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olive business plan Please read these pages thoroughly as they will answer many of your questions on this exciting industry. Australian olive growers are involved in def one of the. nation's fastest growing horticultural industries. Health Recent studies show that olives and olive oil help to lower levels of bad cholesterol and reduce the risk of heart attacks and certain cancers. The Mediterranean diet which includes plenty of olives and olive oil has long been known as one of the healthiest. Residents of Crete in the Mediterranean have the highest consumption of olive oil per person in the world and they also have the lowest rate of muscle techniques essay, death from heart related diseases in the world. It is no secret that the olive, which has been providing food and medicine to humans for millenniums, is one of the most versatile and life giving trees on earth. Olive oil is essay rich in mono-unsaturated fats and contains no cholesterol.
Many nutritionists and medical groups including the National Heart Foundation are now recommending olive oil as the healthy substitute for other fats in the diet. Olive oil is the only oil which is actually a fruit juice . in its purest form, the oil is attention for college simply 'squeezed' from the fruit, filtered and bottled . with no contamination by any chemical processes. Olive Oil . is actually a fruit juice! These scientifically proven health facts are a major reason for the ever increasing demand for olive products around the world. The modern American, with all his patent contrivances. Def! will never know. a full tide of health until he returns to the proper admixture of olive oil in his diet. Until he again recognizes the value and use of olive oil, he will continue to metathesis, drag his consumptive-thinned, liver-shrivelled, mummified-skinned, and def, constipated and mayfield, pessimistic anatomy about. in a vain search for lost health.
Dr P.E. Remondino, Olive Grower's Convention, California 1891. A Royal History The first record of commercial olive cultivation dates back over 5,000 years to the region of Syria. In the five millenniums from that day, archaeologists have been able to track the spread of the noble olive across the entire Mediterranean basin and beyond. With a possible lifespan of def, up to 2,000 years, individual olive trees have seen not only generations, but entire kingdoms, come and go on the earth's surface. From Solomon's temple to modern day Tuscany, the olive has had a distinguished career enriching the human race. Countless people have used the olive for an income, food, medicine, heat, light and shade. From its somewhat mysterious birth on renaissance the shores of the essay Mediterranean, the maths coursework mayfield olive tree and its fruit have grown into def a modern industry worth an estimated $20 Billion a year. Imports The health benefits of olive oil are being learned around the world. In 1991 Australia imported $38 million worth of olive products.
By 1996 , just five years later, imports had risen to $115 million and they are still rising. Schrock Olefin Metathesis! (Australian Bureau of Statistics). Essay Def! In fact, over the past decade, Australian olive product imports have increased by more than 300 per cent (Reichelt Burr, 1997). Olive oil now commands up to essays, 50 per cent of the edible oil shelf space in some of our leading supermarkets . but with our own Australian olive products always sold out well before the next year's harvest, we have to import around 95% of the olive products we consume. Australians consume more olive oil per person than any other country outside of the Mediterranean! Australian growers have the opportunity of essay, lifting our economy by producing the majority of these olives on maths Australian soil. Also, rising labour costs and essay def, subsidy changes in the Mediterranean countries are forcing them to increase the export price of their olive products. This gives Australian growers an increasingly competitive edge over import prices.
Exports Australian growers are encouraged to reduce the ever increasing imports by literature dissertation on fgm, producing olives in Australia, for Australians. However, a number of Australia's larger growers are planting solely for export purposes. They will send all of their produce into the rapidly expanding Asian and American markets. Asia is beginning to demand a more varied Western diet and along with this comes the desire for items such as pizza's topped with sliced or whole olives, olives in essay salads, and event essay, the use of def, quality olive oils for salads and muscle techniques, cooking. With around two billion people, the possibilities are almost endless. Japan's imports of olive oil almost doubled from 1995 to 1996 when they reached 16,637 metric tons. (Nikkei Kezai Newspaper 20/11/97) And in the 1997/98 year they imported a staggering 34,228 tonnes! (International Olive Oil Council) The USA is importing 100 times the olive oil they produce and the best marketed Californian oils are selling at unrealistic retail prices of up to US$100 per litre. (San Francisco Chronicle) Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore and many northern European countries are also rapidly increasing their demand for high quality olive products. Marketing Olive Crops As with any business, there is a need to have a market for your product.
It is true that the market for olive products has been around for 5,000 years and is currently a multi-billion dollar industry, but there is def still a need for event essay every Australian grower to find a buyer for their fruit or products. Essay! There are three main options for the selling of olefin metathesis, olive crops in def Australia. In the olefin metathesis past, Australian growers have needed to focus on the sale of fresh olives to essay, produce markets or on-site processing in which case they then needed to market the oils and table olives they produced. Produce markets are still buying olives and the on-site processing option is muscle energy essay still viable for people with the essay def necessary processing and marketing skills. However, the construction of small and large scale olive processing factories across many regions of Australia has opened new doors to olive growers. Processors in most states are now offering contracts to olive growers for their fruit at set prices and qualities. A number of processors are also offering contracts on quality fruit from muscle energy techniques essay growers prior to the grove being planted. Tree Appearance The olive is essay a handsome tree with silvery grey-green foliage.
Olive trees were selected at the Sydney Opera House as the sole tree planted on the Harbour side in based dissertation 1973. Now, over twenty years later, these trees in large planter tubs, are still growing and fruiting. Essay Def! The architects chose olives because of their beauty, lack of schrock, untidy bark and def, leaf shedding, ability to schrock olefin, withstand the essay def battering of dissertation on fgm, storms, salt water, heat and essay def, cold, and attention getters for college essays, their evergreen nature. Non-Fruiting Olives Many ornamental olives grow in essay suburban backyards across Australia. Over the years, many people have mistakenly bought these olive trees from nurseries, not realising that they are only for ornamental purposes.
The leaf is olefin a darker green colour than the commercial varieties and does not have the same silvery grey-green appearance. As the trees grow to maturity they produce a tiny pea-sized fruit which has no value. The tree's owners then assume that olives do not do well in their area. The problem is simply that they have the wrong tree. With commercial olive trees, lack of water and nutrients and def, other general care problems can also result in very little fruit. Varieties of true commercial olives crop well from the cool winter areas of attention for college, Queensland through New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania in the south, and across to South Australia and Western Australia. Drought Hardiness Down through thousands of years, the olive tree has proved to be very drought hardy. When many other trees have died, the olive tree has always been amongst the few survivors. Unlike many other fruit orchards, an olive grove can be neglected for def a number of years and then simply be rejuvenated to bring it back into production. Lifespan With minimal care olive trees will live and produce fruit for well over a thousand years.
This has been demonstrated in the Middle East and places like the Garden of event essay, Gethsemane in Jerusalem. Essay! There are no age limits to mayfield, the commercial viability of an olive grove on average fertility soils, provided that the tree receives suitable annual pruning, water and fertiliser. A suitably cared for orchard planted on the common 5m x 8m spacing can be commercially viable for well over 100 years . As a Gift The olive tree is a symbol of joy, peace and happiness and as such makes an excellent gift. Because of its general hardiness, people who don't have 'green thumbs' will find them fairly easy to def, care for. Event Essay! With normal care, the olive tree will generally outlive any human and essay def, give useful food for many centuries. Windbreaks Olives are regularly grown on properties throughout the world as a handsome windbreak and avenue tree. Windbreak spacing around properties can be as close as three metres (10 feet), but don't expect heavy crops per tree at this closer spacing. Real Estate Value Olive groves, avenues and boundary plantings increase the value of any property.
The olive is energy essay a hardy tree, handsome in appearance and valuable for fruit. Soil Types Olive trees will tolerate a large range of def, soil conditions, preferring a neutral to alkaline soil type. If your soils are acidic, they may be easily changed to an optimal pH of 7.0-8.0 by simple methods such as the addition of agricultural lime. Literature On Fgm! Check with your local fertilizer company or lime supplier if you need your lime quantities worked out. Our OLIFAX 15 sheet will give basic information about the use of lime in def your olive grove's soil. Olives will often grow in hilly, rocky areas that are not suitable for other crops. However, they do not like very heavy soils that hold excessive water after wet periods.
It is important to understand your soil type, structure and pH prior to planting. After the based dissertation trees are in the ground, there is very little you can do to alter drainage and other essential factors. You can buy a very easy-to-use pH Test Kit from Olive Agencies to do your basic tests. Climate Olive trees like cool/cold winters and hot summers. Even though olives are evergreen trees, they still need a cool winter so they can rest to prepare for their main shooting, flowering and fruiting in the spring. For most varieties some winter frost is preferred. Throughout the world olives are grown in climates which range from the cold of Tuscany (Italy) where minus 20 degrees Celsius is not unheard of, through to warmer areas such as Seville (Spain) where some regions don't even reach 0 degrees Celsius during winter. Summer temperatures are important for the growth of fruit-bearing foliage. Essay! Most olive growing regions of the world have average maximum daily temperatures, in the hottest month of summer, somewhere above 30 degrees Celsius. Afternoon temperatures as high as 45 degrees Celsius have very little effect on mature olives as they have an inbuilt mechanism which temporarily shuts down their system until the cooler part of the attention for college day arrives.
However, apart from the cool winter and essay def, warm summer requirements, the art essays moisture levels of the tree must also be adequate. (See the enclosed copy of OLIFAX - 1 and def, the World Olive Climates article for muscle essay more climate details.) Frost Many mature olive trees will survive and def, crop well even in the very cold areas of Australia. Some varieties will also fruit well in 'no frost' areas as long as the winters are cool enough. Short cold snaps of down to minus 10 degrees Celsius are often not overly detrimental to mature olive trees with sufficient moisture in the soil to avoid stress. Some varieties have been seen to survive minus 15 degrees Celsius as long as they are in good health. Most olive trees will be killed to the ground in an extreme freeze of minus 20 degrees Celsius such as can occur in the coldest olive growing regions of the world. However, such severe temperatures are quite rare in Australia. An important aspect to schrock metathesis, be considered is the essay def effect of cold snaps on young trees.
It is not advisable to plant young olive trees during winter if your temperatures fall below minus 5 degrees Celsius. Very young trees can often handle temperatures down to italian, minus 5 degrees Celsius (as they sometimes do during their growth at Olives Australia), but they must be kept in good health and def, have sufficient moisture. Keep a good eye on the health and essay, moisture levels of essay, your trees during winter to ensure that no damage occurs. Once again we thank you for your honesty and help in the growing of. another lot of trees that will tolerate the low temperatures. Warm Winter Research Grove A Warm Winter Research Grove has been set up to assess over 70 varieties.
The trial site has an average daily temperature of 13-14 degrees Celsius in July which is considered 'marginal' (too warm) for schrock traditional olive production. Essay Def! The results of the trial will not only identify olive varieties suited to warmer winter climates of the world but will also assess numerous grove management practices for the benefit of the event essay entire Australian industry. Traditional (non-irrigated) 10 x 10m = 100 trees/ha. Medium Intensive 8m x 5m = 250 trees/ha. Medium Intensive 8m x 4m = 312 trees/ha. Intensive 7m x 4m = 357 trees/ha. Intensive 6m x 4m = 416 trees/ha. Intensive 6m x 3m = 555 trees/ha. Super Intensive 3m x 1.35m = 2,470 trees/ha. The vast majority of essay, new Australian groves are being spaced at 8m x 5m (250 trees/ha).
Some growers are selecting more intense spacings. The main factor affecting the spacing decision is the type of harvesting machinery to be used on the grove. Harvesters are manufactured for all densities but their availability to your grove's location must be considered. In the getters for college majority of groves, the best yield per hectare over a thirty year period comes from trees planted 5 metres apart in hedges, with a space of 8 metres between the hedge rows. This spacing is 250 trees per hectare (104 trees/acre). Earlier returns and essay, increased returns per hectare in the early cropping years can be gained on more intensive groves. However, the long term effects of close spacings on pruning, harvesting and event essay, pest management must also be considered. There is ongoing research in every olive growing country to def, ascertain the olefin best tree spacing for mechanically harvested olive groves. While there has been a tendency towards closer spacings in the last decade, harvesting economics on densities closer than 400 trees per hectare are still being assessed. With densities greater than 200 trees/ha (hedge planting), it is important to run the hedge rows approximately north/south so that the sun penetrates the foliage of all trees in the hedge most effectively. The basic rule for def olives is - more light penetration equals more fruit per branch.
When to Plant It is widely accepted that olive trees can be planted in irrigated olive groves year round if the winter temperatures do not fall below minus 5 degrees Celsius. Traditional plantings in Mediterranean countries are done in the autumn leading up to the winter rains. Event Essay! However, access to irrigation water reduces the need for such seasonal planting. A properly irrigated grove will withstand much greater extremes in temperatures than a traditionally planted dryland grove. Olive trees going into groves which regularly go below minus 5 degrees Celsius or are not irrigated correctly will need to be planted outside of the winter period. Planting an Olive Tree. Just like any tree, there's more than one way to plant an olive. Over our past 25 years of def, planting, growing and researching olive trees we have observed and event essay, tested many such planting methods. With these trials and research in mind we have concluded that there is an optimum way to plant olive trees for maximum results.
Over the years, our customers have tried many methods with varying degrees of success. However, one thing that has been clearly displayed is that trees planted in suitable climates, according to the steps below, can grow approximately one metre per year in def both height and breadth, in their early years. This is faster than any other natural methods we have seen. So here they are - the steps for planting a healthy, fast growing olive grove. If you follow these steps we believe that the long term results will please you. 1. Manure Manure should be added to the soil prior to planting.
Manure adds micro nutrients and miro-organisms to event essay, the soil that will greatly benefit the essay def health and growth of your trees. Most manures are suitable as long as they are not too fresh. For large groves, a fertiliser spreader will efficiently add the getters essays manure to essay def, the soil surface. Your manure supplier or fertiliser company should be able to organise a tractor-pulled spreader for muscle energy techniques you. Apply the manure at the rate of one cubic metre to every twelve trees.
Spread a strip of manure along the tree line about 3 or 4 metres wide. Essay Def! (NB. On the 8m x 5m spacing, one cubic metre of manure will be applied over a distance covering 12 trees (60 metres) and event essay, 3 to 4 metres wide.) For smaller groves, the rate is approximately one builder's wheelbarrow fully spread over 3m x 3m at each tree site. Approximately 12 full wheelbarrows make up one cubic metre. 2. Def! Blue-metal (basalt rock) crusher dust should also be spread along the event essay row in the same way that the manure was applied. This product is very high in essay def minerals and schrock metathesis, is the main ingredient in rock dust fertilisers.
There minerals are not easily water soluble and therefore will not be wastefully leached out of the soil. The nutrients are available to the tree roots as required. Once again a rate of one cubic metre for every 12 trees (60 metres) is excellent. In size, the product should be fine dust through to small particles no larger than 4mm. Blue metal crusher dust is very heavy and one cubic metre weighs around 1.5 tonnes. Again, for smaller groves, the rate is approximately one builder's wheelbarrow fully spread over 3m x 3m at each tree site. If it is extremely finely screened (less than 1mm particles) then as little as one half barrow full per tree site may be enough. OLIFAX 10 is available if you require more information on blue-metal basalt crusher dust. 3. Lime If your soil requires the addition of lime to bring it's pH level to 7.0-8.0 (neutral to alkaline), then add the required amount to the manure and crusher dust above.
Contact your local Department of essay, Agriculture or fertilizer company if you need pH testing done and lime quantities worked out. Many growers use a spreading contractor to apply the lime along the total row rather than just at each individual tree site. Your own inexpensive pH test kit will be handy for spot checks throughout the grove. More details on the use of schrock, lime for olive tree health can be found in OLIFAX 15. 4. Deep Ripping Next, deep rip at least 10 to 12 furrows along the full length of the planting row to a depth of 600mm or more and a width of at least 3 metres. The nutrients will be suitably mixed in as they drop down the def ripper grooves.
This preparation will give the roots an excellent start and fast growth will result. Wide shoed rippers pulled by a good sized dozer will do an excellent job. Attention Getters For College! You may wish to finally level the ripped area with offset discs, a rotary hoe, blade or similar. In poorly internally drained soils, deep ripping both along the rows and then some cross-ripping will increase subsurface drainage. Def! Please consider possible erosion when planning the direction and timing of your ripping. Deep ripping during a heavy rain season may result in erosion if grass cover cannot be quickly re-established. 5 . After selecting the literature dissertation tree site, positioning your stake, and essay, wetting the energy techniques essay planting site, plant the tree at the same depth or just slightly deeper than it was in the pot. Do not tease the roots out before planting as this will stress the tree by damaging the young brittle roots. 6 . Press soil down lightly around the tree roots to remove any air pockets and make a slight depression to act as a watering basin.
7 . Water thoroughly immediately after planting and mulch with coarse straw to conserve water, cool the essay soil, and muscle techniques essay, reduce weed growth. The best mulches to use are those that contain plenty of essay def, nitrogen and other minerals to feed the tree. These include lucerne, soya bean and pea hay. As the getters essays mulch decomposes over a period of time, the nutrients are transferred into the soil by earthworms, rain and micro-organisms. If using mulch, try to buy spoilt (rain damaged) bales, which are often available for just one or two dollars each. Loosen up the 'biscuits' before applying. Hammer milled pine wood waste can also be used but an essay, occasional nitrogen fertiliser application will be needed to reduce its leaching effect. Carefully used, well rotted manures can also produce an literature dissertation on fgm, excellent mulch. If you are in an area with long, cool, wet winters then mulch may hold too much water during this period.
Remember to keep your mulch about essay def, 100mm (4) away from the trunk to allow the tree to breathe and to avoid contact between the trunk and art essays, wet mulch. 8 . Continue your irrigation according to essay def, the section on Irrigation and using general common sense. Be careful not to waterlog the soil as excess water is the olefin olive's worst enemy. Further information can be gained by reading OLIFAX 5 on Irrigation. NB.
All trees are 'container grown' and can be planted in moderate climates (eg. winters that don't go below minus 5 degrees Celsius) at any time of the year. Essay! Very young trees may need some protection from severe frost and animals. No transplanting shock will occur if the simple instructions above are followed. Congratulations - Now watch your olives GROW! Staking The staking of young olive trees is very important. Stakes need to maths, be strong enough to support the def tree while the italian renaissance art essays anchor roots are developing, and yet flexible enough to allow the tree to move freely in essay def the wind. If the stakes are too rigid then the italian renaissance art essays tree will be over supported and not sense the need to develop strong roots and a thick trunk. Our commercial grove sized trees are only lightly staked and will need to be tied to a heavier stake at or soon after planting out. The trained straight trunk will make fruit harvesting easier if a 'tree shaker' is to essay def, be used. The final stake should be 1500mm long and 16-20 mm thick.
Two types of muscle essay, stakes - coated steel and essay def, bamboo - are available from Olive Agencies. The steel stakes are coated in a hardened, waterproof and UV stabilised polyethylene and, like bamboo, are smooth, light and flexible. Because of their durability, they will last many years and can be used a number of times. The stakes are 1500mm long and are approximately $1.40 each plus GST. The bamboo stakes have a diameter of about 24-26mm, and are 1500mm long. Please contact Olive Agencies for a current price. Correct land preparation and event essay, the use of under-tree sprinklers rather than drip irrigation can also help the roots to spread widely and thereby assist in the overall stability of the tree. Trellising A small number of grove owners plan to prune their trees in the monoconical style (see OLIFAX 9). If you choose to go in this direction then you must seriously consider the use of a supportive trellis.
Due to the very upright nature of a monoconically pruned olive tree, support is needed either in the form of a tall solid stake (2.0 - 2.5m tall), or a trellis wire system. The most common trellis system is a single tight wire at 1.5 to def, 2.0 metres from the ground. Fibreglass or heavy wire stakes are then placed at each tree site and attached firmly to the trellis wire above. The tree is then tied to literature based dissertation on fgm, the stake as it grows. Essay! The trellis wire gives the necessary support during windy periods. This system is more expensive than the common bamboo stakes used on traditionally pruned groves but is necessary for the development of monoconical groves.
Trellises are also used in groves with densities greater than 400-500 trees per hectare as monoconical pruning is getters essays considered the only viable method for such intensities. Irrigation Olive trees need very little water to survive if serving as an ornamental or landscape tree. However, for a good crop, mature olives generally need at least two waterings to essay def, field capacity (full depth of roots - approximately one metre in mature trees), each winter (this will depend on your soil type). If more is available during winter and at other times of the year then this will be most beneficial and will result in increased crops. In fact, it is generally accepted that a drastic reduction in rainfall and irrigation water will result in a poor crop of only one third to one half of a fully irrigated commercial crop. It must be remembered however, that the olive's worst enemy is too much water - especially during the winter months when there is less evaporation taking place. So keep a good eye on the moisture levels in the soil around your trees.
Winter watering keeps the trees healthy for a good spring flowering and literature based dissertation, a good fruit set. When the essay def fruit has set, in addition to natural rainfall, supplementary watering is needed to achieve a good fruit size and high oil yield per hectare. Water Requirements Many factors can affect the maths coursework water requirements of essay, any plant. Soil type is an obvious variable - a tree planted in sand is obviously going to need more regular waterings than a tree in heavier soil because of the fast draining nature of sand. Also the grove's local climate - if trees are planted in an area which receives 300 days of sunshine per year they will need more water than those planted in a cloudier climate which may only receive 200 sunny days per year. Another factor is annual rainfall - this is the most obvious variable when considering the tree's supplementary irrigation needs. When calculating your irrigation requirements you must always look ahead to what the olive trees will be needing when they are mature rather than the smaller quantity needed while still small. It is widely accepted that a mature olive grove will use between 6 and 10 megalitres of water per hectare per italian year. This quantity includes usable rainfall. Therefore, if your usable rainfall is 5 megalitres per year, you will need to allow between 1 and 5 megalitres per hectare via irrigation.
Your local irrigation specialist will know the usable rainfall for your region. See OLIFAX - 5 for more irrigation details. Water Quality Every tree likes good quality water but the olive tree is still one of the few fruit bearing trees that will survive and essay, still bear quite well with poor quality saline (salty) water. Saline water that is unfit for attention getters human use is def generally quite suitable for olives. Olive trees grow and crop well using water with a conductivity of up to 2,400 micro S/cm (This can be translated to Total Dissolved Ions by multiplying by 0.64. Schrock Metathesis! eg 2,400 mS/cm x 0.64 = 1,536 TDI). If saltier water is used, it should not be sprayed onto essay def the leaves and the ground will need to be 'flushed' with good rain water from time to energy, time.
The higher the conductivity increases above 2,400 micro S/cm, the more the olive crops will begin to decrease in tonnage. If poor quality water is def used on your grove, consult a soil nutitionist to literature, maintain the correct nutrient balance. Weed Control Although controlling weed growth is a simple process, many growers find it to essay, be the event essay most time consuming part of their young grove's management. To achieve early crops, weeds must not be allowed to grow around or near the tree, especially in def the first couple of muscle energy essay, years. Def! Weeds compete for water and nutrients, and muscle energy techniques, when totally out of control, even light. Essay! Competition from weeds will slow down a young tree's growth and metathesis, may cause sickness and essay def, even death if not addressed. Keep a 'weed free zone' from the base of the trunk to at least 300mm past where the foliage stops. As the foliage increases in diameter each year, so the diameter of the literature based dissertation on fgm weed free zone will need to increase also. Essay Def! The majority of the attention for college tree's roots are in this area and essay def, must not be held back by weed competition. This area can be kept free from weeds with the careful use of herbicides and/or mulches.
There has been no recorded damage to olive trees of any age from careful use of attention for college, glyphosate herbicides (eg. Roundup). Recommendations for herbicide use are available from the suppliers. Essay Def! Grass and weeds outside of the 'weed free zone' should be kept down with regular slashing or mowing. As the trees grow, the art essays root zone becomes more extensive. It is ideal to keep a continuous weed free strip along the entire tree row. Def! Mulching around the trees produces beneficial results. Growers are trialling the for college various options available for intercropping olives with grasses, legumes and def, other crops. At this stage it is believed that the crops/grasses which are used in vineyards are compatible with olive groves. You will need additional irrigation if you choose to olefin, intercrop.
Cover crops may be slashed and used for mulch. Pruning There are many different ways of pruning an def, olive tree. Each country and region has differences in their pruning technique and many will protect their traditional or modern method 'to the death!'. Steve Sibbett of the University of California put it well at a recent Olive Expo when he said, There are only italian, three things to argue about in this world, Religion, Politics and Pruning. There are however, some basic pruning facts to keep in mind.
Firstly, olive trees need sufficient light and def, air through their foliage to bear commercial crops. Light and air through the canopy also reduces the incidence of pests and fungal problems. The most common way of event essay, ensuring this is by pruning the tree into a vase shape. The tree is then open in the centre thus allowing light and def, air penetration. For general grove hygiene, cut any branches off that hang too close to the ground and remove any dead branches. Also remove branches that cross over in renaissance art essays the middle of the tree. In mature groves, the main pruning is done after the fruit is harvested in Autumn. For most mechanical harvesting machines, the trunk needs to be free of def, branches for a height of around one metre from the ground. See OLIFAX 4A for pruning details for schrock olefin young trees.
Fertilising For average soils, the def initial application of manure, blue-metal crusher dust and lime is adequate to get the trees off to a good start. From then on, a yearly 25mm (1) mulch of coursework, well rotted manure can be added to the surface of the soil. The manure should extend out at least as far as the leaf line. This manure mulch will conserve moisture in the soil, reduce weed growth, and add nutrients to the tree roots. The annual manuring should be done in autumn/winter after the fruit has been harvested. Water, earthworms and other micro-organisms will transfer this food down into the soil. As the essay def earthworm population increases, this will also do an excellent job of aerating the soil. For logistical reasons, most large scale olive groves simply use urea and based dissertation on fgm, other fertilisers and trace elements to def, supply soil and foliage nutrients throughout the year.
Fertigation, where the attention getters essays fertiliser is added through the irrigation system, is a common and essay def, economical way of supplying nutrients. Leaf analysis is used to identify the nutrient status of the techniques tree. Any deficiencies and toxicities can be found this way. See OLIFAX - 6 for def more fertilizing details. Diseases Olive tree diseases are relatively minimal in coursework mayfield Australia. Those which we do have are controlled through either preventative or remedial measures. The main fungal problem is essay known as Peacock Spot ( Cycloconium oleaginum ). This grows on the leaves, finally causing the event essay leaf to drop from the tree. Def! Severe cases can defoliate a tree leading to event essay, reduced crops and occasionally even loss of the tree.
Simple control measures include the use of copper fungicides. A root problem which is essay def usually found in maths mayfield overwatered groves is called Verticillium Wilt ( Verticillium dahliae ). Research is still being done into the exact cause of this problem. It is not commonly seen in the Australian Olive Industry. Olives can also be affected by Phytophthora and def, again, this is muscle energy generally encouraged by excessive soil moisture and a lack of def, oxygen around the roots. Insect Pests These are currently fairly much restricted to the brown olive scale and olive lace bug. Renaissance Art Essays! Insect pests will be minimal if the trees are kept in essay good health.
At any rate, the attention essays need to essay, spray for insects is minimal. Check with a local agricultural chemical supplier to see which chemicals are registered in your state. Assessment of some olive fruit found with 'maggots' in them is still occurring. Although the Olive Fly ( Dacus oleae ) has not been identified in Australia, the study of any maggots in maths coursework mayfield fruit will give an essay def, accurate understanding of the fly problems on olives in Australia. For further details on any pests and event essay, diseases outlined here please ask for essay the appropriate OLIFAX sheets. Birds Birds do not generally favour the fruit because of its extreme bitterness before processing. However, some Australian growers have reported a small amount of damage to ripe fruit (black) by essay, starlings. In certain areas growers have cockatoos or parrots 'pruning' the tops of their trees. In large trees this is not a problem but young groves in such areas may need some form of essay def, protection in the early years. Animals During times of drought when food is scarce, very young trees may need to be protected from wallabies and kangaroos. If necessary they will nibble off the leaves for food.
Hares and rabbits can also chew the bark and they will occasionally vandalise the trees by nipping through very young stems. Keep sheep and other stock away from olives as they chew the foliage and bark when their normal diet of grasses runs out. Protection from animals can be done with tree guards (small animals), or by a netting fence around the total grove. Olive Agencies has flute board tree guards and maths coursework, heavy protection netting for individual tree protection. Production Trees that have been planted and cared for correctly, begin to produce olives about three years after planting and the first commercial crop arrives in year four. From Australian trials carried out on 14 varieties by the Department of Agriculture in Mildura, five year old trees produced an average of 27kgs of fresh fruit. Ten year old trees produced an average of def, 77kgs per italian tree. Fourteen year old trees produced an average of 128kgs per tree.
These yield statistics came from fully irrigated trees. Essay! In low rainfall areas where extra irrigation water is not available, the yields will be considerably less than the above figures. Good irrigation and event essay, tree maintenance practices or lack thereof, will either increase or decrease the annual yield. Further information on def the production of specific varieties can be gained from the Varieties section and attention for college essays, the technical staff at Australis Plants. Harvesting Fruit is harvested green (unripe), turning colour (half ripe), or black (ripe) between February and June each year (This will vary according to the latitude and climate of the grove). Def! The fruit is then processed by yourself or sent to muscle, an oil processor, fresh fruit market or pickling factory. The fruit can be hand picked or raked out essay, of the trees by using a garden type rake with fairly close prongs. Olive Agencies can supply a range of harvesting tools from simple hand rakes through to pneumatic harvesting tools and beyond. A ground sheet of nylon mesh, plastic or cloth can be used to renaissance art essays, collect the fruit. Mechanical harvesting of fruit is currently done by a range of 'tree shakers' which can be fitted with catching systems to collect the def falling fruit. Mechanical harvesting methods are used with varying degrees of efficiency depending on the machine design and maths mayfield, the grove suitability.
Firms offering contract mechanical harvesting are becoming available in essay Australia. Pickling Instructions For wholesale and for college essays, retail nurseries, simple instructions for non-chemical home pickling are attached to the trees as they leave our nursery. Essay Def! They are enclosed in renaissance a clear, waterproof packet and will assist you in your nursery sales. Would you like to read an article which outlines a number of Pickling Methods? Oil Extraction Olive oil is extracted from healthy fruit between March and June. There are two main types of machinery used for the extraction. The traditional press is a series of mats on which layers of crushed olives are placed in a paste form. These mats are then squeezed very tightly together and the oil and water are squeezed out of the paste.
The water is then separated from the oil before the oil is ready to use. The mats are then manually cleaned and reused. Intensity of labour and essay def, hygiene difficulties have always been encountered with the old traditional mat system. The most modern factories use the hygienic continuous flow oil extraction machines. These machines allow for a single person to add the olives at one end where they are then washed and crushed into a paste. The paste is then mixed to start the separation of the literature based dissertation oil. It then goes through a centrifuge which separates the oil and water from the paste, and finally into essay a separator which divides the oil from the water. The oil then comes from the machine with very little intervention by people involved. There are a number of types of maths mayfield, continuous flow machines which vary in the processes outlined above. This continuous flow method greatly reduces labour costs and increases production output and hygiene.
There are continuous flow olive oil factories or traditional presses in all olive growing states of Australia. Essay Def! As crops increase, new factories are being opened to cope with the demand. The book, An Introduction to Olive Oil Processing - From Picking to Pouring is available from coursework mayfield Olive Agencies and is a valuable resource for olive growers and essay def, oil producers alike. Olive Products Olives can be marketed in a wide selection of products and attention getters for college, packagings, and include the following: Green or black plain, herbed, stuffed, or sliced pickled olives, in bottles, cans or vacuum packaging. These olives can be processed using many different recipes, each with their own unique flavours. One Australian company even produced chocolate coated olives! Olive oils are processed and sold in many different grades. Oil is marketed in bottles, pressure packs or cans. Herbs or even olive twigs with leaves can be added to the bottles for that 'something different' gift.
Olive oil is also used in margarines and other mainstream foodstuffs. Olive oil soaps are produced as blocks or in liquid soap and powder form. Soaps and oils can also have different scents added to them to appeal to essay def, all 'tastes'. The Japanese are using olive oil in a wide range of maths mayfield, cosmetics, shampoos, conditioners and health products. Green and black olive paste can be marketed for use as a spread on def bread or for adding to salad dressings. Olive dips are produced for use with biscuits or other snack foods. Many souvenirs in olive growing countries are made from olive seeds and olive wood. Attention Getters! Olive groves are also developed as tourist attractions, complete with retail stores, cafes, chapels and processing facilities. Olive Leaf Extract is essay def proven to be anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal.
Olive by-products such as waste cake and olive seeds are being used to based dissertation on fgm, produce everything from def electricity to muscle techniques essay, fertilisers, stock feeds, activated carbon, bricks and even plastics. Due to continually rising demand, it appears that the number of commodities and methods for the marketing of def, olive products is limited only by human imagination. In-depth articles on the logistics of marketing Australian olive products can be found in the Australian Olive Grower Magazine. Financial Returns Olive Agencies have a Financial Assumption Guide for olive groves of various sizes and uses. write to us and ask for them to attention getters for college essays, be emailed to you.
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5 Tips for essay def Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the literature verbs are the color and contrast that keep the story moving. A cast of characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. For those times when the story is especially important and meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell.
I’ve mentioned before that taking on a photo project is one of my favorite ways to reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by a larger group. Essay! A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and want to know about the glitz and glamour of it all. It’s the perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on and on about all of the red carpets, the schrock olefin metathesis celebrities, the fame, and the fortune. It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment. Essay! By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of coursework mayfield, photographs intended to essay def tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. Olefin Metathesis! In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. Def! Which is where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for event essay my fragile artist ego can’t take any less.
While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for def creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to my clients. I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for event essay them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. Def! We went out for essays ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Def! Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. Renaissance Art Essays! I rushed home after the session and def, edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and posted them on for college essays, my personal Facebook page the essay heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the dissertation two pictures. Essay! She and I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in schrock olefin, turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . Essay Def! We photographed hundreds of women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an extremely powerful moment for them.
Beyond my beautiful children, the schrock metathesis fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and essay def, the award I won in the 4th grade for “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on its own, starting from olefin, a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and essay def, becoming a large and powerful project, one of the biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Schrock Olefin Metathesis! Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. Essay! 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to schrock my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. Essay! These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes.
It’s incredibly rewarding. Schrock! Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the first time I met the transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to essay def temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it. Maths Coursework Mayfield! I am also put to essay def work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is dissertation, tough. It’s going to essay take me several trips to have enough images to olefin do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in essay, volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is that I have the attention images, ready for essay def their time, whenever that is. TIP: If you think there is something to it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project.
Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and event essay, save them until your essay takes shape. Essay Def! You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in continuing to olefin metathesis take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Def! Luckily for my bad habit, the attention for college photographic essay needs over shooting. Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the better. This is essay def, one of the italian few times I push my luck and essay, ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Literature Dissertation On Fgm! Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready.
Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. Essay! I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept. TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in pieces and photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else. This will save you having to return to the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned.
4) Ask for help with image selection. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Dissertation On Fgm! Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on def, my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in event essay, the project. Essay Def! This is where it is so helpful to have someone else help. Dissertation! Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and essay, will help you pick based only on olefin metathesis, the strength of the image and not your own feelings.
Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to essay have personal feelings toward images that the schrock general public may not see the power behind. I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of essay def, a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. Muscle Energy Essay! This event is meant to put faces on essay def, the survivors and raise awareness, and has been a large local event for years. I was thrilled to be selected to be the exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience. This made it difficult for me to energy techniques pick which final images would be used for essay def the show, based only on the power of the coursework image and essay def, not my personal feelings. In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the final image used, as ultimately this is their story. TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to do with clear eyes. We see the mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better.
It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on a project that is event essay, incredibly important to you, or large in scale. Have others help you decide what images to use for def your final pieces. Essay! Bring in essay def, people who are interested in photography and people that aren’t. People that know about your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at all. But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Attention Getters! Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help?
Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to take the time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for def your story.
TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only did for muscle essay your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and essay def, longterm benefit. Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to energy techniques an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is def, nothing wrong with getting those things along with the personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. Want a few more ideas for muscle energy techniques essay projects, try these?
Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category.
Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the country. Her photography can be viewed at essay def www.lynseymattingly.com or on Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. Techniques! I suffer from the same challenges as you in tip #4. I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html. I have an idea for def a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. For College Essays! Thank you. Wonderful article. I liked the def picture for #3.
This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for me, the images are just part of the story, but the words and texts can help define them, giving them context and body. For me, an image rarely works alone and usually comes in coursework, a set with a particular rhythm and essay def, flow; what precedes and what follows is a very important element of each capture, as well. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in olefin metathesis, Bangkok: I think the issue in Tip #4 is common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. Essay Def! In a previous life, I was a writer and olefin, editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. We have too much of ourselves tied up in essay, the work to be objective sometimes. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and event essay, thought-filling.
Thank-you for telling me about this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to def share. I have been asked to volunteer my time to renaissance capture a group of students in def, Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the terracotta warriors, to help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. I have never done this before. They are not expecting much. Just pictures for the event.
However, I wanted to tell a story. A story of getters essays, these volunteers as well as the orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of whether is that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to take pictures of people, but take pictures of the story behind the people. Essay! Thank you again very much. This is metathesis, my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and essay def, I am very excited about it.
Thank you again for energy techniques essay this great article. Really good points and very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at one of my blogs and can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the def focus similar. the shift in focus from 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. 5 the green plant on the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change. The drain-pipe is beautiful because the eye follows the path of the pipe and so tightly focused. It seems to be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of maths mayfield, dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the same focus.. but the dried plants and wall work, the essay def drain beautiful and interesting. The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is interesting group and should be developed some more.
I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook. Literature Dissertation! It took me a long time to figure out how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to def having the eBook only on event essay, iPads. Photo essays in essay def, black and white. This post inspired me to start my website of photo essays. Literature Based On Fgm! My current ongoing series is about a band I went on tour with and the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. Essay Def! I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in context by using words to getters string them together.
Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the def photographer#8217;s voice through and through. Landscape Photography Tips. Literature Based Dissertation On Fgm! Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips. Def! 2006 - 2017 Digital Photography School, All Rights Reserved / Disclaimer. Thanks for event essay subscribing! DPS NEWSLETTER Guaranteed for 2 full months Pay by PayPal or Credit Card Instant Digital Download. Essay! DPS NEWSLETTER All our best articles for the week Fun photographic challenges Special offers and discounts. DPS NEWSLETTER All our best articles for the week Fun photographic challenges Special offers and discounts Your email is safe with us.
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an essay investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an schrock entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan?
If so, you have come to the right place. Essay. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the maths mayfield, buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to essay, reference. Related Business Documents: Click to mayfield, View. What’s included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan.
Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the essay, goal is to outline the legal and literature based on fgm, operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to essay def, include your Articles of Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and schrock olefin, Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them.
It also offers a comparison of def your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for maths coursework them , and the latest trends among these consumers in def terms of growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an literature based dissertation on fgm opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Essay. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and event essay, calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of essay your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and energy techniques essay, more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan.
What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an def example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and energy techniques essay, cons to essay def, using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer.
Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. Getters For College. A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over essay time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of maths mayfield your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to essay def, your company’s finances.
Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to coursework, investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the essay, Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the attention getters essays, essential information about essay def what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . Italian. It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to def, briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to attention getters essays, take it, and why your business idea will be successful. Essay. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the italian renaissance, first chapter of essay your business plan, though it’s actually the renaissance art essays, last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to essay, ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary.
This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of schrock investors. Essay Def. Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and maths mayfield, your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to def, demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web.
We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to getters, achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in essay which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to energy techniques essay, the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Products and essay, Services. Describe the products and schrock, services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and essay def, Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in schrock olefin metathesis the Market section.
Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and essay def, Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to muscle techniques, turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the essay, funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Literature. Keep this at essay an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is maths coursework mayfield a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the essay, amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary.
How to Write the Company and getters for college essays, Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the reader with the essay, company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Attention For College Essays. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over def go the attention getters essays, company’s location and history in essay def more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney.
The primer below is meant only to coursework mayfield, explain the broad differences between the essay, most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and getters for college, they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on essay def, a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to event essay, a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the essay def, partnership. However, similar to muscle essay, sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and essay, liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and event essay, (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Essay Def. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in art essays the venture but limit their exposure to liability.
A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at essay the corporate level, and maths mayfield, then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the essay, IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Italian. Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of def company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of italian art essays VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address.
Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is essay def especially critical. With the lack of history, there is literature dissertation little investors can go by to gauge the essay, future success of essays a venture. The question lenders and def, investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the maths, right team to execute on the company’s vision.
If you have an def established business the information you want to present is the attention essays, same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from def, start-up to established business, the management team must also change. Essay. They must be able to essay, manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and for college essays, a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the essay def, highest authority in the management of the italian renaissance art essays, company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is def most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of attention getters essays investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets.
An advisory board is essay a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the attention, member is def committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the event essay, first member of your Advisory Board. Essay Def. This will help you to recruit other members of the event essay, Board. Essay Def. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and mayfield, how you got to the requested amount.
Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to essay def, identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is event essay already in essay def existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company.
There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in event essay the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the essay, financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability.
Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the based, answer to essay def, the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. Italian Art Essays. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in essay def time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the maths coursework mayfield, end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is def more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of getters its assets.
In other words, in def this approach the coursework mayfield, company is worth the sum of essay def all its assets if they were to be liquidated . Attention Getters For College. This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by def the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by olefin metathesis analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on essay def, that future stream of for college essays income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by essay def looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to italian renaissance, determine how much equity you should offer:
Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Essay. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is dissertation both large enough and essay, soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to renaissance, turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of def equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in maths coursework mayfield order to essay def, further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the dissertation, loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to essay, use the schrock, funds. The level of detail should be at essay def a high level ; if the maths coursework mayfield, investor or lender wants to essay, see expenses in attention for college more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the essay, Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen:
Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in attention getters that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the essay def, line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. Getters For College. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by essay def investing into your company.
Therefore, you need to include detailed information on italian art essays, how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem.
If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on def, writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Muscle Techniques. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the def, statement mean something.
A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the energy techniques, company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. Essay Def. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and muscle energy, (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in def the marketplace.
It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for getters for college essays the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to essay, fulfill prescriptions to italian renaissance art essays, improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and essay def, borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. Italian Renaissance Art Essays. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to def, attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the event essay, nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is essay def ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement.
This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the maths coursework mayfield, company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to def, the level of detail you want to literature based, include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to essay def, the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for italian a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to def, execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company.
Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the schrock, better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. Def. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at event essay the facility. Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from essay, unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities.
For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and muscle techniques essay, water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of def your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and dissertation on fgm, fundraising perspective. If you operate out of essay def a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business.
Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. Italian. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only essay, buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and art essays, status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to def, sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from muscle energy techniques essay, competing products/services.
You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. Def. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to literature based on fgm, set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over essay def time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on event essay, how to essay, perform competitive analysis.
The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to attention for college, find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to def, find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only attention, do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on def, the lookout for based new entrants. Essay. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of literature on fgm new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to def, start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps)
Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and event essay, services from suppliers that are required for essay your company to maths mayfield, make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the essay, price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to italian, your ability to operate if they cannot deliver.
Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to essay, meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to renaissance, delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of def final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to attention getters essays, order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the def, product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and muscle energy techniques essay, expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of essay inventory you need to meet your projected sales.
Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Muscle Techniques Essay. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is essay def becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage.
Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of literature on fgm companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in def your business and italian renaissance art essays, if it is essay def critical to olefin, your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and def, securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to event essay, the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is essay def too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative?
If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of dissertation intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). Def. If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for renaissance art essays your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is essay def recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and muscle, plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and essay, architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice.
For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is art essays just as important to def, secure your intellectual property in olefin metathesis relation to essay, your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of dissertation on fgm intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is essay def a good idea to muscle energy techniques essay, describe the essay, product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the renaissance, word out. You may discount the essay def, price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor.
You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for schrock olefin your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an essay def opportunity to mayfield, describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to essay def, your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)
In the italian, market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and essay def, then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the attention getters essays, total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is def much harder to predict with accuracy.
So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in metathesis downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Def. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture.
You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in literature dissertation on fgm the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the def, time and cost of attention getters for college switching from one company’s product/services unless it is essay def compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.
For example, there is virtually no cost to italian renaissance art essays, switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is essay def high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to event essay, reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for essay your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is maths critical for various aspects of essay your business. A growing or shrinking market is event essay described in more detail in the market growth section. Essay. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on based, non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is essay def imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of italian art essays 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities.
This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in essay def an industry where political conditions have an olefin metathesis impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the def, Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and event essay, easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of essay def technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on art essays, a variety of def factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Schrock Metathesis. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy.
Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years). Essay Def. So if the market in event essay the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by def 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to schrock metathesis, find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is def obviously important – for example, the market for muscle energy techniques Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and essay def, will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers.
Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in olefin metathesis the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to def, describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Art Essays. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for def conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in maths coursework mayfield the way for new entrants to enter the market and essay, compete. If your industry is supplied by italian renaissance art essays very few suppliers with little alternative but to essay def, source from schrock olefin, those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only essay def, has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins.
If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is renaissance little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to essay, grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of literature based dissertation on fgm your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of essay coffee every day, versus the coursework mayfield, student type that comes in once a month.
When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and essay, customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task.
Time to olefin, move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and essay, what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to literature based on fgm, include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the def, other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in attention getters for college essays the subsequent sections.
Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Essay. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of coursework Scale: For example, being able to essay def, turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. Maths. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the essay, market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and literature based, negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow.
Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and def, not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the maths coursework mayfield, optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers?
If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on essay, price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to coursework mayfield, paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95.
In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto def how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence.
There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for coursework effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and def, consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by event essay far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to essay, purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. Dissertation On Fgm. There are ways to boost word of essay def mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of maths mayfield their contacts, all with one click. Essay. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert.
Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. Literature Based Dissertation. You can start by participating on public forums and def, blogs related to your business and adapting the event essay, adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in essay def turn sell to consumers. Three common models:
Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Olefin. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is essay def only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and italian renaissance, sell to customers.
Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and essay, implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the schrock olefin, key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the def, company’s first prototype or breaking even. Schrock Olefin Metathesis. These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in essay effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable).
A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at event essay what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and essay, the threats it faces.
Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and maths coursework, staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and essay, Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and event essay, legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at def a lower cost then your competitors?
This is techniques essay a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to essay def, achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by literature dissertation the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to essay def, pay a higher price for better customer service . Event Essay. Nordstrom’s is an essay def example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage.
Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in muscle techniques essay business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an essay def opportunity for essays a partnership in the future and that should be included in essay def this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Based Dissertation On Fgm. Inking an exclusive agreement to essay def, lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow.
It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for schrock metathesis example, to set standards for essay def the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of literature on fgm Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of def your entire plan. It requires making a large number of muscle techniques essay intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and def, the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for based on fgm Success.
Define the def, price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to schrock, produce or sell the product/service, and essay def, the number of units you will sell. Renaissance. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the def, production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and attention, what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on essay def, hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an energy techniques essay increase in essay def sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of muscle techniques essay raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to def, encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the essays, unit level). Otherwise known as cost of def goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of event essay sales on essay def, a sliding scale.
Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for attention getters essays several reasons: Economy of scale: the def, more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the schrock metathesis, cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Essay Def. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of attention for college your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. Essay. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to italian art essays, collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and essay, then remit the tax to dissertation, the state each year. If the def, individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is event essay accurate, so will the overall sales forecast.
You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of essay hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of schrock olefin personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the essay def, milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there.
You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and techniques essay, come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and essay, the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to schrock olefin, want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and essay def, maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for italian art essays most situations.
Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an def annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and renaissance, other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for essay def example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and coursework, sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. Essay Def. This is referred to for college, the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and essay, not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is getters essays a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate.
For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to essay, think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into italian renaissance, groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Def. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers.
You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for maths more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over essay def its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the muscle techniques essay, costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life.
These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Def. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and schrock olefin, securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of essay time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over muscle essay time.
By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an essay amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of event essay Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to def, pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in literature the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at essay the end of the maths, fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. Def. You may want to maths coursework mayfield, set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to essay, keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs.
For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by event essay allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to def, avoid the metathesis, hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. Def. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to metathesis, increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in def mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers.
Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to energy, pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to def, suppliers and banks.
It is to your advantage to coursework mayfield, negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is def owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on italian renaissance, hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on def, the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to maths coursework, collect incoming payments.
How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and essay, when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on event essay, keeping inventory on hand, then you need to essay, define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of based dissertation on fgm inventory you hold on hand, the def, more cash is literature dissertation tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business. A good place to def, find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an event essay indicator.
Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on essay, hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for renaissance art essays credit sales and essay def, payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Italian Art Essays. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and essay def, how will it affect your business?
When taking out a loan, you borrow an based amount of money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in essay def installments). You will typically pay interest on for college, the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the essay, financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. Event Essay. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors.
Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is essay unused, and the borrower can draw on event essay, the line of credit at def any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the italian art essays, amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the def, line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from art essays, you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership).
In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from def, sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to italian art essays, take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at essay def the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation.
Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an getters for college essays existing business, you can enter past financial data here. Essay Def. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to maths coursework, see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the def, most impact to your business. Literature Based. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working.
Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and essay def, Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the for college essays, three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to def, edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. Event Essay. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. Def. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is event essay a read-only display. If you wish to def, change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section.
If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Muscle Energy. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. Essay Def. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the literature based dissertation, accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business.
The report here is essay def a read-only display. If you wish to event essay, change any of the essay def, information, you may do so by schrock olefin editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. Essay. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is coursework important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in def debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the getters, overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit.
The ratios show how much of sales revenue is essay actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and mayfield, how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the def, percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by maths coursework the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an def expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes.
To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and a glossary of terms. Event Essay. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and essay def, loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only attention getters for college essays, serve as a starting point for you and your dream.
Click the images to view our full business examples. 4. The Pros and Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Write with confidence — you won’t be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of essay def figuring out how to order your chapters, or the worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of olefin a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. After you download it, it’s up to you to flesh out the details and ensure that each section is as well researched and essay, intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from literature based dissertation on fgm, our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. Completely free – no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is completely free.
You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the def, guide. Do not purchase them – there is no benefit at all to purchasing a pre-fabricated plan. None of the event essay, information will be relevant to your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and structure of the plan – something that you could easily research and essay, re-create on your own. Sound good? Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the schrock olefin metathesis, complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. You’ll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an essay expensive rate for someone else to based on fgm, do them. You’re going to have to do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment — all by yourself. Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is beyond the scope of most peoples’ abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to essay def, professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for them.
Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to schrock olefin, meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to a seasoned investor. 2. You’ll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to make the calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to take the numbers you calculated and def, create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan. Making your data attractive and mayfield, easy to comprehend is no easy task. Essay. Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and coursework, tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to essay def, see them. 3. A basic template won’t allow you to track your business’ progress. You won’t be able to keep your company’s information up to literature based on fgm, date easily. One of the major benefits of using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and essay, earnings, allowing you to track the progress of your business easily and without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out your product/service concepts and marketing plan. Olefin. If or when you encounter the essay, financial sections, we’ll be looking forward to helping your progress through the major obstacles of writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas. Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states.
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