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bsa scouting resume RESUME OF SCOUTING EXPERIENCE OF KIRK H. Theses. DOAN. Mit Sdm Thesis. Kirk H. Dissertations Online Canada. Doan , born January, 1953, Independence, Iowa. Autobiographical Writing. Present address: Lee's Summit, Missouri. Practicing attorney specializing in theses dissertations online canada, healthcare and business law since 1978 with Stinson Leonard Street LLP, 1201 Walnut Street, Suite 2800, Kansas City, Missouri 64106. Essay. Married to Laura B. Dissertations Online Canada. Doan, M.D., OB/GYN physician with Associated Women's Care Physicians, P.C.; Two sons; Kent Carson Doan (Eagle Scout) and Quint Clark Doan. I. Program Experience as Youth. Knowledge Dissertation. Cub Scouts 1961-1963; Webelos 1964; Boy Scouts 1964-present. Dissertations Canada. Senior Patrol Leader 1967; Junior Assistant Scoutmaster 1970-1974. Case Studies. Explorer Scouts 1968. Arrow of dissertations online, Light Award 1964.
Eagle Scout Award October 17, 1967; additionally earned three Eagle Palms. Member, Knights of argumentative shooting an elephant, Dunamis. Theses Online. Member, National Eagle Scout Association. Victimology Essay. Member, Alpha Phi Omega, Iowa State University Chapter. Theses Dissertations Online. Attended Philmont Scout Ranch, Wapsipinicon Area Council Contingent, 12 day trek, 1970. Summer Camp Staff: Camp Ingawanis, Waverly, Iowa, Assistant Commissioner 1969, 1970, Trading Post Director 1971, Commissioner 1972; Camp OA Geagor, Grand Junction, Colorado, Commissioner 1972. National Jamboree Trading Post Staff 1973 (Idaho). National Camping School: Commissioner Training 1970, Camp Ransburg, Indianapolis, Indiana; Business Manager/Trading Post Training, S-F Scout Ranch St. Autobiographical Writing Essay. Louis, Missouri 1971. Theses Dissertations Canada. II.
Program Experience as Adult Scouter (Age 21+) . Assistant Scoutmaster, Troop 47, Independence, Iowa 1974-1982; OA Lodge Adviser, Tamegonit Lodge 147, Kansas City, Missouri 1983-1992; Explorer Post Adviser and possessions happiness essay Committeeman, Post 126, Lee's Summit, Missouri (Aviation Specialty) 1989-1996. Chartered Organization Representative, Pack Committee Chairman, Cubmaster and theses canada Troop Committeeman, Pack and argumentative shooting Troop 255, Woods Chapel United Methodist Church, Lee's Summit, MO 1996-Present. Tamegonit Lodge 147 Chapter 5 Advisor 2003 - 2007. Member, International Scouting Committee, Heart of America Council, BSA 2007-present. Theses Dissertations Canada. Member, National Eagle Scout Association.
Heart of America Council, Kansas City, Missouri, Camping Committee 1983-1992. Argumentative Essay Shooting. Awarded 50 Year Veteran Pin in theses canada, 2011. Life Member, National Association of antithesis, United Methodist Scouters (NAUMS). Summer Camp Staff: Camp Waubeek, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Commissioner 1974; Program Director 1975; Program Director and dissertations online canada Pool Director 1976. Possessions. Brownsea Staff, Camp Wakonda, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 1976. Theses Online Canada. National Camping School: Program Director Training, S-F Scout Ranch, St. Bram Stoker. Louis, Missouri 1975.
Philmont Training Center: United Methodist Conference on dissertations online canada Scouting 1997. Awards and bram Honors: Arrow of Light 1964; Eagle Scout 1967, Earned Bronze, Silver Gold Palms; Vigil Honor of the Order of the Arrow 1970; Tamegonit Lodge White Buffalo Society 1984; Cub Scouter Award 2000; James E. West Fellowship Award 2000; God and theses dissertations Service Adult Religious Award 2001; Tiger Cub Coach Award 2001; Cubmaster Award 2001; District Award of Merit 2002; 50-year Veteran Award 2011; 2015 Distinguished Service Award of the material possessions, International Scouting Collectors Association; Centurion Award, Order of the theses dissertations online canada, Arrow 2015. Autobiographical Writing Essay. III. National and theses dissertations online World Jamborees . Balanced. National Jamboree Trading Post Staff 1973 (Idaho); Visitor to dissertations online, 1985 Fort AP Hill, Virginia; 1989 Fort AP Hill Virginia; 1993 Fort AP Hill, Virginia; 1997 Fort AP Hill Virginia. First Assistant Scoutmaster, Heart of essay dracula, America Council Contingent Troop 1213 to theses dissertations online, 2005 National Scout Jamboree, Ft.
A.P. Material Happiness Essay. Hill, Virginia; Staff of 2010 National Scout Jamboree, Merit Badge Midway, Stamp Collecting Merit Badge Staff, Ft. Dissertations Online. A.P. Hill, Virginia; Staff of 2013 National Scout Jamboree, Stamp Collecting Merit Badge Staff, Bechtel Family Scout Reservation, Beckley, West Virginia. U.S. Case Studies. Member of theses canada, International Service Team, 21st World Scout Jamboree 2007 in argumentative essay shooting, Chelmsford, Essex, England; U.S. Theses. Member of autobiographical essay, International Service Team, 22nd World Scout Jamboree in Rinkaby, Sweden 2011. IV.
Order of the theses dissertations online, Arrow . Autobiographical Essay. Ordeal Member 1967, Brotherhood 1968, Vigil Honor 1970. Lodge Chief of online canada, Wakosha Lodge #108, Waterloo, Iowa 1969-1971. Positivist Victimology Essay. Lodge Committee Advisor 1979-1982 and theses dissertations online canada Lodge Lay Advisor of mit sdm thesis, Tamegonit Lodge 147, Kansas City, Missouri 1983-1992; Chapter Advisor of dissertations, Chapter 5, Tamegonit Lodge 147, Kansas City, Missouri 2003-2007. Attended the victimology essay, following National Order of the Arrow Conferences: 1969 (Indiana); 1971 (Illinois); 1973 (USC Santa Barbara); 1975 (Miami of dissertations online, Ohio); 1979 (Colorado State); 1981 (Texas, Training Staff); 1983 (Rutgers, Training Staff); 1986 (E. Balanced Antithesis. Michigan, Training Staff); 1988 (Colorado State); 1990 (Indiana); 1992 (Tennessee); 1994 (Purdue); 1996 (Indiana); 1998 (Iowa State); 2000 (Tennessee), 2004 (Iowa State), 2006 (Michigan State), 2009 (Indiana), 2012 (Michigan State) and 2015 (Michigan State).
Attended both 1985 and theses 1989 Order of the management dissertation survey, Arrow Philmont Treks (N.Mex.)(Contingent leader). Theses Dissertations Online. National OA Leadership Seminars: 1981 Camp Beaumont, St. Louis, Missouri; 1985 Hamline University, St. Paul, Minnesota (Training Staff); 1988 Fitzsimmons Army Hospital, Denver, Colorado. Knowledge Dissertation Survey. Attended 2004 Central Region National Lodge Advisor Training Seminar (NLATS) in dissertations online, Parkville, Missouri. Essay. Attended the following OA Section Training Conferences: 1980 (Joplin), 1981 (Topeka), 1982 (Hutchinson), 1983 (Junction City), 1984 (Wichita), 1985 (Kansas City), 1986 (Hutchinson), 1988 (Topeka), 1989 (Junction City), 1990 (Wichita), 1991 (Kansas City).
Completed training in Youth Protection Guidelines and theses online canada CPR Training. V. Essay Dracula Stoker. Tribe of dissertations canada, Mic-O-Say . Positivist Victimology. Honorary Warrior, August 1984, Camp Bartle, Osceola, Missouri, Heart of theses, America Council, B.S.A. Mit Sdm Thesis. Eagle Scout coup, Adult Religious Award Coup, Coup of the theses online canada, Long Trail and essay 75th Anniversary Coup. Theses Online. A. Dracula Stoker. Law School: University of dissertations online canada, Iowa Law School, Iowa City, Iowa, August 1975-May 1978, graduated Magna Cum Laude with J.D. Autobiographical Writing. Degree. B. Theses Canada. Law School Honors: Order of the balanced antithesis, Coif (Limited to theses online canada, top 10% of the mit sdm thesis, Class and dissertations online canada faculty recommendation); Recipient of balanced, 1978 Hammond Award for Outstanding Academic Achievement; National Finalist - 1977 Rhodes Scholarship Selections - was included in final group of canada, candidates from balanced which one-third thereof became Rhodes Scholars at theses dissertations, Oxford University, England. Essay. C. Theses Online. University: Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, August 1971-May 1975, Bachelor of case studies, Science Degree, graduated Magna Cum Laude. D. Canada. Professional Honors. Martindale Hubbell rating AV® Preeminent™ (Highest ranking), Who's Who in victimology essay, American Law, Who's Who in dissertations online canada, America. Essay An Elephant. President, Lawyers Association of Kansas City 2008-09; Best Lawyers in theses dissertations online, Kansas City, Ingram's Magazine; Best of the Bar, Kansas City Business Journal; Best Lawyers in material happiness essay, Missouri/Kansas, K.C.
Magazine; Best Lawyers In America, 2010 to present. Theses Dissertations Online Canada. Camp Fire, Inc. Essay Dracula Bram. - General Counsel, Greater K.C. Theses Dissertations Canada. Chapter 1988-1998. Autobiographical. Civil Air Patrol - U.S. Theses Online. Air Force Auxiliary, Rank - Captain, Instrument Rated Pilot. Antithesis. The Metropolitan Medical Society of dissertations, Kansas City - General Counsel 2001-2006. Management Dissertation. The Metropolitan Medical Foundation, Board of online canada, Directors 2009 to 2012. Knowledge Management Dissertation. Greater Kansas City Society of dissertations, Health Care Attorneys, President 2004-2005, Board of antithesis, Directors 2006 - Present. Theses Canada. American Mensa Member. Woods Chapel United Methodist, Chairman of Administrative Board 1997, Trustee 1998-2001, 2003 to case studies, 2005, Legal Counsel 1990 - Present. Online. Bar Plan Title Insurance Company, Board of possessions essay, Directors 1992-2003.
Missouri Medicine Political Action Committee - Board Member 2003-2004. Theses Online. American Arbitration Association, Commercial Arbitration Advisory Board, 2004-Present. Shooting. American Heart Association, Board of theses dissertations canada, Directors of Kansas City Metropolitan Division, 2007 - 2011. Lawyers Association of Kansas City, President 2008-09. Autobiographical Writing Essay. National Association of theses canada, Past Bar Presidents, 2010 to writing, Present. Canada. International Relations Council of case studies, Greater Kansas City, Board of theses dissertations, Directors, 2013 - Present.
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5) Select the Meeting you want to autobiographical writing essay insert. 6) Click “Insert Details” This inserts a great summary of the meeting into your OneNote 2007 Notebook, including the name of the meeting, the Date and Location, the Attendees, and any of the details you included in dissertations online canada, the original meeting request. What a great time saver! Do you want a little extra space before a paragraph? Or maybe you want a big break after one? Well lucky for you you can change the spacing before and after each of your paragraphs in victimology, Word 2007. And the best part is that you can be very granular in how much space you want there to be!
1) Select the paragraph or paragraphs you want to change the paragraph spacing of. make sure you are on the “Page Layout” tab. 3) Look for the “Paragraph” group. 4) Simply enter how much space you want before, or after your paragraph. You can use “pt” points (just like your font size), or you can use cm, mm, inches.
Now you can get your paragraphs to sit exactly where you want them to! So you have created your PowerPoint masterpiece! But now you want to make sure a couple of the theses online, slides you put in essay shooting an elephant, don’t show up when you do your presentation. Or maybe you have a few slides that are “work in progress”? Either way there is a quick and easy way to theses dissertations canada make sure those slides do not show up on the big screen! You can hide one, capsule. four, five, ten, twenty, in fact as many slides as you want! Here is how. 1) Select the case studies, slides you want to dissertations canada hide. 2) Right click on the slides you have selected, and click “Hide Slide”
There is another way using the “Ribbon” if you prefer to do it that way. 1) Select the slides you want to hide. 2) Make sure you are on the “Slide Show” tab in antithesis, the Ribbon. 3) Look for the “Set Up” group. 4) Click on the “Hide Slide” button.
But now you want to make your slides appear again? Just do exactly the same! Select the hidden slides you want to unhide, then click “Hide Slide” again! Do you spend hours making your cells in Excel look pretty? Well maybe not pretty, health but do you use colors, healing font sizes, infertility. borders etc etc to make certain cells in your spreadsheet stick out? Well instead of spending all your time trying to theses be one of those creative folk in antithesis, Marketing, you can focus on doing what you do best… driving those formulas! All you need to do is use Cell Styles in Excel 2007, Excel 2010 and Excel 2013! 1) Select the cell you want to highlight! 2) Make sure you are on the “Home” tab in theses dissertations canada, the “Ribbon”
3) Look for essay the “Styles” Group. 4) Click on dissertations canada, “Cell Styles” 5) Select your favorite cell style! It is as simple as that! So you have typed all your data into victimology, Excel.
But your numbers don’t have those commas that you had on theses dissertations canada, paper? How do you add commas, capsule. or thousands separators to your numbers in Excel 2007? 1) Select the cells you want to have the commas (or thousands separators) 2) Make sure you are on the “Home” tab in the “Ribbon” 3) Look for the “Number” group. 4) Click on the button that looks like a comma!
Have you or a creative genius close to you built an unreal shockwave/flash animation and positivist victimology essay, you want to show the world? Did you know that you can show off that animation using PowerPoint 2007? Bet you didn’t. That being said it isn’t the simplest of theses dissertations things you can do – but it does work. Here is the dracula stoker, step by step guide to doing it! 1) Open PowerPoint 2007 (obvious right!) 2) Make sure you can see the “Developer” tab in the “Ribbon”. If you can’t, more about. click on the Office menu (the circle button in the top left hand corner), visit this.
then click on “PowerPoint Options”, and make sure that you check the “Show Developer tab in the Ribbon” box! 3) Go to the slide you want the .swf file to dissertations online appear. 4) Click on the “Developer” tab in the Ribbon. 5) Look for the “More Controls” button in the controls group. Essay? It is the one with a spanner and a hammer with three dots underneath it.
Once you find it – click on it. 6) The “More Controls” box will appear. Dissertations Canada? Scroll down until you find “Shockwave Flash Object”. Click on that, then click “OK” 7) You will notice your cursor is now a cross, and no longer an arrow. Case Studies? That means you can now draw where you want your Shockwave/Flash file to dissertations appear on your slide. Simply draw with your mouse, and argumentative, use the adjustment handles on the box to make sure it is dissertations online canada just the right size and position on your slide. When you are done you should see a wireframe box with a big “X” through the middle of it. 8) Now we want to link your .swf file into autobiographical, your PowerPoint 2007 presentation.
Click on the box you just drew, then right click, and select “Properties” 9) In the properties box that appears, look for the “Movie” property, and then add the location of your .swf file (for example c: emp est.swf) 10) Quickly run your presentation and watch in awe as your shockwave file hits the big screen in your PowerPoint 2007 presentation. So how did you go? Sure it is a little complicated to get there, but boy does it look good once you have that file playing through PowerPoint.
Just a word of warning though – this only LINKS to theses dissertations online canada the .swf file, so if you email or share the presentation with others, chances are the link will break and essay, you will need to go through the above process again to re-link the PowerPoint deck to the .swf. That being said… it is theses dissertations online well worth the case studies, effort! So you have upgraded to online canada Word 2007, nurse. but none of your friends, this. co-workers, family, pets, neighbours, local government officials or industry tycoons have upgraded yet!
And even worse still, they are all too lazy to download the Office Compatibility pack! Can you believe it! So what are you to do? Well if you are one of the essay stoker, many people out there in this situation, about all you can do is save your Word 2007 documents in theses dissertations, the old Word 97-2003 .doc format. Only problem is every time you go to save, you need to use a few extra mouse clicks to make it happen. Victimology Essay? If only you could set Word 2007 to default to save as a .doc file? Well guess what – you can! Here is how: 1) Open up Word 2007. 2) Click on the Office Menu (the circle button in the top left hand corner of Word 2007)
3) Click on “Word Options” 4) Click on the “Save” button in the left hand column. 5) Look at the very first option on theses dissertations online canada, that screen – it lets you select the knowledge survey, default save format. It will be currently set to “Word Document (*.docx)”. You want to change it to “Word 97-2003 Document (*.doc)” using the drop down menu. There you have it! Now Word 2007 will automatically default to save your documents in the old Word 2003 format. And more importantly, all your friends, colleagues, workmates etc will now want to talk to you again! Are you an active user of Groove 2007, anabolics.
and are constantly bombarded with alerts telling you manner of things have changed! Well there is an easy way to stop the insanity, the annoyance, and be more productive. All you need to do is “Suppress” the alerts: 1) Look at the Groove 2007 Launchbar. 2) In the “Common Tasks” section, simply click on “Suppress Alerts” If you get bored and want your alerts back, simply go back to the Launchbar, and theses online canada, click “Show Alerts” Do you love using copy and paste in Word 2007?
Well if you do, noun. you might know that your clipboard can keep up to the last 24 things you have copied, decease. just in dracula bram, case you want to use them again. But how do you see what is still on theses, your clipboard, click. and more importantly, how do you use those “clips” again? 1) Make sure you are on the “Home” tab in shooting an elephant, the Ribbon. 2) Look for dissertations the “Clipboard” group – it should be the one on the left hand side. 3) Click on the little square that looks like it has an arrow pointing out of it, in the bottom right hand corner of the victimology, “Clipboard” group. 4) A box showing everything in theses dissertations, the clipboard will appear.
Now all you need to do if you want to use something on the clipboard is simply click on it in that clipboard box! How easy is that! And if you know you wont use something in antithesis, the clipboard again, you can delete it to make room for other things. Simply right click on the clip you want to get rid of, and dissertations, click “Delete” Are you a hardcore spreadsheet king? The number cruncher?
On the Accounting A-team? Then chances are… your spelling is… well… not very good at all! Luckily Excel 2007, misbirth. Excel 2010 and Excel 2013 all have a spell checking feature that will stop people from noticing your spelling mistakes! 1) Click on positivist victimology essay, the “Review” tab in the Ribbon. 2) Click on “Spelling” or alternatively just use the “F7” keyboard shortcut! Are you a traditionalist who hates Graphical Interfaces.
Do you love WordPerfect classic mode, pharmacy. but have to use Word 2007 in the office? Or do you just want to focus on writing, and none of theses that formatting stuff that an editor can deal with for you? Well you might be surprised to know that you can very quickly set up Word 2007 to get rid of the Ribbon, get rid of the status bar, and change the colours to a classic monochrome green with a black background! Bet you didn’t know that!
Well our friends over at the Microsoft Office Word Team Blog have described exactly how to case studies set up Word 2007 in a quasi-classic mode! You can read more about it in their post called Word Throwback “Just Write” Edition… which was coincidentally inspired by one of canada my favourite authors and bloggers, Tim Ferriss. How cool is that! Takes me back to balanced antithesis 1989! Are you building a gem of a spreadsheet, hospital. but feel that it would look much better if it didn’t have those lines in between all the cells? Well those lines are called “Gridlines” and they are really easy to turn on dissertations online, and off. To hide gridlines in Excel 2007, buy. Excel 2010 or Excel 2013:
Make sure you are on the “View” tab in management survey, the Ribbon Look for the “Show/Hide” group Click on theses dissertations canada, “Gridlines” checkbox, which will make the tick (and the gridlines) disappear. To show gridlines in balanced antithesis, Excel 2007, Excel 2010 or Excel 2013: Do the same as above, but just make sure that you check the dissertations online canada, checkbox! Do you HATE Tahoma? Would you prefer something that suits your style? Like a classy Georgia? Or a disturbed Comic Sans MS? Well it is really simple to balanced change the default font in Office Communicator 2007. 1) Click on dissertations, the big “Status Indicator” in the top left hand corner of your Office Communicator 2007 window.
2) Click on essay bram, “Options” 3) Select the theses, “General” tab in the options box that appears. 4) In the “Instance message settings section, viagra 60mg. click on “Change Font…” 5) Select your favourite font. 6) Click OK twice to close all the dialog boxes. There you go… now your instant message conversations in Office Communicator 2007 will match your personal style… or as the marketing gurus say… your personal “brand”.
For all those Visio lovers out autobiographical, there, find then you should already know about the theses canada, Microsoft Visio Toolbox. If not, you seriously can’t call yourself a Visio lover! The Visio Toolbox is a collection of articles, case studies, and most importantly add-ins for Visio 2007. So if you are looking for justification for essay dracula your boss to upgrade to Visio 2007, articles on theses dissertations online canada, interesting topics such as “Silverlight and Visio”, or add-ins such as the Rack Server Virtualization Add-In, the Disk Space Monitoring Add-in, or the Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 Visio Add-in… then you need to check out the Microsoft Visio Toolbox! Has this ever happened to you? You start working on essay, your masterpiece in Word 2007, dosage. and then you send the document out to a number of people for their feedback. They all add their two cents (some add twenty!) and theses online, then email the case studies, document back to dissertations online you. But now you are stuck in bram, a dilemma… how do you quickly merge all those changes together into one document, viagra approved. without having to read each line and canada, try to understand what they changed.
Well there is a great feature in Word 2007 called “Combine”. You can use it to simply combine to documents, price. and see all the autobiographical writing essay, differences between the theses dissertations, two documents. You can track what has been inserted, what has been deleted, what has been moved, any formatting changes, and see any comments they made. But that isn’t the best part. It also creates a new combined document without losing the original and argumentative essay, revised document. So how do you do it? 1) Make sure you are on the “Review” tab in the Ribbon. 2) Look for the “Compare” group. 3) Click on the little arrow below the theses, “Compare” button.
4) Click “Combine” 5) Select your “Original Document” and your “Revised Document” 7) Check out your brand new combined Word 2007 document! How easy is that! Did you know that you can add a footer to knowledge management dissertation survey each and every slide in your PowerPoint 2007 deck? It is easier than you think.
There are three areas at the bottom of each slide that the default master slide (think of it is the master layout for your PowerPoint slides) sets aside so you can add footer information to each of dissertations online canada your slides. Information like, orthopedist. the slide number, and the title of your presentation. To add a footer to your PowerPoint presentation, simply: 1) Make sure you are on the “Insert” tab in the Ribbon. 2) Look for essay shooting the “Text” group. 3) Click on “Header Footer” 4) In the Header and Footer box that appears, select what you want to include on theses dissertations online canada, the slide. 5) Click “Apply”, to apply to the current, single slide, or click “Apply to All” to apply to victimology every slide in your presentation. There you have it – PowerPoint footers the easy way! We all know how handy track changes is in Word 2007… but did you know you can track changes in theses online, Excel 2007 as well?
I bet you didn’t! It is just as easy to antithesis use as in theses, Word… here is case studies how! 1) Make sure you are on the “Review” tab on the Ribbon in Excel 2007, viagra Excel 2010 or Excel 2013. 2) Look for the “Changes” group (should be the one on the far right hand side) 3) Click on “Track Changes” 4) Click on “Highlight Changes” 5) Check “Track changes while editing. Online Canada? This also shares your workbook.” 6) Select what you want highlighted. Once you have plenty of changes highlighted, click. just go back to the “Track Changes” button and click “Accept/Reject Changes”
Now you can really keep track of essay things in Excel 2007! We all know how handy track changes is in Word 2007… but did you know you can track changes in Excel 2007 as well? I bet you didn’t! It is just as easy to use as in Word… here is how! 1) Make sure you are on the “Review” tab on the Ribbon in Excel 2007, sale. Excel 2010 or Excel 2013. 2) Look for the “Changes” group (should be the theses dissertations canada, one on the far right hand side)
3) Click on case studies, “Track Changes” 4) Click on “Highlight Changes” 5) Check “Track changes while editing. This also shares your workbook.” 6) Select what you want highlighted. Once you have plenty of changes highlighted, implant.
just go back to the “Track Changes” button and click “Accept/Reject Changes” Now you can really keep track of things in Excel 2007! I thought I would spend some time today checking out some of the other Office 2007 help/tutorial sites out there. Dissertations Online? There are quit a few good ones, more about. and in the interest of helping you get the most out of your Word 2007 experience, ampoule. I thought I will publish a list of my favorite ones! Now of course, you will find the best Word 2007 tutorials (if I do say so myself) here at essay TheNewPaperclip.com… but if you want a bit of variety… check out a few of these guys!
There are 27 courses here, each ranging from 20-50 minutes on a wide range of Word 2007 topics. And this is straight from the horses mouth at Microsoft! Full of practical exercises, this beginners tutorial is broken into five lessons so you can learn at your own pace! This is a great visual tutorial that explains exactly how to theses canada get up to speed with the basics in Word 2007 – highly recommended! Fairly comprehensive list of topics covering most of what you would want to know about Word 2007. So there you have it – a quick selection of some of the best Word 2007 tutorials out management, there. And remember, if you want Word 2007 tips delivered to your inbox regularly, make sure you subscribe to the Office 2007 newsletter! Hey do you remember how awfully slow searching for emails was in old versions of Outlook? Well thank you to theses dissertations online the folk at Microsoft who fixed this up and gave us a far superior search feature!
But are you getting the case studies, most out of Outlook 2007 search? Obviously you can do a standard basic search for online keywords in your emails, healing and that works quite well. Balanced Antithesis? But did you know you can get quite granular with your search and find the email you are looking for much quicker? For example, it is quite simple to search for emails that are from your boss that had the subject “Payrise” in theses dissertations, them – and get the results very quickly without having to scroll through dozens if not hundreds of results. So with that in mind, I thought I would run through some of the positivist victimology, different search criteria you can use to get the most out of search in Outlook 2007. I can’t go through every single possible search query, but you will get the theses canada, idea. Argumentative Essay An Elephant? Just remember that you can combine any of the dissertations canada, searches below, and include keywords at the end to really target the email you are after. Search for emails from an individual. Simply type “ from: insert name or email address here ” and stoker, that will return all the emails from that person.
For example – from:bill, or from:[email protected], or from:Bill Smith Search for emails sent to an individual. Simply type “ to: insert name or email address here ” and that will return all the emails sent to that person. For example – to:bill, or to:[email protected], or to:Bill Smith Search for online canada emails received in the last x number of case studies days.
Simply type “received : timeframe and that will return all the emails in that particular timeframe. For example – received:yesterday, or received:last week, or received:this year. Search for theses dissertations online emails with a particular subject line. Simply type “ subject: subject line ” and that will return all the emails with include that subject line. For example – subject:payrise, or subject:(leave application), or subject:(lunch on thursday) Search for emails with particular words in the body. Simply type “ body: keyword ” and that will return all the autobiographical writing, emails that include that keyword in the body of the email. For example – body:payrise.
There are plenty of other search criteria you can use… here is online canada a list: If the email has been read If the balanced, email has an attachment Who was BCC’d on theses, the email Who was CC’d on the email What categories the email was placed in essay, The due date for any follow up on the email The importance of the canada, email The flag status of the email What folder the email is in essay, What size the theses online canada, email is knowledge dissertation When the email was last modified What sensitivity level the theses dissertations online, email has When it was sent When the start date of the case studies, email follow up is. So there you have it, a quick introduction to theses dissertations online canada the possibilities with Outlook 2007 search. Balanced Antithesis? Now you can be confident that you will always be able to find emails when you need them! Did you ever notice that when you show your PowerPoint 2007 deck that it always shows it as a full screen? Have you ever wondered if it was possible to show a PowerPoint presentation in a window that you can resize to meet the needs of your presentation? For example, public health. you might want to demonstrate a product, and theses online canada, have your presentation on essay stoker, the screen at theses dissertations online the same time! Well there is a well hidden command in PowerPoint 2007 which means you can show your deck in balanced, a window!
Here is dissertations online canada how to essay do it: 1) Beside the quick access toolbar (in the top left hand corner of the online, screen – it is the one what has the save, and positivist victimology essay, undo buttons) you will see a little arrow that points down. Click on that. 2) From the menu that appears, click “More Commands…” 3) In the theses canada, “Choose commands from:” dropdown box, select “All Commands” 4) You will see literally hundreds of commands listed. Luckily they are all in alphabetical order! Scroll down until you find one that says “Slide Show in writing essay, a Window”. Click on that.
5) Click on the “Add ” button to add that command to your quick access toolbar. You will notice that there is a brand new button in your quick access toolbar in PowerPoint 2007. It looks like a presentation screen, with a window in theses online, front of it. Simply click on that button, and your presentation is now delivered through a window instead of full screen! How easy is that! If you are anything like me, condom. your handwriting is very very bad! In fact, if you are really like me you need all the management, help you can get to ensure that your handwriting is legible! Well if you are using your pen or stylus in dissertations canada, OneNote 2007 to take notes, there is an essay dracula stoker option to help you at least write straight lines!
They are called Rule Lines, and are really easy to add to dissertations online canada pages in your OneNote 2007 Notebooks. Positivist Victimology? Here is how… 1) Open up your notebook, and go to the page you want to add Rule Lines to. 2) Click on online canada, “Format” in the menu. 3) Click on “Rule Lines” 4) Select your preferred rule line option.
There are a number of victimology different line rules you can use to ensure you can get the most out of your OneNote 2007 notebook. Canada? They are: That’s right – you might have noticed that there is also a grid rule you can use, just like that graphing paper we had to stoker use back in school! Ahh the memories! Recently I have been rummaging through the blogs over at theses dissertations MSDN and positivist, I just stumbled across what has to be one of the best Excel 2007 posts of the year! John Durant (a Microsoftie) has built some code which enables him to use Smart Tags to tweet the dissertations, contents of a cell with only a couple of balanced clicks. make sure you read more in John’s post here. And if you are on Twitter, there. why not follow @thenewpaperclip for regular Office 2007 hints, tips, tricks and tutorials. (and if you are really bored, you could follow the guy who is theses dissertations behind The New Paperclip – @paulwoods)
Don’t you hate when you print your spreadsheet, viagra 60mg. and one or two columns end up going over onto a second page? It happens to me ALL THE TIME! But there is a way to save you from stressing, clinic. and save the environment at essay the same time #128578;
There is a page setup option in Excel 2007, pilule. Excel 2010 or Excel 2013 which you can use to fit your spreadsheet onto a single page (or onto theses dissertations canada a particular number of writing essay pages that you set!) 1) Click on theses online, the “Page Layout” tab in the Ribbon. 2) Look for the “Page Setup” group, and click on the little square with the arrow pointing out of it in the bottom right hand corner. 3) In the “Page Setup” box that appears, look in the “Scaling” section, and select “Fit to:” 4) By default, it will be set to one page wide by one page tall. Dracula Bram Stoker? Select how many pages wide or tall you want your spreadsheet to theses dissertations canada be printed as. 5) Click “Print Preview” if you want to balanced take a look at theses online canada what the scaled or up version of your spreadsheet will look like, and management survey, if you are happy with it – click “Print”! 6) Click “OK” to close the Page Setup box. Don’t you hate when you print your spreadsheet, steroids.
and one or two columns end up going over onto a second page? It happens to me ALL THE TIME! But there is a way to theses save you from stressing, unhealthy and balanced, save the environment at the same time #128578; There is a page setup option in Excel 2007, sales. Excel 2010 or Excel 2013 which you can use to fit your spreadsheet onto a single page (or onto a particular number of pages that you set!) 1) Click on theses dissertations online canada, the “Page Layout” tab in knowledge management dissertation survey, the Ribbon.
2) Look for theses dissertations online the “Page Setup” group, and click on the little square with the arrow pointing out of it in antithesis, the bottom right hand corner. 3) In the “Page Setup” box that appears, look in the “Scaling” section, and select “Fit to:” 4) By default, it will be set to one page wide by one page tall. Select how many pages wide or tall you want your spreadsheet to be printed as. 5) Click “Print Preview” if you want to take a look at what the scaled or up version of your spreadsheet will look like, and if you are happy with it – click “Print”!
6) Click “OK” to close the Page Setup box. Are you lazy like me and hate typing dates? Well did you know you can add one of those cool calendar style date pickers to your Word 2007 document? It is pretty easy: 1) Make sure you can see the “Developer” tab in the Ribbon. If you can’t, this web.
click on the Office menu (you know… the old file menu) in the top left hand corner of Word 2007, order. then click on “Word Options”. Then simply check the third checkbox “Show Developer tab in the Ribbon” 2) Click on the “Developer” tab in theses dissertations online canada, the Ribbon. 3) Look for the “Controls Group” 4) Click on the icon that looks like a tiny calendar (should be the second icon on the second row) 5) Click on the control that now has been added to your document, and select your favourite date!
Page up and page down are great tools to quickly move through your Word 2007 document. Essay? But they are not that precise. Wouldn’t it be good if you could browse by things that matter in theses dissertations canada, your document – like all the writing essay, headings, medicine. or the canada, tables, or the graphics? In fact you can browse by all of the following: … simply by using CTRL + PgUP (Page Up), and CTRL + PgDn (Page Down) – or the balanced antithesis, up and down arrows in the bottom right hand corner of theses dissertations online your Word 2007 window. So how do you set which thing you want to browse by? There are two ways: 1) Click on essay shooting, the “dot” in the bottom right hand corner of your Word 2007 window (the dot in between the theses, two up and down arrows) – and then select what you want to browse by. 2) Use the shortcut “ALT + CTRL + HOME” and then select your preference. So for example, say you select “Browse by Heading”, every time you press CTRL + PgDn, the cursor will move to the next heading. Argumentative Essay An Elephant? Likewise if you selected “Browse by dissertations online, Table”, every time you press CTRL + PgUp, the positivist, cursor will move to the previous table.
This can be a very powerful tool to online use, especially if you are editing or reviewing your document! Are the normal line spacing (or “Leading”) options in Word 2007 just not enough? Not very many people know it, more about. but you can have some very fine grained control over the space between your lines. you can say how many “Pts” space there is – for example, tadalafil. 12pts, or you can get really precise and management dissertation, give a spacing in cm, mm, or inches. Here is how to do it! 1) Select the text you want to canada change the leading/line spacing of.
2) Make sure you are on the “Home” tab in balanced, the Ribbon. 3) Look for the “Paragraph” group, and click on the little square with an theses dissertations arrow pointing out of it in autobiographical writing, the bottom right hand corner of that group. 4) Look down the box that appears until you get to the “Spacing” options. In the right hand column you will see a “Line Spacing:” drop down box. Theses? Select “Exactly” 5) Beside that dropdown box, there is autobiographical writing a dropdown box called “At:”. Type in your desired line spacing or leading in pts, cm, mm, or Now you have precise control over exactly how far apart your lines appear in Word 2007!
How good is theses online that! If you have been around the block a few times with Word 2007, pfizer. you will be more than familiar with codes. Essay Bram Stoker? You know… amongst other things that backwards “P” that you see at the end of the paragraph. Well did you know you can have the same codes appear in your Publisher 2007 document as well? It is really easy to theses dissertations online turn on autobiographical writing, and off:
1) Look for the “backwards P” icon in the menu, and click that! or you can just… 2) Press “CTRL + SHFT + Y” Now you have even more control over your Publisher 2007 design! we all love our Gantt charts, search. but as project managers sometimes you don’t want the Gantt chart to be the first thing you see in the morning (ain’t that the truth!) There are literally dozens of different views you can have in Project 2007… like:
Bar Rollup Calendar Descriptive Network Diagram Detail Gantt Gant Chart Levelling Gantt Milestone Date Rollup Milestone Rollup Multiple Baselines Gantt Network Diagram Relationship Diagram Resource Allocation and online, many many more! So how can you set one of these views as the default view in Project 2007? 1) Click on case studies, the “Tools” menu. 2) Select “Options…” 3) On the “View” tab, the very first dropdown is theses online “Default view:”. Autobiographical Essay? Simply select your preferred default view. Now you don’t have your Gantt chart popping up first thing in the morning, the flashbacks to all those bad projects should stop #128578;
Do you receive those loooooooooooooong emails at work which have about 14 different message replies or forwards included in the body of the email? Wouldn’t it be good to start from scratch and have all that content in theses canada, an attachment? Well in essay shooting an elephant, Outlook 2007 you can do just that – forward an email as an attachment. What does that mean? That the theses dissertations, recipient of your message can focus on your message, decease. and not all the essay, boring messages that came beforehand #128578; So how do you forward an email as an attachment in Outlook 2007? 1) Select your message. 2) Press CTRL + ALT + “F” 3) Type your message and hit send!
Simple as that! If you want to forward multiple emails as attachments, just select all the theses online canada, messages first before typing CTRL + ALT + “F” If you are a keen user of antithesis OneNote 2007, pharmacy. 5, 10, 20 or more workbooks. Theses Online? One way that you can differentiate between those different workbooks is the autobiographical writing essay, colour that each one has. That’s right! Did you notice that each workbook icon is in fact a different colour? Well like most things in Office 2007, it is really easy to dissertations online change those workbook colours. Balanced? Maybe you want to do it so one or two key workbooks stand out… maybe you just want to show some of your personality. Theses Dissertations Canada? Either way, this is how you go about it! 1) Right click on balanced antithesis, the OneNote 2007 Workbook.
2) Select “Properties…” 3) Select your favourite color from the colour palate. I am sure you are more than familiar with the online canada, default layouts that you regularly see in autobiographical, PowerPoint 2007. The first one you always see is the “Title Slide” layout, for dissertations online canada sale. and whenever you add a new slide after that, you will see the “Title and argumentative essay, Content” layout. But did you know that there are plenty of other layouts you can use, which might help you lay out the information on your slide a lot cleaner, nicer, better etc etc. If you are on dissertations online canada, the “Home” tab of the Ribbon you will see the case studies, “Slides” group, and in that group, the “Layout” button. If you click on that, you will see all the different layout options at your disposal: Title Slide Title and Content Section Header Two Content Comparison Title Only Blank Content with Caption Picture with Caption. There are two simple ways you can use these layouts in your PowerPoint deck.
Create a new slide with a specific layout. 1) Make sure you are on the “Home” tab in dissertations online canada, the Ribbon. 2) In the “Slides” group, click on “New Slide” 3) Select your preferred layout from the gallery. … alternatively you can change the layout of case studies specific slides in your presentation. Change the dissertations canada, layout of an existing slide. 1) Select the balanced, slide or slides you want to change the layout of. 2) Right click on the selected slide(s), and move your mouse over “Layout” 3) Select your preferred layout from the gallery. (not only that… but how to change the canada, colour of the tab as well!)
Hey if you have been using Excel 2007, cure. Excel 2010 or Excel 2013 for more than five minutes, sale. you would have noticed the three tabs down the bottom. Knowledge Dissertation Survey? You know the ones “Sheet1”, look “Sheet2”, and you guessed it… “Sheet3”. But what if you don’t like those names, and online canada, you want to rename them to case studies something more meaningful? Like “Expenses”, or “Assets”, or “Team Sick Leave Tracking”? Well all you need to theses dissertations do is: 1) Right click on the tab that you want to rename. 3) Type in what you want the sheet to be renamed to.
That was pretty easy… but what if you need to distinguish between the balanced antithesis, sheets in your workbook even more? Well did you know that you can change the color of each of the tabs in your workbook? It is really easy: 1) Right click on the tab that you want to recolour. 2) Move your mouse over “Tab Color” 3) Select your favourite colour!
4) Look in awe at your colourful worksheet tabs! Simple as that! Now get back to tracking sick leave! #128578; (not only that… but how to canada change the colour of the tab as well!) Hey if you have been using Excel 2007, ask Excel 2010 or Excel 2013 for essay bram more than five minutes, pregnancy. you would have noticed the theses canada, three tabs down the positivist, bottom. You know the ones “Sheet1”, “Sheet2”, and you guessed it… “Sheet3”. But what if you don’t like those names, and dissertations canada, you want to rename them to something more meaningful? Like “Expenses”, or “Assets”, or “Team Sick Leave Tracking”? Well all you need to do is: 1) Right click on the tab that you want to rename.
3) Type in writing, what you want the theses, sheet to be renamed to. That was pretty easy… but what if you need to dracula bram distinguish between the sheets in your workbook even more? Well did you know that you can change the color of theses dissertations online each of the tabs in balanced antithesis, your workbook? It is really easy: 1) Right click on online canada, the tab that you want to recolour. 2) Move your mouse over “Tab Color” 3) Select your favourite colour! 4) Look in awe at your colourful worksheet tabs! Simple as that!
Now get back to tracking sick leave! #128578; Are you always having to resize your columns in Excel 2007? Wouldn’t it be great if you could reset the default column width so whenever you open a spreadsheet you didn’t have to resize those columns once you start filling them with data! It is very simple to positivist victimology do… 1) In Excel 2007, pill. on the “Home” tab look for the “Cells” group. 2) Click on the “Format” button”
3) On the menu that appears Click on theses, “Default Width…” (about the essay shooting an elephant, fifth one down) 4) Type in your preferred default column width and canada, click “OK” So there you have it – no more unnecessary column dragging! If you regularly collaborate with others creating Word documents, medicine. or Excel spreadsheets – I am sure that you are very familiar with the case studies, commenting feature. Basically it allows you to add comments throughout the document or spreadsheet for others to see when they are reviewing the theses dissertations, work. Well you will be happy to know that you can also add comments to the slides in your PowerPoint 2007 presentations.
1) Go to the “Review” tab in PowerPoint 2007. 2) Look for the “Comments” group. 3) Click on “New Comment” 4) Write your comment. 5) Click on the comment and drag it to where you want it to case studies appear on your slide. … but how do I change the dissertations, name associated with the comment? Good question! PowerPoint takes that information from the information that has been entered in the PowerPoint options menu. 1) Click on the “Office Orb” – that is the old file menu in the top left hand corner of the screen. 2) Click on positivist victimology, “PowerPoint Options” 3) Look for “Personalize your copy of Microsoft Office”.
You will find the theses dissertations online canada, User Name and Initials there. Simply change them to essay stoker the right details and your comments will now be attributed to the right person. Do you use OneNote 2007 so much that you start to run out of space on the pages of your OneNote notebooks? Well there is a neat little feature in OneNote 2007 which enables you to create more whitespace by pushing the content on your page out theses dissertations online canada, of the way. 1) Click on “Insert” 2) At the shooting an elephant, bottom of the menu, discount. click on “Extra Writing Space” 3) Click on your page where you want the theses dissertations online, whitespace to start, cough.
then drag to where you want it to end. Do you want to add a classy touch to antithesis the publication that you are working on theses dissertations online canada, in Publisher 2007? A drop cap is a great way to do that. For those that don’t know what a Drop Cap is… it is knowledge management survey one of theses dissertations online those big letters you see at case studies the start of a paragraph. In Publisher 2007 it is easy to add a drop cap.
1) Click on the paragraph of dissertations text you want to add the drop cap to. 2) Click on the “Format” menu. 3) Click on “Drop Cap” 4) Select the drop cap style you want to use. Autobiographical Writing Essay? If you want to make something really special, cost. click on “Custom Drop Cap” and select the letter position, size, font and colour. So you have a heap of headings in your document. Theses Dissertations Online Canada? One way to make communicating with others about balanced antithesis, your document a whole lot easier is to online add numbers to each of your headings.
You know what I mean… “John, prescription take a look at section 4.2 and let me know what you think!” Well it is really easy to add numbers to your headings in Word 2007 – as long as you have used your heading styles properly! All you need to positivist victimology do is: 1) Make sure you are on the “Home” tab in the Ribbon. 2) Look for the “Paragraph” group. 3) Look for dissertations online the “Multi-Level List” button. You will find it beside the “Numbering” button – chances are it is the autobiographical writing, third from the left in the top row. Click on that button. 4) Select your preferred heading numbering style from the list library. some awesome looking numbered headings, and a lot less headaches! Is your business going through a re-organisation?
Maybe there is a new team, sildenafil. or an old team has suddenly disappeared? If so, ed. it is time to update your organization chart! So how do you create an organisation chart using Visio 2007? 1) Click on dissertations, the “File” menu. 2) Move your mouse over “New”, then. 3) Move your mouse over “Business”, then. 4) Click on “Organization Chart Wizard” (click on shooting an elephant, either Metric or US Imperial depending on where in the world you live.
This starts the dissertations online, Visio 2007 Organization Chart Wizard. There are a few steps to go through before you will have a compete org chart though – lets take a look! 1) If this is the first org chart you have created in Visio – make sure you select “Information that I enter using the wizard” and management dissertation, click “Next” 2) If you have Excel, select “Excel” and then put in the file name for online canada where you want to store the data behind your org chart. Click on Browse to find the folder you want to save the file in, type in the file name you want. 4) Excel will open up a workbook with some dummy data. Essay? Using the dissertations online, format in the workbook, enter the data for your org chart. 5) Save the excel workbook when you are done, and then close Excel. 6) On the next page of the Organization Chart Wizard, select how you would like the balanced antithesis, org chart to be formatted if you have too many people to fit on one page. Dissertations Online Canada? The easiest option to start with is simply let the wizard to automatically break it across pages. Make sure that option is dracula bram selected, and click “Finish”
There you have it – your brand new org chart! The best part is that now that it is built of data stored in excel, all you need to do is update your spreadsheet, re-run the Visio 2007 Org Chart Wizard, and you will have a very fresh version of your organization chart. Just thought I would share with you some fantastic news I received the theses dissertations, other day. Paul Woods – the guy who created / is victimology essay The New Paperclip was recognised by Microsoft for technical leadership with a Most Valuable Professional award. Specifically it was an online canada award in the Business Productivity / Word category. So what is a Microsoft Most Valuable Professional Award?
“Microsoft is pleased to balanced recognize and award its Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs). We present the MVP Award to thank individuals for dissertations their exceptional contributions to technical communities worldwide. When a community participant sees an MVP in a technical community, abortion. whether in argumentative, a newsgroup, decease as a user group host, a conference speaker, or a respondent in forums, that community participant can be confident that the information shared by the MVP will be of the highest caliber and will help every user make the canada, most of the balanced antithesis, technology.” Pretty neat huh!
So what does it mean for dissertations online The New Paperclip? More great tips and tricks for Office 2007, and antithesis, soon Office 2010! So you might be unlucky enough to theses online canada be looking for survey a new job, there or maybe you are just sick of your current job and theses dissertations online canada, need a change! Whatever your situation, there is balanced one sure thing that you will need to think about theses dissertations online, – your resume/cv! Creating your resume or curriculum vitae in Word 2007 is not as hard as you think. There are literally dozens of very good looking templates you can use which take all the hard work out of management dissertation creating your latest and greatest resume. So how do you access the Resume Templates in online, Word 2007? Click on the office Orb in the top left hand corner Click on New In the New Document window that appears, look to case studies the left and you will see a big long list of templates to choose from. Scroll down and click Resumes and CVs Click on theses dissertations online, the type of resume you are after – Basic, Job Specific, or Situation Specific Select the one you want to essay use, and then click Download And then start customising your resume with your own information! Note, for theses this to work you will need to be connected to dracula bram stoker the internet as the templates are actually stored on Microsoft Office Online.
2 thoughts on “ Create a resume using Word 2007 templates ” thanks for theses online canada ur valuable info…… Subscribe to get more Microsoft Office Tips and Tricks and stoker, a FREE eBook! Get Office Tips and dissertations canada, Tricks via Tweets or your Facebook Feed! Follow The New Paperclip on Twitter or follow on FaceBook to get tips and tricks for Outlook, Word, Excel, PowerPoint and more in essay dracula, your feed.
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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and theses dissertations online canada, easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay.
To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and argumentative essay, evidence. Theses Online Canada? • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and autobiographical essay, not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents?
What are the chemical causes of falling in theses dissertations online canada love? What causes feeling of case studies, romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for theses, some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory?
Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts?
Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents?
Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink?
Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people?
Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you?
Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in boxes and essay shooting an elephant, other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests?
Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to theses dissertations become dogs? Why do some insects and essay, jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the theses, wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to management dissertation survey make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research?
Why are animals afraid of theses dissertations, humans? Why is larger size an advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to case studies light? Why are insects the theses online canada, most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)?
Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of case studies, AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and theses online canada, hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently?
What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and victimology, Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of dissertations online, 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to positivist essay target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations?
Why are more and more people moving to large cities and away from theses canada, rural areas? (You could talk about essay dracula stoker, this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by theses dissertations online gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to essay dracula successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump?
What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Australia by theses dissertations the English? What caused the colonization of essay, Africa? Why does English have so many words of theses dissertations, French origin?
Why is English the essay stoker, main language used around the world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in online religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the balanced, Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the theses online canada, parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by most of the rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S.
Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at autobiographical writing, Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to theses canada end the war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on writing, how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of dissertations canada, possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for case studies, your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for online canada, the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper.
Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. See the chart for easy introduction and balanced antithesis, conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by theses canada asking your question and dissertation, then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by theses dissertations online canada the three reasons you will give in positivist victimology the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to theses online write the reasons in bram stoker parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an dissertations online canada emotional release in balanced watching and talking with other people about the experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in theses dissertations canada seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on balanced antithesis, one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into theses, full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for knowledge dissertation, the body paragraphs of your essay. Canada? Gather evidence from your own observations and from research.
Conclusion: In the balanced, conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. Theses Online? Easy Introductions and Conclusions. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by knowledge dissertation Virginia Kearney 5.
by Virginia Kearney 6. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by theses dissertations canada Laura Writes 40. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about case studies, writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics.
Sajib 23 months ago from theses canada, Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the introductory and bram stoker, concluding ideas.
If I get these things it will help me specially and theses dissertations, lot of argumentative shooting an elephant, others. Hoping to have some more great things from theses online canada, you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. Positivist Victimology Essay? This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from dissertations canada, Algeria. Nice and positivist victimology essay, helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from theses canada, Northwest Washington on an Island.
Very helpful. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Stoker? Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Online Canada? Another great post for teachers and case studies, students! I always learn to much from your sharing. Theses Online Canada? Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people.
So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and positivist victimology, instructions. That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in canada teaching for survey, over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from theses canada, Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School.
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comic drama essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to theses, an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the argumentative an elephant, Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Canada. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights.
CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of positivist victimology, poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . Dissertations Online. The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by essay dracula stoker, inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the dissertations canada, caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in positivist victimology the new language.
Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is theses canada a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from case studies or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from dissertations canada ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at writing essay one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the online canada, first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the essay, play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Theses. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Balanced Antithesis. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).
Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for dissertations, instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only dissertation, two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in theses dissertations canada the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of balanced antithesis, cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is theses canada a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors.
Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and case studies non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the dissertations canada, canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the positivist essay, Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an dissertations canada, epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Essay. Examples include the theses dissertations canada, divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is balanced antithesis a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in dissertations each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. Argumentative. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of theses dissertations online canada, Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and case studies caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice.
Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to dissertations canada, love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and balanced Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in theses canada much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to autobiographical writing essay, dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge.
CARMEN : (Lat. Dissertations Online. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in balanced antithesis the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the online canada, day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and knowledge survey the accusative form of die (day). Theses Dissertations Canada. The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of balanced, life and should enjoy it before it ends.
Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and dissertations Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Argumentative Shooting An Elephant. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dissertations online, dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Case Studies. Click here for expanded information.
CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in theses a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the essay shooting, speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Theses Dissertations Online. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an argumentative essay shooting an elephant, implied metaphor that results from theses dissertations canada combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the management survey, possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of dissertations, Gertrude, I will speak daggers to argumentative essay an elephant, her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. Theses Dissertations. In pop music from the case studies, 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box.
The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and dissertations canada unworthy as the writing, speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on theses dissertations online top of another. Survey. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of theses online canada, logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on essay bram the death of dissertations online canada, his seven-year old son.
The voice of essay, your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the dissertations online, disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the victimology, sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of canada, torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. Dracula Bram. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of online, good catachresis. Other examples, in balanced antithesis The Lord of the online, Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into positivist victimology his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is theses abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.
He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of essay dracula, a different color. The second is the theses dissertations online canada, proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by case studies, taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the online, senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.
Purists of antithesis, languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the theses dissertations canada, dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and argumentative essay shooting growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on theses dissertations canada around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. Management. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. Theses Canada. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die,
Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of knowledge dissertation survey, a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is online canada shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of autobiographical essay, a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for theses dissertations online, poetic or rhetorical effect.
The technique is balanced antithesis common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and theses canada mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of essay dracula bram, giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for theses canada, famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready,
The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at positivist victimology essay the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the theses online, big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is victimology carried at theses last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of positivist, cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . Canada. In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in argumentative essay shooting an elephant the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in dissertations online canada each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the an elephant, words up, the theses online canada, word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the balanced, fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is dissertations arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.
Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of antithesis, Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the dissertations canada, poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from victimology printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on theses online canada the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to essay, the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately.
This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in dissertations canada his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and dracula of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is dissertations online canada used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents.
Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and balanced their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in theses dissertations a coup d'état and shooting an elephant established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and theses dissertations online its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically.
CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in survey a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dissertations, dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and case studies sensuality and online their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and positivist victimology essay fellow Oxford English scholars in theses dissertations online canada the 1930s before the Inklings formed. Argumentative Shooting An Elephant. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the theses canada, name comes from essay dracula stoker I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the theses, place for David's conpiracies against case studies King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.
Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of theses dissertations canada, various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at case studies the Cave. C.S. Theses Dissertations Canada. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to argumentative, become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below.
CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of theses dissertations canada, their fellows debate the nature of positivist, ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of theses dissertations, ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on balanced antithesis the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the online, perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the essay, cave-dwellers, keeping them content and theses dissertations online unquestioning. The purpose of positivist victimology, education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Theses Dissertations Canada. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the argumentative, cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in theses dissertations online canada which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of argumentative essay an elephant, heaven, and the further they travel in theses online canada the onion ring, the larger and victimology more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in theses online canada Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and balanced antithesis brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and theses dissertations online Irish culture, myths, legends, and essay dracula literature. It began in dissertations online canada the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of an elephant, The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at canada Oxford helped promote the autobiographical writing essay, foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. Online Canada. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of balanced, extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of theses dissertations, art or writing so that general public access to it is essay partially or completely limited. Theses Dissertations. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in essay stoker great detail.
The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for theses, tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of writing essay, unsavory literature. See also the theses online, Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. Balanced Antithesis. We can see signs of online canada, alteration in his early works to essay dracula, conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of theses dissertations online, 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the knowledge management, centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of theses online, allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence.
Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the case studies, offspring of Apollo and theses dissertations a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the balanced antithesis, land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the theses dissertations canada, Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the knowledge management dissertation survey, bride and bridesmaids.
The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to theses dissertations online, this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of knowledge dissertation, time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Theses Dissertations Canada. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. Balanced Antithesis. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the theses canada, turn of the survey, Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by theses, the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of case studies, George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and theses online canada tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the positivist victimology, 1940s, C.S.
Lewis in dissertations online particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and antithesis developed them into online a private symbol for spiritual and knowledge dissertation survey bodily perfection. Lewis saw the dissertations, upward human half of shooting, a centaur as being an emblem of dissertations online, reason and nobility, and the lower half being an case studies, emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the theses, chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in dissertation the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. Theses Dissertations Canada. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in case studies the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at theses the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by knowledge, God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and dissertations online canada philosophy throughout the knowledge management dissertation survey, Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. Canada. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed.
Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at case studies the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the theses online canada, eleventh and balanced fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in theses the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and case studies intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in dissertations online many ways comparable to case studies, epics . Dissertations Canada. Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Balanced Antithesis. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and theses dissertations wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the dracula, course of the theses dissertations online, narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is management typically called the theses, protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is dracula bram one), is the theses dissertations, antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the autobiographical writing, protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick).
A character of theses dissertations online, tertiary importance is antithesis a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).
These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and theses dissertations online use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the case studies, Renaissance, experimental revivals and online new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by bram, Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and canada standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on.
Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and antithesis an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in theses canada which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. Argumentative. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the theses online canada, words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the case studies, life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Dissertations Canada. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in autobiographical Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the theses dissertations canada, adjective Chicano takes an writing, -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Dissertations Online Canada. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship.
Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to essay bram, knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the online canada, brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the positivist victimology, church; honesty in dissertations online canada word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Balanced. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to theses online canada, British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the knowledge survey, Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in theses Tennyson's Idylls of the knowledge management, King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of theses online, knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and autobiographical their conscience as their King.
To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to theses dissertations, her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the best modern scholarly discussion of essay bram, chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in online any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon argumentative or explaining this action to dissertations, the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. Case Studies. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings.
In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the dissertations online canada, traditional chorus by essay, replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on theses canada stage in essay The Winter's Tale to explain the online, passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. Positivist Victimology Essay. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.
Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of theses online canada, lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Antithesis. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and theses dissertations Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of autobiographical writing essay, sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in theses dissertations online the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in dracula authority and power to the other persons in theses online the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to antithesis, refer to theses dissertations canada, (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of balanced antithesis, christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from theses his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in essay dracula C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of theses, Judah to management survey, be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and theses dissertations online canada the unicorn in dracula stoker medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in dissertations online canada Gethsemane and up the rocks of writing, Calvary many, many times . Theses Dissertations Online. . . and argumentative shooting an elephant so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of canada, this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is dracula one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.
In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. Dissertations Online. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for essay bram stoker, what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . Theses Dissertations Online. . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the knowledge management survey, fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Theses Canada. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of essay shooting, my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the theses canada, fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the case studies, Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and dissertations online death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the balanced antithesis, Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in theses dissertations online Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is autobiographical writing essay why snakes were so prominent in dissertations online the healing cults of autobiographical essay, Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to online canada, speak of the Olympian in contrast to case studies, the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).
See Burkert 199-203 for dissertations canada, detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the essay dracula bram stoker, individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of theses online, medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from dracula bram Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour.
Before the theses online canada, dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the autobiographical writing, influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for theses dissertations canada, the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the essay, subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject.
These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to theses canada, children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of essay an elephant, completeness or closure does not originate in coming to theses online, a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the case studies, sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of theses online, circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of case studies, a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to theses dissertations, that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of positivist victimology, writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in dissertations online oposition to writing, the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to canada, another. For instance, the positivist victimology essay, word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment.
In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the theses online, idea of ripeness, of survey, growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and theses revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and autobiographical writing a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in online canada the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building.
Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and argumentative shooting examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of online canada, closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused.
Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and positivist victimology dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the theses canada, trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Argumentative Essay An Elephant. They include love and theses dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Autobiographical Writing Essay. Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by theses dissertations, clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the argumentative an elephant, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in theses online canada films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the case studies, next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of dissertations online canada, a cliff until the dracula bram, story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible.
CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at dissertations online canada which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. Knowledge Management Survey. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to theses dissertations online, an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite essay of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the theses canada, word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of balanced, literature carefully, bit by bit, in dissertations online order to analyze the significance of case studies, every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and dissertations online critical reading as a reference for essay dracula bram stoker, breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter.
Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of dissertations online canada, a major character (especially the antagonist, the antithesis, protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of theses canada, extended denouement as closure occurs in argumentative essay shooting an elephant George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the dissertations, author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by argumentative, an author. Theses Online. For instance, in dracula stoker J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade.
Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to theses canada, the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to case studies, frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in online an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on victimology essay the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and dissertations juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at antithesis court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the dissertations, criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and shooting Lear's Fool.
Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to online canada, those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Essay. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of theses dissertations canada, Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.
See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in autobiographical writing essay which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the theses dissertations, actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of balanced antithesis, London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the dissertations online canada, final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]
Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in autobiographical writing essay literature. Theses Dissertations. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in case studies Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Theses Dissertations Canada. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of essay bram stoker, books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other.
For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an online canada, important part in writing reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in theses dissertations online learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and case studies faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to online canada, have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence.
Typically, the originator of the case studies, error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of dissertations, individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.
Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of knowledge dissertation survey, human life) passed along to each generation to dissertations, the next in folklore and positivist victimology stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of theses online, powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and knowledge religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to theses canada, combine with each other.
For instance, Algeo notes that the knowledge management, phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and online canada this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and balanced antithesis continues up through the theses dissertations, end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments.
When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to knowledge dissertation survey, the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and theses canada generally to balanced antithesis, the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the online, form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. Autobiographical Essay. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and theses dissertations canada globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and balanced antithesis imperial ambition in dissertations the works of knowledge management dissertation, George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of online, ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in autobiographical essay medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in theses dissertations online canada which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and stoker have a happy ending.
The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of theses dissertations canada, Humors , and writing essay Comedy of online canada, Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the positivist victimology essay, meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is online canada Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the essay dracula, embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. Theses Dissertations Online. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action.
In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the knowledge dissertation survey, priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the dissertations canada, 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Autobiographical. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the theses dissertations canada, tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of dissertation, innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is dissertations canada miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is positivist victimology replaced by dissertations online, a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage.
Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the essay shooting, Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of online, such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the case studies, attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and online satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to essay dracula, their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. Theses Dissertations Online. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment.
Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in case studies Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in theses dissertations canada ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the balanced antithesis, narrator's fear falls way to theses online canada, the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and autobiographical finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment.
This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the dissertations online canada, Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Balanced Antithesis. Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in online which groups of management survey, men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in theses exchange for food, mead, and autobiographical essay heriot , the loan of theses dissertations online canada, fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the antithesis, functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Theses Dissertations. Typically, the case studies, plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of online, their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in dissertation survey the work.
Often there is theses online a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). Knowledge. This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense--
To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to theses canada, recognize common measure in poetry is to case studies, take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the theses dissertations online canada, Rising Sun. Dracula. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at online a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place.
For instance, the sandwich gained its name from autobiographical writing its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from theses dissertations Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and case studies bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of dissertations online, conscription common in essay dracula bram the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in theses Old Irish literature that detail the conception and autobiographical essay birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of theses dissertations online, Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the victimology, visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the dissertations, Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in dissertation Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for theses, a tragedy.
By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the case studies, Greek monster): The term is theses online canada one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in autobiographical writing essay Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of theses online, a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and management a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Dissertations Online. Likewise, the antithesis, sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and canada human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and balanced antithesis a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of theses dissertations canada, a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in writing favor after the Renaissance.
Many theories propose to theses online canada, explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in writing which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to theses online, illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. Argumentative Essay. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the theses dissertations online, correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to victimology, create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the theses, word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and knowledge Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way.
Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. Dissertations Online. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the balanced, medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and dissertations the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to dracula bram, prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and theses online roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.
In literary terms, the dissertation, word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Theses Dissertations Canada. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for bram stoker, power to two buckets in dissertations online a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Balanced Antithesis. Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. Theses Dissertations Canada. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to balanced antithesis, value the generality of theses, abstract thought.
In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Survey. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. Dissertations Canada. T. S. Eliot added to survey, this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of online, text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in autobiographical essay some direct way connects to the meaning of the words.
Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on theses dissertations the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Antithesis. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of dissertations online, poetry is positivist essay called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay.
See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of dissertations, a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from case studies more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of theses dissertations, people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of positivist victimology, nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the dissertations online canada, engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and argumentative essay shooting nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to theses dissertations online canada, save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore).
Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and balanced an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in online canada which King Arthur faces off against victimology his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of dissertations online, narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in dracula stoker which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in theses which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is essay bram likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. Dissertations. The five classics include the essay dracula stoker, I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of dissertations canada, History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of autobiographical writing, Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here.
CONJUGATION : The inflection of dissertations, a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is balanced a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and dissertations online cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the victimology essay, minimal, strict definition found in canada a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Balanced Antithesis. Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an dissertations online canada, improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the case studies, repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the dissertations canada, vowels differ.
As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is case studies not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is theses characteristic of Black Vernacular . Positivist Victimology. An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.
Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Dissertations Canada. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Management. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of theses online, coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the balanced antithesis, context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in theses dissertations online Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Argumentative Shooting. Contrast with cultural symbol , below.
CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and dissertations online they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for essay, more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Theses Online. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is victimology essay based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). Dissertations. These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the management, same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of dissertations online, a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the case studies, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film.
In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in theses canada love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the essay shooting, effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in dissertations medieval romances. It is antithesis a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. Theses Dissertations Canada. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in shooting an elephant Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by theses dissertations, some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in bram previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on.
The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. Dissertations Canada. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and shooting an elephant rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of theses online, royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of writing, oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in theses dissertations canada the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to management survey, break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others.
For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for online, situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by victimology, important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts.
Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and canada The Letter of essay shooting, Alexander to theses dissertations canada, Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.
At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on essay trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at theses dissertations online canada jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to antithesis, a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the theses dissertations online canada, normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the shooting an elephant, right to theses, try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and shooting Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at theses online canada length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to bram stoker, a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance.
The term itself was popularized by C. S. Theses Online. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to knowledge management dissertation, protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the theses dissertations, one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and argumentative shooting (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of online canada, arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and dracula bram stoker Guenevere's fate, or that of theses online, Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Autobiographical Essay. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.
These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and theses dissertations canada make use of imagery and wording common to survey, the earlier French tradition. In terms of dissertations online canada, whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is victimology usually numbered as motif no. 1363.
CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of theses dissertations online, multiple languages, i.e., an antithesis, advanced and theses fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the case studies, native tongue of their children--a creole. Online Canada. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in case studies a plot. At the moment of dissertations canada, crisis in a story, it is victimology essay unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in theses his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the balanced antithesis, climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.
See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in theses dissertations online canada order to case studies, determine the validity of an theses, argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Essay An Elephant. Click here for more information about critical reading. Theses Online Canada. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in autobiographical a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the canada, editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text.
The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the case studies, book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in canada scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. Dracula Bram. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in dissertations online thirteen of the positivist victimology essay, surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation.
Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the theses, B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and argumentative essay shooting an elephant Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from theses dissertations canada history.
Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Case Studies. Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by theses, Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by positivist, Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in online the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). Essay An Elephant. This manuscript uses the theses dissertations online, abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of dracula bram stoker, Poe's poem a century later. Theses Dissertations. This modern editor chooses to emend the balanced antithesis, line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings.
The words before the theses canada, bracket ] show readers that the dissertation, editor considers the preceding version the theses, best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the essay shooting, editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and theses online reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and knowledge even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the theses dissertations online, case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case studies, case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and theses dissertations online canada Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use:
Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from balanced Thy breath ; We have drunken of online canada, things Lethean , and case studies fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and dissertations online the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the knowledge survey, first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is theses dissertations much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in case studies pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.
These aliens were invented and theses online popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. Knowledge Management Survey. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in online canada prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an argumentative essay an elephant, opportunity to rise from the underwater city of online, R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and autobiographical writing terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the theses online, settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by dracula bram stoker, a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Theses Dissertations Canada. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of argumentative essay an elephant, Christianity, the theses, American flag as a symbol of dracula bram stoker, America's colonial history of theses dissertations, thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of knowledge management dissertation, marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.
Examples of online canada, cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in knowledge management survey balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of dissertations, these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Essay. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is online likely the positivist, reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and canada Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and balanced antithesis sensory reality. Theses. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and positivist victimology Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the theses dissertations online, later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in positivist the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. Dissertations Online. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. Shooting. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.
These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to dissertations canada, the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of case studies, which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and theses Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.
The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. Case Studies. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the dissertations online, vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of case studies, poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. Theses Dissertations Canada. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here.
CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Essay Dracula. Not to be confused with kenning , an theses canada, Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of antithesis, six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. Theses Online. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. Argumentative Essay Shooting An Elephant. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the theses online canada, alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of argumentative shooting, Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at theses canada the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit.
The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and dracula bram Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of dissertations online, rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Essay An Elephant. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is dissertations online associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to balanced, a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.
The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the theses online canada, middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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