37 . PubMed | CAS 15 Mittman B. Creating the evidence base for quality improvement collaboratives . Ann Int Med . Essay Word. 2004 ; 140 : 897 901 . CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® 16 Dehar MA , Casswell S , Duignan P. Formative and process evaluation of health promotion and disease prevention programs . Eval Rev . 1993 ; 17 : 204 20 . CrossRef | Web of Science® 17 Rossi P , Freeman H. Evaluation: A Systematic Approach . Essay Spanish American War 1898. Newbury Park: Sage Publications; 1993 . 18 Bhola HS. Evaluating “Literacy for uw graduate school submit Development” Projects, Programs and Campaigns: Evaluation Planning, Design and Implementation, and Utilization of Evaluation Results . Hamburg, Germany: UNESCO Institute for spanish american Education; DSE (German Foundation for International Development), xii; 1990 . 19 Patton MQ. Evaluation of program implementation . Eval Stud Rev Annu . 1979 ; 4 : 318 45 . 20 Altman DG. Thesis Statement. A framework for essay spanish evaluating community-based heart disease prevention programs . Soc Sci Med . 1986 ; 22 : 479 87 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 21 Havas S , Anliker J , Damron D , Feldman R , Langenberg P. Uses of process evaluation in essay, the Maryland WIC 5-a-day promotion program . Health Educ Behav . 2000 ; 27 : 254 63 . Essay American War 1898. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 22 Evans RI , Raines BE , Owen AE. Formative evaluation in essay loss, school-based health promotion investigations . Prev Med . Essay Spanish. 1989 ; 18 : 229 34 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 23 Patton MQ. Utilization-Focused Evaluation: The New Century Text . 3rd edn . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 1997 . 24 Patton MQ. Qualitative Research Evaluation Methods . 3rd edn . Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications; 2001 . 25 Walshe K , Freeman T. Effectiveness of quality improvement : learning from et essayer evaluations . Qual Saf Health Care.

2002 ; 11 : 85 7 . Spanish. PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 26 WholeyJ , HatryH , NewcomerK , eds. Essay Weight Loss Ads. Handbook of Practical Program Evaluation . Essay War 1898. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers; 1994 . 27 Forsetlund L , Talseth KO , Bradley P , Nordheim L , Bjorndal A. Word Bibliography. Many a slip between cup and lip. Process evaluation of a program to promote and spanish war 1898 support evidence-based public health practice . Eval Rev . 2003 ; 27 : 179 209 . CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® 28 Guide for Implementing Evidence-Based Clinical Practice and Conducting Implementation Research. Available at: http://www1.va.gov/hsrd/queri/implementation. Accessed August 10, 2005. 29 van Bokhoven MA , Kok G , van der Weijden T. Designing a quality improvement intervention : a systematic approach . Qual Saf Health Care. 2003 ; 3 : 215 20 . Angel Tab. 30 Rogers EM. War 1898. Diffusion of Innovations . 4th edn . New York: Free Press; 1995 . 31 Stetler C , Corrigan B , Sander-Buscemi K , Burns M. Integration of evidence into practice and the change process : a fall prevention program as a model . Outcomes Manag Nurs Practice. 1999 ; 3 : 102 11 . CAS 32 Sales A . Organizational readiness for evidence-based health care interventions. Available at: http://www.measurementsexperts.org/instrument;instrument_reviews.asp?detail=53.

Accessed August 10, 2005. 33 Luther SL , Nelson A , Powell-Cope G. Extended Word Count. Provider attitudes and beliefs about clinical practice guidelines . SCI Nurs . 2004 ; 21 : 206 12 . PubMed 34 Brown K , Gerhardt M. Formative evaluation : an essay war 1898, integrative practice model and case study . Personnel Psychol. 2002 ; 55 : 951f . Web of angel thesis Science® 35 Legro M , Wallace C , Hatzakis M , Goldstein B. Barriers to optimal use of computerized clinical reminders : the SCI QUERI experience . VA QUERI Quart. 2003 ; 4 : 2 . 36 Wallace C , Hatzakis M , Legro M , Goldstein B. Understanding a VA preventive care clinical reminder : lessons learned . SCI Nurs. War 1898. 2004 ; 21 : 149 52 . PubMed 37 Stetler C. The role of the organization in translating research into et essayer evidence based practice . Outcomes Manag Nurs Practice . 2003 ; 7 : 97 103 . 38 Rycroft-Malone J , Kitson A , Harvey G , et al . Ingredients for change : revisiting a conceptual framework . Qual Saf Health Care. 2002 ; 11 : 174 80 . PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 39 McCormack B , Kitson A , Harvey G , et al . Getting evidence into practice : the american, meaning of ‘context’ . J Adv Nurs. 2002 ; 38 : 94 104 . PubMed | Web of in education Science® 40 Bradley E , Holmboe E , Mattera J , et al . A qualitative study of essay spanish american war 1898 increasing β-blocker use after myocardial infarction : why do some hospitals succeed? J Am Med Assoc.

2001 ; 285 : 2604 11 . PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 41 Kimmel B. Bridging the et essayer, gap between knowledge and practice the essay war 1898, veterans administration pathway, Newsletter of the National Council of the University Research Administrators 20034;35. 42 Dunlap M , Beyth R , Deswal A , Massie B , Saleh J , Kimmel B. VA practice matters on treating chronic heart failure . VA Practice Matters . 2004 ; 9 : 1 8 . Available at: http://www.hsrd.research.va.gov/publications/internal/pm_v9_n1.pdf. Accessed September 9, 2005. 43 Hawe P , Shiell A , Riley T. Complex interventions : how “out of control” can a randomized controlled trial be? BMJ. 2004 ; 328 : 1561 3 . PubMed | Web of Science® 44 Kirchhoff K , Dille C. Weight Loss Ads. Issues in essay, intervention research : maintaining integrity . Appl Nurs Res.

1994 ; 7 : 32 8 . PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 45 Santacroce SJ , Maccarelli LM , Grey M. Intervention fidelity . Nurs Res . 2004 ; 53 : 63 6 . Thesis. CrossRef | PubMed | Web of spanish american Science® 46 Boyd NR , Windsor RA. Thesis Tab. A formative evaluation in american, maternal and child health practice : the partners for tab life nutrition education program for pregnant women . Matern Child Health J. 2003 ; 7 : 137 43 . PubMed 47 Stetler C , Creer E , Effken J. Evaluating a redesign program : challenges and opportunities. Spanish War 1898. In KellyK. On Reforms. , ed. Series on Nursing Administration , Vol. 8 . Essay Spanish American War 1898. St. Louis: Mosby Year Book; 1996 . Uw Graduate School Submit. 48 Effken E , Stetler C. Impact of organizational redesign . J Nurs Admin . 1997 ; 27 : 23 32 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® 49 Krumholz H , Herrin J. Quality improvement : the need is spanish there but so are the challenges . Responsibility Statement. Am J Med. 2000 ; 109 : 501 3 . PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 50 Willenbring ML , Hagedorn H. Essay American War 1898. Implementing evidence-based practices in opioid agonist therapy clinics . In: RobertsA. Thesis. , YeagerK. , eds. Evidence-Based Practice Manual: Research and Outcome Measures in Health and essay spanish american Human Services 2004 . New York: Oxford University Press; 2004 : 340 7 . 51 Willenbring ML , Hagedorn H , Poster AC , Kenny M. Variations in uw graduate school dissertation, evidence-based clinical practices in nine United States Veterans Administration opioid agonist therapy clinics . Drug Alcohol Dependence . 2004 ; 75 : 97 106 . CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® 52 LaVela S , Legro M , Weaver F , Smith B. Staff influenza vaccination : lessons learned . SCI Nurs.

2004 ; 21 : 153 7 . Spanish American War 1898. PubMed 53 La Vela SL , Legro MW , Weaver FM , Goldstein B , Smith B. Do Patient Intentions Predict Vaccination Behavior Over Time? Poster. Academy Health Annual Conference June 2004 . San Diego, CA. Angel. 54 Nazareth I , Freemantle N , Duggan C , Mason J , Haines A. Evaluation of essay a complex intervention for changing professional behaviour : the essay on reforms a necessity, evidence based out reach (EBOR) Trial . J Health Serv Res Policy. 2002 ; 7 : 230 8 . PubMed 55 Kukafka R , Johnson SB , Linfante A , Allegrante JP.

Grounding a new information technology implementation framework in behavioral science : a systematic analysis of the literature on IT use . J Biomed Inform. 2003 ; 36 : 218 27 . PubMed | Web of Science® 56 Sanson-Fisher RW , Grimshaw JM , Eccles MP. The science of changing providers' behaviour : the missing link in evidence-based practice . Med J Aust. 2004 ; 180 : 205 6 . PubMed | Web of Science® 57 Walker AE , Grimshaw J , Johnston M , Pitts N , Steen N , Eccles M. PRIMEPRocess modelling in ImpleMEntation research : selecting a theoretical basis for interventions to change clinical practice . BMC Health Serv Res. 2003 ; 3 : 22 . PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 26 58 Yin R. Case Study Research: Design and Methods . Thousand Oaks: Sage; 1994 . American. 59 Patterson ES , Nguyen AD , Halloran JM , Asch SM.

Human factors barriers to the effective use of ten HIV clinical reminders . J Am Med Inform Assoc . 2004 ; 11 : 50 9 . Responsibility Statement. CrossRef | PubMed | Web of american Science® 60 Sharp ND , Pineros SL , Hsu C , Starks H , Sales AE. Extended Essay Word Include. A qualitative study to identify barriers and facilitators to implementation of essay spanish american pilot interventions in thesis, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Northwest Network . Worldviews Evidence-Based Nurs . 2004 ; 1 : 129 39 . Spanish American. Wiley Online Library | PubMed 61 Devers KJ , Sofaer S , Rundall TG (Guest eds.). Qualitative methods in health services research : a special supplement to HSR . Health Services Res. 1999 ; 34 (part II) : 1083 263 . 62 Litchman J , Roumanis S , Radford M , et al . Can practice guidelines be transported effectively to different settings? Results from a multi-center interventional study . J Comm J Qual Improv . 2001 ; 27 : 42 53 . Articles related to school submit dissertation, the one you are viewing. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc.

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Here is your short essay on Ancient Rome. Roman civilization grew at a hilly point on the Tiber River in the central part of the Italian peninsula. Founded by shepherds and traders, Rome began as a republican society with the government of the state shared by the citizens. This state gradually expanded its control of the surrounding territory until it had conquered the essay war 1898 entire peninsula of Italy. It then looked to other parts of the Mediterranean, always with the excuse that Rome was only protecting itself against potential invaders.

The essential characteristic of the Roman civilization was practicality: What would work in a given situation? While the et essayer Greeks had been thinkers and philosophers, the Romans were doers. The Greeks built philosophies, and the Romans built roads. The Roman society of the early years was a strong one; it stressed strength, patriotism, and religious faith. Character, or morals, also was stressed strongly. Women were more important and equal in spanish war 1898, the Roman society than they had been in Greece. During this time the education was received at home. Angel Thesis Tab? The object of early Roman education was to produce children who would be true to the Roman ideals and religion. Physical training for the boys was oriented almost entirely toward military ends. Unlike the Greeks, the essay Romans had no real interest in beauty, harmony, or the balanced development of the individual, though a strong sense of morals was considered important.

Much of the angel thesis tab contact with literature came from the memorization of the Twelve Tables, Rome's codification of the laws. As the power and spanish american war 1898, influence of the Romans grew and they gained control of on reforms in education, more provinces in the eastern Mediterranean, they saw more need for the education that would enable them to administer their territories. There also was a trend away from the military orientation of spanish american war 1898, physical training as the old part-time army of citizens became more a full-time army of mercenaries, or noncitizens who were paid to serve in the army. On Reforms In Education? Education in the home had made early Rome strong, but as the Empire grew, schools were developed outside the essay american home. Much of the instruction was done by Greek slaves, who had a broader education than the Romans. They provided the grammar part of the traditional Greek education, but since the uw graduate submit dissertation Romans saw no practical use for the gymnastics or music, these studies were not included in the program. The educational program was unbalanced, for the Romans were interested primarily in education that had practical uses. Their contributions to civilization were notably in the practical areas of law and engineering. American? The great wealth that came into the Roman Empire from the conquered nations and the many slaves who did much of the work previously done by the poorer Romans led to a breakdown of the et essayer societal morals of the roman people. A Roman did not need to work to essay war 1898, live, for the state provided free food.

Political corruption grew with the luxury, and the old Roman ideals of patriotism and extended word count, self-sacrifice died. The Romans saw little reason for physical training. Rome became a nation of spectators. The people would go to the circus or the amphitheatre and watch chariot races or gladiatorial fights to the death. As they demanded more variety in essay spanish american war 1898, the death-struggles, they used fights between animals and men, between larger groups of men, and eventually even waged small sea battles by flooding the arena.

This emphasis on spectatorship and the growing professionalism in athletics destroyed much of the strength of Roman society, just as it had eventually destroyed the angel tab Olympic Games of the essay american war 1898 Greeks. The moral and educational values of the Romans games disappeared. The Romans were more interested in the violent sports and only as spectators and they were little interested in personal competition or in personal excellence. On Reforms In Education? The Romans also were very interested in baths. Ruins of war 1898, old Roman baths, many of which were built and operated by the government, can be found in areas of the Western world today. Some facilities were provided for exercise at the baths, but not on the scale of the Greek facilities. Exercise was only essay weight a minor part of the experience at the Roman baths, for the emphasis was upon the sedentary pleasures of hot and cold baths and massage. The wealth and sedentary decadence of the Romans eventually brought down the spanish war 1898 Empire. When the barbarians began to try to submit, take it over, the Romans no longer had the essay spanish internal strength to oppose a strong outside force. Although the Romans had gained control over most of Western Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East, the conquests began to reverse as the barbarians nibbled at the edges of the Empire.

By A.D. 400 the essay weight Romans were in full flight; they withdrew their outlying garrisons and came home to defend Rome, but to no avail. Riches and moral laxity had made Roman culture too weak for spanish war 1898, a successful defence. School? Although the last true Roman emperor passed from the scene in A.D. 476, the Empire continued, controlled by the newcomers and split into two parts: the western empire, centred about Rome; and the eastern empire, centred at essay spanish war 1898, Constantinople. Henceforth, there was little influence from the Roman Empire. Most of its former territories had fallen to et essayer, various barbarian groups who had hoped to get a piece of the rich Roman life for themselves. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you.

Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Before preserving your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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Don Quijote de la Mancha. Essay Spanish. Resumen y biografia. Alonso Quijano es un hidalgo pobre de la Mancha, que de tanto leer novelas de caballeria acaba enloqueciendo y creyendo ser un caballero andante, nombrandose a si mismo como Don Quijote de la Mancha. Et Essayer. Sus intenciones son ayudar a los pobres y desfavorecidos, y lograr el amor de la supuesta Dulcinea del Toboso, que es en realidad es una campesina llamada Aldonza Lorenzo. Essay. La primera salida la hace solo, pero regresa en poco tiempo a casa y decide nombrar a Sancho Panza, un empleado suyo, escudero. Et Essayer. Juntos realizan la segunda salida, en la que viven mas de una aventura: Don Quijote ve y ataca a unos gigantes que en realidad resultan ser molinos de viento, confunde un rebano con un ejercito, tiene mas de una disputa, una de ellas con un vizcaino, y llega a enfrentarse a unos leones. Essay American War 1898. Finalmente, y tras hacer penitencia en un bosque, es capturado por el cura y el barbero de su pueblo y llevado a casa en una jaula tra ser enganado para ayudar a la supuesta princesa Micomicona. En la tercera y ultima salida, las aventuras mas destacadas son las de La cueva de Montesinos, donde Don Quijote suena mil maravillas, el rebuzno de Sancho Panza, y para finalizar, la derrota de Don Quijote ante el Caballero de la Blanca Luna, razon por la que se retira su hogar, donde, tras adquirir de nuevo la cordura, fallece. Miguel de Cervantes.

Nacido en Alcala de Henares, su familia pronto se traslado a Valadolid por porblemas economicos, y alli comenzo sus estudios. Angel Tab. Mas tarde volvio a Madrid, estudio en las universidades de Alcala de Henares y Salamanca y en el ano 1571 participo en la batalla de Lepanto, donde perdio la mano izquierda. Essay Spanish. Vivio unos anos en Italia, y cuando volvia a Espana fue secuestrado por piratas turcos, que lo vendieron como esclavo en Argel, y permanecio alli hasta que en 1580 fue liberado. Essay Weight Ads. Se caso cuatro anos despues con Catalina Salazar de Palacios, y un ano despues publico La Galatea . Essay. Ya en 1605 publico su obra maestra: El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha . solo les digo que del su esta chafa leer el no la jalen tanton su pequeno tilin. Peres tonto si no te gustas es q no tas vivo si si eres tontiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiisiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo. School Submit. /P vete a la mierda! tiene razon si o te gusta es xq no estas vivo tonto. Spanish War 1898. imb. Essay Word Include Bibliography. nbsp;wue. strongpinches mamadas no me gusto para nada q se vayan a la mierda todos esos imbeciles sin huevos q dicen q si aki arriba pinches peleles /strong hola en realidad adoro don quijote de la mancha es una bella historia tan sorprendente que me encantaria leer todos los libros que hayan de el tambien el que haya escrito ese resumen tan practico es una persona onorable y muy inteligente, creo que todos deberian leer este resumen tan inspirador. no se xq agarran esto para escribir tonterias la verdad es qyo ni me lo lei pero = q falta de cultura.

pbueno a mi parecer el Quijote m parese una historia divertida e interesante al mismo tiempo pero el k la escribio si es una presona k tiene mucha imaginacion jijiji y por lo tanto yo creo k merec respeto bueno en toda la locura de Quijote tambien tiene razon en muchas cosasnbsp;/p pbueno a mi parecer el Quijote m parese una historia divertida e interesante al mismo tiempo pero el k la escribio si es una presona k tiene mucha imaginacion jijiji y por lo tanto yo creo k merec respeto bueno en toda la locura de Quijote tambien tiene razon en muchas cosasnbsp;/p Estuvo buena la pagina pero no me dio la informacion que yo keria yo keria su biografia no su historia Ok xque no hacen una pagina que tenga el resuman de su historia y su BIOGRAFIA que yo realmente keria besos! chauu by. Spanish American. by. Et Essayer. polas manes yo creo q esta obra es fantastico y divertida leanlo ,/p py si los tontos q vienen pa joder , lean un libro por su unica vida ,no sean pandilleros petes. American. /p polas manes yo creo q esta obra es fantastico y divertida leanlo ,/p py si los tontos q vienen pa joder , lean un libro por su unica vida ,no sean pandilleros petes. Thesis. /p liolas manes yo creo q esta obra es fantastico y divertida leanlo ,/li liy si los tontos q vienen pa joder , lean un libro por su unica vida ,no sean pandilleros petes. Spanish War 1898. /li liRecomiendo este libro y q es rebuenismimo ,para los q buscaban la biografia del autor busquen aqui!!br //li pPoeta, novelista y dramaturgo espanol, considerado como el mas grande escritor espanol de todos los tiempos, y uno de los mejores escritores universales. Essay Word Count Bibliography. Su obra mas conocida, la Historia de emEl Quijote de la Mancha/em, ha trascendido todas las fronteras y todas las culturas./p pEl retrato mas fidedigno que se conoce de Miguel de Cervantes se debe a su propia pluma, con la que trazo su emrostro y talle/em en el prologo a las emNovelas ejemplares/em:/p pemEste que veis aqui, de rostro aguileno, de cabello castano, frente lisa y desembarazada, de alegres ojos y de nariz corva, aunque bien proporcionada; las barbas de plata, que no ha veinte anos que fueron de oro, los bigotes grandes, la boca pequena, los dientes ni menudos ni crecidos, porque no tiene sino seis, y esos mal acondicionados y peor puestos, porque no tienen correspondencia los unos con los otros; el cuerpo entre dos estremos, ni grande, ni pequeno, la color viva, antes blanca que morena; algo cargado de espaldas, y no muy ligero de pies; este digo que es el rostro del autor de/em La Galateaem y de/em Don Quijote de la Manchaem, y del que hizo el/em Viaje del Parnasoem, a imitacion del de Cesar Caporal Perusino, y otras obras que andan por ahi descarriadas y, quiza, sin el nombre de su dueno. Spanish. Llamase comunmente Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra.

Fue soldado muchos anos, y cinco y medio cautivo, donde aprendio a tener paciencia en las adversidades. Et Essayer. Perdio en la batalla naval de Lepanto la mano izquierda de un arcabuzazo, herida que, aunque parece fea, el la tiene por hermosa, por haberla cobrado en la mas memorable y alta ocasion que vieron los pasados siglos, ni esperan ver los venideros, militando debajo de las vencedoras banderas del hijo del rayo de la guerra, Carlo Quinto, de felice memoria/em./p pMiguel de Cervantes fue bautizado el 9 de octubre de 1547, en la iglesia parroquial de Santa Maria la Mayor, de Alcala de Henares, donde nacio posiblemente el dia 29 de septiembre, dia de San Miguel. Spanish War 1898. Era el cuarto hijo de los seis que tuvo el matrimonio Rodrigo de Cervantes y Leonor de Cortinas. Essay Weight. El padre era cirujano-barbero, profesion de escasos ingresos y baja consideracion social. Spanish War 1898. Las estrecheces economicas, en las que sin duda se crio nuestro autor, forzaron a su padre a emprender un vagabundeo por Valladolid, Cordoba y Sevilla en busca de mejor suerte, nunca conseguida, sin que sepamos a ciencia cierta si su prole lo acompano en sus viajes o no.

Si lo hizo, Cervantes podria haber aprendido sus primeras letras en un colegio de la Compania de Jesus de esas localidades, e incluso haberse aficionado al teatro -una vocacion que no abandonaria jamas- bajo la tutela del padre Acevedo. Essay Loss Ads. Desde 1566 el cirujano-barbero se establecio definitivamente con su familia en Madrid, iniciando por esos anos el joven autor su carrera literaria: primero, en 1567, con un soneto dedicado a la reina (emSerenisima reina, en quien se halla/em), con motivo del nacimiento de la infanta Catalina, la segunda hija de Felipe II. Essay Spanish American War 1898. Despues, en 1569, con cuatro poemas de corte garcilacista dedicados a la muerte de Isabel de Valois, tercera esposa de Felipe II, que le pidio Juan Lopez de Hoyos, rector del Estudio de la Villa -tratandolo de emcaro y amado discipulo/em-, para incluirlos en la emHistoria y relacion de las exequias reales/em. Responsibility Thesis. Es posible que Cervantes se iniciara en la literatura bajo la supervision y en la amistad del humanista y gramatico Lopez de Hoyos. War 1898. Lo que si es seguro es que Cervantes entro al mundo literario de la mano de la poesia. Angel Thesis. /p pEsos tempranos inicios poeticos se vieron truncados casi en sus comienzos, pues a finales de 1569, encontramos al joven escritor instalado en Roma como camarero del cardenal Giulio Acquaviva, al que serviria durante un tiempo para iniciar pronto su carrera militar. Spanish. Alli tuvo Cervantes ocasion de familiarizarse con la literatura italiana del momento, tan influyente en su propia obra./p pAbandono el ambiente pontificio en 1570, para entrar en el servicio militar, entonces absolutamente voluntario, en el que desde luego no le sonreiria nunca la fortuna.

Se alisto primero en Napoles a las ordenes de Alvaro de Sande, para sentar plaza despues, con toda seguridad, en la compania de Diego de Urbina, del tercio de don Miguel de Moncada, bajo cuyas ordenes se embarcaria en la galera emMarquesa/em, junto con su hermano Rodrigo, para combatir, el 7 de octubre de 1571, en la batalla naval de Lepanto. Word Include Bibliography. Aunque en aquellos dias sufria de fiebres, lucho con valor, pues recibio dos arcabuzazos en el pecho y uno en la mano izquierda, que se la dejaria inutilizada para siempre. Essay American War 1898. A cambio, quedaria inmortalizado como emEl manco de Lepanto/em y conservaria hasta su muerte el orgullo de haber participado en emla mas alta ocasion que vieron los siglos pasados, los presentes, ni esperan ver los venideros/em./p pYa recuperado de sus heridas en Mesina, en 1572 se incorporo a la compania de don Manuel Ponce de Leon, del tercio de don Lope de Figueroa, dispuesto a seguir como soldado, pese a tener una mano lisiada. Ads. Participo en diversas campanas militares en los anos siguientes, pasando gran parte de su tiempo en los aburridos cuarteles de invierno de Mesina, Sicilia, Palermo y Napoles. Essay Spanish American War 1898. Cansado de tal modo de vida, unos tres anos despues Cervantes decide regresar a Espana, no sin obtener antes cartas de recomendacion del propio don Juan de Austria, reconociendole sus meritos militares, con intencion de utilizarlas en la Corte para obtener algun cargo oficial. Thesis Statement. Asi, en 1575 embarca en Napoles, junto con su hermano Rodrigo, en una flotilla de cuatro galeras que parten rumbo a Barcelona, con tan mala suerte que una tempestad las dispersa y precisamente emEl Sol/em, en la que viajaban Cervantes y su hermano, es apresada, ya frente a las costas catalanas, por unos corsarios berberiscos al mando del renegado albanes Arnaut Mami. Essay American. Los cautivos son conducidos a Argel y Miguel de Cervantes cae en manos de Dali Mami, apodado emEl Cojo/em, quien, a la vista de las cartas de recomendacion del prisionero, firmadas por el gran capitan mediterraneo Juan de Austria, fija su rescate en 500 escudos de oro, cantidad practicamente inalcanzable para la familia de su padre el cirujano./p pAsi se inicia el periodo mas terrible de su vida: cinco largos anos de cautiverio en las mazmorras o banos argelinos, que dejarian una huella indeleble en la mente del escritor -normalmente traducida en una continua exaltacion de la libertad-:/p pemLa libertad, Sancho, es uno de los mas preciosos dones que a los hombres dieron los cielos; con ella no pueden igualarse los tesoros que encierra la tierra ni el mar encubre; por la libertad, asi como por la honra, se puede y debe aventurar la vida, y, por el contrario, el cautiverio es el mayor mal que puede venir a los hombres/em (Quijote, II, 58)./p pa la vez que alimentarian numerosas paginas de sus obras, desde emLa Galatea/em al emPersiles/em, pasando por emEl capitan cautivo/em del primer emQuijote/em, y sin olvidar emEl trato de Argel/em ni emLos banos de Argel/em. Et Essayer. Intento escaparse en varias ocasiones, sin exito, y al final fue liberado gracias al rescate pagado por el fraile trinitario fray Juan Gil, con las monedas obtenidas de sus recorridos pediguenos por la geografia espanola. Essay Spanish American. El 27 de octubre llega a las costas espanolas y desembarca en Denia (Valencia): su cautiverio ha durado cinco anos y un mes./p pPretendio largo tiempo algun puesto oficial, especialmente en America, a donde queria viajar. Uw Graduate School Dissertation. En 1581 fue a Oran, en mision desconocida, y luego a Lisboa, a dar cuentas al gobierno de Felipe II. Spanish American War 1898. Sigue empenado en un puesto en America, y asi en 1582, dirige una solicitud a Antonio de Eraso, que le es denegada.

Nunca le fueron recompensados sus meritos militares./p pDedicado de lleno a las letras, en el mundo literario del Madrid de finales del siglo XVI, mantiene relaciones amistosas con las mas altas plumas de la epoca: Laynez, Figueroa, Padilla, etc.) y se dedica a redactar emLa Galatea/em -donde figuran como personajes buena parte de estos autores-, que veria la luz en Alcala de Henares, en 1585. Extended Essay Include. Sigue tambien muy de cerca la evolucion del teatro, acelerada por el nacimiento de los corrales de comedias, y se empapa de las obras de Argensola, Cueva, Virues, etc., llevando a cabo una actividad dramatica muy fecunda no ajena al exito: /p pemcompuse en este tiempo hasta veinte comedias o treinta, que todas ellas se recitaron sin que se les ofreciese ofrenda de pepinos ni de otra cosa arrojadiza; corrieron su carrera sin silbos, gritas ni barahundas/em dice en el Prologo a emOcho comedias/em./p pDe ellas se conservan hoy emEl trato de Argel/em, emLa Numancia/em y, si admitimos su paternidad, la recien atribuida emConquista de Jerusalen/em. Essay Spanish. Tambien conocemos un contrato firmado en 1585 con Gaspar de Porres, referente a dos piezas perdidas: emEl trato de Constantinopla/em y emLa Confusa/em./p pSe caso en Esquivias con Catalina de Salazar, en 1585, y poco despues siguio con sus viajes y movimientos por el ancho mundo, que le llevaron a tener esposa de modo solo nominal, pues hasta principios del siglo XVII no volvera a verse con ella./p pEn 1587 le vemos instalado en Sevilla, donde, al fin, obtiene, por mediacion de Diego de Valdivia, el cargo de comisario real de abastos para la emArmada Invencible/em. Include Bibliography. Mas tarde seria encargado de recaudar las tasas atrasadas en Granada, habiendole denegado una vez mas el oficio en Indias que habia vuelto a solicitar en 1590. Essay Spanish. Tan miserables empleos lo arrastrarian a soportar, hasta finales de siglo, un continuo vagabundeo mercantilista por el sur (Ecija, La Rambla, Castro del Rio, Cabra, Ubeda, Estepa, etc.), sin lograr mas que disgustos, excomuniones, denuncias y algun encarcelamiento (Castro del Rio, en 1592, y Sevilla, en 1597), al parecer siempre injustos y nunca demasiado largos. Et Essayer. Como contrapartida, el viajero entrara en contacto directo con las gentes de a pie, y aun con los bajos fondos, adquiriendo una experiencia humana magistralmente recreada en sus obras./p pComo dramaturgo, se compromete en 1592 con Rodrigo Osorio a entregarle seis comedias, que no cobraria si no resultaban de las mejores, entre las cuales se cuentan varias de las incluidas en el tomo de 1615; como novelista, redacta varias novelas cortas (emEl cautivo/em, emRinconete y Cortadillo/em, emEl celoso extremeno/em, etc.) y, mucho mas importante, esboza nada menos que la primera parte del emQuijote/em y, quiza, el comienzo del emPersiles/em. War 1898. Al comienzo del siglo XVII, Cervantes se despide de Sevilla y solo sabemos de el que anda dedicado de lleno a la escritura del emQuijote/em. Angel Thesis. En 1603 se instalo en Valladolid, ciudad declarada nuevamente capital de Espana por Felipe III./p pA principios de 1605, de forma un tanto precipitada, ve la luz emEl ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha/em, en la imprenta madrilena de Juan de la Cuesta, a costa de Francisco de Robles, con un exito inmediato y varias ediciones piratas, por lo que Juan de la Cuesta inicia la segunda edicion al poco tiempo. War 1898. Este exito se veria empanado por un nuevo encarcelamiento, ordenado sediciosamente por el alcalde Villarroel, motivado por el asesinato de Gaspar de Ezpeleta a las puertas de la casa de los Cervantes, en cuyo proceso la familia fue acusada de llevar vida licenciosa (emLas Cervantas/em)./p pViaja de nuevo, y queda a vivir, en Madrid, en 1606.

Ya en la recta final de su vida, aun vive dos nuevas mudanzas: primero a la calle Huertas y luego a la de Francos, la asistencia a las academias de moda, como la del conde de Saldana, en Atocha, y el ingreso en la Orden Tercera de San Francisco./p pYa prestigioso novelista y escritor, Miguel de Cervantes va redactando gran parte de su produccion literaria, aprovechando titulos y proyectos viejos. Uw Graduate Submit. Tras ocho anos de silencio editorial desde la publicacion de la novela que lo inmortalizaria, publica una verdadera avalancha literaria: emNovelas ejemplares/em (1613), emViaje del Parnaso/em (1614), emOcho comedias y ocho entremeses nuevos nunca representados/em (1615) y emSegunda parte del ingenioso caballero don Quijote de la Mancha/em (1615 tambien). Spanish American War 1898. La lista se cerraria, postumamente, con la aparicion, gestionada por su mujer Catalina, de emLos trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, historia setentrional/em (1617)./p pEnfermo gravemente de hidropesia (accidente vascular con posible paralisis) en 1616 se vio morir: el 18 de abril recibe los ultimos sacramentos; el 19 redacta, empuesto ya el pie en el estribo/em, su ultimo escrito: la sobrecogedora dedicatoria del emPersiles/em; el 22, poco mas de una semana despues que Shakespeare, el autor del emQuijote/em fallece y es enterrado al dia siguiente, con el sayal franciscano, en el convento de las Trinitarias Descalzas de la actual calle de Lope de Vega. Word Bibliography. Sus restos mortales se perdieron, y hoy permanece en la memoria de todos los que aman la buena literatura y el idioma castellano en su mas puro acento./p pMiguel de Cervantes cultivo los tres grandes generos literarios (poesia, teatro y novela) con el mismo empeno, aunque con resultados bien distintos. Essay American War 1898. La historia literaria ha respetado siempre la evaluacion adelantada por sus contemporaneos: fue menospreciado como poeta, cuestionado como dramaturgo y admirado como novelista./p pLa produccion poetica cervantina ocupa un espacio considerable en el conjunto de su obra, se halla diseminada a lo largo y ancho de sus escritos y recorre su biografia desde sus inicios literarios hasta el emPersiles/em.

Responde a una vocacion proaache, cultivada ininterrumpidamente, aunque no siempre con la inspiracion necesaria. Essay Weight Loss. Su obra poetica esta integrada por numerosas composiciones sueltas, normalmente de circunstancias (conmemorativas, funebres, laudatorias o satirico-burlescas), y por un largo poema con perfiles auto biograficos: el emViaje del Parnaso/em. Essay Spanish War 1898. Este es el unico poema narrativo extenso de Cervantes. Ads. Hecho a imagen y semejanza delem Viaggio di Parnaso/em (emc/em. Essay War 1898. 1578), de Cesare Caporali di Perugia, como declara el propio autor, se inscribe en la tradicion satirico-alegorica menipea, de ascendiente clasico, medieval y erasmista. Extended Word Include. Narra autobiograficamente, en ocho capitulos, un viaje fantastico al monte Parnaso, a bordo de una galera capitaneada por Mercurio, emprendido por muchos poetas buenos con el fin de defenderlo contra los poetastros. Essay American War 1898. Reunidos alli con Apolo, salen victoriosos de la batalla y el protagonista regresa magicamente a su morada. Uw Graduate School Submit Dissertation. La aventura se completa con la Adjunta al Parnaso, donde Pancracio de Roncesvalles entrega a Miguel dos cartas de Apolo con las que se cierra la adenda/p liolas manes yo creo q esta obra es fantastico y divertida leanlo ,/li liy si los tontos q vienen pa joder , lean un libro por su unica vida ,no sean pandilleros petes. American War 1898. /li liRecomiendo este libro y q es rebuenismimo ,para los q buscaban la biografia del autor busquen aqui!!br //li pPoeta, novelista y dramaturgo espanol, considerado como el mas grande escritor espanol de todos los tiempos, y uno de los mejores escritores universales. On Reforms In Education A Necessity. Su obra mas conocida, la Historia de emEl Quijote de la Mancha/em, ha trascendido todas las fronteras y todas las culturas./p pEl retrato mas fidedigno que se conoce de Miguel de Cervantes se debe a su propia pluma, con la que trazo su emrostro y talle/em en el prologo a las emNovelas ejemplares/em:/p pemEste que veis aqui, de rostro aguileno, de cabello castano, frente lisa y desembarazada, de alegres ojos y de nariz corva, aunque bien proporcionada; las barbas de plata, que no ha veinte anos que fueron de oro, los bigotes grandes, la boca pequena, los dientes ni menudos ni crecidos, porque no tiene sino seis, y esos mal acondicionados y peor puestos, porque no tienen correspondencia los unos con los otros; el cuerpo entre dos estremos, ni grande, ni pequeno, la color viva, antes blanca que morena; algo cargado de espaldas, y no muy ligero de pies; este digo que es el rostro del autor de/em La Galateaem y de/em Don Quijote de la Manchaem, y del que hizo el/em Viaje del Parnasoem, a imitacion del de Cesar Caporal Perusino, y otras obras que andan por ahi descarriadas y, quiza, sin el nombre de su dueno. Spanish. Llamase comunmente Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Essay Weight Ads. Fue soldado muchos anos, y cinco y medio cautivo, donde aprendio a tener paciencia en las adversidades.

Perdio en la batalla naval de Lepanto la mano izquierda de un arcabuzazo, herida que, aunque parece fea, el la tiene por hermosa, por haberla cobrado en la mas memorable y alta ocasion que vieron los pasados siglos, ni esperan ver los venideros, militando debajo de las vencedoras banderas del hijo del rayo de la guerra, Carlo Quinto, de felice memoria/em./p pMiguel de Cervantes fue bautizado el 9 de octubre de 1547, en la iglesia parroquial de Santa Maria la Mayor, de Alcala de Henares, donde nacio posiblemente el dia 29 de septiembre, dia de San Miguel. Spanish American. Era el cuarto hijo de los seis que tuvo el matrimonio Rodrigo de Cervantes y Leonor de Cortinas. In Education A Necessity. El padre era cirujano-barbero, profesion de escasos ingresos y baja consideracion social. Essay Spanish American. Las estrecheces economicas, en las que sin duda se crio nuestro autor, forzaron a su padre a emprender un vagabundeo por Valladolid, Cordoba y Sevilla en busca de mejor suerte, nunca conseguida, sin que sepamos a ciencia cierta si su prole lo acompano en sus viajes o no. Essay Word Bibliography. Si lo hizo, Cervantes podria haber aprendido sus primeras letras en un colegio de la Compania de Jesus de esas localidades, e incluso haberse aficionado al teatro -una vocacion que no abandonaria jamas- bajo la tutela del padre Acevedo. American. Desde 1566 el cirujano-barbero se establecio definitivamente con su familia en Madrid, iniciando por esos anos el joven autor su carrera literaria: primero, en 1567, con un soneto dedicado a la reina (emSerenisima reina, en quien se halla/em), con motivo del nacimiento de la infanta Catalina, la segunda hija de Felipe II. Thesis. Despues, en 1569, con cuatro poemas de corte garcilacista dedicados a la muerte de Isabel de Valois, tercera esposa de Felipe II, que le pidio Juan Lopez de Hoyos, rector del Estudio de la Villa -tratandolo de emcaro y amado discipulo/em-, para incluirlos en la emHistoria y relacion de las exequias reales/em. Spanish War 1898. Es posible que Cervantes se iniciara en la literatura bajo la supervision y en la amistad del humanista y gramatico Lopez de Hoyos. Extended Essay Count Include Bibliography. Lo que si es seguro es que Cervantes entro al mundo literario de la mano de la poesia. Essay. /p pEsos tempranos inicios poeticos se vieron truncados casi en sus comienzos, pues a finales de 1569, encontramos al joven escritor instalado en Roma como camarero del cardenal Giulio Acquaviva, al que serviria durante un tiempo para iniciar pronto su carrera militar. Statement. Alli tuvo Cervantes ocasion de familiarizarse con la literatura italiana del momento, tan influyente en su propia obra./p pAbandono el ambiente pontificio en 1570, para entrar en el servicio militar, entonces absolutamente voluntario, en el que desde luego no le sonreiria nunca la fortuna.

Se alisto primero en Napoles a las ordenes de Alvaro de Sande, para sentar plaza despues, con toda seguridad, en la compania de Diego de Urbina, del tercio de don Miguel de Moncada, bajo cuyas ordenes se embarcaria en la galera emMarquesa/em, junto con su hermano Rodrigo, para combatir, el 7 de octubre de 1571, en la batalla naval de Lepanto. Essay Spanish War 1898. Aunque en aquellos dias sufria de fiebres, lucho con valor, pues recibio dos arcabuzazos en el pecho y uno en la mano izquierda, que se la dejaria inutilizada para siempre. Loss Ads. A cambio, quedaria inmortalizado como emEl manco de Lepanto/em y conservaria hasta su muerte el orgullo de haber participado en emla mas alta ocasion que vieron los siglos pasados, los presentes, ni esperan ver los venideros/em./p pYa recuperado de sus heridas en Mesina, en 1572 se incorporo a la compania de don Manuel Ponce de Leon, del tercio de don Lope de Figueroa, dispuesto a seguir como soldado, pese a tener una mano lisiada. Essay Spanish American War 1898. Participo en diversas campanas militares en los anos siguientes, pasando gran parte de su tiempo en los aburridos cuarteles de invierno de Mesina, Sicilia, Palermo y Napoles. Responsibility Thesis Statement. Cansado de tal modo de vida, unos tres anos despues Cervantes decide regresar a Espana, no sin obtener antes cartas de recomendacion del propio don Juan de Austria, reconociendole sus meritos militares, con intencion de utilizarlas en la Corte para obtener algun cargo oficial. Spanish. Asi, en 1575 embarca en Napoles, junto con su hermano Rodrigo, en una flotilla de cuatro galeras que parten rumbo a Barcelona, con tan mala suerte que una tempestad las dispersa y precisamente emEl Sol/em, en la que viajaban Cervantes y su hermano, es apresada, ya frente a las costas catalanas, por unos corsarios berberiscos al mando del renegado albanes Arnaut Mami.

Los cautivos son conducidos a Argel y Miguel de Cervantes cae en manos de Dali Mami, apodado emEl Cojo/em, quien, a la vista de las cartas de recomendacion del prisionero, firmadas por el gran capitan mediterraneo Juan de Austria, fija su rescate en 500 escudos de oro, cantidad practicamente inalcanzable para la familia de su padre el cirujano./p pAsi se inicia el periodo mas terrible de su vida: cinco largos anos de cautiverio en las mazmorras o banos argelinos, que dejarian una huella indeleble en la mente del escritor -normalmente traducida en una continua exaltacion de la libertad-:/p pemLa libertad, Sancho, es uno de los mas preciosos dones que a los hombres dieron los cielos; con ella no pueden igualarse los tesoros que encierra la tierra ni el mar encubre; por la libertad, asi como por la honra, se puede y debe aventurar la vida, y, por el contrario, el cautiverio es el mayor mal que puede venir a los hombres/em (Quijote, II, 58)./p pa la vez que alimentarian numerosas paginas de sus obras, desde emLa Galatea/em al emPersiles/em, pasando por emEl capitan cautivo/em del primer emQuijote/em, y sin olvidar emEl trato de Argel/em ni emLos banos de Argel/em. Essay Loss Ads. Intento escaparse en varias ocasiones, sin exito, y al final fue liberado gracias al rescate pagado por el fraile trinitario fray Juan Gil, con las monedas obtenidas de sus recorridos pediguenos por la geografia espanola. Essay American. El 27 de octubre llega a las costas espanolas y desembarca en Denia (Valencia): su cautiverio ha durado cinco anos y un mes./p pPretendio largo tiempo algun puesto oficial, especialmente en America, a donde queria viajar. Statement. En 1581 fue a Oran, en mision desconocida, y luego a Lisboa, a dar cuentas al gobierno de Felipe II. Essay Spanish American War 1898. Sigue empenado en un puesto en America, y asi en 1582, dirige una solicitud a Antonio de Eraso, que le es denegada. Et Essayer. Nunca le fueron recompensados sus meritos militares./p pDedicado de lleno a las letras, en el mundo literario del Madrid de finales del siglo XVI, mantiene relaciones amistosas con las mas altas plumas de la epoca: Laynez, Figueroa, Padilla, etc.) y se dedica a redactar emLa Galatea/em -donde figuran como personajes buena parte de estos autores-, que veria la luz en Alcala de Henares, en 1585.

Sigue tambien muy de cerca la evolucion del teatro, acelerada por el nacimiento de los corrales de comedias, y se empapa de las obras de Argensola, Cueva, Virues, etc., llevando a cabo una actividad dramatica muy fecunda no ajena al exito: /p pemcompuse en este tiempo hasta veinte comedias o treinta, que todas ellas se recitaron sin que se les ofreciese ofrenda de pepinos ni de otra cosa arrojadiza; corrieron su carrera sin silbos, gritas ni barahundas/em dice en el Prologo a emOcho comedias/em./p pDe ellas se conservan hoy emEl trato de Argel/em, emLa Numancia/em y, si admitimos su paternidad, la recien atribuida emConquista de Jerusalen/em. Essay War 1898. Tambien conocemos un contrato firmado en 1585 con Gaspar de Porres, referente a dos piezas perdidas: emEl trato de Constantinopla/em y emLa Confusa/em./p pSe caso en Esquivias con Catalina de Salazar, en 1585, y poco despues siguio con sus viajes y movimientos por el ancho mundo, que le llevaron a tener esposa de modo solo nominal, pues hasta principios del siglo XVII no volvera a verse con ella./p pEn 1587 le vemos instalado en Sevilla, donde, al fin, obtiene, por mediacion de Diego de Valdivia, el cargo de comisario real de abastos para la emArmada Invencible/em. Uw Graduate. Mas tarde seria encargado de recaudar las tasas atrasadas en Granada, habiendole denegado una vez mas el oficio en Indias que habia vuelto a solicitar en 1590. Essay Spanish American War 1898. Tan miserables empleos lo arrastrarian a soportar, hasta finales de siglo, un continuo vagabundeo mercantilista por el sur (Ecija, La Rambla, Castro del Rio, Cabra, Ubeda, Estepa, etc.), sin lograr mas que disgustos, excomuniones, denuncias y algun encarcelamiento (Castro del Rio, en 1592, y Sevilla, en 1597), al parecer siempre injustos y nunca demasiado largos. Uw Graduate School Submit Dissertation. Como contrapartida, el viajero entrara en contacto directo con las gentes de a pie, y aun con los bajos fondos, adquiriendo una experiencia humana magistralmente recreada en sus obras./p pComo dramaturgo, se compromete en 1592 con Rodrigo Osorio a entregarle seis comedias, que no cobraria si no resultaban de las mejores, entre las cuales se cuentan varias de las incluidas en el tomo de 1615; como novelista, redacta varias novelas cortas (emEl cautivo/em, emRinconete y Cortadillo/em, emEl celoso extremeno/em, etc.) y, mucho mas importante, esboza nada menos que la primera parte del emQuijote/em y, quiza, el comienzo del emPersiles/em. War 1898. Al comienzo del siglo XVII, Cervantes se despide de Sevilla y solo sabemos de el que anda dedicado de lleno a la escritura del emQuijote/em.

En 1603 se instalo en Valladolid, ciudad declarada nuevamente capital de Espana por Felipe III./p pA principios de 1605, de forma un tanto precipitada, ve la luz emEl ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha/em, en la imprenta madrilena de Juan de la Cuesta, a costa de Francisco de Robles, con un exito inmediato y varias ediciones piratas, por lo que Juan de la Cuesta inicia la segunda edicion al poco tiempo. Extended Essay Word Bibliography. Este exito se veria empanado por un nuevo encarcelamiento, ordenado sediciosamente por el alcalde Villarroel, motivado por el asesinato de Gaspar de Ezpeleta a las puertas de la casa de los Cervantes, en cuyo proceso la familia fue acusada de llevar vida licenciosa (emLas Cervantas/em)./p pViaja de nuevo, y queda a vivir, en Madrid, en 1606. Spanish War 1898. Ya en la recta final de su vida, aun vive dos nuevas mudanzas: primero a la calle Huertas y luego a la de Francos, la asistencia a las academias de moda, como la del conde de Saldana, en Atocha, y el ingreso en la Orden Tercera de San Francisco./p pYa prestigioso novelista y escritor, Miguel de Cervantes va redactando gran parte de su produccion literaria, aprovechando titulos y proyectos viejos. Et Essayer. Tras ocho anos de silencio editorial desde la publicacion de la novela que lo inmortalizaria, publica una verdadera avalancha literaria: emNovelas ejemplares/em (1613), emViaje del Parnaso/em (1614), emOcho comedias y ocho entremeses nuevos nunca representados/em (1615) y emSegunda parte del ingenioso caballero don Quijote de la Mancha/em (1615 tambien). Essay American War 1898. La lista se cerraria, postumamente, con la aparicion, gestionada por su mujer Catalina, de emLos trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, historia setentrional/em (1617)./p pEnfermo gravemente de hidropesia (accidente vascular con posible paralisis) en 1616 se vio morir: el 18 de abril recibe los ultimos sacramentos; el 19 redacta, empuesto ya el pie en el estribo/em, su ultimo escrito: la sobrecogedora dedicatoria del emPersiles/em; el 22, poco mas de una semana despues que Shakespeare, el autor del emQuijote/em fallece y es enterrado al dia siguiente, con el sayal franciscano, en el convento de las Trinitarias Descalzas de la actual calle de Lope de Vega.

Sus restos mortales se perdieron, y hoy permanece en la memoria de todos los que aman la buena literatura y el idioma castellano en su mas puro acento./p pMiguel de Cervantes cultivo los tres grandes generos literarios (poesia, teatro y novela) con el mismo empeno, aunque con resultados bien distintos. Essay Weight. La historia literaria ha respetado siempre la evaluacion adelantada por sus contemporaneos: fue menospreciado como poeta, cuestionado como dramaturgo y admirado como novelista./p pLa produccion poetica cervantina ocupa un espacio considerable en el conjunto de su obra, se halla diseminada a lo largo y ancho de sus escritos y recorre su biografia desde sus inicios literarios hasta el emPersiles/em. Essay Spanish. Responde a una vocacion proaache, cultivada ininterrumpidamente, aunque no siempre con la inspiracion necesaria. Responsibility Statement. Su obra poetica esta integrada por numerosas composiciones sueltas, normalmente de circunstancias (conmemorativas, funebres, laudatorias o satirico-burlescas), y por un largo poema con perfiles auto biograficos: el emViaje del Parnaso/em. Essay Spanish War 1898. Este es el unico poema narrativo extenso de Cervantes. Thesis Statement. Hecho a imagen y semejanza delem Viaggio di Parnaso/em (emc/em. Spanish. 1578), de Cesare Caporali di Perugia, como declara el propio autor, se inscribe en la tradicion satirico-alegorica menipea, de ascendiente clasico, medieval y erasmista. Essay On Reforms In Education. Narra autobiograficamente, en ocho capitulos, un viaje fantastico al monte Parnaso, a bordo de una galera capitaneada por Mercurio, emprendido por muchos poetas buenos con el fin de defenderlo contra los poetastros.

Reunidos alli con Apolo, salen victoriosos de la batalla y el protagonista regresa magicamente a su morada. Spanish American. La aventura se completa con la Adjunta al Parnaso, donde Pancracio de Roncesvalles entrega a Miguel dos cartas de Apolo con las que se cierra la adenda/p liolas manes yo creo q esta obra es fantastico y divertida leanlo ,/li liy si los tontos q vienen pa joder , lean un libro por su unica vida ,no sean pandilleros petes. Loss Ads. /li liRecomiendo este libro y q es rebuenismimo ,para los q buscaban la biografia del autor busquen aqui!!br //li pPoeta, novelista y dramaturgo espanol, considerado como el mas grande escritor espanol de todos los tiempos, y uno de los mejores escritores universales. Essay American War 1898. Su obra mas conocida, la Historia de emEl Quijote de la Mancha/em, ha trascendido todas las fronteras y todas las culturas./p pEl retrato mas fidedigno que se conoce de Miguel de Cervantes se debe a su propia pluma, con la que trazo su emrostro y talle/em en el prologo a las emNovelas ejemplares/em:/p pemEste que veis aqui, de rostro aguileno, de cabello castano, frente lisa y desembarazada, de alegres ojos y de nariz corva, aunque bien proporcionada; las barbas de plata, que no ha veinte anos que fueron de oro, los bigotes grandes, la boca pequena, los dientes ni menudos ni crecidos, porque no tiene sino seis, y esos mal acondicionados y peor puestos, porque no tienen correspondencia los unos con los otros; el cuerpo entre dos estremos, ni grande, ni pequeno, la color viva, antes blanca que morena; algo cargado de espaldas, y no muy ligero de pies; este digo que es el rostro del autor de/em La Galateaem y de/em Don Quijote de la Manchaem, y del que hizo el/em Viaje del Parnasoem, a imitacion del de Cesar Caporal Perusino, y otras obras que andan por ahi descarriadas y, quiza, sin el nombre de su dueno. Weight Loss. Llamase comunmente Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Spanish. Fue soldado muchos anos, y cinco y medio cautivo, donde aprendio a tener paciencia en las adversidades. Bibliography. Perdio en la batalla naval de Lepanto la mano izquierda de un arcabuzazo, herida que, aunque parece fea, el la tiene por hermosa, por haberla cobrado en la mas memorable y alta ocasion que vieron los pasados siglos, ni esperan ver los venideros, militando debajo de las vencedoras banderas del hijo del rayo de la guerra, Carlo Quinto, de felice memoria/em./p pMiguel de Cervantes fue bautizado el 9 de octubre de 1547, en la iglesia parroquial de Santa Maria la Mayor, de Alcala de Henares, donde nacio posiblemente el dia 29 de septiembre, dia de San Miguel. American War 1898. Era el cuarto hijo de los seis que tuvo el matrimonio Rodrigo de Cervantes y Leonor de Cortinas. Et Essayer. El padre era cirujano-barbero, profesion de escasos ingresos y baja consideracion social.

Las estrecheces economicas, en las que sin duda se crio nuestro autor, forzaron a su padre a emprender un vagabundeo por Valladolid, Cordoba y Sevilla en busca de mejor suerte, nunca conseguida, sin que sepamos a ciencia cierta si su prole lo acompano en sus viajes o no. Spanish American War 1898. Si lo hizo, Cervantes podria haber aprendido sus primeras letras en un colegio de la Compania de Jesus de esas localidades, e incluso haberse aficionado al teatro -una vocacion que no abandonaria jamas- bajo la tutela del padre Acevedo. Weight Loss. Desde 1566 el cirujano-barbero se establecio definitivamente con su familia en Madrid, iniciando por esos anos el joven autor su carrera literaria: primero, en 1567, con un soneto dedicado a la reina (emSerenisima reina, en quien se halla/em), con motivo del nacimiento de la infanta Catalina, la segunda hija de Felipe II. Essay Spanish American War 1898. Despues, en 1569, con cuatro poemas de corte garcilacista dedicados a la muerte de Isabel de Valois, tercera esposa de Felipe II, que le pidio Juan Lopez de Hoyos, rector del Estudio de la Villa -tratandolo de emcaro y amado discipulo/em-, para incluirlos en la emHistoria y relacion de las exequias reales/em. Ads. Es posible que Cervantes se iniciara en la literatura bajo la supervision y en la amistad del humanista y gramatico Lopez de Hoyos. Essay War 1898. Lo que si es seguro es que Cervantes entro al mundo literario de la mano de la poesia. Responsibility Thesis. /p pEsos tempranos inicios poeticos se vieron truncados casi en sus comienzos, pues a finales de 1569, encontramos al joven escritor instalado en Roma como camarero del cardenal Giulio Acquaviva, al que serviria durante un tiempo para iniciar pronto su carrera militar. Essay Spanish. Alli tuvo Cervantes ocasion de familiarizarse con la literatura italiana del momento, tan influyente en su propia obra./p pAbandono el ambiente pontificio en 1570, para entrar en el servicio militar, entonces absolutamente voluntario, en el que desde luego no le sonreiria nunca la fortuna. Et Essayer. Se alisto primero en Napoles a las ordenes de Alvaro de Sande, para sentar plaza despues, con toda seguridad, en la compania de Diego de Urbina, del tercio de don Miguel de Moncada, bajo cuyas ordenes se embarcaria en la galera emMarquesa/em, junto con su hermano Rodrigo, para combatir, el 7 de octubre de 1571, en la batalla naval de Lepanto.

Aunque en aquellos dias sufria de fiebres, lucho con valor, pues recibio dos arcabuzazos en el pecho y uno en la mano izquierda, que se la dejaria inutilizada para siempre. American. A cambio, quedaria inmortalizado como emEl manco de Lepanto/em y conservaria hasta su muerte el orgullo de haber participado en emla mas alta ocasion que vieron los siglos pasados, los presentes, ni esperan ver los venideros/em./p pYa recuperado de sus heridas en Mesina, en 1572 se incorporo a la compania de don Manuel Ponce de Leon, del tercio de don Lope de Figueroa, dispuesto a seguir como soldado, pese a tener una mano lisiada. Essay. Participo en diversas campanas militares en los anos siguientes, pasando gran parte de su tiempo en los aburridos cuarteles de invierno de Mesina, Sicilia, Palermo y Napoles. Spanish War 1898. Cansado de tal modo de vida, unos tres anos despues Cervantes decide regresar a Espana, no sin obtener antes cartas de recomendacion del propio don Juan de Austria, reconociendole sus meritos militares, con intencion de utilizarlas en la Corte para obtener algun cargo oficial. Extended Essay Word Count Bibliography. Asi, en 1575 embarca en Napoles, junto con su hermano Rodrigo, en una flotilla de cuatro galeras que parten rumbo a Barcelona, con tan mala suerte que una tempestad las dispersa y precisamente emEl Sol/em, en la que viajaban Cervantes y su hermano, es apresada, ya frente a las costas catalanas, por unos corsarios berberiscos al mando del renegado albanes Arnaut Mami. American. Los cautivos son conducidos a Argel y Miguel de Cervantes cae en manos de Dali Mami, apodado emEl Cojo/em, quien, a la vista de las cartas de recomendacion del prisionero, firmadas por el gran capitan mediterraneo Juan de Austria, fija su rescate en 500 escudos de oro, cantidad practicamente inalcanzable para la familia de su padre el cirujano./p pAsi se inicia el periodo mas terrible de su vida: cinco largos anos de cautiverio en las mazmorras o banos argelinos, que dejarian una huella indeleble en la mente del escritor -normalmente traducida en una continua exaltacion de la libertad-:/p pemLa libertad, Sancho, es uno de los mas preciosos dones que a los hombres dieron los cielos; con ella no pueden igualarse los tesoros que encierra la tierra ni el mar encubre; por la libertad, asi como por la honra, se puede y debe aventurar la vida, y, por el contrario, el cautiverio es el mayor mal que puede venir a los hombres/em (Quijote, II, 58)./p pa la vez que alimentarian numerosas paginas de sus obras, desde emLa Galatea/em al emPersiles/em, pasando por emEl capitan cautivo/em del primer emQuijote/em, y sin olvidar emEl trato de Argel/em ni emLos banos de Argel/em. Essay Weight Ads. Intento escaparse en varias ocasiones, sin exito, y al final fue liberado gracias al rescate pagado por el fraile trinitario fray Juan Gil, con las monedas obtenidas de sus recorridos pediguenos por la geografia espanola. American War 1898. El 27 de octubre llega a las costas espanolas y desembarca en Denia (Valencia): su cautiverio ha durado cinco anos y un mes./p pPretendio largo tiempo algun puesto oficial, especialmente en America, a donde queria viajar. Responsibility. En 1581 fue a Oran, en mision desconocida, y luego a Lisboa, a dar cuentas al gobierno de Felipe II. Essay American War 1898. Sigue empenado en un puesto en America, y asi en 1582, dirige una solicitud a Antonio de Eraso, que le es denegada.

Nunca le fueron recompensados sus meritos militares./p pDedicado de lleno a las letras, en el mundo literario del Madrid de finales del siglo XVI, mantiene relaciones amistosas con las mas altas plumas de la epoca: Laynez, Figueroa, Padilla, etc.) y se dedica a redactar emLa Galatea/em -donde figuran como personajes buena parte de estos autores-, que veria la luz en Alcala de Henares, en 1585. Et Essayer. Sigue tambien muy de cerca la evolucion del teatro, acelerada por el nacimiento de los corrales de comedias, y se empapa de las obras de Argensola, Cueva, Virues, etc., llevando a cabo una actividad dramatica muy fecunda no ajena al exito: /p pemcompuse en este tiempo hasta veinte comedias o treinta, que todas ellas se recitaron sin que se les ofreciese ofrenda de pepinos ni de otra cosa arrojadiza; corrieron su carrera sin silbos, gritas ni barahundas/em dice en el Prologo a emOcho comedias/em./p pDe ellas se conservan hoy emEl trato de Argel/em, emLa Numancia/em y, si admitimos su paternidad, la recien atribuida emConquista de Jerusalen/em. Essay War 1898. Tambien conocemos un contrato firmado en 1585 con Gaspar de Porres, referente a dos piezas perdidas: emEl trato de Constantinopla/em y emLa Confusa/em./p pSe caso en Esquivias con Catalina de Salazar, en 1585, y poco despues siguio con sus viajes y movimientos por el ancho mundo, que le llevaron a tener esposa de modo solo nominal, pues hasta principios del siglo XVII no volvera a verse con ella./p pEn 1587 le vemos instalado en Sevilla, donde, al fin, obtiene, por mediacion de Diego de Valdivia, el cargo de comisario real de abastos para la emArmada Invencible/em. Essay In Education A Necessity. Mas tarde seria encargado de recaudar las tasas atrasadas en Granada, habiendole denegado una vez mas el oficio en Indias que habia vuelto a solicitar en 1590. Essay Spanish War 1898. Tan miserables empleos lo arrastrarian a soportar, hasta finales de siglo, un continuo vagabundeo mercantilista por el sur (Ecija, La Rambla, Castro del Rio, Cabra, Ubeda, Estepa, etc.), sin lograr mas que disgustos, excomuniones, denuncias y algun encarcelamiento (Castro del Rio, en 1592, y Sevilla, en 1597), al parecer siempre injustos y nunca demasiado largos.

Como contrapartida, el viajero entrara en contacto directo con las gentes de a pie, y aun con los bajos fondos, adquiriendo una experiencia humana magistralmente recreada en sus obras./p pComo dramaturgo, se compromete en 1592 con Rodrigo Osorio a entregarle seis comedias, que no cobraria si no resultaban de las mejores, entre las cuales se cuentan varias de las incluidas en el tomo de 1615; como novelista, redacta varias novelas cortas (emEl cautivo/em, emRinconete y Cortadillo/em, emEl celoso extremeno/em, etc.) y, mucho mas importante, esboza nada menos que la primera parte del emQuijote/em y, quiza, el comienzo del emPersiles/em. Loss. Al comienzo del siglo XVII, Cervantes se despide de Sevilla y solo sabemos de el que anda dedicado de lleno a la escritura del emQuijote/em. Essay Spanish American War 1898. En 1603 se instalo en Valladolid, ciudad declarada nuevamente capital de Espana por Felipe III./p pA principios de 1605, de forma un tanto precipitada, ve la luz emEl ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha/em, en la imprenta madrilena de Juan de la Cuesta, a costa de Francisco de Robles, con un exito inmediato y varias ediciones piratas, por lo que Juan de la Cuesta inicia la segunda edicion al poco tiempo. Responsibility Thesis. Este exito se veria empanado por un nuevo encarcelamiento, ordenado sediciosamente por el alcalde Villarroel, motivado por el asesinato de Gaspar de Ezpeleta a las puertas de la casa de los Cervantes, en cuyo proceso la familia fue acusada de llevar vida licenciosa (emLas Cervantas/em)./p pViaja de nuevo, y queda a vivir, en Madrid, en 1606. Essay American. Ya en la recta final de su vida, aun vive dos nuevas mudanzas: primero a la calle Huertas y luego a la de Francos, la asistencia a las academias de moda, como la del conde de Saldana, en Atocha, y el ingreso en la Orden Tercera de San Francisco./p pYa prestigioso novelista y escritor, Miguel de Cervantes va redactando gran parte de su produccion literaria, aprovechando titulos y proyectos viejos. Thesis. Tras ocho anos de silencio editorial desde la publicacion de la novela que lo inmortalizaria, publica una verdadera avalancha literaria: emNovelas ejemplares/em (1613), emViaje del Parnaso/em (1614), emOcho comedias y ocho entremeses nuevos nunca representados/em (1615) y emSegunda parte del ingenioso caballero don Quijote de la Mancha/em (1615 tambien). Essay Spanish War 1898. La lista se cerraria, postumamente, con la aparicion, gestionada por su mujer Catalina, de emLos trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, historia setentrional/em (1617)./p pEnfermo gravemente de hidropesia (accidente vascular con posible paralisis) en 1616 se vio morir: el 18 de abril recibe los ultimos sacramentos; el 19 redacta, empuesto ya el pie en el estribo/em, su ultimo escrito: la sobrecogedora dedicatoria del emPersiles/em; el 22, poco mas de una semana despues que Shakespeare, el autor del emQuijote/em fallece y es enterrado al dia siguiente, con el sayal franciscano, en el convento de las Trinitarias Descalzas de la actual calle de Lope de Vega.

Sus restos mortales se perdieron, y hoy permanece en la memoria de todos los que aman la buena literatura y el idioma castellano en su mas puro acento./p pMiguel de Cervantes cultivo los tres grandes generos literarios (poesia, teatro y novela) con el mismo empeno, aunque con resultados bien distintos. Essay On Reforms In Education A Necessity. La historia literaria ha respetado siempre la evaluacion adelantada por sus contemporaneos: fue menospreciado como poeta, cuestionado como dramaturgo y admirado como novelista./p pLa produccion poetica cervantina ocupa un espacio considerable en el conjunto de su obra, se halla diseminada a lo largo y ancho de sus escritos y recorre su biografia desde sus inicios literarios hasta el emPersiles/em. Essay War 1898. Responde a una vocacion proaache, cultivada ininterrumpidamente, aunque no siempre con la inspiracion necesaria. Et Essayer. Su obra poetica esta integrada por numerosas composiciones sueltas, normalmente de circunstancias (conmemorativas, funebres, laudatorias o satirico-burlescas), y por un largo poema con perfiles auto biograficos: el emViaje del Parnaso/em. Essay American War 1898. Este es el unico poema narrativo extenso de Cervantes. Angel Thesis Tab. Hecho a imagen y semejanza delem Viaggio di Parnaso/em (emc/em. Spanish American War 1898. 1578), de Cesare Caporali di Perugia, como declara el propio autor, se inscribe en la tradicion satirico-alegorica menipea, de ascendiente clasico, medieval y erasmista. Thesis. Narra autobiograficamente, en ocho capitulos, un viaje fantastico al monte Parnaso, a bordo de una galera capitaneada por Mercurio, emprendido por muchos poetas buenos con el fin de defenderlo contra los poetastros. Essay American War 1898. Reunidos alli con Apolo, salen victoriosos de la batalla y el protagonista regresa magicamente a su morada. Word Include. La aventura se completa con la Adjunta al Parnaso, donde Pancracio de Roncesvalles entrega a Miguel dos cartas de Apolo con las que se cierra la adenda/p liolas manes yo creo q esta obra es fantastico y divertida leanlo ,/li liy si los tontos q vienen pa joder , lean un libro por su unica vida ,no sean pandilleros petes. Essay Spanish War 1898. /li liRecomiendo este libro y q es rebuenismimo ,para los q buscaban la biografia del autor busquen aqui!!br //li pPoeta, novelista y dramaturgo espanol, considerado como el mas grande escritor espanol de todos los tiempos, y uno de los mejores escritores universales. Word Bibliography. Su obra mas conocida, la Historia de emEl Quijote de la Mancha/em, ha trascendido todas las fronteras y todas las culturas./p pEl retrato mas fidedigno que se conoce de Miguel de Cervantes se debe a su propia pluma, con la que trazo su emrostro y talle/em en el prologo a las emNovelas ejemplares/em:/p pemEste que veis aqui, de rostro aguileno, de cabello castano, frente lisa y desembarazada, de alegres ojos y de nariz corva, aunque bien proporcionada; las barbas de plata, que no ha veinte anos que fueron de oro, los bigotes grandes, la boca pequena, los dientes ni menudos ni crecidos, porque no tiene sino seis, y esos mal acondicionados y peor puestos, porque no tienen correspondencia los unos con los otros; el cuerpo entre dos estremos, ni grande, ni pequeno, la color viva, antes blanca que morena; algo cargado de espaldas, y no muy ligero de pies; este digo que es el rostro del autor de/em La Galateaem y de/em Don Quijote de la Manchaem, y del que hizo el/em Viaje del Parnasoem, a imitacion del de Cesar Caporal Perusino, y otras obras que andan por ahi descarriadas y, quiza, sin el nombre de su dueno.

Llamase comunmente Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Essay American. Fue soldado muchos anos, y cinco y medio cautivo, donde aprendio a tener paciencia en las adversidades. Essay On Reforms In Education. Perdio en la batalla naval de Lepanto la mano izquierda de un arcabuzazo, herida que, aunque parece fea, el la tiene por hermosa, por haberla cobrado en la mas memorable y alta ocasion que vieron los pasados siglos, ni esperan ver los venideros, militando debajo de las vencedoras banderas del hijo del rayo de la guerra, Carlo Quinto, de felice memoria/em./p pMiguel de Cervantes fue bautizado el 9 de octubre de 1547, en la iglesia parroquial de Santa Maria la Mayor, de Alcala de Henares, donde nacio posiblemente el dia 29 de septiembre, dia de San Miguel. Essay Spanish American War 1898. Era el cuarto hijo de los seis que tuvo el matrimonio Rodrigo de Cervantes y Leonor de Cortinas. Word Bibliography. El padre era cirujano-barbero, profesion de escasos ingresos y baja consideracion social. American. Las estrecheces economicas, en las que sin duda se crio nuestro autor, forzaron a su padre a emprender un vagabundeo por Valladolid, Cordoba y Sevilla en busca de mejor suerte, nunca conseguida, sin que sepamos a ciencia cierta si su prole lo acompano en sus viajes o no. Tab. Si lo hizo, Cervantes podria haber aprendido sus primeras letras en un colegio de la Compania de Jesus de esas localidades, e incluso haberse aficionado al teatro -una vocacion que no abandonaria jamas- bajo la tutela del padre Acevedo.

Desde 1566 el cirujano-barbero se establecio definitivamente con su familia en Madrid, iniciando por esos anos el joven autor su carrera literaria: primero, en 1567, con un soneto dedicado a la reina (emSerenisima reina, en quien se halla/em), con motivo del nacimiento de la infanta Catalina, la segunda hija de Felipe II. Essay War 1898. Despues, en 1569, con cuatro poemas de corte garcilacista dedicados a la muerte de Isabel de Valois, tercera esposa de Felipe II, que le pidio Juan Lopez de Hoyos, rector del Estudio de la Villa -tratandolo de emcaro y amado discipulo/em-, para incluirlos en la emHistoria y relacion de las exequias reales/em. Essay Word. Es posible que Cervantes se iniciara en la literatura bajo la supervision y en la amistad del humanista y gramatico Lopez de Hoyos. Spanish American War 1898. Lo que si es seguro es que Cervantes entro al mundo literario de la mano de la poesia. Weight Loss Ads. /p pEsos tempranos inicios poeticos se vieron truncados casi en sus comienzos, pues a finales de 1569, encontramos al joven escritor instalado en Roma como camarero del cardenal Giulio Acquaviva, al que serviria durante un tiempo para iniciar pronto su carrera militar. Essay Spanish American War 1898. Alli tuvo Cervantes ocasion de familiarizarse con la literatura italiana del momento, tan influyente en su propia obra./p pAbandono el ambiente pontificio en 1570, para entrar en el servicio militar, entonces absolutamente voluntario, en el que desde luego no le sonreiria nunca la fortuna. Angel Thesis Tab. Se alisto primero en Napoles a las ordenes de Alvaro de Sande, para sentar plaza despues, con toda seguridad, en la compania de Diego de Urbina, del tercio de don Miguel de Moncada, bajo cuyas ordenes se embarcaria en la galera emMarquesa/em, junto con su hermano Rodrigo, para combatir, el 7 de octubre de 1571, en la batalla naval de Lepanto. Essay Spanish American. Aunque en aquellos dias sufria de fiebres, lucho con valor, pues recibio dos arcabuzazos en el pecho y uno en la mano izquierda, que se la dejaria inutilizada para siempre. Et Essayer. A cambio, quedaria inmortalizado como emEl manco de Lepanto/em y conservaria hasta su muerte el orgullo de haber participado en emla mas alta ocasion que vieron los siglos pasados, los presentes, ni esperan ver los venideros/em./p pYa recuperado de sus heridas en Mesina, en 1572 se incorporo a la compania de don Manuel Ponce de Leon, del tercio de don Lope de Figueroa, dispuesto a seguir como soldado, pese a tener una mano lisiada. Essay. Participo en diversas campanas militares en los anos siguientes, pasando gran parte de su tiempo en los aburridos cuarteles de invierno de Mesina, Sicilia, Palermo y Napoles. Extended Essay Word Include Bibliography. Cansado de tal modo de vida, unos tres anos despues Cervantes decide regresar a Espana, no sin obtener antes cartas de recomendacion del propio don Juan de Austria, reconociendole sus meritos militares, con intencion de utilizarlas en la Corte para obtener algun cargo oficial.

Asi, en 1575 embarca en Napoles, junto con su hermano Rodrigo, en una flotilla de cuatro galeras que parten rumbo a Barcelona, con tan mala suerte que una tempestad las dispersa y precisamente emEl Sol/em, en la que viajaban Cervantes y su hermano, es apresada, ya frente a las costas catalanas, por unos corsarios berberiscos al mando del renegado albanes Arnaut Mami. Spanish American. Los cautivos son conducidos a Argel y Miguel de Cervantes cae en manos de Dali Mami, apodado emEl Cojo/em, quien, a la vista de las cartas de recomendacion del prisionero, firmadas por el gran capitan mediterraneo Juan de Austria, fija su rescate en 500 escudos de oro, cantidad practicamente inalcanzable para la familia de su padre el cirujano./p pAsi se inicia el periodo mas terrible de su vida: cinco largos anos de cautiverio en las mazmorras o banos argelinos, que dejarian una huella indeleble en la mente del escritor -normalmente traducida en una continua exaltacion de la libertad-:/p pemLa libertad, Sancho, es uno de los mas preciosos dones que a los hombres dieron los cielos; con ella no pueden igualarse los tesoros que encierra la tierra ni el mar encubre; por la libertad, asi como por la honra, se puede y debe aventurar la vida, y, por el contrario, el cautiverio es el mayor mal que puede venir a los hombres/em (Quijote, II, 58)./p pa la vez que alimentarian numerosas paginas de sus obras, desde emLa Galatea/em al emPersiles/em, pasando por emEl capitan cautivo/em del primer emQuijote/em, y sin olvidar emEl trato de Argel/em ni emLos banos de Argel/em. School. Intento escaparse en varias ocasiones, sin exito, y al final fue liberado gracias al rescate pagado por el fraile trinitario fray Juan Gil, con las monedas obtenidas de sus recorridos pediguenos por la geografia espanola. Essay American War 1898. El 27 de octubre llega a las costas espanolas y desembarca en Denia (Valencia): su cautiverio ha durado cinco anos y un mes./p pPretendio largo tiempo algun puesto oficial, especialmente en America, a donde queria viajar. Statement. En 1581 fue a Oran, en mision desconocida, y luego a Lisboa, a dar cuentas al gobierno de Felipe II.

Sigue empenado en un puesto en America, y asi en 1582, dirige una solicitud a Antonio de Eraso, que le es denegada. Essay American. Nunca le fueron recompensados sus meritos militares./p pDedicado de lleno a las letras, en el mundo literario del Madrid de finales del siglo XVI, mantiene relaciones amistosas con las mas altas plumas de la epoca: Laynez, Figueroa, Padilla, etc.) y se dedica a redactar emLa Galatea/em -donde figuran como personajes buena parte de estos autores-, que veria la luz en Alcala de Henares, en 1585. Angel Thesis Tab. Sigue tambien muy de cerca la evolucion del teatro, acelerada por el nacimiento de los corrales de comedias, y se empapa de las obras de Argensola, Cueva, Virues, etc., llevando a cabo una actividad dramatica muy fecunda no ajena al exito: /p pemcompuse en este tiempo hasta veinte comedias o treinta, que todas ellas se recitaron sin que se les ofreciese ofrenda de pepinos ni de otra cosa arrojadiza; corrieron su carrera sin silbos, gritas ni barahundas/em dice en el Prologo a emOcho comedias/em./p pDe ellas se conservan hoy emEl trato de Argel/em, emLa Numancia/em y, si admitimos su paternidad, la recien atribuida emConquista de Jerusalen/em. American. Tambien conocemos un contrato firmado en 1585 con Gaspar de Porres, referente a dos piezas perdidas: emEl trato de Constantinopla/em y emLa Confusa/em./p pSe caso en Esquivias con Catalina de Salazar, en 1585, y poco despues siguio con sus viajes y movimientos por el ancho mundo, que le llevaron a tener esposa de modo solo nominal, pues hasta principios del siglo XVII no volvera a verse con ella./p pEn 1587 le vemos instalado en Sevilla, donde, al fin, obtiene, por mediacion de Diego de Valdivia, el cargo de comisario real de abastos para la emArmada Invencible/em. Thesis. Mas tarde seria encargado de recaudar las tasas atrasadas en Granada, habiendole denegado una vez mas el oficio en Indias que habia vuelto a solicitar en 1590. American. Tan miserables empleos lo arrastrarian a soportar, hasta finales de siglo, un continuo vagabundeo mercantilista por el sur (Ecija, La Rambla, Castro del Rio, Cabra, Ubeda, Estepa, etc.), sin lograr mas que disgustos, excomuniones, denuncias y algun encarcelamiento (Castro del Rio, en 1592, y Sevilla, en 1597), al parecer siempre injustos y nunca demasiado largos. Essay On Reforms In Education A Necessity. Como contrapartida, el viajero entrara en contacto directo con las gentes de a pie, y aun con los bajos fondos, adquiriendo una experiencia humana magistralmente recreada en sus obras./p pComo dramaturgo, se compromete en 1592 con Rodrigo Osorio a entregarle seis comedias, que no cobraria si no resultaban de las mejores, entre las cuales se cuentan varias de las incluidas en el tomo de 1615; como novelista, redacta varias novelas cortas (emEl cautivo/em, emRinconete y Cortadillo/em, emEl celoso extremeno/em, etc.) y, mucho mas importante, esboza nada menos que la primera parte del emQuijote/em y, quiza, el comienzo del emPersiles/em. Spanish American. Al comienzo del siglo XVII, Cervantes se despide de Sevilla y solo sabemos de el que anda dedicado de lleno a la escritura del emQuijote/em. Word Include. En 1603 se instalo en Valladolid, ciudad declarada nuevamente capital de Espana por Felipe III./p pA principios de 1605, de forma un tanto precipitada, ve la luz emEl ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha/em, en la imprenta madrilena de Juan de la Cuesta, a costa de Francisco de Robles, con un exito inmediato y varias ediciones piratas, por lo que Juan de la Cuesta inicia la segunda edicion al poco tiempo.

Este exito se veria empanado por un nuevo encarcelamiento, ordenado sediciosamente por el alcalde Villarroel, motivado por el asesinato de Gaspar de Ezpeleta a las puertas de la casa de los Cervantes, en cuyo proceso la familia fue acusada de llevar vida licenciosa (emLas Cervantas/em)./p pViaja de nuevo, y queda a vivir, en Madrid, en 1606. American. Ya en la recta final de su vida, aun vive dos nuevas mudanzas: primero a la calle Huertas y luego a la de Francos, la asistencia a las academias de moda, como la del conde de Saldana, en Atocha, y el ingreso en la Orden Tercera de San Francisco./p pYa prestigioso novelista y escritor, Miguel de Cervantes va redactando gran parte de su produccion literaria, aprovechando titulos y proyectos viejos. Essay On Reforms A Necessity. Tras ocho anos de silencio editorial desde la publicacion de la novela que lo inmortalizaria, publica una verdadera avalancha literaria: emNovelas ejemplares/em (1613), emViaje del Parnaso/em (1614), emOcho comedias y ocho entremeses nuevos nunca representados/em (1615) y emSegunda parte del ingenioso caballero don Quijote de la Mancha/em (1615 tambien). Essay Spanish American War 1898. La lista se cerraria, postumamente, con la aparicion, gestionada por su mujer Catalina, de emLos trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, historia setentrional/em (1617)./p pEnfermo gravemente de hidropesia (accidente vascular con posible paralisis) en 1616 se vio morir: el 18 de abril recibe los ultimos sacramentos; el 19 redacta, empuesto ya el pie en el estribo/em, su ultimo escrito: la sobrecogedora dedicatoria del emPersiles/em; el 22, poco mas de una semana despues que Shakespeare, el autor del emQuijote/em fallece y es enterrado al dia siguiente, con el sayal franciscano, en el convento de las Trinitarias Descalzas de la actual calle de Lope de Vega. Uw Graduate Submit Dissertation. Sus restos mortales se perdieron, y hoy permanece en la memoria de todos los que aman la buena literatura y el idioma castellano en su mas puro acento./p pMiguel de Cervantes cultivo los tres grandes generos literarios (poesia, teatro y novela) con el mismo empeno, aunque con resultados bien distintos. Essay American War 1898. La historia literaria ha respetado siempre la evaluacion adelantada por sus contemporaneos: fue menospreciado como poeta, cuestionado como dramaturgo y admirado como novelista./p pLa produccion poetica cervantina ocupa un espacio considerable en el conjunto de su obra, se halla diseminada a lo largo y ancho de sus escritos y recorre su biografia desde sus inicios literarios hasta el emPersiles/em. Essay Word Bibliography. Responde a una vocacion proaache, cultivada ininterrumpidamente, aunque no siempre con la inspiracion necesaria. American. Su obra poetica esta integrada por numerosas composiciones sueltas, normalmente de circunstancias (conmemorativas, funebres, laudatorias o satirico-burlescas), y por un largo poema con perfiles auto biograficos: el emViaje del Parnaso/em.

Este es el unico poema narrativo extenso de Cervantes. On Reforms In Education. Hecho a imagen y semejanza delem Viaggio di Parnaso/em (emc/em. Essay Spanish American War 1898. 1578), de Cesare Caporali di Perugia, como declara el propio autor, se inscribe en la tradicion satirico-alegorica menipea, de ascendiente clasico, medieval y erasmista. Thesis. Narra autobiograficamente, en ocho capitulos, un viaje fantastico al monte Parnaso, a bordo de una galera capitaneada por Mercurio, emprendido por muchos poetas buenos con el fin de defenderlo contra los poetastros. Essay War 1898. Reunidos alli con Apolo, salen victoriosos de la batalla y el protagonista regresa magicamente a su morada. Extended Essay Word Bibliography. La aventura se completa con la Adjunta al Parnaso, donde Pancracio de Roncesvalles entrega a Miguel dos cartas de Apolo con las que se cierra la adenda/p pes una mierda lokoo lo podrias resumirr mas ;) /p quien quier follar? SUPREMAMENTE INTERESANTE QUE BIEN. hola comoestas me encata tu 2010-04-22 20:49 #34. pola pues keria decirles k el k no aprecia esta obra k es maravillosa es un wuevon pues/p posea un imbecil. Essay Spanish American War 1898. idiota c/p pes de lo mas maravilloso sta obrta/p eee no mamen esa mensada q jajabr /como se atreven a poner tanta mamada aki en internetbr / eee no mamen esa mensada q jajabr /como se atreven a poner tanta mamada aki en internetbr / ,m ksdnfbndnfjnv jdbfj 2011-01-11 12:13 #41.

pesteeee textoo es unaaaaaaaaaaaaaa cccccaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaacccccccccccaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa. Thesis. /p pjejeje nu se pa que vale sto esto nu sirve para na'./p gracias x la imfo besioos eh. no lo se es uno de los grandes. no lo se es uno de los grandes. no lo se es uno de los grandes. strongpues para mi don quijoe de la mancha es una obra muy buena pero si a alguien no le gusta mejor no publiquen NADA ahorence las molestias/strong pque chida esta esta imformacion me sirvio mucho/p Srtiithaa J'aaLvaareez 2011-05-30 15:53 #58. pWaa esthoo Riifaa;; mee ayuudoo Muuchoo. Spanish American. /p peen Mii ttaareeaa dee EspanooL /p dsfdsfdffgfgafsgf 2011-06-09 10:39 #59. psaben son unos idiotas si no lo saben apreciar gracias man. On Reforms A Necessity. /p pcalla miarda de la puta ctm cual quier dia te voy cacahr somso y mongolkito chivolo idiota/p pchupa la pinga para ti mongolo /p esta buenazo ,es lo mas resumido xd. psta bien reumido me sirvio/p psta bien reumido me sirvio/p phola, muy buena informacion pero no me sirvio, de todos modos muchas gracias. American. no hay que ser tan grosero para decir ''no me gusto'' o ''no me sirvio'' hay que ser cordial no como ustedes. Et Essayer. y no me vengan a insultar, acepten/p vean si van a escribir algo escriban algo productivo por favor ok gracias ??8?s† Aveces uno solo biene aqui por las tareas por nada mas xD :v.

Pastol, vete a chingar a tu madre. Spanish War 1898. Ponte a leer libros pendejo!! CodeSyntax-ek garatuta. Et Essayer. Softwarea: Django frameworkean oinarritutako Bitakora produktua.

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Again, make it relevant to the essay (if you’re writing about a necessity, Thatcherite Britian, “There’s no such thing as society” would be fine, but less so if you’re writing about the Middle Ages…) When you can’t quite find a subject-specific quote that works, a famous proverb or saying (particularly one which might make your tutor smile) could work well. The best source of essay spanish american war 1898 quotes are the textbooks you’re using, but if you’re still stumped, try: Another good way to statement, open an essay is to define any key terms in the question. American. This might seem a bit of essay on reforms in education a necessity a bland opening, but it’ll show your tutor or examiner that you know what you’re talking about – and it sets the parameters of the discussion.

For example, a word like “ideology” can be very loaded: if it appears in essay american war 1898 the question, you’ll want to make clear what definition you’ll be using throughout your essay. Try not to extended essay word count include bibliography, spend too long defining terms, though; whilst an indepth discussion of one word can be fruitful, doing this for essay spanish american war 1898, every single word in the question will just indicate that you’re not quite sure what your argument is… Famous example – A.D. Extended Essay Word Include. Nuttall’s A Common Sky: If you’re feeling brave, you could open your essay with a bang by making a bold statement. (An easy way to do this is to completely disagree with the question or prompt that you’ve been given.) Make sure you can actually pull this one off by constructing a solid argument throughout the rest of the essay that backs up what you say in the introduction – you can use the essay and essay spanish war 1898, the conclusion to modify your starting point slightly, but you don’t want to essay loss ads, do a complete U-turn. A slight variation on essay american war 1898, the bold statement would be to essay in education, take two diametrically opposed points of view (perhaps two critics in your field), find a good snappy quote from each, and start off your essay with both these quotes, one after the essay war 1898 other. Famous example – Jean Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract. Depending on how formal an essay you’re writing, you might be able to open with an et essayer anecdote. This could be from your own life, or a brief story or parable that you’re quoting. It can be an effective way to draw the reader into your essay and, if you’re writing an essay for a competition or for a wide audience, it can be attention-grabbing.

If you do choose to use this opener, be careful not to american, waffle, and be particularly wary when you’re writing about yourself! Three sentences is weight ads, probably the maximum you should spend on any anecdote. Famous example – George Orwell’s The Lion and the Unicorn. Essay titles are often statements rather than questions, like “Politics today is dominated by american, pragmatic concerns, not ideological ones. Discuss.” If you have a title like this, try starting off by posing your own question. In this case, I might start with “Has politics ever been free from pragmatic concerns?” and extended essay include bibliography, use the essay to argue that ideology and spanish american war 1898, pragmatical considerations have always both been part of the political landscape. Using a question as the start of your essay can help give you focus and weight loss ads, direction, particularly if the title is essay spanish war 1898, broad or doesn’t automatically lead you towards a strong line of dissertation argument. Famous example – Friedrich Nietzsche’s preface to spanish, Beyond Good and Evil: If you’re not quite ready to write the submit dissertation opening lines of your essay yet, try some of these articles… Fifty Orwell Essays from spanish american war 1898 Project Gutenburg. Orwell is extended bibliography, a fantastic, easy-to-read yet profound essayist who writes very engagingly.

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