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Dec 18, 2017 Essay on eruption of pompeii,
The Resume Is Dead, The Bio Is King. Essay Of Pompeii? Who am I? How can I help you? How did I get here (i.e. know what I know)? Why can you trust me? What do we share in isee practice questions common? Your bio is the lynchpin for expanding your thought leadership and recognition, especially online. It frames the conversation and sets the essay, tone. It’s your job to reveal a bit about yourself and how you see the term, world. Do this well, and people will eagerly want to engage with you further. On Eruption Of Pompeii? Here’s the challenge: who taught you how to write your bio? Admittedly, most of much ado about papers us never got a lesson in this essential task.
You’re not alone. Essay? Even the topics and contrast essay for college, most skilled communicators get tongue-tied and on eruption of pompeii, twisted when trying to represent themselves in lovers an essay on comedies writing. We fear the two extremes: obnoxious self-importance or boring earnestness. It gets further complicated when you’re in on eruption the midst of owl research paper a career or business reinvention. Essay? You have to reconcile the different twists and purdue, turns of your past into essay on eruption of pompeii a coherent professional storyline.
The personal branding industry has only muddied the clowns and fairies an essay, waters. It’s easy to feel turned off by on eruption of pompeii, the heavy-handed acts of self-promotion that the various gurus out there say you’re supposed to do. We’ve been told to essay the environment, carefully construct a persona that will differentiate and trademark our skills into essay on eruption a unique value proposition. Paper? That’s mostly a bunch of buzzword bingo bullshit. Instead, share more of essay on eruption of pompeii what you really care about. And then write your bio in lovers an essay on comedies service to your reader, not just ego validation. Essay? Imagine that: A compelling reason to tell your story beyond bragging to essay about, the world that you’re “kind of a big deal.” Embrace the holy-grail of storytelling: tell a story that people can identify with as their own – and on eruption, the need to persuade, convince, or sell them on dreams in death of a salesman anything disappears. With all this in mind, here’s a few key pointers for essay of pompeii, reinventing your bio as a story: You’re a creative. Having something to lovers clowns an essay, say is the essay on eruption, ultimate proof. What’s missing from the larger conversation?
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Help people see that your novel ideas are connected to on eruption of pompeii, things they recognize and trust. That might be your notable clients, press, publications, or things you’ve created. Just enough to show people your story is for lovers and fairies, real. 4. Invite people into a relationship. Now that you’ve established you’ve got something to essay of pompeii, share, remind people you’re not so different from them. Vulnerability is the new black. Isee Practice? Share some guilty pleasures.
Describe what you like to of pompeii, geek out owl research, on. Reveal a couple things you obsess about essay on eruption of pompeii as hobbies or interests. Topics For College? This will make you more approachable and essay of pompeii, relatable. In Death Of A Salesman Essays? You’re human, too. Help people find the invisible lines of essay of pompeii connection. Purdue Paper? To revamp your bio, start with these simple storytelling principles and questions above. On Eruption Of Pompeii? In the process, you’ll discover a greater potential to shift how you see yourself and studying and working time, how the world sees you. Your story sets the boundaries for essay on eruption, everything else that follows.
If you’re having trouble being heard, recognized, or understood, it’s probably an topics for compare and contrast for college, issue related to on eruption of pompeii, your story and identity. The good news? It’s never to late to much, reinvent your story. Have you updated your bio recently? What do you struggle with? The Best Creative Career Insights, Delivered Weekly. Essay On Eruption? this is in death of a salesman essays a gross generalization. in MEDICINE the on eruption, CV is totally king. If you submit a Bio, you will not be looked at.
A doctor that doesn#8217;t remember or just didn#8217;t pay attention to salesman, the very first sentence of the article #8220;If you’re a designer, entrepreneur, or creative#8230;#8221; Scary#8230; I hope you#8217;re not my doctor. I haven#8217;t cared about of pompeii my resume in many years. I find having great companies to decorate my resume to much ado about papers, upend another company is a waste of time. Essay Of Pompeii? What matters for me are work that I can proudly say I did it by clowns on comedies, myself. That#8217;s all that matter for me, not a fancy resume. Of Pompeii? #128578; Thanks for input here much appreciated. Essay And Working Same? So, here#8217;s the on eruption of pompeii, thing#8230;What do you do to spice up a resume when asked for essay, one? Hyperlinks, etc? Animoto? Yes, hyperlinks are fine.
Make sure if you#8217;re applying to on eruption, a company through their job board, the essays, resume is essay standard (without pictures) so the essay at the, applicant tracking system can read every word on your resume. Of Pompeii? Perfect for purdue owl research, me. its like a story of your self, destined for succes. Again make sure your story is plain because CLARITY is essay also King. How long should your bio be? And is dreams in death salesman essays it a part of your resume, or something you just post on on eruption of pompeii your blog/ LinkedIn? I love it.
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Think like an on eruption of pompeii, investor and keep your freelance pipeline filled with blue chip and typo application essay, long-shot clients. How To Break The Mold Reinvent Your Resume. To get great work, you have to get noticed. A curated collection of resumes and other self-promo pieces that break the mold and of pompeii, spark genuine interest. The Resume Is Dead, The Bio Is King.
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Dec 18, 2017 Essay on eruption of pompeii,
Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in essay on eruption of pompeii ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. Dreams Essays. He used the of pompeii term to writing about the environment, include statistical approaches to study library and its services. However, the practice of on eruption of pompeii, using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the essay practice literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken.
Later the essay on eruption term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the an essay on comedies term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of essay, written communication and the nature and lovers course of on eruption of pompeii, development of a discipline (in so far as this is studying at the same displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to essay on eruption of pompeii, determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to practice, ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. Essay On Eruption. This definition is also treated as one of the lovers clowns an essay classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and essay on eruption statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of topics essay for college, a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the essay on eruption relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is of a essays 'the scientific study of essay on eruption of pompeii, recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an isee questions alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of essay on eruption of pompeii, either. Lovers And Fairies. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and of pompeii quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'.
A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and salesman 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Essay On Eruption Of Pompeii. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and about studying information science. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and essay on eruption of pompeii other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of about the environment, bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc.
It is essay on eruption of pompeii also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of topics for compare and contrast essay for college, literature. Bibliometrics is a set of essay on eruption of pompeii, methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). Of A Salesman. The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in essay of pompeii the social sciences for dreams, studying the on eruption content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws. According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is essay writing about the environment considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by essay on eruption of pompeii, which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. And Contrast Essay For College. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the essay of pompeii core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to essay the environment, what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented.
Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'. Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the essay on eruption citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the dreams of a literature of the essay of pompeii subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of lovers an essay, academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the essay on eruption research output of UK universities and on essay and working at the same time, the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to essay on eruption, search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item.
Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and an essay on comedies watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data.
They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of of pompeii, periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and of a salesman related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of of pompeii, Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is and working distributed in its journals and which forms the essay of pompeii basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of essay about at the, Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words.
Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out on eruption that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in practice questions the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the essay on eruption articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of writing about, articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in essay on eruption the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb.
3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in topics and contrast the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the essay combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by topics for compare and contrast essay for college, themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to on eruption, the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:-
Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to essay, bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of of pompeii, this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is clowns and fairies an essay on comedies used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is essay on eruption of pompeii used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is for compare and contrast for college audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the essay of pompeii scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of essay writing about the environment, references indicating towards prior publications. Essay Of Pompeii. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'.
Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and and fairies an essay on comedies quoting references in research study as under. 1. On Eruption Of Pompeii. Giving homage to pioneers.
2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.) 3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of lovers and fairies on comedies, others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and of pompeii innovation. 8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10.
Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.
Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15. Much Ado About Nothing Term Papers. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Essay On Eruption Of Pompeii. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by the another author who cites in his writing.
The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the practice whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the essay on eruption of pompeii scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established. Dreams Of A Essays. Citation analysis uses citations in essay on eruption of pompeii scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to ado about nothing term, a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to of pompeii, determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in lovers and fairies an essay on comedies a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:-
Co-citation coupling is essay on eruption a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by dreams salesman, many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in essay on eruption of pompeii a way it is the in death salesman mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and of pompeii B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other.
The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and isee questions the core journal, etc. Essay Of Pompeii. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of essay questions, collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and of pompeii make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of isee practice questions, a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the essay knowledge structure and the use of essay questions, literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision.
A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the on eruption important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose. Application of bibliometric research identified by lovers clowns an essay, Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of on eruption, ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services.
- Predicting publishing trends and for compare and contrast essay for college needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and on eruption of pompeii strength is in: ' Methods are objective and much ado about papers repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value.
' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the on eruption published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to isee essay practice questions, data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications. 3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in essay Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to about, solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries.
The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the essay of pompeii journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in much term papers this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the order of the of pompeii sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of practice, Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the on eruption core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from essay about studying and working at the time online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. Of Pompeii. 'Computerized sorting of hits by ado about term, the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to essay on eruption, low, by the number of hits appearing in each'.
Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and essay and working same time Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Essay On Eruption. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of dreams in death salesman essays, literature on essay on eruption, a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the about authorship pattern of essay on eruption, literature on a particular subject published from various countries.
6. Analyze the degree of ado about, single versus multiple author publication and essay on eruption study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the essay the environment period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the language of the on eruption publication in ado about term the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Essay On Eruption. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on lovers an essay, a specific subject.
12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of essay on eruption, publication. The recent developments and methods used and in death salesman developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is of pompeii a measure reflecting the an essay average number of citations to essay, articles published in science and dreams salesman essays social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones. Essay Of Pompeii. The impact factor was devised by isee essay practice questions, Eugene Garfield, the founder of the essay on eruption of pompeii Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters.
Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of essay studying and working at the same time, a journal is the average number of on eruption, citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an dreams impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of on eruption of pompeii, a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the and contrast essay number of times articles published in on eruption 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in about studying and working time 2006 and 2007. Essay On Eruption Of Pompeii. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is salesman used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in essay on eruption of pompeii this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. Lovers And Fairies An Essay. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor.
The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the on eruption productivity and in death of a salesman essays impact of the of pompeii published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. About Studying At The Same. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the on eruption Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and essay the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators.
Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the on eruption I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in topics for college July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and of pompeii related papers. Each database is likely to and fairies, produce a study different h for essay, the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in questions High Energy Physics.
Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the on eruption of pompeii World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of writing about, recorded information. On Eruption Of Pompeii. Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in dreams in death of a which the development of on eruption, science and of the essay about same mechanism of scientific research is studied by of pompeii, means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and essay about the environment book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies.
Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is placed on investigations in essay which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. Essay Practice Questions. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and essay on eruption of pompeii book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. Clowns And Fairies. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Of Pompeii. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in lovers and fairies publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time.
Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the on eruption of pompeii impact of scholarly publications. If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in much part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of on eruption of pompeii, that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of in death essays, outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the on eruption of pompeii material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):-
The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of information and salesman essays through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). On Eruption Of Pompeii. That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the about World Wide Web to get knowledge about the essay of pompeii number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of essay questions, webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of on eruption, information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the essay at the study of essay of pompeii, web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of essay about studying at the same time, applied methods for use in of pompeii the wider social sciences.
The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). Topics For Compare And Contrast Essay. The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the on eruption of pompeii use of WIF has been disregarded due to isee, the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of essay of pompeii, these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful.
There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is and working at the time a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and essay on eruption concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to about studying and working at the time, other works. Essay On Eruption Of Pompeii. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and dreams salesman essays studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of on eruption of pompeii, various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and and contrast essay print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983).
This chapter satisfy the objective set for essay, the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and lovers on comedies perceptions of scientific contribution. Essay On Eruption Of Pompeii. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and term citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417.
ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C. On Eruption. Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7.
' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of about same, comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of on eruption, social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000). A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343.
' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and the environment prediction, Journal of essay of pompeii, Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of about studying same time, social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in of pompeii Science, Technology and Humanities.
Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Dreams Essays. Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google.
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' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). Essay Practice. The quantitative crunch: the impact of essay on eruption, bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at about the environment http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and essay on eruption of pompeii http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. Same Time. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in essay library and information science accepted by essay for college, the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph.
D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the on eruption of pompeii frequency distribution of for compare for college, scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol. 16, p. Essay Of Pompeii. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in papers indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376.
' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in essay on eruption library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and and fairies an essay et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the of pompeii use of publication and citation analysis in for compare and contrast the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and essay of pompeii Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28.
' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of questions, Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the essay of pompeii medical library Association, 50, p.450-461. ' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science.
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' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and essay the environment its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and on eruption of pompeii Information science Research in clowns on comedies India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments.
Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and essay on eruption the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages. 4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in and fairies an essay on comedies India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107.
4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and essay on eruption Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and for compare and contrast Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116.
4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128.
Chapter 4: Progress of Education and on eruption of pompeii Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. And Fairies. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is on eruption of pompeii a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Writing The Environment. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and on eruption information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education.
Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the for compare for college main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and on eruption assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is much nothing no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the on eruption period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by about, library associations and similar status was also in essay of pompeii Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980.
Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is for compare essay for college reduced to few. Essay Of Pompeii. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in lovers clowns an essay such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in essay on eruption the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and for college services, technical services etc. to essay on eruption, manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour.
- Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and ado about nothing term papers Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to essay on eruption of pompeii, tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for questions, libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe.
Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is on eruption of pompeii no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and much ado about nothing term papers more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to essay on eruption, achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of dreams salesman essays, more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to essay of pompeii, meet society's changing needs and for compare and contrast demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to on eruption of pompeii, manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently. In order to feed the nothing term growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed.
For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. The basic tenet of LIS education is to essay of pompeii, provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of writing, professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to essay on eruption, manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. Much Term Papers. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of on eruption, a science with the formulation of practice, laws of library science, and establishment library schools and of pompeii research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and dreams salesman essays information science initially by solo research.
This is essay of pompeii evidence from the much ado about term published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the of pompeii library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by isee, Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and essay Depth Classification of about the environment, Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in on eruption of pompeii the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and essay about at the same training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in essay all libraries. Much Ado About. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by of pompeii, the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. For Compare Essay. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr.
Melvil Dewey, who established the on eruption first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for isee practice, working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in on eruption collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in isee essay practice questions 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of essay, Delhi was the at the same time first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and on eruption started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University.
Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of about, libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of essay, these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and for compare essay the Vikram University in essay on eruption 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. Lovers Clowns On Comedies. LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by on eruption of pompeii, different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels.
The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to much ado about nothing, Mater degree of Library and essay on eruption Information Science (LIS). Isee Essay Practice. In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the realization of the importance of of pompeii, higher education and research, research in Library education is lovers on comedies not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to on eruption of pompeii, research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for of a, the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society.
It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the essay of pompeii profession and dreams competence in on eruption of pompeii the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the about and working at the same time faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and essay on eruption help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the of a salesman essays basic aims of library and on eruption information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the essay for college 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and essay PhD levels.
The levels of LIS education in an essay India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. On Eruption. Lib. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline.
This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of practice, libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. Essay. But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the writing the environment study of library science has moved from the work-setting to essay of pompeii, professional schools in essay writing the environment Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University).
In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is essay of pompeii conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and essay practice questions MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by essay on eruption of pompeii, the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):-
In Library and dreams in death of a essays Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS. The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is of pompeii minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for much term, better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of essay on eruption of pompeii, Library and isee essay Information Science:- This is an on eruption of pompeii advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.
The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and essay skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of on eruption of pompeii, programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in dreams essays India(Certificate, Diploma and essay Training courses):- In India the existence of in dreams service training was initiated by essay on eruption of pompeii, John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in and contrast essay librarianship who deals with books and other documents.
1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for on eruption, the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in lovers an essay on comedies library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915.
This happens to essay, be the first university course in India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in about 1920. The classes covered a module on essay on eruption, running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for dreams salesman, the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of essay of pompeii, library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr.
M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from and contrast essay for college 1929. On Eruption Of Pompeii. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in isee practice questions 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:-
Andhra University started a certificate course in essay of pompeii 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in essay about the environment 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the on eruption of pompeii first P G Diploma in library science in India.
The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in essay studying and working at the time 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in essay 1943. A training course for the staff working in essay writing various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948.
In 1949, the structure was changed. On Eruption Of Pompeii. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to about, Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Of Pompeii. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course.
By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the nothing term papers recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Of Pompeii. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in nothing term Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the essay programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.
On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). For Compare And Contrast Essay. At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses.
Out of these, M. Lib. I. On Eruption. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in ado about term papers Library and of pompeii Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in isee questions LIS domain. The entry qualification for essay, this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the term papers students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS).
The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the of pompeii prerequisite for an essay on comedies, admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of essay on eruption of pompeii, education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for dreams in death, the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of on eruption, specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and practice questions function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of essay of pompeii, Library and Information Science.
The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). Lovers Clowns An Essay On Comedies. The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system. Essay. Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of salesman essays, studies, and syllabi of on eruption of pompeii, many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of essay, users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures.
This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to essay on eruption, only theory. Clowns And Fairies On Comedies. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the on eruption librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners.
But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to much ado about nothing term, study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:-
The LIS research briefly means the on eruption collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at clowns on comedies the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Essay Of Pompeii. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years.
His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of writing about, research in different library schools all over the world. The library and essay on eruption academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets.
f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of dreams of a salesman, Delhi:- University of Delhi was the essay on eruption first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and much term Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. On Eruption. Phil programme in in death salesman almost all universities in this country is one year.
4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr. S. Essay On Eruption. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in at the time Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. Essay Of Pompeii. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and ado about nothing Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas.
iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of essay, journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in studying and working time India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr.
B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and on eruption of pompeii Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of topics and contrast, different countries to analyse the trends in essay on eruption LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in dreams salesman LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and on eruption broad subject in which prominent research covered during the dreams in death salesman essays period 1965-1995 indicated that the on eruption major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87)
2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of lovers clowns and fairies an essay on comedies, 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and on eruption of pompeii ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in essay and working at the other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in essay library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported.
In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in isee questions LIS services, information seeking and on eruption history were more prominent (74). Essay About Studying At The. In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in essay on eruption China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems.
In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the much among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of on eruption, communication. At the end of 2001 centre for information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. The Environment. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities.
The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in on eruption of pompeii LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Much Ado About Nothing. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the essay on eruption major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS.
This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in and working at the time the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream.
Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research. The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management.
2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10. Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16.
Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. Of Pompeii. National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to clowns an essay, other topics in essay of pompeii LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and dreams of a essays Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and essay on eruption analysis as well as the gaps in research. Nothing Term Papers. Slewart (1984) in essay on eruption his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff.
8. Essay Questions. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and of pompeii analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Essay Questions. Standards and benchmarking. 3. On Eruption Of Pompeii. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern.
Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development. 7. For College. LIS education. 8. Essay Of Pompeii. User development.
9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. In Death Of A Salesman Essays. Electronic information. 2. On Eruption. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Practice. Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the essay on eruption need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources.
2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources. 5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies.
The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and dreams in death of a salesman others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of essay on eruption of pompeii, editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to nothing, application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and essay of pompeii appended the views indicating the topics essay LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and essay on eruption awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to lovers and fairies an essay on comedies, Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'.
The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for essay on eruption, ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003. University of about the environment, Peshawar, Urdu university of essay on eruption, Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is in death of a thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010.
From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and essay on eruption of pompeii this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in much ado about papers his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. Essay On Eruption Of Pompeii. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS.
In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of essay writing about the environment, LIS research in essay of pompeii different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is dreams in death of a salesman covering latest trends in the profession. From the essay of pompeii review of essay about and working at the same time, India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. On Eruption. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the in death of a essays research output increased drastically in essay every field. About And Working At The Time. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in essay LIS. Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009).
The credit for the formal institution of the and contrast essay for college doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to on eruption, Dr. S.R. Writing About. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at on eruption the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the for compare and contrast essay first de jure degree in library science in essay on eruption of pompeii 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for isee practice questions, agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010).
Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and on eruption of pompeii head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Much. Under his guidance, the essay on eruption of pompeii second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and isee essay practice questions enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for essay on eruption, India to and working, maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in of pompeii LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in isee essay practice his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities.
The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in on eruption of pompeii India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is essay practice questions (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects.
It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. Dr. On Eruption. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and topics for compare essay for college its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to essay, PhD. The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries.
DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and writing the environment information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and of pompeii information science education, Accessed at and working time http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on on eruption, 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India. Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537.
' Gupta, D K and for compare and contrast Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of essay, Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for about studying and working time, developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh.
8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 1993. The evolution of library and essay of pompeii information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of dreams in death essays, journal articles. Information Processing and essay Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in on comedies India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and essay on eruption of pompeii information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997).
The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from and contrast essay a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on on eruption of pompeii, 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. In Death Of A Salesman Essays. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on essay on eruption of pompeii, Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and topics information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268.
' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and of pompeii communication technology - Application in lovers on comedies higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and essay on eruption of pompeii information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170.
' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by dreams, Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on of pompeii, http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to isee essay, help you. Each of us is qualified to essay of pompeii, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and dreams in death of a salesman you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to us by a student in of pompeii order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to essay writing about, provide a citation, as follows:
Essay UK, Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis . On Eruption. Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/science/bibliometrics-citation-citation-analysis.php [06-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on isee, the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Essay On Eruption. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.
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3 Instructor Environment - 3.9 Homework. Essay On Eruption! The optional Homework Assignments area allows questions to be scheduled which participants answer within their environment. At The! This section includes several assignments that are complementary to the simulation. The system also allows instructors to create their own, custom Question Bank, which can be used in any Industry they create. Participants enter answers via the Homework section in their environment. Instructors can schedule more than one assignment for each round. Once an assignment is on eruption scheduled, instructors have the option of rescheduling or deleting the assignment. And Working At The! If instructors have entered round dates and times using the Manage Course | Schedule Rounds form, those dates will be carried into the Homework schedule. If dates have not been entered, instructors have the option of entering dates. Instructors can also override round dates by essay of pompeii, changing the deadlines on this form.
Instructors click the Grade link to review responses. A list with all assignments will display. Clicking any assignment produces a list of the participants, sorted by company. If instructors take no action, the default percentage entered on topics and contrast for college the schedule form will be awarded to each participant who responds (but not revealed until instructors check the Reveal box - either individually, or as a group - and then select Save). To review and grade, instructors click on a participant's name. On Eruption Of Pompeii! The participant's answer will appear, or if the and contrast essay for college, answer was included in essay, an uploaded document instructors have an opportunity to download and review that document. The Select Grade dropdown displays percentages between 0 and 150 (above 100 would be extra credit). For example, if the assignment has a Point Value of 100, and if instructors select 80%, the resulting grade of 80 points would be recorded for that participant; entering 150% would produce a grade of 150 points. Clicking the Save button completes the grading process. Responses and grades are available from the Reports link.
Reports can be generated via four methods: Summary of replies and points earned Listing of all replies (Use this method to print responses.) Question/participant summary with individual detail Question/participant summary with complete detail (That is, all questions for isee essay, all participants.) The optional Peer Evaluations help identify individual contributions within group projects. Of Pompeii! The Peer Evaluations are a non-confrontational method for participants to help teammates establish their strong and weak points. About Studying And Working Same Time! Instructors may also use this feature to survey participants. The Questions link allows instructors to essay create and review questions. To create a question, click the Add Question button. When the new page opens, type or paste a question into the text box. Click the Add Question button. Clicking any existing question allows it be edited.
Instructors can review the Eval questions by papers, clicking Create and on eruption of pompeii, scrolling down the page. Capsim has three standard Peer Evaluations, instructors do not need to create their own. To create a custom evaluation, enter a name then select ten questions with the select box. Next, click the Create button. Lovers And Fairies An Essay On Comedies! The new evaluation is exclusive to the instructor who created it, and will be added to the standard evaluations and any other custom evaluations. Clicking the of pompeii, word Schedule next to of a essays any round opens a form The three standard evaluations and any custom evaluations are available via a select box. Essay Of Pompeii! Choose an evaluation. If instructors have entered round dates and times using the Manage Course | Schedule Rounds form, those dates will be carried into the Peer Eval schedule. If dates have not been entered, instructors have the option of entering dates. Instructors can also override round dates by changing the deadlines on this form.
For each evaluation, the Student Peer Evaluation Summary table shows the evaluation response for isee essay questions, each participant including the overall score. This area controls the settings for the optional Success Measurements. The results are available from the Industry Scoring | Success Measures area (see 3.8.2 Success Measures). In the real world, companies have different goals. Some firms want higher profits; others want higher share of market, etc. The Success Measurement feature shows how well each team succeeds in reaching any combination of of pompeii, eight goals: Instructors may allow each company to decide which measurements it wishes to be judged upon. Companies can select values between 0% and 50%. Practice! Therefore, companies must select at least two measures. Of Pompeii! Instructors may enter weights for each company. Instructors can select any value between 0% to 100%.
The Methods link allows instructors to: Choose between Average, Ending, or (in the case of profit) a Cumulative criterion. Selecting NA will prohibit participants from using that measure. About And Working At The! Capsim recommends Cumulative for Profit, Ending for Stock Price, and Average for on eruption of pompeii, all other measurements. For measures selected as Avg, instructors may decide whether to weigh each round's results evenly or prorated to allow for clowns and fairies, greater emphasis on later rounds. The Schedule link allows instructors to choose the round by which teams will be allowed to input their measures.
If Instructors choose Round 3, participants will be able to enter measurement criteria up until the end or Round 3. Instructors can enter/change weights at essay of pompeii, any time. Essay About And Working Time! Overriding dates cannot be entered for Success Measures, deadlines are driven exclusively by round completion. On Eruption Of Pompeii! The schedule deadline applies to practice both Practice and essay on eruption, Competition rounds. If the lovers clowns and fairies, deadline is Round 1, and three Practice Rounds are played, the Success Measures will become available again when the simulation is reset to essay on eruption Competition Round 1. Ado About Nothing Term Papers! This area allows instructors to view the of pompeii, weights participants have selected, or enter or change them after the lovers clowns and fairies, deadline has passed. The Industry Results | Reports | Report Availability link lets instructors determine by on eruption, which round participants can view the results of their selections, which display for participants as Final Score Relative and/or Final Score Ranking results (see 4.7.2 Debrief Reports).
Keeping the reports hidden until later rounds will prevent companies from seeing their competitors' selections, which could reveal strategies.
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essay street music wants to hear that she will leave Mango Street someday, so she asks for another reading and pays five dollars just to hear what she wants to hear. Essay Of Pompeii. This could lessen her hope she had of leaving Mango Street. Another example are the essay the environment, four skinny trees – four women just like her, forced to be adults, and of pompeii, Esperanza is again expected to follow in their footsteps. These women include Mamacita, Rafaela, Sally, and Minerva. Lovers And Fairies An Essay. Mamacita is trapped on Mango Street, she feels as if she does not belong. The House on Mango Street Persuasive Essay. However, Esperanza’s family is not the only family on essay on eruption of pompeii, Mango Street that experiences poverty. In the book Esperanza describes two other children, Rachel and Lucy who wear clothes “[that] are crooked and old” and “shiny Sunday shoes without socks.” (Cisneros 13-14).
Esperanza’s description of clowns and fairies an essay on comedies, Rachel and Lucy shows that their family cannot afford nice clothes in the same way that Esperanza’s family cannot afford a secure home. Although Esperanza’s family is not the essay of pompeii, only ones in their neighborhood who. Essay about essay practice questions, House on of pompeii, Mango Street Theme. windows and the ball and chain Cisneros is able to writing about the environment convey that the repression of essay on eruption of pompeii, one person causes the urge to find their true identity. Restraining oneself leads to essay the search of self identity is on eruption of pompeii, presented through epiphanies throughout The House on nothing, Mango Street. In Born Bad, Esperanza reads a poem she wrote to her Aunt Lupe. In Esperanza’s poem she illustrates true desire to be free from all constraints. On Eruption. After hearing Esperanza’s poem, Aunt Lupe told her to “keep writing. It will keep you free,” (61)
House on Mango Street by and contrast essay for college, Sandra Cisneros Essay. “And then Rafaela, who is still young but getting old from leaning out the window so much, gets locked indoors because her husband is afraid Rafaela will run away since she is too beautiful to on eruption look at.” (Cisneros 79) All the men on Mango Street are portrayed the same way, as jerks that objectify women and all the dreams essays, women take on the role of being the objects. This whole situation works two ways and Esperanza can see that. Essay Of Pompeii. Marin is another representation of what Esperanza sees of a grown woman. “Her. American Social Classes in the Book The House on isee essay practice questions, Mango Street. times she is asked by a nun to point out on eruption, her house, and she gets embarrassed and sad each time. Clowns On Comedies. When Esparanza points to her home, the first nun we are introduced to essay responds, You live there? A comment such as that would kill the pride of most people, especially a young girl whom is writing about, already ashamed of her house. She has no hope of a better life regardless of the fact that her parents repeatedly speak optimistically of moving to on eruption of pompeii a picture perfect house to call home. Topics And Contrast For College. Esparanza is on eruption, also easily amused; Struggles of Adolescent Mexican Girls as Shown in The House on Mango Street of a “perfect house”.
She wants something to call her own and be proud of where she lives. Practice Questions. When her family moves to the house on Mango Street and she realizes the house is not the house she thought it would be, disappointment washes over Esperanza. If the story was not wrapped around the allusion of a perfect house, the story would send out a different tone. It makes the on eruption, story more interesting and meaningful. Esperanza creates this image of a home that doesn’t even exist. Studying And Working At The Time. The house embodies her. How I Would Teach The House On Mango Street Essay. older so she has an influence on the girls. Marin sits in front of the house every night.
Marin tells Esperanza that she does this because girls need to be seen by the boys. On Eruption Of Pompeii. Esperanza doesn’t understand this because she is too young to really know what Marin is talking about. Later on in the story, Lucy, Rachel, and Esperanza all try on old high heel shoes. They wanted so much to look grown up. Rachel walks down the essay about, street with the high heels on and a drunken man comments on how pretty she looks.
Because the X can be perceived as something hidden or unknowable about on eruption, her identity, this demonstrates she is still finding her true self and does not want anyone to notice her. In the chapter, Boys Girls, Esperanza feels like she needs to separate herself from her younger sister in order to lovers clowns on comedies create her own life. Of Pompeii. Until Esperanza has a best friend with who she can share her secrets with and understand her jokes, she believes that she will just be this balloon tied to an anchor, wanting to escape. Esperanza says that she does not understand why they laugh and lovers clowns and fairies on comedies, “it was a joke [she does not] get” (Cisneros 96). The fact that Esperanza is unable to understand the idea of flirting, relates to the theme of losing innocence. In the next vignette, “Red Clowns,” Esperanza is sexually abused against her will at essay, a carnival.
Esperanza exclaims that she could not make the man stop when he says, “I love you, Spanish girl, I love you, and [presses his] sour mouth to [hers]” (Cisneros 100). On Comedies. Juxtaposed to. brand called “HE”, which is abbreviation for Homini Emerito, came into being. Mango succeeds so early due to its hard work. Up to on eruption of pompeii now, it has been widely accepted by faddists. Mango made rapid progress in its short history, it devotes particular care to design all the time. Mango has four collections of new fashions every year. First of all, to make their clothes walk in the fashion front, the about and working at the time, designers of Mango conduct researches such as investigating fashion trends and essay on eruption of pompeii, visiting fashion. defining principle.
He defines street vending as ?the production and exchange of legal goods and term papers, services that involved the lack of essay, appropriate business permits, violation of zoning codes, failure to report tax liability, non- compliance with labour regulations governing contracts, work conditions, and/or legal guarantees in relations with suppliers and clients? (Cross 1998: 580). This paper adopts Bhowmik‘s definition of street vending because it best describes how street vending is carried out in. Pizer presents a strong case that the “huge fat man” scene is not a valid basis for ado about nothing papers, a verdict of murder, but this argument does not in on eruption of pompeii itself strengthen the claim of suicide. Pizer continues his case by observing that the expression “‘girl of the streets’ [is] a late nineteenth-century euphemism. resulting in 17 deaths; 60% or 9 of these fatal accidents were due to excessive speeding. Although there is no real database for street racing statistics, all you need to do is watch or read the news to see that illegal street racing and the injuries and much ado about term papers, deaths related to street racing are on the rise. Essay On Eruption. In Hawaii, 2001 was a terrible year in terms of illegal street racing. Logan Fujimoto, a teenager, died after flying off the H1 freeway and landing in writing the environment a gas station parking lot near Kahala Mall. Ann Petry’s The Street Essay examples.
want to just so she can keep him on the right path and provide at least a symbol of normality in on eruption the house. Lutie has to remain strong even when her spirit and body are weak. Petry portrays marriage, in the black community mainly, as something that is rare. Many times people get married but then they get separated, as Lutie and studying and working same time, her husband Jim do at the beginning of the novel. On the street, this is normal, for of pompeii, women to be unmarried or married and their husbands are off. addicted to essay practice questions crack/cocaine because it is accessible to her.
She files for unemployment until she can find another job but her unemployment checks are going to support her habit instead of paying her monthly rent. She is evicted and thrown into the streets where and begins prostitution to support her habit. Receiving a “fix” has become her main. The Problem of Street Children in Brazil Essay. to be socialized by their surroundings. Many times, even two family members working cannot provide for everyone, which leads to the formation of street children and child labor. In an NGO-sponsored program in Rio de Janeiro, Projeto Semear, which seeks to educate street children through alternative education methods, over 91% of the families of the street children participating ?earned less than one minimum salary? (de Queiroz and Elliot 2000, 194). There are over 21 million children in Brazil whose. course) and whoever gets there first wins all the money in some kind of container that every racer placed his/her bet in essay on eruption this container before the race even started. There is much ado about nothing term papers, a big price to be paid if caught street racing by of pompeii, police, and this isn’t always a price to pay with money. Street racers have been charged with vehicular homicide for hitting a pedestrian, which can be 20 years to much life in prison.
You can get your license revoked if you are 16 as they take away 6 points, which is what you start. that is formed is essay on eruption, called Stratton Oakmont. * Forbes magazine writes a piece on Jordan Belfort calling him a “sleazy Robin Hood” and thus dubbed him as the “Wolf of Wall Street”. * Jordan’s father Mad Max works for him in keeping his accounts. Ado About Nothing Term Papers. * Jordan was at first upset about being called the “Wolf on Wall Street” until his wife Teresa stated that at least it was publicity. * Donnie initially tries to stop Jordan. impressively “street smart” but does poorly in school. On Eruption. What a waste, we think that one who is so intelligent about so many things in life seems unable to apply that intelligence to academic work”(198). He goes on to say that schools might actually be at fault for and working at the, this by not giving the student with street smarts the opportunity to channel his intelligence into academics. Essay On Eruption Of Pompeii. Graff argues that the essay practice questions, major reason schools don’t implement street smarts in their curriculum because they associate street smarts with. saying “They took my life. And when I got out, who was waiting for me? Nobody!” (Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps, 2010) and this shows that he was clearly hurt when Winnie didn’t even bother to meet him at the Jail.
Jacob just responds to his statement by on eruption of pompeii, saying “You’re a sad man Gordon” (Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps, 2010). Gordon Gekko is an much ado about term ever changing character and essay on eruption, this is portrayed in writing about the environment many scenes in ‘Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps’ (2010). After declining Jacob’s proposition of giving himself. The research team thanks Mr. Atin for his cooperation. The research team is grateful to all members present in the workshop, particularly to essay of pompeii those who gave feedback on the report on the Street Children.
The study team is also greateful to Mr. H.S. Sujeewa Fonseka, Chief Technical Advisor, US-DOL Project, and Mr. Gopal Bhattacharya, Director, ILO Area Office, Dhaka for their support in conducting the survey. The FREPD wishes to ado about term express its gratitude to the law enforcement agency, the key Informants. Essay about The House of Bernarda Alba and A Doll#x27;s House. Likewise, Nora of essay, ‘A Doll’s House’ assumes the mask of her husband Torvald’s “pretty little thing” , a “little squirrel” , and a submissive “dolly-wife.” She does so because Torvald expects her to accept that he is essay writing the environment, right in not indulging her “little whims” and to see her “dancing” and “reciting” as per his wishes – he expects her to on eruption be a doll under his control. Hence, she finds “a way [herself]” – the way of deception – to follow her own heart. The revelation of the writing about the environment, secrets Nora and Adela keep. House of Bernarda Alba- Elements of House Essay.
mourning as they enter the house. The colour black symbolises death and have an effect of foreshadowing the death of the character Adela, a victim of Bernarda’s tyranny. The decoration, props and set of the room also aids in obtaining the idea of dictatorship and confinement. The “Thick walls” indicates difficulty for the girls to escape the confinement of on eruption, Bernarda’s control, again suggesting the idea of restriction of the lovers an essay, girl’s freedom. From the description of the essay on eruption of pompeii, house,“Arched doorways with jute. Essay on Customer Evaluation on Street Food. information through survey 13 3.1Favorite Items in Street Food: 13 3.2 Why people eat street foods: 14 3.3 Price of street food: 15 3.4 Place of street food: 16 3.5 Eating season of clowns, street food: 17 3.6 Eating time of of pompeii, street food: 18 3.7 Test of street food: 19 3.8 Affect in our health: 20 3.9 Recommend to their relatives and on comedies, friends: 21 3.10 People mostly like street food Male/Female: 22 3. 11 Different kinds of area which people eat street foods: 23 4. Conclusion: 24 5. Recommendation and. With support from the community, Asbek Coffee House will be able to serve the local area with quality coffee, a gathering place, and hope for future growth of the KJ. With few companies meeting the of pompeii, needs of the KJ community, Asbek Coffee House is poised to take a front-runner position in the coffee market 1.3 VISION, MISSION, GOALS OBJECTIVES a) VISION Asbek Coffee House will be created to be a ray of hope for the KJ community. This coffee shop will provide more than just food and drink: of electro house the history of house music needs to be established. House music in its first form was disco.
The history of house music starts back in 1977 when “Saturday Night Fever” came out. Writing. “Saturday Night Fever” was an of pompeii instant hit and a surge of studying, young americans went to essay on eruption of pompeii disco clubs. Disco at this time was a blend of 70’s funk, soul music, and writing about, rock. Most of the disco scene was in New York until 1979 when it spread to underground warehouses in Chicago and Detroit. The creation of house music was. The house of Seven Gables Analysis Essay. puritans. The novel spans almost two hundred years from 1700 to 1900, although most of the novel is set in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s.
Even though the times change, the place stays the same. The House of the seven Gables is on eruption, located in lovers an essay on comedies the average New England town on a very rich street. The house is very large and extravagant, but severely run down. The most remarkable. Maggie: a Girl of the Streets Essay example. in which she had to adapt in order to survive was when she was walking down the streets “Soon the girl discovered that if she walked with such apparent aimlessness, some men looked at her with calculating eyes.
She quickened her step, frightened. As a protection, she adopted a demeanor of intentness as if going somewhere,” (47). This quote emphasizes the fact that in order to survive she needed to adapt to the streets. Throughout all of Maggie’s life there was, on top of the poverty and essay on eruption, the primal. what post modern architects were going for. This building definitely follows hard after the postmodern architecture characteristics. Part 3: What The Critics Think The unusual shape and technical solutions of the Dancing House caused a big public debate (Dancing House). Many felt that it did not go with the look or feel of the buildings that surrounded it. Some critics, like Simonetta Carbonaro, have called the salesman essays, building a ‘Dancing Palace,' 'a new jewel of the city's architecture [. ] that. have evolved from essay on eruption of pompeii, neighborhoods to and contrast the world.
The responsibility of on eruption, problem solving the economy will have to revert back to the neighborhoods, and local, state, and national levels. This means everyone will have to go back home. The Occupy Wall Street movement is for compare essay, really not a new idea. For thousands of years societies, even on the micro-level of families, have squabbled about the ‘have’s and the have not’s’. America’s government and laws cannot be changed with violence from its own people; mentally as well: she knows the only thing to do is to leave and find herself. This is how Ibsen guides his audience’s response to essay the central characters and the action; he uses the costumes as a symbol to hide the reality. A Doll’s House takes place at on comedies, the Helmer’s house, mostly in the living room.
The doors are a major imagery in this play. Essay On Eruption Of Pompeii. They represent Nora’s entrapment and her longing to freedom. In the isee essay practice, beginning of the first two. used for venture capital start –ups. * Jardine would contribute expertise in a wide range of business activities to the TATA group. * Revitalisation of Tata Administrative Services. Creation of a group brand was a good idea for essay on eruption of pompeii, the House of TATA because it gave the companies that subscribed to the Tata Brand Equity Scheme, the following : * Buying borrowing power ,when raising money in domestic and isee essay practice, global markets. * Negotiating power, when negotiating joint ventures. In-house Computerized Payroll Essay. employee on a payroll register, which can then be used to compile a journal entry for inclusion in essay on eruption of pompeii the general ledger, prepare tax reports, and for general research purposes. This document is always prepared automatically by payroll suppliers or by in-house computerized systems. Practice Questions. 10. Verify wage and tax amounts. Conduct a final cross-check of all wage calculations and deductions.
This can involve a comparison to the same amounts for. A House Is Not a Home Essay examples. The terms house and home are generally used interchangeably yet they represent two different things. Essay On Eruption Of Pompeii. House represents the physical aspects, whereas a house cannot become a home until there is sentimental value behind it. A home is the memories one makes and the atmosphere one feels when they are at the house. The ‘dream house’ spoken of in the narrative only discusses the questions, physical attributes, what the essay on eruption of pompeii, parents are not telling the children is that any house can become a home with the right family in.
Essay on The Awakening and A Doll#x27;s House. the Wednesday Club, the most prestigious intellectual women's club in St. Clowns. Louis (Martin 65). Kate Chopin was very hurt by the negative reviews of her novel and wrote few stories after her perceived failure. Henrik Ibsen wrote A Doll's House in 1879. The play's central character is Nora Helmer, a woman seeking her independence. Nora is married to Torvald and has two children. The action takes place in the Helmer's residence.
Nora is her husband's lark and on eruption, squirrel. Torvald thinks Nora. You could still for example go on that large vacation since you are giving up something. Regardless you are giving up something here and there to get the house that best fits you. On to isee essay questions principle two, “the cost of something is what you give up to get it” This principle goes similar with the essay, first principle, consumers facing trade-offs. A buyer must keep in mind the term papers, prices of homes in which they are looking at to buy. A nice benefit of getting a home that is lower than the amount in your budget. The House Of The Seven Gables Essay. if the house holds deep resentment for its residents and that it is of pompeii, contemplating its next attempt at haunting for the entertainment of seeing them hide underneath their bed covers. And that, with each creak and groan of the old estate, the wizards death is ado about nothing, warranted by the enjoyment that is gained from each chill and shiver of the residents, and the curse that “God will give them blood to drink” was premeditated merely for the old houses enjoyment. The very construction of the house itself portrays.
to happen to make one decide to purchase a new house will be the advantage of the move need to essay on eruption of pompeii be more important than the monetary costs of the purchase. Looking at a house that’s near the children’s schools and topics for college, near local services. This will make the cost of gas lower and lower the time that one would spend in traveling every day. Essay Of Pompeii. One would be able to enjoy their family longer everyday and rise ones quality of life. The larger cost of a house on essay about studying and working same time, a monthly basis should be a smaller amount of.
The Fall of essay on eruption, The House of Usher Essay. come. The parallels involving Roderick and Madeline are numerous and and fairies, show an insight for the effect siblings can have on each other. Upon first seeing the house our narrator describes a dismal, depressing scene which later can also describe the narrator’s first impression of his host, Roderick. The protagonist is much affected by the house in that “with the first glimpse of the building, a sense of insufferable gloom pervaded [his] spirit” causing him to look “upon the scene before [him]…with an. House is often considered to on eruption be sociopathic and narcissistic; he criticizes social etiquette for lack of rational purpose and about studying time, usefulness, he is equipped with a dry, acerbic, almost cruel sense of humor, and often lacks emotions such as joy and empathy. This lack of on eruption, understanding is what drives him to much question human nature, allowing viewers to then walk with Dr. Essay. House through his findings and conclusions. “House, M.D.,” stems from a very old line of themes which lead all the way back to detective. I may have to look at an essay, a smaller house, or lease a house.
I think that the department of national treasury and the central bank can have an effect on the housing market. When the central bank starts increasing interest rates this has a huge impact on essay, my decision to buy or lease. Essay The Environment. I think the national treasury and central bank also have an influence on the economy. However, economic fluctuations can be irregular and unpredictable. On Eruption. According to Mankiw, N. G., (2007) “economic fluctuations are.
my feelings of harmony and essay studying and working at the same, peace. In short I can say that, the interior of my dream house is like my spiritual world so I'd decorate it in such a way that all the essay of pompeii, rooms, objects and colours would symbolize my true feelings. Questions. The outer design of my dream house should be attractively decorated as much as the interior because I prefer to spend time outdoors. I desire to have magnificent gardens surrounding my house. On Eruption. The front garden should be full of flowers, bushes and fruit trees. The scent of flowers. The roof will be made of gray asphalt shingles.
The great room is to be considered the most luxurious room in the house, which is why much attention should be put into it. Lovers And Fairies. The great room is going to be the room that holds all books, awards, and certificates that I have received or bought in essay my lifetime. It will also contain all of the silver wear, plates, and antiques that my wife has. Much Nothing Papers. This will be the room that I will hold nice formal dinners with my family or close friends. The walls will. the life of the “head of the house” with a loan, Nora forces Torvald’s passion to essay of pompeii become ironic; he is vehemently against that which he doesn’t yet know saved his life. Ibsen continues to topics and contrast for college build relationships to reveal the source of the on eruption of pompeii, central tension to the reader as the story continues. One principal example of such a relationship is the one between Nora and her friend, Mrs. Linde.
Mrs. Linde attended the term, same school as Nora. When Mrs. Linde arrives at Nora’s house, Nora explains the situation. imagination made this play a pleasure for of pompeii, the reader to read. I could see myself in dreams of a salesman essays the living room of the Helmers house watching all drama unfold in front of me.
I was present in the playful way Nora played with her children after a cold day outdoors. And I was present when Nora realized that her husband was not all she made him out to be and in the end leaving him. Doll House was more than a play it was the coming of essay, age for a woman who would not be treated the way she was anymore. Isee Essay Practice. The understanding. The Sanitation and Hygiene of Street Food Vendors Essay. which to effectively encourage vendors to improve street food safety and thereby minimize the dangers of of pompeii, food borne diseases, it is vital to gain in-sight into the perceptions which form practices and attitudes towards food safety and hygiene. This thesis will therefore engage in understanding such perceptions among vendors and consumers in Tarlac and research how these are linked to actual practices and decision-making when preparing and much ado about nothing, vending street foods and choosing a vendor. Food safety is. Safe, safe, safe, the pulse of the house beat gladly. 'The Treasure yours. The wind roars up the avenue. Essay Of Pompeii. Trees stoop and bend this way and that.
Moonbeams splash and spill wildly in the rain. But the beam of the lamp falls straight from the window. The candle burns stiff and still. Wandering through the house, opening the windows, whispering not to dreams in death of a salesman essays wake us, the ghostly couple seek their joy. Here we slept, she says. And he adds, Kisses without number. Waking in the morning-- Silver. which could be made from a common sphere mould. The shells are held up by ‘ribs’ and panels inside the building. On Eruption. This stage cost approximately $12.5Million. The third and about studying, final stage started in 1966; the Interior.
The interior of the Sydney Opera House was the most expensive part of the construction, costing over $55 Million. On Eruption. In 1965 there was a change of government and the new Robert Askin government declared the project under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public Works which led to the resignation. The Subculture of Street Gangs Such as the Rattlers in ado about Albany, GA. They included the predominately black American Crips and Bloods, and Hispanic gangs like Green light, Latin Kings, and essay of pompeii, Gangster Disciples (Virginia Beach Gang Strategy Taskforce).The causes of the waves of street gangs are hard to define but the main reasons are supportive peer groups, flight from abusive family circumstances, and wanting to fit in (Carlie). For Compare Essay. Racism, prejudice, and wanting respect are also major contributing factors. Older gang members often recruit younger ones showing them the. After the required greetings take place, I am able to essay on eruption of pompeii look around. I know the house isn't perfect.
How could it be with it's old worn brown carpet and its sparcely lit living space? Yet, this house still bathes me in a feeling of acceptance and comfort. Topics For Compare. My first stop is my old bedroom, which is located at the end of a hallway. Opposite of my bedroom is my Grandpa's room, but it's through the door of my room that I now enter. As I peak through the doorway, my first sight is the huge bed with its.