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resume maupassant For several days in 50 best essays, succession fragments of a defeated army had passed through the town. They were mere disorganized bands, not disciplined forces. The men wore long, dirty beards and phd thesis in 3 tattered uniforms; they advanced in listless fashion, without a flag, without a leader. All seemed exhausted, worn out, incapable of thought or resolve, marching onward merely by force of habit, and dropping to the ground with fatigue the moment they halted. One saw, in particular, many enlisted men, peaceful citizens, men who lived quietly on their income, bending beneath the weight of their rifles; and little active volunteers, easily frightened but full of enthusiasm, as eager to attack as they were ready to take to flight; and amid these, a sprinkling of 50 best extended essays red-breeched soldiers, the pitiful remnant of a division cut down in a great battle; somber artillerymen, side by side with nondescript foot-soldiers; and, here and there, the gleaming helmet of a heavy-footed dragoon who had difficulty in keeping up with the quicker pace of the soldiers of the line.
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The earthquake crushing a whole nation under falling roofs; the flood let loose, and jaws essays engulfing in essays economics, its swirling depths the corpses of drowned peasants, along with dead oxen and schrock olefin metathesis beams torn from shattered houses; or the army, covered with glory, murdering those who defend themselves, making prisoners of the rest, pillaging in the name of the Sword, and giving thanks to God to essays the thunder of cannon - all these are appalling scourges, which destroy all belief in eternal justice, all that confidence we have been taught to duke essays feel in the protection of Heaven and the reason of man. Small detachments of soldiers knocked at each door, and then disappeared within the houses; for the vanquished saw they would have to be civil to extended economics their conquerors. At the end of a short time, once the write, first terror had subsided, calm was again restored. Extended Essays. In many houses the act essay study, Prussian officer ate at the same table with the essays economics, family. Duke College Admissions Essays. He was often well-bred, and, out of politeness, expressed sympathy with France and repugnance at extended essays being compelled to take part in the war. This sentiment was received with gratitude; besides, his protection might be needful some day or other. By the exercise of act essay study tact the number of men quartered in one's house might be reduced; and why should one provoke the hostility of a person on whom one's whole welfare depended? Such conduct would savor less of bravery than of fool- hardiness. And foolhardiness is no longer a failing of the extended essays, citizens of Rouen as it was in the days when their city earned renown by its heroic defenses. Last of all-final argument based on the national politeness- the folk of Rouen said to jaws essays one another that it was only right to be civil in one's own house, provided there was no public exhibition of familiarity with the foreigner.
Out of extended economics doors, therefore, citizen and soldier did not know each other; but in the house both chatted freely, and each evening the a level english literature coursework help, German remained a little longer warming himself at 50 best essays the hospitable hearth. Even the town itself resumed by degrees its ordinary aspect. The French seldom walked abroad, but the streets swarmed with Prussian soldiers. Moreover, the officers of the Blue Hussars, who arrogantly dragged their instruments of jaws essays death along the pavements, seemed to hold the simple townsmen in but little more contempt than did the French cavalry officers who had drunk at 50 best extended essays the same cafes the year before. But there was something in the air, a something strange and subtle, an months intolerable foreign atmosphere like a penetrating odor - the odor of invasion. It permeated dwellings and places of public resort, changed the taste of 50 best essays food, made one imagine one's self in far-distant lands, amid dangerous, barbaric tribes. The conquerors exacted money, much money. Phd Thesis. The inhabitants paid what was asked; they were rich.
But, the economics, wealthier a Norman tradesman becomes, the a level english, more he suffers at having to part with anything that belongs to economics him, at having to act essay study see any portion of his substance pass into the hands of another. Nevertheless, within six or seven miles of the town, along the course of the river as it flows onward to Croisset, Dieppedalle and extended Biessart, boat- men and act essay study fishermen often hauled to the surface of the water the body of a German, bloated in his uniform, killed by a blow from knife or club, his head crushed by a stone, or perchance pushed from some bridge into extended essays economics, the stream below. The mud of the river-bed swallowed up these obscure acts of vengeance - savage, yet legitimate; these unrecorded deeds of bravery; these silent attacks fraught with greater danger than battles fought in broad day, and surrounded, moreover, with no halo of a level english romance. For hatred of the foreigner ever arms a few intrepid souls, ready to die for an idea. At last, as the invaders, though subjecting the 50 best essays economics, town to descriptive essay neighborhood the strictest discipline, had not committed any of the deeds of horror with which they had been credited while on their triumphal march, the people grew bolder, and the necessities of business again animated the breasts of the local merchants. Some of these had important commercial interests at Havre- occupied at present by the French army - and wished to extended economics attempt to reach that port by phd thesis, overland route to essays economics Dieppe, taking the boat from there. Through the influence of the schrock olefin metathesis, German officers whose acquaintance they had made, they obtained a permit to leave town from the general in command. A large four-horse coach having, therefore, been engaged for the journey, and 50 best essays economics ten passengers having given in their names to the proprietor, they decided to a level english coursework start on a certain Tuesday morning before daybreak, to avoid attracting a crowd.
The ground had been frozen hard for some time-past, and about three o'clock on Monday afternoon - large black clouds from the north shed their burden of snow uninterruptedly all through that evening and 50 best extended essays night. At half-past four in the morning the travellers met in phd thesis, the courtyard of the Hotel de Normandie, where they were to economics take their seats in the coach. They were still half asleep, and shivering with cold under their wraps. They could see one another but indistinctly in the darkness, and the mountain of heavy winter wraps in schrock olefin metathesis, which each was swathed made them look like a gathering of obese priests in their long cassocks. But two men recognized each other, a third accosted them, and the three began to talk. I am bringing my wife, said one. So am I. And I, too.
The first speaker added: We shall not return to Rouen, and essays economics if the Prussians approach Havre we will cross to England. All three, it turned out, had made the college, same plans, being of similar disposition and temperament. Still the horses were not harnessed. A small lantern carried by a stable-boy emerged now and then from one dark doorway to extended economics disappear immediately in essay, another. The stamping of horses' hoofs, deadened by the dung and straw of the stable, was heard from time to extended time, and from inside the building issued a man's voice, talking to the animals and swearing at essay about my old them. A faint tinkle of 50 best extended bells showed that the harness was being got ready; this tinkle soon developed into a continuous jingling, louder or softer according to the movements of the horse, sometimes stopping altogether, then breaking out in a sudden peal accompanied by a pawing of the ground by an iron-shod hoof. The door suddenly closed. All noise ceased. The frozen townsmen were silent; they remained motionless, stiff with cold. A thick curtain of glistening white flakes fell ceaselessly to the ground; it obliterated all outlines, enveloped all objects in an icy mantle of foam; nothing was to be heard throughout the length and breadth of the descriptive essay about my old neighborhood, silent, winter-bound city save the vague, nameless rustle of falling snow - a sensation rather than a sound - the gentle mingling of light atoms which seemed to fill all space, to cover the whole world. The man reappeared with his lantern, leading by extended essays, a rope a melancholy- looking horse, evidently being led out against his inclination.
The hostler placed him beside the pole, fastened the coursework, traces, and spent some time in walking round him to make sure that the 50 best economics, harness was all right; for he could use only literature one hand, the other being engaged in holding the extended, lantern. Descriptive Essay Neighborhood. As he was about to fetch the second horse he noticed the motionless group of travellers, already white with snow, and said to them: Why don't you get inside the coach? You'd be under shelter, at least. This did not seem to have occurred to them, and they at essays economics once took his advice. The three men seated their wives at the far end of the coach, then got in duke, themselves; lastly the other vague, snow-shrouded forms clambered to the remaining places without a word. The floor was covered with straw, into which the feet sank. The ladies at the far end, having brought with them little copper foot-warmers heated by means of extended economics a kind of chemical fuel, proceeded to light these, and spent some time in expatiating in low tones on their advantages, saying over and over again things which they had all known for a long time.
At last, six horses instead of four having been harnessed to the diligence, on account of the heavy roads, a voice outside asked: Is every one there? To which a voice from the interior replied: Yes, and they set out. The vehicle moved slowly, slowly, at a snail's pace; the wheels sank into the snow; the entire body of the coach creaked and groaned; the duke, horses slipped, puffed, steamed, and the coachman's long whip cracked incessantly, flying hither and thither, coiling up, then flinging out its length like a slender serpent, as it lashed some rounded flank, which instantly grew tense as it strained in further effort. But the day grew apace. Those light flakes which one traveller, a native of extended Rouen, had compared to a rain of cotton fell no longer. A murky light filtered through dark, heavy clouds, which made the country more dazzlingly white by contrast, a whiteness broken sometimes by my old, a row of tall trees spangled with hoarfrost, or by a cottage roof hooded in 50 best extended, snow. Within the coach the passengers eyed one another curiously in the dim light of essay my old dawn. Right at the back, in the best seats of extended essays economics all, Monsieur and act essay study Madame Loiseau, wholesale wine merchants of the Rue Grand-Pont, slumbered opposite each other. Formerly clerk to a merchant who had failed in business, Loiseau had bought his master's interest, and made a fortune for 50 best economics, himself. He sold very bad wine at a very low price to the retail-dealers in the country, and phd thesis in 3 months had the reputation, among his friends and acquaintances, of being a shrewd rascal a true Norman, full of quips and wiles.
So well established was his character as a cheat that, in the mouths of the citizens of extended economics Rouen, the very name of Loiseau became a byword for metathesis, sharp practice. Above and beyond this, Loiseau was noted for his practical jokes of every description - his tricks, good or ill-natured; and no one could mention his name without adding at once: He's an extraordinary man - Loiseau. Extended Economics. He was undersized and potbellied, had a florid face with grayish whiskers. His wife-tall, strong, determined, with a loud voice and decided manner - represented the spirit of order and arithmetic in the business house which Loiseau enlivened by his jovial activity. Beside them, dignified in bearing, belonging to a superior caste, sat Monsieur Carre-Lamadon, a man of descriptive essay about my old considerable importance, a king in the cotton trade, proprietor of three spinning-mills, officer of the Legion of Honor, and 50 best essays member of the write in 3, General Council. During the whole time the Empire was in the ascendancy he remained the 50 best essays, chief of the well-disposed Opposition, merely in order to command a higher value for english, his devotion when he should rally to 50 best extended the cause which he meanwhile opposed with courteous weapons, to use his own expression. Madame Carre-Lamadon, much younger than her husband, was the consolation of all the officers of good family quartered at jaws essays Rouen. Pretty, slender, graceful, she sat opposite her husband, curled up in her furs, and gazing mournfully at 50 best economics the sorry interior of the coach. Her neighbors, the Comte and Comtesse Hubert de Breville, bore one of the noblest and most ancient names in Normandy. The count, a nobleman advanced in a level english literature coursework help, years and of aristocratic bearing, strove to enhance by every artifice of the toilet, his natural resemblance to King Henry IV, who, according to a legend of which the family were inordinately proud, had been the favored lover of a De Breville lady, and father of her child - the 50 best extended essays economics, frail one's husband having, in recognition of this fact, been made a count and admissions essays governor of a province.
A colleague of Monsieur Carre-Lamadon in the General Council, Count Hubert represented the Orleanist party in his department. The story of his marriage with the extended, daughter of a small shipowner at Nantes had always remained more or less of a mystery. A Level English. But as the countess had an extended economics air of unmistakable breeding, entertained faultlessly, and was even supposed to have been loved by a son of Louis-Philippe, the act essay study, nobility vied with one another in doing her honor, and extended essays economics her drawing-room remained the most select in the whole countryside - the only one which retained the old spirit of gallantry, and to jaws essays which access was not easy. The fortune of the Brevilles, all in real estate, amounted, it was said, to five hundred thousand francs a year. These six people occupied the farther end of the 50 best essays economics, coach, and represented Society - with an income - the a level english, strong, established society of good people with religion and principle. It happened by chance that all the women were seated on the same side; and the countess had, moreover, as neighbors two nuns, who spent the time in fingering their long rosaries and murmuring paternosters and aves. One of them was old, and essays economics so deeply pitted with smallpox that she looked for schrock olefin metathesis, all the world as if she had received a charge of shot full in the face. 50 Best Essays. The other, of descriptive essay about sickly appearance, had a pretty but wasted countenance, and a narrow, consumptive chest, sapped by that devouring faith which is the 50 best economics, making of martyrs and visionaries. A man and woman, sitting opposite the two nuns, attracted all eyes. The man - a well-known character - was Cornudet, the democrat, the english literature help, terror of 50 best economics all respectable people.
For the past twenty years his big red beard had been on terms of intimate acquaintance with the tankards of all the republican cafes. With the help of his comrades and brethren he had dissipated a respectable fortune left him by his father, an act essay study old- established confectioner, and he now impatiently awaited the Republic, that he might at last be rewarded with the 50 best extended economics, post he had earned by his revolutionary orgies. On the fourth of September - possibly as the act essay study, result of a practical joke - he was led to extended essays economics believe that he had been appointed prefect; but when he attempted to take up the duties of the position the in 3, clerks in charge of the office refused to recognize his authority, and he was compelled in consequence to retire. A good sort of extended fellow in essay, other respects, inoffensive and 50 best extended obliging, he had thrown himself zealously into phd thesis months, the work of making an organized defence of the town. He had had pits dug in the level country, young forest trees felled, and traps set on 50 best extended essays, all the roads; then at the approach of the jaws essays, enemy, thoroughly satisfied with his preparations, he had hastily returned to the town. He thought he might now do more good at Havre, where new intrenchments would soon be necessary. The woman, who belonged to the courtesan class, was celebrated for an embonpoint unusual for her age, which had earned for her the sobriquet of Boule de Suif (Tallow Ball). Short and round, fat as a pig, with puffy fingers constricted at the joints, looking like rows of short sausages; with a shiny, tightly-stretched skin and an enormous bust filling out the bodice of her dress, she was yet attractive and much sought after, owing to her fresh and pleasing appearance. Her face was like a crimson apple, a peony-bud just bursting into bloom; she had two magnificent dark eyes, fringed with thick, heavy lashes, which cast a shadow into their depths; her mouth was small, ripe, kissable, and was furnished with the tiniest of 50 best economics white teeth.
As soon as she was recognized the descriptive essay about neighborhood, respectable matrons of the party began to whisper among themselves, and the words hussy and 50 best extended essays economics public scandal were uttered so loudly that Boule de Suif raised her head. She forthwith cast such a challenging, bold look at her neighbors that a sudden silence fell on descriptive essay about my old neighborhood, the company, and all lowered their eyes, with the exception of Loiseau, who watched her with evident interest. But conversation was soon resumed among the three ladies, whom the presence of this girl had suddenly drawn together in the bonds of friendship - one might almost say in those of intimacy. They decided that they ought to combine, as it were, in their dignity as wives in face of this shameless hussy; for legitimized love always despises its easygoing brother. The three men, also, brought together by a certain conservative instinct awakened by the presence of Cornudet, spoke of 50 best extended economics money matters in a tone expressive of descriptive about my old contempt for the poor. Count Hubert related the losses he had sustained at the hands of the Prussians, spoke of the cattle which had been stolen from him, the crops which had been ruined, with the easy manner of a nobleman who was also a tenfold millionaire, and whom such reverses would scarcely inconvenience for a single year. Extended Essays. Monsieur Carre- Lamadon, a man of wide experience in act essay study, the cotton industry, had taken care to 50 best extended economics send six hundred thousand francs to England as provision against the rainy day he was always anticipating.
As for Loiseau, he had managed to sell to the French commissariat department all the wines he had in stock, so that the state now owed him a considerable sum, which he hoped to receive at Havre. And all three eyed one another in friendly, well-disposed fashion. Although of varying social status, they were united in the brotherhood of money - in that vast freemasonry made up of those who possess, who can jingle gold wherever they choose to put their hands into admissions essays, their breeches' pockets. The coach went along so slowly that at ten o'clock in the morning it had not covered twelve miles. Three times the men of the party got out and climbed the hills on foot. The passengers were becoming uneasy, for they had counted on lunching at Totes, and it seemed now as if they would hardly arrive there before nightfall. Every one was eagerly looking out for an inn by the roadside, when, suddenly, the coach foundered in a snowdrift, and it took two hours to 50 best essays economics extricate it. As appetites increased, their spirits fell; no inn, no wine shop could be discovered, the write in 3 months, approach of the Prussians and economics the transit of the starving French troops having frightened away all business. The men sought food in the farmhouses beside the road, but could not find so much as a crust of schrock metathesis bread; for the suspicious peasant invariably hid his stores for fear of being pillaged by the soldiers, who, being entirely without food, would take violent possession of everything they found. About one o'clock Loiseau announced that he positively had a big hollow in his stomach.
They had all been suffering in the same way for 50 best extended essays economics, some time, and the increasing gnawings of schrock hunger had put an end to all conversation. Now and then some one yawned, another followed his example, and each in turn, according to his character, breeding and social position, yawned either quietly or noisily, placing his hand before the gaping void whence issued breath condensed into vapor. Several times Boule de Suif stooped, as if searching for 50 best economics, something under her petticoats. Jaws Essays. She would hesitate a moment, look at her neighbors, and then quietly sit upright again. Extended Economics. All faces were pale and drawn. Loiseau declared he would give a thousand francs for a knuckle of ham. Jaws Essays. His wife made an involuntary and quickly checked gesture of extended economics protest. Act Essay Study. It always hurt her to hear of money being squandered, and she could not even understand jokes on such a subject. As a matter of 50 best extended essays economics fact, I don't feel well, said the count. Duke College Essays. Why did I not think of bringing provisions?
Each one reproached himself in similar fashion. Cornudet, however, had a bottle of rum, which he offered to his neighbors. They all coldly refused except Loiseau, who took a sip, and essays returned the bottle with thanks, saying: That's good stuff; it warms one up, and cheats the a level english literature coursework help, appetite. The alcohol put him in good humor, and he proposed they should do as the 50 best essays economics, sailors did in the song: eat the act essay study, fattest of the passengers. This indirect allusion to Boule de Suif shocked the respectable members of the party.
No one replied; only extended Cornudet smiled. The two good sisters had ceased to mumble their rosary, and, with hands enfolded in in 3, their wide sleeves, sat motionless, their eyes steadfastly cast down, doubtless offering up as a sacrifice to Heaven the suffering it had sent them. At last, at three o'clock, as they were in the midst of an apparently limitless plain, with not a single village in 50 best extended economics, sight, Boule de Suif stooped quickly, and drew from underneath the seat a large basket covered with a white napkin. From this she extracted first of all a small earthenware plate and duke college admissions essays a silver drinking cup, then an economics enormous dish containing two whole chickens cut into joints and imbedded in jelly. The basket was seen to contain other good things: pies, fruit, dainties of all sorts-provisions, in fine, for a three days' journey, rendering their owner independent of wayside inns. The necks of four bottles protruded from among thp food. She took a chicken wing, and began to eat it daintily, together with one of those rolls called in Normandy Regence. All looks were directed toward her. Act Essay Study. An odor of 50 best extended essays food filled the jaws essays, air, causing nostrils to extended essays dilate, mouths to water, and jaws to contract painfully. Jaws Essays. The scorn of the ladies for this disreputable female grew positively ferocious; they would have liked to extended essays economics kill her, or throw, her and her drinking cup, her basket, and about my old neighborhood her provisions, out of the coach into the snow of the road below.
But Loiseau's gaze was fixed greedily on the dish of 50 best economics chicken. He said: Well, well, this lady had more forethought than the rest of us. Some people think of everything. She looked up at him. Would you like some, sir? It is hard to go on fasting all day. Upon my soul, I can't refuse; I cannot hold out another minute. All is fair in war time, is it not, madame? And, casting a glance on those around, he added: At times like this it is very pleasant to meet with obliging people.
He spread a newspaper over his knees to avoid soiling his trousers, and, with a pocketknife he always carried, helped himself to a chicken leg coated with jelly, which he thereupon proceeded to descriptive neighborhood devour. Then Boule le Suif, in low, humble tones, invited the nuns to partake of her repast. They both accepted the offer unhesitatingly, and after a few stammered words of thanks began to eat quickly, without raising their eyes. Extended Essays. Neither did Cornudet refuse his neighbor's offer, and, in combination with the nuns, a sort of table was formed by opening out the newspaper over the four pairs of knees. Mouths kept opening and shutting, ferociously masticating and devouring the my old, food.
Loiseau, in his corner, was hard at work, and in low tones urged his wife to follow his example. 50 Best Extended Essays Economics. She held out for a long time, but overstrained Nature gave way at last. Act Essay Study. Her husband, assuming his politest manner, asked their charming companion if he might be allowed to offer Madame Loiseau a small helping. Why, certainly, sir, she replied, with an 50 best extended essays economics amiable smile, holding out the dish. When the first bottle of claret was opened some embarrassment was caused by the fact that there was only one drinking cup, but this was passed from one to another, after being wiped. Cornudet alone, doubtless in a spirit of gallantry, raised to his own lips that part of the rim which was still moist from those of jaws essays his fair neighbor. Then, surrounded by people who were eating, and well-nigh suffocated by 50 best essays economics, the odor of food, the jaws essays, Comte and Comtesse de Breville and Monsieur and Madame Carre-Lamadon endured that hateful form of 50 best extended torture which has perpetuated the name of Tantalus. All at once the duke college, manufacturer's young wife heaved a sigh which made every one turn and look at her; she was white as the 50 best extended essays economics, snow without; her eyes closed, her head fell forward; she had fainted. Jaws Essays. Her husband, beside himself, implored the help of his neighbors. No one seemed to know what to do until the 50 best essays, elder of the two nuns, raising the patient's head, placed Boule de Suif's drinking cup to her lips, and a level help made her swallow a few drops of wine.
The pretty invalid moved, opened her eyes, smiled, and declared in a feeble voice that she was all right again. But, to prevent a recurrence of the essays economics, catastrophe, the nun made her drink a cupful of claret, adding: It's just hunger- that's what is wrong with you. Then Boule de Suif, blushing and embarrassed, stammered, looking at the four passengers who were still fasting: 'Mon Dieu', if I might offer these ladies and gentlemen - - She stopped short, fearing a snub. But Loiseau continued: Hang it all, in such a case as this we are all brothers and sisters and jaws essays ought to assist each other. Come, come, ladies, don't stand on ceremony, for goodness' sake! Do we even know whether we shall find a house in economics, which to pass the night? At our present rate of jaws essays going we sha'n't be at Totes till midday to-morrow.
They hesitated, no one daring to be the 50 best economics, first to accept. But the literature coursework help, count settled the 50 best extended essays, question. Schrock Metathesis. He turned toward the abashed girl, and in his most distinguished manner said: We accept gratefully, madame. As usual, it was only the first step that cost. This Rubicon once crossed, they set to work with a will. The basket was emptied.
It still contained a pate de foie gras, a lark pie, a piece of smoked tongue, Crassane pears, Pont-Leveque gingerbread, fancy cakes, and a cup full of pickled gherkins and onions - Boule de Suif, like all women, being very fond of indigestible things. They could not eat this girl's provisions without speaking to 50 best extended essays her. So they began to talk, stiffly at first; then, as she seemed by no means forward, with greater freedom. Mesdames de Breville and a level english Carre-Lamadon, who were accomplished women of the world, were gracious and tactful. The countess especially displayed that amiable condescension characteristic of great ladies whom no contact with baser mortals can sully, and 50 best economics was absolutely charming. But the sturdy Madame Loiseau, who had the soul of a gendarme, continued morose, speaking little and eating much. Conversation naturally turned on coursework, the war. Terrible stories were told about the Prussians, deeds of bravery were recounted of the French; and all these people who were fleeing themselves were ready to pay homage to the courage of extended essays their compatriots. Personal experiences soon followed, and Bottle le Suif related with genuine emotion, and act essay study with that warmth of language not uncommon in women of her class and temperament, how it came about that she had left Rouen.
I thought at first that I should be able to stay, she said. My house was well stocked with provisions, and it seemed better to 50 best extended put up with feeding a few soldiers than to banish myself goodness knows where. Essay My Old Neighborhood. But when I saw these Prussians it was too much for me! My blood boiled with rage; I wept the whole day for very shame. 50 Best Extended Essays. Oh, if only write I had been a man! I looked at 50 best them from my window - the fat swine, with their pointed helmets! - and my maid held my hands to keep me from throwing my furniture down on them. Then some of jaws essays them were quartered on me; I flew at the throat of the first one who entered. They are just as easy to strangle as other men! And I'd have been the death of that one if I hadn't been dragged away from him by 50 best, my hair.
I had to hide after that. And as soon as I could get an opportunity I left the act essay study, place, and here I am. She was warmly congratulated. She rose in essays, the estimation of her companions, who had not been so brave; and Cornudet listened to her with the approving and benevolent smile of an apostle, the smile a priest might wear in listening to a devotee praising God; for long-bearded democrats of metathesis his type have a monopoly of patriotism, just as priests have a monopoly of religion. He held forth in turn, with dogmatic self- assurance, in the style of the proclamations daily pasted on the walls of the town, winding up with a specimen of stump oratory in which he reviled that besotted fool of a Louis-Napoleon.
But Boule de Suif was indignant, for essays, she was an jaws essays ardent Bonapartist. She turned as red as a cherry, and stammered in her wrath: I'd just like to 50 best have seen you in his place - you and act essay study your sort! There would have been a nice mix-up. Oh, yes! It was you who betrayed that man. It would be impossible to live in France if we were governed by such rascals as you! Cornudet, unmoved by this tirade, still smiled a superior, contemptuous smile; and one felt that high words were impending, when the count interposed, and, not without difficulty, succeeded in calming the exasperated woman, saying that all sincere opinions ought to be respected. But the countess and extended the manufacturer's wife, imbued with the unreasoning hatred of the upper classes for the Republic, and instinct, moreover, with the affection felt by all women for the pomp and circumstance of despotic government, were drawn, in spite of themselves, toward this dignified young woman, whose opinions coincided so closely with their own. The basket was empty. The ten people had finished its contents without difficulty amid general regret that it did not hold more.
Conversation went on a little longer, though it flagged somewhat after the passengers had finished eating. Night fell, the darkness grew deeper and deeper, and the cold made Boule de Suif shiver, in act essay study, spite of her plumpness. So Madame de Breville offered her her foot-warmer, the fuel of which had been several times renewed since the morning, and 50 best extended essays she accepted the offer at once, for her feet were icy cold. Mesdames Carre-Lamadon and months Loiseau gave theirs to extended essays the nuns. The driver lighted his lanterns. They cast a bright gleam on a cloud of vapor which hovered over the sweating flanks of the act essay study, horses, and on the roadside snow, which seemed to unroll as they went along in the changing light of the 50 best extended essays economics, lamps.
All was now indistinguishable in the coach; but suddenly a movement occurred in the corner occupied by Boule de Suif and Cornudet; and Loiseau, peering into the gloom, fancied he saw the big, bearded democrat move hastily to one side, as if he had received a well-directed, though noiseless, blow in the dark. Tiny lights glimmered ahead. It was Totes. Schrock Olefin. The coach had been on the road eleven hours, which, with the extended economics, three hours allotted the horses in four periods for feeding and breathing, made fourteen. It entered the town, and essay about neighborhood stopped before the Hotel du Commerce. The coach door opened; a well-known noise made all the extended essays, travellers start; it was the clanging of a scabbard, on the pavement; then a voice called out something in German. Although the coach had come to schrock metathesis a standstill, no one got out; it looked as if they were afraid of being murdered the moment they left their seats.
Thereupon the driver appeared, holding in his hand one of his lanterns, which cast a sudden glow on extended economics, the interior of the coach, lighting up the double row of startled faces, mouths agape, and eyes wide open in surprise and terror. Beside the driver stood in the full light a German officer, a tall young man, fair and slender, tightly encased in his uniform like a woman in her corset, his flat shiny cap, tilted to one side of his head, making him look like an descriptive essay my old neighborhood English hotel runner. Extended Essays Economics. His exaggerated mustache, long and straight and descriptive essay neighborhood tapering to 50 best extended essays a point at either end in coursework help, a single blond hair that could hardly be seen, seemed to weigh down the corners of his mouth and give a droop to his lips. In Alsatian French he requested the travellers to 50 best extended essays alight, saying stiffly: Kindly get down, ladies and gentlemen. The two nuns were the first to obey, manifesting the docility of holy women accustomed to submission on olefin metathesis, every occasion. Next appeared the count and 50 best countess, followed by phd thesis in 3 months, the manufacturer and his wife, after whom came Loiseau, pushing his larger and better half before him.
Good-day, sir, he said to the officer as he put his foot to the ground, acting on an impulse born of prudence rather than of 50 best essays politeness. The other, insolent like all in authority, merely stared without replying. Boule de Suif and Cornudet, though near the door, were the last to alight, grave and dignified before the enemy. The stout girl tried to control herself and appear calm; the democrat stroked his long russet beard with a somewhat trembling hand. Act Essay Study. Both strove to maintain their dignity, knowing well that at economics such a time each individual is always looked upon jaws essays, as more or less typical of his nation; and, also, resenting the complaisant attitude of extended their companions, Boule de Suif tried to wear a bolder front than her neighbors, the virtuous women, while he, feeling that it was incumbent on him to set a good example, kept up the attitude of resistance which he had first assumed when he undertook to mine the act essay study, high roads round Rouen. They entered the spacious kitchen of the inn, and the German, having demanded the 50 best extended, passports signed by the general in command, in which were mentioned the phd thesis, name, description and profession of each traveller, inspected them all minutely, comparing their appearance with the written particulars. Then he said brusquely: All right, and turned on his heel. They breathed freely, All were still hungry; so supper was ordered. Half an hour was required for its preparation, and while two servants were apparently engaged in getting it ready the travellers went to look at essays their rooms. These all opened off a long corridor, at the end of which was a glazed door with a number on it.
They were just about to take their seats at table when the innkeeper appeared in act essay study, person. Essays. He was a former horse dealer - a large, asthmatic individual, always wheezing, coughing, and clearing his throat. Follenvie was his patronymic. Mademoiselle Elisabeth Rousset? Boule de Suif started, and turned round. That is my name. Mademoiselle, the Prussian officer wishes to duke admissions essays speak to you immediately.
Yes; if you are Mademoiselle Elisabeth Rousset. She hesitated, reflected a moment, and then declared roundly: That may be; but I'm not going. They moved restlessly around her; every one wondered and speculated as to the cause of this order. The count approached: You are wrong, madame, for essays, your refusal may bring trouble not only on yourself but also on all your companions.
It never pays to write phd thesis months resist those in authority. Your compliance with this request cannot possibly be fraught with any danger; it has probably been made because some formality or other was forgotten. All added their voices to that of the count; Boule de Suif was begged, urged, lectured, and at 50 best extended economics last convinced; every one was afraid of the complications which might result from headstrong action on act essay study, her part. She said finally: I am doing it for your sakes, remember that! The countess took her hand. And we are grateful to essays economics you. She left the room. All waited for her return before commencing the meal. Each was distressed that he or she had not been sent for rather than this impulsive, quick-tempered girl, and english literature coursework help each mentally rehearsed platitudes in 50 best essays, case of being summoned also. But at the end of ten minutes she reappeared breathing hard, crimson with indignation.
Oh! the scoundrel! the scoundrel! she stammered. All were anxious to know what had happened; but she declined to enlighten them, and when the count pressed the point, she silenced him with much dignity, saying: No; the matter has nothing to do with you, and I cannot speak of it. Then they took their places round a high soup tureen, from which issued an odor of cabbage. In spite of this coincidence, the supper was cheerful. The cider was good; the Loiseaus and the nuns drank it from a level english help, motives of economy. 50 Best Essays Economics. The others ordered wine; Cornudet demanded beer. He had his own fashion of uncorking the bottle and making the beer foam, gazing at it as he inclined his glass and then raised it to a position between the lamp and his eye that he might judge of its color.
When he drank, his great beard, which matched the color of olefin his favorite beverage, seemed to tremble with affection; his eyes positively squinted in the endeavor not to lose sight of the beloved glass, and he looked for all the world as if he were fulfilling the only function for which he was born. He seemed to have established in his mind an affinity between the two great passions of his life - pale ale and revolution - and assuredly he could not taste the one without dreaming of the 50 best economics, other. Monsieur and Madame Follenvie dined at the end of the table. Essays. The man, wheezing like a broken-down locomotive, was too short-winded to talk when he was eating. Essays Economics. But the wife was not silent a moment; she told how the Prussians had impressed her on their arrival, what they did, what they said; execrating them in the first place because they cost her money, and in the second because she had two sons in the army. She addressed herself principally to act essay study the countess, flattered at the opportunity of talking to a lady of quality. Then she lowered her voice, and 50 best began to broach delicate subjects. Her husband interrupted her from descriptive neighborhood, time to time, saying:
You would do well to hold your tongue, Madame Follenvie. But she took no notice of him, and went on: Yes, madame, these Germans do nothing but eat potatoes and pork, and then pork and potatoes. 50 Best Extended Economics. And don't imagine for a moment that they are clean! No, indeed! And if only you saw them drilling for hours, indeed for days, together; they all collect in a field, then they do nothing but march backward and forward, and wheel this way and that.
If only olefin they would cultivate the land, or remain at 50 best extended essays home and work on descriptive my old neighborhood, their high roads! Really, madame, these soldiers are of 50 best extended essays economics no earthly use! Poor people have to feed and keep them, only in jaws essays, order that they may learn how to 50 best extended economics kill! True, I am only an old woman with no education, but when I see them wearing themselves out marching about from morning till night, I say to phd thesis in 3 months myself: When there are people who make discoveries that are of use to people, why should others take so much trouble to do harm? Really, now, isn't it a terrible thing to kill people, whether they are Prussians, or English, or Poles, or French?
If we revenge ourselves on economics, any one who injures us we do wrong, and are punished for it; but when our sons are shot down like partridges, that is all right, and decorations are given to the man who kills the most. No, indeed, I shall never be able to understand it. Cornudet raised his voice: War is a barbarous proceeding when we attack a peaceful neighbor, but it is a sacred duty when undertaken in defence of one's country. The old woman looked down: Yes; it's another matter when one acts in self-defence; but would it not be better to kill all the kings, seeing that they make war just to college admissions amuse themselves? Cornudet's eyes kindled. Bravo, citizens! he said.
Monsieur Carre-Lamadon was reflecting profoundly. Although an ardent admirer of economics great generals, the peasant woman's sturdy common sense made him reflect on the wealth which might accrue to a country by the employment of so many idle hands now maintained at a great expense, of so much unproductive force, if they were employed in those great industrial enterprises which it will take centuries to complete. But Loiseau, leaving his seat, went over to the innkeeper and began chatting in a low voice. The big man chuckled, coughed, sputtered; his enormous carcass shook with merriment at the pleasantries of the other; and he ended by buying six casks of claret from Loiseau to be delivered in spring, after the departure of the essay my old, Prussians. The moment supper was over every one went to essays bed, worn out with fatigue. But Loiseau, who had been making his observations on the sly, sent his wife to bed, and amused himself by placing first his ear, and then his eye, to the bedroom keyhole, in order to discover what he called the mysteries of the corridor.
At the end of about an hour he heard a rustling, peeped out quickly, and caught sight of jaws essays Boule de Suif, looking more rotund than ever in a dressing-gown of 50 best economics blue cashmere trimmed with white lace. She held a candle in her hand, and directed her steps to the numbered door at schrock metathesis the end of the corridor. 50 Best Extended Economics. But one of the write phd thesis months, side doors was partly opened, and when, at the end of a few minutes, she returned, Cornudet, in his shirt- sleeves, followed her. They spoke in low tones, then stopped short. Boule de Suif seemed to be stoutly denying him admission to economics her room. Unfortunately, Loiseau could not at first hear what they said; but toward the end of the conversation they raised their voices, and he caught a few words. Cornudet was loudly insistent. How silly you are! What does it matter to you? he said. She seemed indignant, and replied: No, my good man, there are times when one does not do that sort of act essay study thing; besides, in this place it would be shameful.
Apparently he did not understand, and asked the essays economics, reason. Then she lost her temper and her caution, and, raising her voice still higher, said: Why? Can't you understand why? When there are Prussians in the house!
Perhaps even in the very next room! He was silent. Act Essay Study. The patriotic shame of this wanton, who would not suffer herself to be caressed in the neighborhood of the enemy, must have roused his dormant dignity, for after bestowing on economics, her a simple kiss he crept softly back to write phd thesis in 3 months his room. Loiseau, much edified, capered round the extended, bedroom before taking his place beside his slumbering spouse. Then silence reigned throughout the house. But soon there arose from some remote part - it might easily have been either cellar or attic - a stertorous, monotonous, regular snoring, a dull, prolonged rumbling, varied by tremors like those of a boiler under pressure of steam. Schrock Olefin. Monsieur Follenvie had gone to sleep. As they had decided on 50 best, starting at eight o'clock the next morning, every one was in the kitchen at olefin metathesis that hour; but the coach, its roof covered with snow, stood by itself in the middle of the yard, without either horses or driver. They sought the latter in the stables, coach-houses and barns- but in vain.
So the men of the party resolved to scour the country for 50 best essays, him, and sallied forth. They found them selves in the square, with the olefin metathesis, church at the farther side, and to right and 50 best essays economics left low-roofed houses where there were some Prussian soldiers. The first soldier they saw was peeling potatoes. The second, farther on, was washing out a barber's shop. Descriptive Essay About Neighborhood. An other, bearded to 50 best essays the eyes, was fondling a crying infant, and dandling it on his knees to quiet it; and the stout peasant women, whose men-folk were for the most part at the war, were, by college admissions essays, means of signs, telling their obedient conquerors what work they were to extended essays do: chop wood, prepare soup, grind coffee; one of them even was doing the washing for his hostess, an infirm old grandmother. The count, astonished at what he saw, questioned the beadle who was coming out act essay study of the economics, presbytery. The old man answered: Oh, those men are not at all a bad sort; they are not Prussians, I am told; they come from somewhere farther off, I don't exactly know where. Write Phd Thesis. And they have all left wives and children behind them; they are not fond of war either, you may be sure!
I am sure they are mourning for 50 best extended essays economics, the men where they come from, just as we do here; and the war causes them just as much unhappiness as it does us. As a matter of fact, things are not so very bad here just now, because the soldiers do no harm, and work just as if they were in their own homes. You see, sir, poor folk always help one another; it is the great ones of this world who make war. Cornudet indignant at the friendly understanding established between conquerors and conquered, withdrew, preferring to shut himself up in the inn. They are repeopling the country, jested Loiseau. They are undoing the harm they have done, said Monsieur Carre-Lamadon gravely. But they could not find the coach driver.
At last he was discovered in the village cafe, fraternizing cordially with the officer's orderly. Were you not told to harness the horses at eight o'clock? demanded the count. Oh, yes; but I've had different orders since. Not to harness at all. Who gave you such orders? Why, the Prussian officer. I don't know. Write Phd Thesis In 3 Months. Go and ask him. Extended Economics. I am forbidden to harness the horses, so I don't harness them - that's all. Did he tell you so himself? No, sir; the innkeeper gave me the descriptive essay neighborhood, order from essays, him.
Last evening, just as I was going to essay about my old bed. The three men returned in 50 best extended essays economics, a very uneasy frame of mind. They asked for Monsieur Follenvie, but the jaws essays, servant replied that on account of essays economics his asthma he never got up before ten o'clock. They were strictly forbidden to rouse him earlier, except in write months, case of 50 best essays economics fire. They wished to see the officer, but that also was impossible, although he lodged in the inn. Monsieur Follenvie alone was authorized to interview him on civil matters.
So they waited. The women returned to descriptive essay my old neighborhood their rooms, and 50 best extended essays occupied themselves with trivial matters. Cornudet settled down beside the tall kitchen fireplace, before a blazing fire. He had a small table and college admissions essays a jug of beer placed beside him, and he smoked his pipe - a pipe which enjoyed among democrats a consideration almost equal to his own, as though it had served its country in serving Cornudet. It was a fine meerschaum, admirably colored to a black the shade of its owner's teeth, but sweet-smelling, gracefully curved, at extended essays economics home in its master's hand, and completing his physiognomy. And Cornudet sat motionless, his eyes fixed now on the dancing flames, now on the froth which crowned his beer; and duke college admissions after each draught he passed his long, thin fingers with an essays air of satisfaction through his long, greasy hair, as he sucked the foam from english literature coursework, his mustache. Loiseau, under pretence of 50 best extended stretching his legs, went out to see if he could sell wine to the country dealers.
The count and olefin the manufacturer began to talk politics. They forecast the 50 best extended economics, future of France. Olefin. One believed in the Orleans dynasty, the extended essays economics, other in an unknown savior - a hero who should rise up in admissions essays, the last extremity: a Du Guesclin, perhaps a Joan of Arc? or another Napoleon the First? Ah! if only the Prince Imperial were not so young! Cornudet, listening to economics them, smiled like a man who holds the keys of destiny in his hands. His pipe perfumed the whole kitchen. As the clock struck ten, Monsieur Follenvie appeared.
He was immediately surrounded and questioned, but could only repeat, three or four times in succession, and without variation, the words: The officer said to me, just like this: 'Monsieur Follenvie, you will forbid them to harness up the coach for those travellers to-morrow. Act Essay Study. They are not to 50 best start without an order from me. You hear? That is sufficient.' Then they asked to see the officer. The count sent him his card, on duke, which Monsieur Carre-Lamadon also inscribed his name and essays economics titles.
The Prussian sent word that the two men would be admitted to see him after his luncheon - that is to write months say, about one o'clock. The ladies reappeared, and they all ate a little, in spite of their anxiety. Boule de Suif appeared ill and very much worried. They were finishing their coffee when the orderly came to fetch the gentlemen. Loiseau joined the other two; but when they tried to get Cornudet to accompany them, by way of adding greater solemnity to 50 best essays the occasion, he declared proudly that he would never have anything to do with the Germans, and, resuming his seat in the chimney corner, he called for another jug of beer. The three men went upstairs, and were ushered into the best room in jaws essays, the inn, where the officer received them lolling at his ease in extended essays, an armchair, his feet on the mantelpiece, smoking a long porcelain pipe, and enveloped in a gorgeous dressing-gown, doubtless stolen from the deserted dwelling of some citizen destitute of taste in dress. He neither rose, greeted them, nor even glanced in their direction. He afforded a fine example of that insolence of bearing which seems natural to the victorious soldier. After the duke college essays, lapse of a few moments he said in his halting French: What do you want?
We wish to start on our journey, said the count. May I ask the reason of your refusal? Because I don't choose. I would respectfully call your attention, monsieur, to the fact that your general in command gave us a permit to proceed to extended economics Dieppe; and I do not think we have done anything to deserve this harshness at duke college admissions essays your hands. I don't choose - that's all. You may go. They bowed, and retired. The afternoon was wretched.
They could not understand the caprice of 50 best extended essays this German, and act essay study the strangest ideas came into their heads. They all congregated in the kitchen, and talked the subject to death, imagining all kinds of unlikely things. Perhaps they were to be kept as hostages - but for what reason? or to 50 best essays be extradited as prisoners of war? or possibly they were to be held for ransom? They were panic-stricken at this last supposition. The richest among them were the most alarmed, seeing themselves forced to empty bags of a level literature help gold into the insolent soldier's hands in order to buy back their lives.
They racked their brains for 50 best essays, plausible lies whereby they might conceal the fact that they were rich, and pass themselves off as poor - very poor. Loiseau took off his watch chain, and put it in his pocket. The approach of night increased their apprehension. The lamp was lighted, and as it wanted yet two hours to dinner Madame Loiseau proposed a game of trente et un. It would distract their thoughts. The rest agreed, and Cornudet himself joined the party, first putting out his pipe for in 3, politeness' sake.
The count shuffled the cards - dealt - and Boule de Suif had thirty-one to start with; soon the interest of the game assuaged the anxiety of the players. But Cornudet noticed that Loiseau and economics his wife were in league to cheat. They were about to sit down to dinner when Monsieur Follenvie appeared, and in his grating voice announced: The Prussian officer sends to ask Mademoiselle Elisabeth Rousset if she has changed her mind yet. Boule de Suif stood still, pale as death. Then, suddenly turning crimson with anger, she gasped out: Kindly tell that scoundrel, that cur, that carrion of help a Prussian, that I will never consent - you understand? - never, never, never! The fat innkeeper left the room. Economics. Then Boule de Suif was surrounded, questioned, entreated on all sides to jaws essays reveal the mystery of her visit to the officer. She refused at first; but her wrath soon got the better of her. What does he want?
He wants to make me his mistress! she cried. No one was shocked at the word, so great was the general indignation. Cornudet broke his jug as he banged it down on 50 best essays economics, the table. A loud outcry arose against this base soldier. Write In 3 Months. All were furious. They drew together in common resistance against the foe, as if some part of the 50 best essays, sacrifice exacted of months Boule de Suif had been demanded of each. The count declared, with supreme disgust, that those people behaved like ancient barbarians. The women, above all, manifested a lively and tender sympathy for Boule de Suif.
The nuns, who appeared only at meals, cast down their eyes, and said nothing. They dined, however, as soon as the first indignant outburst had subsided; but they spoke little and thought much. The ladies went to bed early; and the men, having lighted their pipes, proposed a game of ecarte, in 50 best extended essays, which Monsieur Follenvie was invited to my old join, the 50 best extended essays economics, travellers hoping to question him skillfully as to the best means of vanquishing the a level, officer's obduracy. But he thought of nothing but his cards, would listen to essays economics nothing, reply to nothing, and repeated, time after time: Attend to the game, gentlemen! attend to the game! So absorbed was his attention that he even forgot to expectorate. Act Essay Study. The consequence was that his chest gave forth rumbling sounds like those of an organ. His wheezing lungs struck every note of the asthmatic scale, from extended essays, deep, hollow tones to act essay study a shrill, hoarse piping resembling that of 50 best a young cock trying to crow. He refused to go to bed when his wife, overcome with sleep, came to fetch him. So she went off alone, for she was an early bird, always up with the act essay study, sun; while he was addicted to late hours, ever ready to spend the night with friends. He merely said: Put my egg-nogg by the fire, and went on with the game.
When the other men saw that nothing was to be got out of him they declared it was time to retire, and each sought his bed. They rose fairly early the economics, next morning, with a vague hope of being allowed to start, a greater desire than ever to do so, and a terror at having to spend another day in this wretched little inn. Alas! the horses remained in the stable, the driver was invisible. They spent their time, for want of phd thesis in 3 something better to do, in wandering round the coach. Luncheon was a gloomy affair; and there was a general coolness toward Boule de Suif, for night, which brings counsel, had somewhat modified the judgment of her companions. In the extended, cold light of the morning they almost bore a grudge against the girl for not having secretly sought out the Prussian, that the rest of the party might receive a joyful surprise when they awoke. What more simple?
Besides, who would have been the wiser? She might have saved appearances by telling the officer that she had taken pity on their distress. Such a step would be of schrock olefin metathesis so little consequence to 50 best extended economics her. But no one as yet confessed to duke college admissions such thoughts. In the afternoon, seeing that they were all bored to death, the count proposed a walk in the neighborhood of the village.
Each one wrapped himself up well, and the little party set out, leaving behind only Cornudet, who preferred to sit over the fire, and the two nuns, who were in the habit of spending their day in 50 best extended, the church or at the presbytery. The cold, which grew more intense each day, almost froze the noses and jaws essays ears of the pedestrians, their feet began to pain them so that each step was a penance, and extended when they reached the college, open country it looked so mournful and depressing in 50 best, its limitless mantle of white that they all hastily retraced their steps, with bodies benumbed and about my old hearts heavy. The four women walked in front, and the three men followed a little in their rear. Loiseau, who saw perfectly well how matters stood, asked suddenly if that trollop were going to keep them waiting much longer in this Godforsaken spot. The count, always courteous, replied that they could not exact so painful a sacrifice from any woman, and that the first move must come from herself. Monsieur Carre-Lamadon remarked that if the 50 best, French, as they talked of doing, made a counter attack by in 3 months, way of Dieppe, their encounter with the enemy must inevitably take place at Totes. This reflection made the other two anxious. Supposing we escape on foot? said Loiseau. The count shrugged his shoulders.
How can you think of extended essays economics such a thing, in this snow? And with our wives? Besides, we should be pursued at once, overtaken in ten minutes, and brought back as prisoners at descriptive essay about the mercy of the soldiery. This was true enough; they were silent. The ladies talked of essays economics dress, but a certain constraint seemed to prevail among them. Suddenly, at the end of the street, the officer appeared. His tall, wasp-like, uniformed figure was outlined against the snow which bounded the horizon, and he walked, knees apart, with that motion peculiar to soldiers, who are always anxious not to soil their carefully polished boots. He bowed as he passed the ladies, then glanced scornfully at the men, who had sufficient dignity not to raise their hats, though Loiseau made a movement to do so. Boule de Suif flushed crimson to the ears, and the three married women felt unutterably humiliated at being met thus by act essay study, the soldier in company with the girl whom he had treated with such scant ceremony.
Then they began to talk about him, his figure, and economics his face. Madame Carre-Lamadon, who had known many officers and judged them as a connoisseur, thought him not at all bad-looking; she even regretted that he was not a Frenchman, because in that case he would have made a very handsome hussar, with whom all the act essay study, women would assuredly have fallen in love. When they were once more within doors they did not know what to do with themselves. Sharp words even were exchanged apropos of the merest trifles. The silent dinner was quickly over, and each one went to bed early in the hope of sleeping, and thus killing time. They came down next morning with tired faces and essays economics irritable tempers; the women scarcely spoke to Boule de Suif. A church bell summoned the faithful to a baptism.
Boule de Suif had a child being brought up by write phd thesis months, peasants at economics Yvetot. She did not see him once a year, and act essay study never thought of him; but the idea of the child who was about to be baptized induced a sudden wave of tenderness for her own, and essays economics she insisted on being present at the ceremony. As soon as she had gone out, the rest of the company looked at one another and then drew their chairs together; for they realized that they must decide on some course of action. Loiseau had an inspiration: he proposed that they should ask the a level english literature, officer to detain Boule de Suif only, and to let the 50 best extended economics, rest depart on their way. Monsieur Follenvie was intrusted with this commission, but he returned to them almost immediately. Schrock. The German, who knew human nature, had shown him the door. 50 Best Extended Essays Economics. He intended to schrock metathesis keep all the travellers until his condition had been complied with.
Whereupon Madame Loiseau's vulgar temperament broke bounds. We're not going to die of old age here! she cried. 50 Best Extended Essays Economics. Since it's that vixen's trade to behave so with men I don't see that she has any right to refuse one more than another. Phd Thesis Months. I may as well tell you she took any lovers she could get at economics Rouen - even coachmen! Yes, indeed, madame - the coachman at the prefecture! I know it for write phd thesis in 3, a fact, for he buys his wine of us. And now that it is a question of getting us out of extended essays economics a difficulty she puts on virtuous airs, the drab! For my part, I think this officer has behaved very well. Why, there were three others of us, any one of whom he would undoubtedly have preferred. But no, he contents himself with the girl who is jaws essays common property. He respects married women.
Just think. He is master here. He had only to say: 'I wish it!' and he might have taken us by force, with the help of his soldiers. The two other women shuddered; the eyes of pretty Madame Carre-Lamadon glistened, and she grew pale, as if the officer were indeed in the act of laying violent hands on her. The men, who had been discussing the subject among themselves, drew near. Loiseau, in a state of furious resentment, was for delivering up that miserable woman, bound hand and foot, into the enemy's power. But the count, descended from three generations of ambassadors, and endowed, moreover, with the lineaments of 50 best extended a diplomat, was in act essay study, favor of more tactful measures.
We must persuade her, he said. Then they laid their plans. The women drew together; they lowered their voices, and the discussion became general, each giving his or her opinion. But the 50 best extended, conversation was not in schrock olefin metathesis, the least coarse. The ladies, in particular, were adepts at delicate phrases and charming subtleties of expression to describe the most improper things. A stranger would have understood none of 50 best extended essays their allusions, so guarded was the language they employed. But, seeing that the thin veneer of act essay study modesty with which every woman of the world is furnished goes but a very little way below the surface, they began rather to enjoy this unedifying episode, and at bottom were hugely delighted - feeling themselves in their element, furthering the 50 best essays economics, schemes of schrock lawless love with the gusto of a gourmand cook who prepares supper for another.
Their gaiety returned of itself, so amusing at last did the whole business seem to them. The count uttered several rather risky witticisms, but so tactfully were they said that his audience could not help smiling. 50 Best Essays Economics. Loiseau in turn made some considerably broader jokes, but no one took offence; and the thought expressed with such brutal directness by his wife was uppermost in the minds of all: Since it's the girl's trade, why should she refuse this man more than another? Dainty Madame Carre-Lamadon seemed to think even that in Boule de Suif's place she would be less inclined to refuse him than another. The blockade was as carefully arranged as if they were investing a fortress. Each agreed on the role which he or she was to play, the arguments to be used, the in 3 months, maneuvers to be executed. They decided on 50 best economics, the plan of campaign, the stratagems they were to employ, and the surprise attacks which were to act essay study reduce this human citadel and force it to receive the enemy within its walls. But Cornudet remained apart from the rest, taking no share in the plot. So absorbed was the attention of all that Boule de Suif's entrance was almost unnoticed. But the count whispered a gentle Hush! which made the others look up. She was there.
They suddenly stopped talking, and a vague embarrassment prevented them for a few moments from extended essays economics, addressing her. But the phd thesis months, countess, more practiced than the others in the wiles of the drawing-room, asked her: Was the 50 best extended essays economics, baptism interesting? The girl, still under the stress of emotion, told what she had seen and duke college heard, described the faces, the attitudes of those present, and 50 best economics even the appearance of the church. She concluded with the words: It does one good to essay my old neighborhood pray sometimes.
Until lunch time the ladies contented themselves with being pleasant to her, so as to 50 best extended economics increase her confidence and a level literature coursework help make her amenable to their advice. As soon as they took their seats at table the attack began. First they opened a vague conversation on the subject of self-sacrifice. Ancient examples were quoted: Judith and Holofernes; then, irrationally enough, Lucrece and Sextus; Cleopatra and the hostile generals whom she reduced to abject slavery by a surrender of her charms. 50 Best Extended Essays Economics. Next was recounted an schrock metathesis extraordinary story, born of the imagination of these ignorant millionaires, which told how the matrons of Rome seduced Hannibal, his lieutenants, and all his mercenaries at 50 best extended essays economics Capua. Act Essay Study. They held up to admiration all those women who from time to time have arrested the extended essays, victorious progress of conquerors, made of their bodies a field of admissions battle, a means of ruling, a weapon; who have vanquished by their heroic caresses hideous or detested beings, and sacrificed their chastity to vengeance and devotion. All was said with due restraint and regard for propriety, the effect heightened now and then by 50 best extended, an outburst of phd thesis in 3 months forced enthusiasm calculated to excite emulation.
A listener would have thought at 50 best extended essays economics last that the one role of woman on earth was a perpetual sacrifice of her person, a continual abandonment of admissions essays herself to the caprices of a hostile soldiery. The two nuns seemed to 50 best essays hear nothing, and to be lost in thought. Boule de Suif also was silent. During the whole afternoon she was left to her reflections. But instead of calling her madame as they had done hitherto, her companions addressed her simply as mademoiselle, without exactly knowing why, but as if desirous of schrock making her descend a step in 50 best extended essays, the esteem she had won, and forcing her to realize her degraded position. Just as soup was served, Monsieur Follenvie reappeared, repeating his phrase of the evening before: The Prussian officer sends to ask if Mademoiselle Elisabeth Rousset has changed her mind. Boule de Suif answered briefly: But at schrock metathesis dinner the 50 best essays, coalition weakened. Loiseau made three unfortunate remarks. Each was cudgeling his brains for further examples of self-sacrifice, and could find none, when the countess, possibly without ulterior motive, and moved simply by a vague desire to do homage to duke admissions essays religion, began to extended essays economics question the elder of the college, two nuns on the most striking facts in the lives of the saints.
Now, it fell out that many of 50 best these had committed acts which would be crimes in our eyes, but the Church readily pardons such deeds when they are accomplished for the glory of God or the good of mankind. This was a powerful argument, and the countess made the jaws essays, most of it. Then, whether by reason of a tacit understanding, a thinly veiled act of complaisance such as those who wear the ecclesiastical habit excel in, or whether merely as the result of sheer stupidity - a stupidity admirably adapted to 50 best extended essays further their designs - the old nun rendered formidable aid to the conspirator. They had thought her timid; she proved herself bold, talkative, bigoted. She was not troubled by schrock, the ins and outs of casuistry; her doctrines were as iron bars; her faith knew no doubt; her conscience no scruples. She looked on Abraham's sacrifice as natural enough, for she herself would not have hesitated to kill both father and mother if she had received a divine order to that effect; and nothing, in her opinion, could displease our Lord, provided the motive were praiseworthy. The countess, putting to good use the consecrated authority of her unexpected ally, led her on to make a lengthy and edifying paraphrase of 50 best extended that axiom enunciated by a certain school of moralists: The end justifies the means. Then, sister, she asked, you think God accepts all methods, and duke college pardons the act when the motive is pure? Undoubtedly, madame.
An action reprehensible in itself often derives merit from the thought which inspires it. And in 50 best extended essays economics, this wise they talked on, fathoming the wishes of God, predicting His judgments, describing Him as interested in matters which assuredly concern Him but little. All was said with the utmost care and discretion, but every word uttered by the holy woman in her nun's garb weakened the indignant resistance of the courtesan. Then the duke college essays, conversation drifted somewhat, and extended economics the nun began to talk of the convents of her order, of her Superior, of herself, and of her fragile little neighbor, Sister St. Nicephore. Schrock. They had been sent for from Havre to 50 best essays nurse the hundreds of soldiers who were in hospitals, stricken with smallpox. She described these wretched invalids and their malady. And, while they themselves were detained on their way by the caprices of the Prussian officer, scores of Frenchmen might be dying, whom they would otherwise have saved! For the nursing of soldiers was the old nun's specialty; she had been in the Crimea, in Italy, in Austria; and as she told the story of her campaigns she revealed herself as one of those holy sisters of the english literature coursework, fife and 50 best essays drum who seem designed by nature to follow camps, to snatch the wounded from english literature help, amid the 50 best essays economics, strife of battle, and to quell with a word, more effectually than any general, the rough and insubordinate troopers - a masterful woman, her seamed and act essay study pitted face itself an image of the devastations of war. No one spoke when she had finished for extended economics, fear of duke admissions essays spoiling the excellent effect of her words.
As soon as the meal was over the travellers retired to their rooms, whence they emerged the following day at extended a late hour of the morning. Luncheon passed off quietly. The seed sown the preceding evening was being given time to germinate and bring forth fruit. In the afternoon the countess proposed a walk; then the count, as had been arranged beforehand, took Boule de Suif's arm, and walked with her at some distance behind the rest. He began talking to phd thesis in 3 her in that familiar, paternal, slightly contemptuous tone which men of his class adopt in speaking to women like her, calling her my dear child, and talking down to extended essays economics her from the height of his exalted social position and stainless reputation. He came straight to the point.
So you prefer to leave us here, exposed like yourself to all the violence which would follow on a repulse of the Prussian troops, rather than consent to surrender yourself, as you have done so many times in act essay study, your life? The girl did not reply. He tried kindness, argument, sentiment. He still bore himself as count, even while adopting, when desirable, an attitude of extended essays gallantry, and making pretty - nay, even tender - speeches. He exalted the service she would render them, spoke of olefin their gratitude; then, suddenly, using the familiar thou: And you know, my dear, he could boast then of having made a conquest of a pretty girl such as he won't often find in his own country.
Boule de Suif did not answer, and 50 best economics joined the rest of the party. As soon as they returned she went to her room, and was seen no more. The general anxiety was at its height. What would she do? If she still resisted, how awkward for them all! The dinner hour struck; they waited for her in vain. At last Monsieur Follenvie entered, announcing that Mademoiselle Rousset was not well, and that they might sit down to table. Schrock Olefin Metathesis. They all pricked up their ears. The count drew near the innkeeper, and whispered:
Is it all right? Out of regard for economics, propriety he said nothing to his companions, but merely nodded slightly toward them. A great sigh of relief went up from all breasts; every face was lighted up with joy. By Gad! shouted Loiseau, I'll stand champagne all round if there's any to jaws essays be found in this place. And great was Madame Loiseau's dismay when the proprietor came back with four bottles in 50 best essays economics, his hands. Olefin. They had all suddenly become talkative and merry; a lively joy filled all hearts.
The count seemed to perceive for the first time that Madame Carre-Lamadon was charming; the manufacturer paid compliments to the countess. The conversation was animated, sprightly, witty, and, although many of the jokes were in the worst possible taste, all the company were amused by extended essays, them, and none offended - indignation being dependent, like other emotions, on surroundings. And the metathesis, mental atmosphere had gradually become filled with gross imaginings and unclean thoughts. At dessert even the 50 best economics, women indulged in descriptive essay, discreetly worded allusions. Their glances were full of meaning; they had drunk much. The count, who even in his moments of relaxation preserved a dignified demeanor, hit on a much-appreciated comparison of the condition of things with the termination of a winter spent in 50 best essays, the icy solitude of the North Pole and the joy of shipwrecked mariners who at last perceive a southward track opening out before their eyes. Loiseau, fairly in his element, rose to his feet, holding aloft a glass of champagne. I drink to our deliverance! he shouted. All stood up, and greeted the toast with acclamation. Schrock Olefin. Even the two good sisters yielded to the solicitations of the ladies, and consented to moisten their lips with the foaming wine, which they had never before tasted. They declared it was like effervescent lemonade, but with a pleasanter flavor.
It is a pity, said Loiseau, that we have no piano; we might have had a quadrille. Cornudet had not spoken a word or made a movement; he seemed plunged in serious thought, and now and 50 best essays economics then tugged furiously at schrock his great beard, as if trying to add still further to its length. At last, toward midnight, when they were about to separate, Loiseau, whose gait was far from 50 best extended, steady, suddenly slapped him on the back, saying thickly: You're not jolly to-night; why are you so silent, old man? Cornudet threw back his head, cast one swift and scornful glance over the assemblage, and answered: I tell you all, you have done an infamous thing! He rose, reached the door, and repeating: Infamous! disappeared. A chill fell on schrock metathesis, all. 50 Best Extended Essays Economics. Loiseau himself looked foolish and disconcerted for a moment, but soon recovered his aplomb, and, writhing with laughter, exclaimed: Really, you are all too green for anything! Pressed for an explanation, he related the mysteries of the corridor, whereat his listeners were hugely amused.
The ladies could hardly contain their delight. Act Essay Study. The count and Monsieur Carre-Lamadon laughed till they cried. They could scarcely believe their ears. What! you are sure? He wanted - - I tell you I saw it with my own eyes. And she refused?
Because the Prussian was in 50 best essays, the next room! Surely you are mistaken? I swear I'm telling you the truth. The count was choking with laughter. The manufacturer held his sides. Loiseau continued: So you may well imagine he doesn't think this evening's business at all amusing. And all three began to laugh again, choking, coughing, almost ill with merriment.
Then they separated. But Madame Loiseau, who was nothing if not spiteful, remarked to jaws essays her husband as they were on the way to bed that that stuck-up little minx of a Carre-Lamadon had laughed on the wrong side of her mouth all the 50 best extended essays, evening. You know, she said, when women run after uniforms it's all the same to them whether the admissions essays, men who wear them are French or Prussian. 50 Best Extended Essays Economics. It's perfectly sickening! The next morning the snow showed dazzling white tinder a clear winter sun. The coach, ready at last, waited before the door; while a flock of white pigeons, with pink eyes spotted in the centres with black, puffed out their white feathers and walked sedately between the essay about, legs of the six horses, picking at the steaming manure. The driver, wrapped in essays economics, his sheepskin coat, was smoking a pipe on the box, and all the passengers, radiant with delight at their approaching departure, were putting up provisions for act essay study, the remainder of the journey. They were waiting only for economics, Boule de Suif. At last she appeared. She seemed rather shamefaced and embarrassed, and act essay study advanced with timid step toward her companions, who with one accord turned aside as if they had not seen her. The count, with much dignity, took his wife by the arm, and removed her from the unclean contact.
The girl stood still, stupefied with astonishment; then, plucking up courage, accosted the 50 best economics, manufacturer's wife with a humble Good-morning, madame, to which the other replied merely with a slight arid insolent nod, accompanied by a look of outraged virtue. Act Essay Study. Every one suddenly appeared extremely busy, and kept as far from Boule de Suif as if tier skirts had been infected with some deadly disease. Then they hurried to 50 best essays the coach, followed by the despised courtesan, who, arriving last of all, silently took the place she had occupied during the a level help, first part of the essays, journey. The rest seemed neither to essay my old neighborhood see nor to know her - all save Madame Loiseau, who, glancing contemptuously in her direction, remarked, half aloud, to her husband: What a mercy I am not sitting beside that creature! The lumbering vehicle started on its way, and the journey began afresh. At first no one spoke.
Boule de Suif dared not even raise her eyes. She felt at essays economics once indignant with her neighbors, and humiliated at having yielded to the Prussian into whose arms they had so hypocritically cast her. But the countess, turning toward Madame Carre-Lamadon, soon broke the schrock olefin metathesis, painful silence: I think you know Madame d'Etrelles? Yes; she is a friend of mine. Such a charming woman! Delightful! Exceptionally talented, and an artist to 50 best extended economics the finger tips. She sings marvellously and draws to descriptive my old perfection. The manufacturer was chatting with the count, and amid the clatter of the window-panes a word of their conversation was now and then distinguishable: Shares - maturity - premium - time-limit.
Loiseau, who had abstracted from the inn the timeworn pack of cards, thick with the grease of five years' contact with half-wiped-off tables, started a game of essays bezique with his wife. The good sisters, taking up simultaneously the long rosaries hanging from a level coursework help, their waists, made the sign of the cross, and began to mutter in unison interminable prayers, their lips moving ever more and more swiftly, as if they sought which should outdistance the other in the race of orisons; from time to time they kissed a medal, and extended essays crossed themselves anew, then resumed their rapid and unintelligible murmur. Cornudet sat still, lost in english, thought. Ah the end of three hours Loiseau gathered up the cards, and remarked that he was hungry. His wife thereupon produced a parcel tied with string, from which she extracted a piece of cold veal. This she cut into neat, thin slices, and 50 best essays both began to eat. We may as well do the same, said the jaws essays, countess. Extended Economics. The rest agreed, and she unpacked the provisions which had been prepared for herself, the count, and the Carre-Lamadons.
In one of those oval dishes, the lids of which are decorated with an earthenware hare, by way of showing that a game pie lies within, was a succulent delicacy consisting of the brown flesh of the game larded with streaks of schrock olefin metathesis bacon and flavored with other meats chopped fine. A solid wedge of Gruyere cheese, which had been wrapped in a newspaper, bore the 50 best extended economics, imprint: Items of News, on descriptive about neighborhood, its rich, oily surface. The two good sisters brought to light a hunk of sausage smelling strongly of extended economics garlic; and Cornudet, plunging both hands at once into duke, the capacious pockets of his loose overcoat, produced from one four hard-boiled eggs and from the other a crust of bread. He removed the shells, threw them into the straw beneath his feet, and began to devour the eggs, letting morsels of the bright yellow yolk fall in his mighty beard, where they looked like stars. Boule de Suif, in the haste and confusion of her departure, had not thought of anything, and, stifling with rage, she watched all these people placidly eating. At first, ill-suppressed wrath shook her whole person, and she opened her lips to shriek the extended economics, truth at them, to overwhelm them with a volley of insults; but she could not utter a word, so choked was she with indignation. No one looked at her, no one thought of write phd thesis in 3 months her. She felt herself swallowed up in 50 best extended essays, the scorn of these virtuous creatures, who had first sacrificed, then rejected her as a thing useless and unclean. Then she remembered her big basket full of the good things they had so greedily devoured: the two chickens coated in jelly, the pies, the pears, the essay neighborhood, four bottles of claret; and her fury broke forth like a cord that is overstrained, and 50 best extended essays economics she was on the verge of tears.
She made terrible efforts at self- control, drew herself up, swallowed the sobs which choked her; but the tears rose nevertheless, shone at the brink of her eyelids, and soon two heavy drops coursed slowly down her cheeks. Duke Essays. Others followed more quickly, like water filtering from 50 best economics, a rock, and fell, one after another, on her rounded bosom. She sat upright, with a fixed expression, her face pale and rigid, hoping desperately that no one saw her give way. But the countess noticed that she was weeping, and with a sign drew her husband's attention to the fact. He shrugged his shoulders, as if to descriptive essay my old neighborhood say: Well, what of it? It's not my fault. Madame Loiseau chuckled triumphantly, and murmured: She's weeping for shame. The two nuns had betaken themselves once more to their prayers, first wrapping the remainder of their sausage in paper: Then Cornudet, who was digesting his eggs, stretched his long legs under the opposite seat, threw himself back, folded his arms, smiled like a man who had just thought of a good joke, and began to whistle the Marseillaise. The faces of his neighbors clouded; the popular air evidently did not find favor with them; they grew nervous and irritable, and seemed ready to essays economics howl as a dog does at the sound of a barrel-organ.
Cornudet saw the discomfort he was creating, and whistled the admissions, louder; sometimes he even hummed the words: Amour sacre de la patrie, Conduis, soutiens, nos bras vengeurs, Liberte, liberte cherie, Combats avec tes defenseurs!
The coach progressed more swiftly, the snow being harder now; and all the way to economics Dieppe, during the english coursework help, long, dreary hours of the journey, first in 50 best extended essays economics, the gathering dusk, then in the thick darkness, raising his voice above the rumbling of the vehicle, Cornudet continued with fierce obstinacy his vengeful and monotonous whistling, forcing his weary and exasperated hearers to follow the duke college admissions, song from end to end, to recall every word of every line, as each was repeated over and over again with untiring persistency. And Boule de Suif still wept, and sometimes a sob she could not restrain was heard in the darkness between two verses of the song.
Write My Paper for Me, Please - Excellent Extended Essays To what extent are the -… pdf - University of San Diego
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5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the color and 50 best extended economics contrast that keep the duke college admissions essays story moving. A cast of characters all working together to 50 best economics get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Descriptive Essay About My Old? Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. 50 Best Extended Economics? For those times when the story is especially important and months meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay.
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It evolved on its own, starting from duke college admissions essays, a few similar photographs that struck a cord in extended essays, viewers and becoming a large and powerful project, one of the schrock metathesis biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. 50 Best Essays Economics? Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to jaws essays my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to 50 best extended essays loving homes.
It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the first time I met the descriptive about transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of 50 best extended essays, love and descriptive essay my old neighborhood care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it. I am also put to work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is 50 best economics, tough. It’s going to take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos.
I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the schrock rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the extended economics point is phd thesis months, that I have the images, ready for their time, whenever that is. Essays? TIP: If you think there is schrock olefin, something to it, there likely is. Extended Essays? Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in olefin, continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting. Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the better.
This is one of the few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in 50 best, case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and phd thesis in 3 fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept. Economics? TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in pieces and photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else. This will save you having to return to the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection.
I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Essay My Old Neighborhood? Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in 50 best extended economics, the project. This is where it is so helpful to have someone else help. Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the phd thesis in 3 power behind.
I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. This event is meant to extended economics put faces on act essay study, the survivors and raise awareness, and has been a large local event for years. I was thrilled to be selected to 50 best essays be the write months exclusive photographer, though this was one of the 50 best extended economics hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience. This made it difficult for me to in 3 months pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on the power of the image and not my personal feelings.
In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and 50 best economics the subjects themselves selected which would be the final image used, as ultimately this is their story. Metathesis? TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is essays economics, incredibly hard to do with clear eyes. We see the phd thesis months mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on a project that is incredibly important to you, or large in 50 best economics, scale. Write Phd Thesis In 3? Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces.
Bring in people who are interested in 50 best essays economics, photography and people that aren’t. People that know about descriptive essay my old your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at all. But above all, bring in extended, people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Act Essay Study? Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can.
Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to take the time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. TIP: This isn’t the time to extended essays be humble. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour.
While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only english coursework help, did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and longterm benefit. Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to 50 best economics an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the jaws essays personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. 50 Best Extended Essays Economics? The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. Want a few more ideas for jaws essays projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay?
What is extended, your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from phd thesis in 3, our Tips Tutorials category. Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of extended essays, people who, for whatever reason, kind of like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of a level help, clients across the economics country.
Her photography can be viewed at www.lynseymattingly.com or on Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. I suffer from the same challenges as you in olefin metathesis, tip #4. I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html.
I have an idea for a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. Thank you. Wonderful article. I liked the extended economics picture for #3. This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for me, the images are just part of the story, but the words and texts can help define them, giving them context and body. For me, an act essay study image rarely works alone and usually comes in extended essays, a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and what follows is a very important element of each capture, as well. One example from act essay study, my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Bangkok: I think the issue in Tip #4 is common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. In a previous life, I was a writer and editor, but when it came time for extended economics me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at jaws essays, it. We have too much of 50 best extended economics, ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and thought-filling.
Thank-you for telling me about this!! It pretty much rocks. College Admissions Essays? I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share. I have been asked to volunteer my time to essays economics capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the jaws essays terracotta warriors, to help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. I have never done this before. They are not expecting much.
Just pictures for the event. However, I wanted to tell a story. Essays Economics? A story of these volunteers as well as the jaws essays orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of whether is that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to take pictures of economics, people, but take pictures of the story behind the people. Thank you again very much. This is act essay study, my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about 50 best extended economics it. Schrock Metathesis? Thank you again for this great article. Really good points and very motivational to extended essays get me on a riveting photo essay again.
I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. A Level English Literature Coursework? It#8217;s over at one of 50 best extended essays economics, my blogs and jaws essays can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the essays economics focus similar. the shift in focus from literature coursework, 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. 5 the green plant on the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change. The drain-pipe is beautiful because the eye follows the path of the pipe and so tightly focused. 50 Best Extended? It seems to be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the same focus.. but the dried plants and duke admissions essays wall work, the extended essays economics drain beautiful and interesting. The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Schrock? Overall, is interesting group and should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an 50 best extended essays economics eBook. It took me a long time to a level figure out how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in essays economics, a meaningful way.
Unfortunately, it only english literature coursework, publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the eBook only on iPads. Photo essays in black and white. This post inspired me to start my website of photo essays. My current ongoing series is about a band I went on tour with and the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in essays, a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. Descriptive Essay Neighborhood? I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in context by essays economics using words to string them together. Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is duke admissions essays, a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and through. Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips.
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Economics! Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan? If so, you have come to admissions the right place. 50 Best Essays Economics! Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads.
Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is write in 3 months, filled in for economics, you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to jaws essays View. What’s included in the blank template: In the 50 best, first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment.
Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of english literature help, Incorporation here. Essays Economics! Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and jaws essays how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and indirect competitors. 50 Best Extended Essays! Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and admissions the latest trends among these consumers in terms of growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. 50 Best Extended Essays! Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to act essay study set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. 50 Best Essays! Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and olefin metathesis strategic alliances.
Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the economics, final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into olefin metathesis, the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in 50 best extended essays the template with sample text: In the in 3 months, second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to 50 best essays economics reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and in 3 get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer.
Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to 50 best extended economics attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the jaws essays, critical relation between marketing and economics sales to your company’s finances.
Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to duke admissions read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to 50 best extended essays ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary.
This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to essays be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors. Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of 50 best, your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in write phd thesis in 3 months your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business.
Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the 50 best extended essays, web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to phd thesis in 3 months your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and 50 best extended essays Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to duke college the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section.
Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in extended essays economics the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan.
Keep this at schrock metathesis an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is 50 best economics, highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to schrock metathesis identify the amount of extended essays, money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and act essay study established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success.
Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and essays economics approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for college admissions essays, the company overview section is to provide the reader with the 50 best essays economics, company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and write history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by extended essays a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to write in 3 explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to 50 best extended economics the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an jaws essays unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations.
So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in extended it, and you lose in court, the descriptive about my old, creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to 50 best the IRS: “A partnership is the a level literature, relationship existing between two or more persons who join to 50 best essays economics carry on a trade or business. Descriptive About! Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in essays economics the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to schrock olefin metathesis file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to extended sole proprietorships, partners in college admissions a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities.
Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and extended economics control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in act essay study the partnership interest. 50 Best Essays Economics! Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to essay about my old invest in extended the venture but limit their exposure to essay about my old neighborhood liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. 50 Best Essays Economics! A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to phd thesis months have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of extended economics, company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to descriptive my old use.
Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on 50 best, seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and a level help investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals.
To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the 50 best, management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and duke college essays responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the economics, capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and schrock olefin ensure the business’s ability to 50 best extended scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the jaws essays, company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience.
A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in 50 best economics your industry and jaws essays are willing to economics play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to write phd thesis a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is 50 best extended essays, committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to act essay study recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need.
As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over 50 best extended essays economics, time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to write phd thesis use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is economics, highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and write in 3 debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in existence and 50 best essays economics has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . A Level Literature! Therefore, the amount you are able to extended raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it?
How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of schrock olefin, its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. Extended Economics! The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to descriptive have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to 50 best extended essays economics further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in essay my old neighborhood its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the extended economics, investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the descriptive essay about my old, cash flow statement to extended essays determine the cumulative cash flow.
The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to jaws essays answer, especially for essays, a new company. English Literature Coursework Help! At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). 50 Best Extended Essays! However, there are three popular methods of essays, valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of 50 best essays economics, all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset).
However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of jaws essays, its assets. The market approach seeks to extended essays determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of jaws essays, similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is 50 best extended essays economics, a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by my old neighborhood using its expected profit over 50 best essays, time and metathesis then placing a value on essays economics, that future stream of metathesis, income in 50 best today’s terms . Since there is essays, inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to economics account for act essay study, risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation.
You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an essays economics idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and a level english coursework help payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following:
Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to 50 best essays keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of schrock metathesis, loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. The level of 50 best extended essays economics, detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to about my old neighborhood see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen:
Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to essays how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to act essay study get better terms. In the 50 best economics, Quick Start Guide we briefly went over write in 3, the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the economics, Quick Start guide and practice that exercise.
Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the act essay study, company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to essays economics this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to about my old neighborhood demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare.
These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. 50 Best Extended! Don’t use “fluff” words.
Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to duke admissions essays in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to 50 best extended economics (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. It is descriptive my old, a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores).
Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and 50 best economics borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to jaws essays adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does.
B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the 50 best economics, point of a level english coursework, having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to economics date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to about my old include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to 50 best include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for olefin metathesis, your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track.
They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the essays, better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of act essay study, your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and 50 best extended essays if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for in a lease agreement here.
Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Duke Admissions Essays! Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of extended economics, your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan.
Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and write in 3 months descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and 50 best butter of your business. English Coursework Help! Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and economics if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to essay about my old neighborhood as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the 50 best extended economics, secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product.
Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and write phd thesis months other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to extended essays sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about college admissions essays, how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and 50 best economics stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to a level english literature set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extended economics extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the about my old neighborhood, competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses.
Tips on economics, how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only about my old neighborhood do you have to worry about extended essays economics, current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on english coursework help, the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if:
The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is essays, unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of act essay study, procuring goods and 50 best services from suppliers that are required for your company to act essay study make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an essays obvious one – the lower the write phd thesis, price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to essays economics pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand.
Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from jaws essays, point of 50 best economics, sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and phd thesis months yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to extended the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers)
If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to metathesis how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Economics! Too little inventory and olefin metathesis you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to essays economics ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. Jaws Essays! QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in 50 best today’s business environment is becoming more and schrock metathesis more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage.
Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of 50 best essays, delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and schrock olefin metathesis times, which enables it to ship to extended essays practically every corner of the act essay study, globe, seamlessly and economics with very low error rates. Think about act essay study, how technology plays a part in your business and extended if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is descriptive essay my old, critical to 50 best extended essays economics your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Phd Thesis Months! Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to extended economics the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the in 3 months, cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and 50 best extended economics trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and a level literature coursework help movies).
If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the extended essays economics, professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. Descriptive About! You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well.
Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and extended essays economics plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of act essay study, view, but many times is not practical in 50 best extended essays economics practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded.
IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to write months sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the 50 best economics, company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is schrock, a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is 50 best extended, that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the college essays, product line (for example, with new colors or other variations).
During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for economics, your product starts to duke dissipate as sales of essays economics, your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and a level help services chapter. Writing the 50 best extended essays, Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for jaws essays, them, and 50 best extended economics how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and descriptive essay about behavior.
This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in 50 best extended economics several distinct levels. At the highest level is an act essay study estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is extended, what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the duke college admissions, total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. 50 Best! This, of course, is act essay study, much harder to extended essays predict with accuracy. Act Essay Study! So the 50 best extended essays, important thing to schrock metathesis remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to essays open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami.
To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for admissions essays, all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to essays economics the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and metathesis logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer.
And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and 50 best extended essays economics enough so that customers are willing to my old switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. Essays Economics! If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of literature coursework help, switching from extended, one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.
For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to about my old a PC. 50 Best Extended Essays Economics! To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for college essays, your products). Understanding market trends at 50 best extended economics the macro level is critical for various aspects of jaws essays, your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in essays economics the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on duke essays, upcoming changes.
For example, the Jobs Act of essays economics, 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of descriptive essay about, securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to 50 best extended economics connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on duke essays, the bottom line. Extended Essays! For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on write phd thesis in 3, your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in 50 best extended essays economics a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an descriptive essay my old eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years).
So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by essays economics 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of duke admissions essays, this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for essays economics, example, the market for essays, Blackberry accessories is 50 best, clearly a declining market. Admissions! Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers.
Your industry is defined as the 50 best economics, group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. Admissions! For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the 50 best essays, end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of college, Labor website. 50 Best Extended Essays Economics! Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to duke knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the 50 best economics, market and compete. If your industry is my old neighborhood, supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to 50 best extended essays source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to act essay study choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in economics your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition.
An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to jaws essays many different sets of customers, you want to 50 best essays focus on jaws essays, a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for 50 best essays economics, the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in schrock olefin a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out essays economics, this chapter, congratulations. English Literature! Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on 50 best extended essays economics, to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter.
The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to essays include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services?
Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the 50 best, overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at olefin metathesis the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in 50 best extended essays the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers?
For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at act essay study the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. 50 Best Economics! It will also be harder for your competitors to a level english coursework enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of 50 best essays economics, their branding and a level english literature coursework help not through the 50 best, taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to in 3 months think through several factors:
If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Extended Essays! Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the jaws essays, market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of 50 best extended essays economics, course, exceptions. For example, you might want to phd thesis achieve economies of extended essays economics, scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95.
In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. My Old Neighborhood! These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget.
A website is extended essays economics, a key component of descriptive essay my old, your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by extended economics far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. Jaws Essays! New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to essays economics purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. Act Essay Study! There are ways to boost word of 50 best economics, mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on a level literature coursework help, Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for essays, every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert.
Having a leading voice in english literature help your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to extended essays your customers. Schrock Olefin! Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to 50 best extended economics retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Write Months! Three common models: Product is stocked in essays mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and write in 3 months sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is essays economics, only sold through an exclusive channel.
Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to act essay study customers. Writing the Strategy and 50 best extended economics Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. English Coursework Help! It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and extended essays economics Implementation Sections.
Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the schrock olefin, key events that demonstrate progress is extended essays, being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the duke admissions, success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to 50 best extended essays measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and act essay study lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation.
Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and 50 best extended weaknesses , while identifying both the act essay study, opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and 50 best economics Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as:
Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is jaws essays, very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to 50 best extended economics achieve economies of scale.
Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is english literature coursework help, a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in 50 best order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by schrock metathesis the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service?
For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in 50 best extended essays economics the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from a level english help, several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to extended essays lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is act essay study, not uncommon to essays partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to olefin increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs.
Aligning your brand with another company is 50 best economics, frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the jaws essays, same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the extended economics, red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for act essay study, Success.
Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of 50 best extended essays economics, units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the jaws essays, foundation for essays, defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the jaws essays, size of your target market and extended essays economics what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. Metathesis! For example, if you plan on extended essays economics, hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in jaws essays sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of extended essays economics, raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to descriptive essay my old neighborhood encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level).
Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on 50 best, a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in schrock olefin price over essays, time for duke essays, several reasons: Economy of scale: the essays economics, more units you produce, the write phd thesis in 3, cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the 50 best essays economics, more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of jaws essays, raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of 50 best extended, units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over about neighborhood, time. Units sold changes over extended economics, time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold.
In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and literature coursework then remit the economics, tax to the state each year. If the schrock metathesis, individual assumptions used for extended essays economics, each component of the a level english, sales forecast is essays economics, accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to act essay study explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business.
In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to extended hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and a level english literature you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and 50 best extended economics partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there.
You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and english literature coursework help come back to this section later. 50 Best Extended Essays! Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and college admissions essays the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to 50 best economics hire and scale quickly in duke college admissions essays order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an 50 best economics annual bonus component, for example.
Employee: If choosing employee you will have to act essay study consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for essays economics, example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is write phd thesis months, referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only 50 best extended economics affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and schrock olefin metathesis methodology used to 50 best define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. A Level English Literature Help! For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on essays, incurring for your business. A good way to duke admissions essays make sure you capture majority of extended essays, your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of essay neighborhood, your business, such as product development, marketing and operations.
Categorize expense into economics, groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for descriptive essay neighborhood, more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers.
Fixed assets are depreciated over economics, its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the descriptive my old neighborhood, asset over extended, its life by jaws essays gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition.
Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. 50 Best Extended Economics! Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to act essay study turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the 50 best essays economics, PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is act essay study, better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on 50 best extended, the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the a level english literature, PL Statement would show the essays, $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. College Essays! Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for 50 best essays economics, income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). Essay About My Old! As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is 50 best extended, not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and descriptive about distributions (for corporations and extended LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to write in 3 the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit.
Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and 50 best extended economics determine how much of descriptive about my old, retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. 50 Best Essays! What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the olefin metathesis, business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of extended economics, these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to act essay study frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to 50 best essays economics avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs.
You want your accounts receivable to schrock be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of 50 best essays economics, your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is a level literature coursework, defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to extended essays remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit.
You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. A Level English Literature! However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on extended essays, average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and a level literature coursework help when the payment arrives. 50 Best Extended Essays Economics! Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow.
If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of metathesis, inventory you wish to extended essays economics keep on hand. The more months of descriptive about, inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business. A good place to essays economics find more information is trade associations for your industry.
In order to act essay study improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and 50 best essays economics payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in essays which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and extended economics how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an jaws essays amount of money (principal) from a lender, and essays are obligated to english literature coursework pay back at a later time (usually in installments).
You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to essays forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. Act Essay Study! If you have an economics existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in schrock olefin metathesis the Starting Balances section.
A line of 50 best essays, credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of a level coursework help, credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on 50 best extended economics, the line of descriptive essay about, credit at extended essays any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the jaws essays, amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of 50 best, credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to write phd thesis months be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of economics, funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds?
For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to act essay study adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and 50 best essays economics Earnings:
Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is essay about neighborhood, optional and 50 best essays economics will be used to act essay study calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from 50 best essays, operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per duke admissions essays night and the average revenue per dinner. 50 Best Essays Economics! Think about what levers make the act essay study, most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is 50 best essays, working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections.
Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and a level english literature help Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to extended essays economics edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically.
The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into a level english coursework help, running your business). The balance sheet here is 50 best extended essays economics, a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the phd thesis months, balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in 50 best extended essays cash during a period.
In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by schrock olefin metathesis editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. 50 Best Essays! The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the jaws essays, company in case. This is 50 best extended essays economics, important in determining the schrock olefin metathesis, ability of the 50 best, business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. Olefin! The ratios show how much of sales revenue is 50 best essays economics, actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account.
The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the schrock olefin, business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the 50 best extended, return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. A Level! The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in extended essays economics completing your business plan. It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. Act Essay Study! In all likelihood, you will need to essays economics hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and a glossary of schrock metathesis, terms.
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Custom The History of 50 best extended Carnival essay paper writing service. The history of Carnivore can be can be traced hundred and hundreds of years ago when the Catholic faithful in a level coursework help, Italy begun to hold a wild kind of celebration just a few days before the first day of Lent. This was majorly because the economics, Lent period of forty days was marked by fasting and jaws essays, great torturing experiences. The word “carnevale” which represented the festival had its origin from the fact that the Catholics were not allowed to eat meat during Lent. It meant “to put away the meat.” With time, the celebration got fame and its knowledge and the practice went beyond the borders of Italy. 50 Best? Nations like France, Spain, and all the Catholic countries in Europe started to observe the festival. These nations then began to my old neighborhood, spreading this practice to the rest of the world in what was seen to be a competition leading to what is witnessed today, carnival everywhere.
With special attention to Brazil, this write up seeks to explain the origin and the reasons behind the development of the Carnival Festival. Key words: Carnival, Carnival festival, religion. The History of essays economics Carnival. There has controversy over when exactly the Carnival festival began. Honychurch (20011) refutes the position that the descriptive essay my old neighborhood, carnival might have emerged in Dominica after 1838. According to its findings, the origin of extended economics festival the jaws essays, festival can be traced back hundreds of years of the extended, Afro-European cultural background. Flecha et al (2010) noted that this is the time of the primitive European tribes who lived long before the rise of the Roman Empire. Honychurch (2011) notes that Carlival of this earlier time was linked to the pagan feasts done during the beginning of the spring season.
It was celebrated to act essay study, mark the end of winter which is characterized by lack of enough food and to commemorate the commencement of the months of spring and summer which are normally fruitful. According to Honychurch (2011), report this is 50 best what the Romans later developed further and incorporated as one of the english coursework help, imperial cults. It was incorporated into economics the Christian calendar which was publicized in 304 BC. It is what later developed into what is known as the a level english literature help, Lupercalia festival which is usually celebrated on the fifteenth of extended February every year. Honychurch (2011) records that approximately four hundred years from this time, there emerged a group of Christians who began persuading people into Christianity. Their work was mostly concentrated in Asia Minor and jaws essays, along the Mediterranean Coast.
Their work led to conversion of a section of the population and hence the practice of different beliefs and 50 best extended economics, customs in these areas. However, the Christians underwent several forms of persecutions by the successive Roman emperors. This only stopped when Constantine allowed freedom of worship making Christianity a recognized religion by the Roman Empire. English Literature Help? Honychurch (2011) notes that because of the different believes and 50 best essays economics, customs, it was not possible for the Christians to agree on which practices to embrace. Borland (2011) observes that a majority of the Christians still held to various folk beliefs which they had been practicing before their conversion into Christianity. According to Honychurch (2011), carnival was equally a result of the observance of Christian calendar. It notes that Carnival has its roots from phd thesis months, a Roman Luperclia feast which was the church’s way of observing Lent. Honychurch (2011) also notes that the word Lent originated from a phrase in Latin “carnem levare” that means “to put away meat”. In Italian language, the word “carnevale” is commonly known as the Shrove Tuesday and its interpretation also connotes the 50 best extended essays, fulfillment of the sexual desires of the flesh and not just of the eating of meet. Rosenberg (2011) notes that such immoral forms of celebration were also part of the descriptive essay about my old, festival of Bacchus which was the essays, Greek’s way of honoring Dionysus, the god of wine.
It was a celebrated by the Romans. The celebration involved the slaves exchanging their clothes with their masters, an exercise that normally took place as people were involved in excessive drinking. According to Rosenberg (2011), it was this ceremony that the Roman Catholic later modified into a festival commemorating the Ash Wednesday. However, the celebration further evolved into a bigger celebration characterized by music, food, alcohol, and descriptive essay about, sex. This was majorly done before Lent which was a forty days fasting and was to come just before Easter. Even though this was not the extended essays, intention of the church, the celebration was marked by a week of every kind of sinful act. Honychurch (2011) report notes that it was the strict observance of jaws essays Lent that led to such forms of 50 best extended economics behavior. According to its publication, the schrock olefin metathesis, Christians had to go through sacrifices, denials and self torture that were perceived as the demands of salvation. More demanding was the processions in economics, chains while having to move on olefin one’s bended knees throughout the forty days. Honychurch notes that this was certainly the reason why the practitioners broke themselves loose into immoral celebrations shortly before the Ash Wednesday. It is essays economics noted that the religion especially the Catholic faithful have been so instrumental in the spread of the various aspects of the carnival.
Honychurch (2011) notes that Europeans Catholic’s practice of acquiring colonies and taking with them the slaves led to a further spread of the festival. Honychurch records that carnival is phd thesis months now famous in extended essays economics, Mardi Gras in Louisiana. In addition, their writing indicates that the act essay study, celebrations are now common in extended economics, several other parts of the world especially in neighborhood, the Caribbean countries which are currently immersed into the practice. Brazil Carnival History. According to the Samba City Info (2011), Brazil Carnival history in Rio de Janeiro does not just have its roots in the festival of Lent. It noted that any discussion on the history of the festival should take into account the influence of the Africans. Gerald (2011) recorded that the Portugal colonizers of 50 best extended economics Brazil carried with them their slaves into the country. This was the period between 17 th , 18, and the early 19 th century when the slave trade had not yet been illegalized in Brazil. It is noted that by the early parts of the 19 th Century the Caribbean and write phd thesis in 3 months, South Africa had received more than 6,000,000 slaves. The slaves had a significant impact the way in which the Brazil Carnival was organized and the kind of events and instruments that were used in 50 best extended, the festival (Gerald, 2011).
Samba City Info (2011) noted that the origin of Brazil's carnival can be traced from a Portuguese entrudo festival which was the first form of Carnival to reach Brazil. Jaws Essays? This was an event characterized with chaos. It involved people throwing one another with various substances such mud and water and a thin wax spheres filled with perfume. 50 Best? The festival was commonly done along the streets of Brazil making it easily graduates into riots. An example was in duke college essays, the year 1853 when the police had to step in. Economics? This celebration was like what is today called Andean carnival celebrated by the Venezuelans. Samba City Info (2011) noted that the masquerade carnival ball by act essay study, Rio was conducted in the year 1840. This was then followed ten years later by the Carnival street parades. This showed a level of advancement as it utilized the horse drawn floats and military bands. According to Samba City Info (2011), the Carnival got a big boost when it was joined by Samba in 1917. Samba then began mixing different styles like the Angolan semba, European polka, and African boutiques.
It also included various touches of extended essays economics Cuban habanera. Samba City Info (2011) notes that the today’s samba has its origin from the arrival of black the Brazilians who had come from write in 3, Bahia to the Rio slums. These were majorly the slaves who had been left free following the criminalization of slave trade which marked the end of slavery in the country. According to Samba City Info (2011), the commonly known as Brazil Rio Carnival history began in 1860. It was majorly attended by the people of high social class who could afford expensive and private venues. They normally dressed themselves in masks and expensive costumes. The low class individuals who were unable to purchase the balls had an option of using the masks. Essays Economics? They were then allowed to have their own celebrations besides their masters’ venues. Samba City Info (2011) noted that the Carnival was later moved to write phd thesis months, Central Rio where it caused congestion in traffics. However, the problem resulted into the construction of the Sambodrome in 1954 which was an improvement since it provided pleasure for both the local people and the tourists. Currently, Carnival is 50 best extended economics organized by the samba schools whose first appearance was in the year 1928.
These schools are organized like the local associations which make them fit in serving the interests of the communities in which they operate. By the year 1961 carnival experienced a great revolution following the schrock metathesis, mounting of the new sound systems by 50 best extended essays, the samba school. The samba school proceeded with its operation attracting more people because of its improved sound and rhythms. According to the Samba City info (2011) this became one of the most defining age for the samba schools. Today, the schools have advanced to a point at which they are involved in the provision of the basic resources like education and essays, healthcare to the community. This has been very instrumental in popularizing the schools since they serve a society characterized by high level of poverty. The Impact of African Religions on extended the Development of the Carnival. Allah we Organization (2011) noted that to date there are various African traditions which have been largely utilized to add value to essay about, the Caribbean festival arts.
He identified a number of such traditions. First were the economics, ancient African traditions of parading and moving in circles through villages in costumes and masks as those which have been of great influence. According to Allah we Organization (2011), many people believed that circling villages could come with good lacks, solutions to various problems affecting people while also preventing the spirits of those who had died from haunting the living. Allah we Organization (2011) also observes that Carnival traditions have also borrowed greatly from the African tradition of putting together natural objects to help in creating sculptures, masks, and costumes. Write Phd Thesis In 3 Months? The objects include bones, grasses, beads, shells, fabric. Each of this objects was understood by the Africans as representing a given idea or spiritual force. Another aspect of the African religion greatly utilized in the carnival festival is the use of feathers. The Africans had been using the 50 best extended essays, feathers from the ancient time. They used to put them on their masks and headdresses to symbolize their ability to overcome various problems and challenges of life. These include: any form of pains, heartbreaks, and all kinds of illness.
Apart from it significance in protecting the people the act essay study, Africans also used the feathers as s symbol of spiritual growth. Allah we Organization (2011) observes that the use of masks in Carnival has persisted to date where it helps in creating carnival costumes. Other aspects of the African Religion that is used to date in Carnival festivals are the African dance and music. The two traditions enormously contributed to the transformation of the early carnival celebrations. The Samba City Info (2011) notes that the most frequently used aspects of African music in the festival are the essays, rhythms of the African drum and act essay study, the large puppets.
The festivals are also increasingly attended by essays economics, stick fighters, and the stilt dancers as is with the African celebrations. According to the Samba City Info (2011), the write phd thesis in 3, Africans also had a great contribution in the making of the street carnival history. Samba city notes that while Carnival expresses an extended, abstract kind of street theatre, the schrock metathesis, Africans on the other hand used costumes in their bands in their styles. It is further noted that the practice by the Carlival of 50 best essays economics going to the streets may have also come from the aspect of the Africans. Studies have shown that in the ancient times the Africans preferred to act essay study, carry out their activities outdoor rather than indoor. Equally, the essays economics, Africans have still embraced various practices that are related to the carnival festival.
A clear example is the Egungun festival which involves the honoring of the ancestors by their extended family members. Act Essay Study? During this festival, it is insisted that all people from a the same extended family put on clothes of the same colors. This is 50 best extended essays a sign of help a band, which is as well the basic aspect of the history of the Brazil Carnival. This is 50 best also the same case with the Rio de Janeiro festival. It is also observed that in certain circumstances, both the carnivals and the African religious practices grew together.
As discussed above, the carnivals festivals majorly began to be felt in the 1930 when it actually reached what could be seen as its peak. This was made possible by the emergence and act essay study, contributions of the samba schools especially in the Rio de Janeiro. The inclusion of the African traditions in the Carnival festivals was further increased when the 50 best essays economics, heavy African drums were extensively utilized. With the growth of college admissions both the African and 50 best extended essays, the European aspects of the carnival, people experienced more festivities along the streets. The Importance of the Festival. Allah we Organization (2011) observes that in essay my old, today’s world, Carnivore plays a great role in uniting people of different races, nationalities and tribes. The organization sees Carnival as a good example of how culture can play a role in essays economics, reuniting people. They give a case study of the Trinidad's carnival where people of different cultures come together for a period of five days annually. During the five days, the citizens forsake all differences and come together to celebrate their lives. Such a practice brought a great peace for a country which had experienced the harsh rule by the colonialists, the Spain and the England (Bandyopadhyay Nascimento, 2010).
Allah we Organization (2011) noted that it is the British rule that allowed the French to settle into the country together with their slaves. The organization explained that due to forced labor and attack by different illnesses, the majority of the act essay study, native peoples of this country died. Carnival was therefore introduced and spread with a lot of ease from 1785 as the majority of the people had already had encounter of what it entails. Allah we Organization (2011) observes that the country today provides an example of citizenry of the extended, immigrants of every origin coexisting in schrock olefin, peace. The people originated from Africa, India, and China, African, Asian, and American.
Carnival has since been embraced in Trinidad and extended essays economics, has continued to get sponsorship from many individuals and organizations. There is an college essays, increased belief that sponsoring a carnival band is a sure way of making the children understand their roots and culture. In Trinidad’s Kiddies Carnival for essays, example, the majority of schools and organizations operating within the communities have been very collaborative in supporting the organization through participation. This has enabled the communities to work together making it possible for the establishment of write phd thesis in 3 stronger friendships while also developing respect for one another’s culture. Allah we Organization (2011) also noted that Carnival festival has also provided the Africans with a special opportunity to express their power and the richness in the cultural traditions. The organization noted that the effect of extended essays Carnival arts in uniting people has been felt every where around the world. Studies have further revealed that Carnival offers the world with a dynamic tool which enables people to freely express and explore themselves. Carnival has also been helpful in helping people of different cultures trace their roots.
It gives the world a totally different perspective of its cultures while greatly uniting all the people from all the origins by helping them to discovery what they have in common while celebrating their differences. In conclusion, it is clear that the power and creativity that underlines these art forms is able to transform lives and promote peace. However, questions will still be asked over who is act essay study owed the credit of the origin of the extended essays economics, carnival. Though it is held so much by the European countries, it is clear that Carnival is an African expression no matter where it is expressed. This is a tool that the world must embrace to help promote peace across all lines of diversity.
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