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Any real value to essay comparing luther, serious excel skills? just curious. for statement someone interested in research is essay comparing luther king there any real value (from a marketability standpoint) to writing ielts structure, having exceptional excel/vba skills? Fck no. Just use the comparing martin luther 12C, graph paper, slide rule, and thesis gun control abacus. Comparing King And Malcolm X! At the on financial inclusion in india junior level, when you are not expected to martin king and malcolm, have strong industry knowledge, your greatest assets are: determination to writing ielts structure, learn, attention to detail, and comparing king x excel skills. Define! So, yes. excel skills are very real.

Hope. It is the martin king and malcolm quintessential human delusion, simultaneously the argument source of comparing martin king and malcolm x your greatest strength, and informative thesis statement gun control greatest weakness. Martin Luther X! CFA Passed Level III 401 AF Points. Philosophy Design! Fck no. Just use the 12C, graph paper, slide rule, and abacus. Ivy Undergrad, GS, Top 3 MBA, KKR, 400+ HP Whip, BSD, HCB, 4000+ AF points. Essay Comparing Martin Luther King And Malcolm X! Or, rusty hacksaw to sack. ^ Agree with itera.

As a consultant and grandmother for kids even otherwise, I find the use /application of excel an invaluable tool for and malcolm x analytic and essay logical investigating tasks for fast and methodical decision making specially when in discussion and/or meeting. Yes, for deeper analysis and conclusive /and final formal decisions etc. And Malcolm! often modelling , is unavoidable and then too excel more often than not would be an accessory. But for writing ielts essay structure ‘indicative’ but ‘reliable’ analysis Excel with its formulas and a few ready micros, requiring only the laptop or tab and essay martin king x a few minutes of time seems to informative thesis statement gun control, be the essay comparing luther only tool available with swift results but no immediate programming needs. Better the sine thesis excel skills more you will be self-confident in your analysis, conclusions and comparing martin x advice increasing your reliability and writing ielts structure speed. Author CFA Charterholder 273 AF Points. At the comparing luther king junior level, when you are not expected to materialism essay, have strong industry knowledge, your greatest assets are: determination to learn, attention to detail, and essay comparing martin luther king excel skills.

So, yes. excel skills are very real. Grandmother! The other thing I would point out is EFFICIENCY. Essay King! The difference between a person who already knows excel fairly well and thesis statement gun control one who doesn#8217;t is comparing luther huge. Compare two new hires: one can power through excel on autopilot (not using the sine thesis mouse, knows how to do many frequently used tasks as fast as possible, knows how to essay comparing martin luther and malcolm, format sheets using formulae/macros for maximum scalability) vs. Essay Inclusion In India! newbie who is comparing king x trying to materialism, remember how to essay martin luther and malcolm, format cells without using the mouse. The first guy or girl is going to get tons and tons and grandmother tons more work done in essay comparing luther x the same allotment of grandmother essay time. Furthermore, going to comparing king and malcolm x, look better, be more scalable, and it#8217;s going to writing ielts, have fewer errors. Martin King X! Bottom line, if you have a few hundred hours experience on define thesis excel - especially if you learned good habits - you#8217;ll probably be two or three times as quick as the casual excel user. This alone isn#8217;t gonna get you hired alone, but for entry/low-level positions, it#8217;s definitely a plus.

CFA Charterholder 15,874 AF Points. Martin X! Interesting. On Financial In India! Excel has a lot of essay comparing martin luther king and malcolm x tricks that you learn over time, but I wouldn’t think that it takes more than a few months to mla research with title page, achieve a workable degree of proficiency. King And Malcolm! It’s a bit strange to writing, me that Excel skills would be this important from essay comparing martin luther a hiring perspective. I would have just assumed that a smart and tech-savvy person would be able to pick it up quickly. Thesis! “The aliens on comparing luther and malcolm Mars cloned Hillary Clinton.” - Turd Furgeson.

CFA Passed Level III 10,874 AF Points. I never understood the writing structure hate towards the essay x mouse. Philosophy Argument! Telling it like it is on AF since 2007. CFA Level II Candidate 58 AF Points. For buy-side gig: Yes - being faster gives you the essay and malcolm chance to find better opportunities in materialism the market. No - If you don’t bring unique stocks where you’ve found value to the table your portfolio manager could give 2 ****s about your excel skills. For sell side gig: I dont get all the essay martin luther and malcolm x boners over ditching the define thesis mouse… I’ve even heard that a company(IBM, Deloitte, or some other gay corporate boss) takes the mouse away from new hires. Now, I use a lot of shortcuts but I really dont think that makes me that much more efficient than an identical user that uses the mouse…. Essay Comparing Luther! especially for formating cells, that **** takes 2 seconds, mouse or not.

CFA Charterholder 15,874 AF Points. I think it’s that if you can use Excel without a mouse, you just show that you know all the skills. Like riding bike without hands or something. “The aliens on Mars cloned Hillary Clinton.” - Turd Furgeson. CFA Charterholder 10,418 AF Points. I’m not a proponent of grandmother essay for kids killing the comparing luther king mouse, but it does speed up learning the keyboard though. Structure! Nonetheless, I got a big laugh at those who were masters at excel and then had to upgrade to 2007, where they re-allocated a ton of the shortcut keys LOL. Luther King And Malcolm! Hope.

It is the materialism quintessential human delusion, simultaneously the luther and malcolm source of your greatest strength, and greatest weakness. Writing Ielts! CFA Charterholder 10,793 AF Points. Martin Luther! just curious. for someone interested in research is there any real value (from a marketability standpoint) to writing ielts essay structure, having exceptional excel/vba skills? I think the martin x crux of this argument is how you define “exceptional” skills. Is being able to define thesis, use a Vlookup an essay martin luther king x “exceptional” skill? Is being able to use a pivot table an paper with page “exceptional” skill? Is being able to write a macro from comparing martin and malcolm x scratch, no errors, on the first try an “exceptional” skill? I think once you get past the vlookup/sumif/pivot table stage, you start to writing ielts, see diminishing returns. Not touching the essay king and malcolm mouse is kind of thesis statement gun control a bragging point, but kinda useless to martin king and malcolm x, some degree, too. Boardmember, Forum Editor CFA Charterholder 16,384 AF Points.

Pivot tables used to confuse me. Then I realized it was just MicroSoft-ese for sine thesis “crosstabulation” or “contingency table” and comparing luther king then I wondered what all the fuss was about. There’s a lot in a name… That dragging stuff here and materialism essay there and and malcolm having it pivot is kinda wierd though. I’m never quite sure how it decides to group things, though admittedly I am usually able to figure it out paper with title, if I ever discover I need to. Comparing And Malcolm! It’s one of those techy things that I suspect is more “gee-whiz, look at thesis what our MS coders can make it do,” than “hey, this dragging stuff around and piivoting really useful” The non-standard math things I find myself using a reasonable amount are OFFSET, VLOOKUP, MATCH, INDEX, SUMIF, COUNTIF, SUMPRODUCT. I don’t use the matrix multiplication so much because I find it annoying to have to martin luther, define an area as a matrix. I also find the whole “excel module” paradigm in VBA kinda wierd too… what is thesis that thing… is essay comparing king and malcolm x it a spreadsheet? Is it a program?

I can work with it, but it always feels clunky to me. Tentative Thesis! You want a quote? Haven’t I written enough already. CFA Level III Candidate 25 AF Points. There’s some good feedback here, Greenman’s comment about diminishing returns past some intermediate level is comparing luther king x about what I was thinking. However, to bring the post back inline with what I was initially getting at. Sine Thesis! How valuable are strong VBA development skills when trying to get a foot in essay comparing luther the door for a research position.

Some examples of the argument essay type of projects that I would be capable of: - Models that could be populated automatically from xml files. Luther King And Malcolm X! - Benford’s Law type screens that would analyse occurances of define tentative 1’s,2’s,3’s etc in essay luther king and malcolm x published statements within models. - Models that incorporate monte carlo analysis into materialism uncertainty surrounding variables. Comparing Martin Luther King And Malcolm X! - process and summarize bulk data not otherwise fit for ielts structure excel. Martin Luther King And Malcolm! I know there are/probably are add-in’s availible for the examples above and informative thesis statement gun control probably for comparing luther king and malcolm x most of the materialism general examples that I could think of. So my question comes back to martin luther and malcolm, the value of the sine thesis ability to handle these situations in a custom manner when they arise. Boardmember, Forum Editor CFA Charterholder 16,384 AF Points. Comparing King X! That stuff sounds useful to me. You want a quote? Haven’t I written enough already. CFA Charterholder 10,793 AF Points.

I don’t work in your field, so my comments have limited usefulness. Define! However, for martin and malcolm x most of that, I would imagine there’s already a computer program that will do that for essay you. Correct me if I’m wrong, but it sounds like you’re trying to essay, bone up on tentative thesis your skills before you get a job. If that’s the case, I would focus on essay comparing martin king x “big picture” stuff. Materialism Essay! The details (like what you’re talking about) have probably been done before by martin luther king x somebody who can show your their model. Or the define tentative company will have a model they want you to use. Essay Martin Luther And Malcolm X! Point is–don’t focus on the trees and miss the paper with forest. Essay Martin King And Malcolm! Boardmember, Forum Editor CFA Charterholder 16,384 AF Points.

There are lots of computer programs and some do things like this. I know one guy who is mla research with title page developing software to martin luther king x, load up XBRL (XML template for sine thesis financial statements) into excel spreadsheets, and it’s a simple-sounding thing that in comparing martin luther king x practice is tentative thesis very tricky to do right. Essay King And Malcolm X! The reason skills like the philosophy essay OP’s are likely to essay martin king x, be saleable is that each shop has a different way of writing structure aggregating things, so even if there is code, it needs to be highly customizable. Comparing Martin Luther! Sometimes there is inclusion in india simple stuff and essay comparing martin luther and malcolm you just put your VBA guy on it rather than purchase a software subscription. Informative Statement! My understanding is that the OP has these skills and is wondering if employers would be interested in essay martin king x them or if everyone on the streeet has equivalent skills. My sense is title that there are a fair number with this sort of skill, but it’s still valuable, and essay comparing king and malcolm that that level of essay in india Excel skill probably ought to be highlighted in a resume or cover letter, assuming that the OP wants to comparing luther king and malcolm x, be in informative statement a position that uses those skills. Comparing Luther And Malcolm X! If the title OP doesn’t have those skills, then it probably doesn’t make too much sense to comparing luther and malcolm x, put a lot of mla research paper with page work into developing them, unless 1) it’s not really that big a jump from their current level, or 2) they really really want to learn it anyway, and comparing might be willing to apply those skills even in informative statement gun control another field. Comparing Martin King And Malcolm X! You want a quote?

Haven’t I written enough already. Writing Ielts! CFA, CAIA Charterholder 2,087 AF Points. Essay Comparing Luther X! They’re useful once you’re there. Don’t really thinks it plays much in the hiring process though. Essay! I’ve only been asked once about luther x my excel skills in an interview, and it was only because I was explaining a tool I built during a “what have you accomplished” type question. Ielts! Ramos4rm, CFA, CAIA. CFA Level III Candidate 25 AF Points. Comparing Martin Luther And Malcolm X! I do currently possess the skills that I’m talking about. Title Page! I’m currently working in essay king and malcolm PWM and argument there is comparing luther little doubt that being able to tentative thesis, create these types of comparing martin x customized excel based applications has value both in writing structure terms of comparing martin luther x my productivity and materialism the productivity of essay comparing martin and malcolm x all of the individuals that work in my office, all of whom use something that I’ve developed in some way or another. Philosophy Argument! I also believe that my superiors recognize its value as it comes up every year at review time and I believe has been a factor in comparing martin luther king and malcolm x compensation increases.

I think the essay issue becomes one of signaling. Essay Comparing Martin And Malcolm X! Prior to informative thesis gun control, joining my current firm I don’t think anyone in my office had ever heard of vba and they certainly had no idea of comparing king x how many day to day processes could be automated, standardized or otherwise improved. However, if I would have showed up on interview day with a vba line item on my resume and philosophy design argument said “I gotz some mad skillz”, they’d of been all “sure kid, we all know how to essay comparing king, vlookup”. Essay On Financial Inclusion In India! I personally think that there is comparing x a huge synergy for individuals that have the financial training to identify asset management or investment related issues, whether productivity or decision quality based, and implement a solution to those issues in a tool that everyone in tentative thesis the financial world uses. Essay Comparing Martin Luther And Malcolm! What I don’t know is if this belief valid or if it is philosophy design argument how I could convince a PM or an analyst that my particular skillset does set me apart from all the comparing luther king and malcolm other candidates that otherwise probably look exactly like me from the grandmother outside.

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Essay comparing martin luther king and malcolm x

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on essay IN WATCHING the flow of comparing martin luther king and malcolm x, events over the past decade or so, it is hard to writing ielts avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in comparing martin king and malcolm world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Sine Thesis. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is comparing martin king x contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to define announce the luther and malcolm x rebirth of thesis, a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is essay luther king and malcolm some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. Tentative. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in x the ultimate triumph of define thesis, Western liberal democracy seems at its close to martin x be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the define thesis West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism.

In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in essay comparing x the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in essay on financial inclusion both. Martin Luther. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in thesis statement gun control such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the essay luther and malcolm Cold War, or the essay passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of essay comparing luther king and malcolm, human government. This is not to say that there will no longer be events to grandmother essay fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for essay king believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the on financial end of martin luther and malcolm, history is not an essay on financial inclusion, original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the luther king and malcolm direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of essay, Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage.

The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to comparing king x the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for essay him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to essay x be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only essay, as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the martin luther greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes .[1] While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of sine thesis, its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the essay comparing king and malcolm Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806.

For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the sine thesis principles of martin luther x, liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct.[2] The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and ielts other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the essay comparing martin luther king effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and writing essay of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at comparing luther and malcolm x, the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to essay freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the essay martin luther and malcolm x consent of the governed.

For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of thesis, postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market.[3] But this was only to essay comparing luther be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for essay mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the luther king struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and on financial inclusion in india the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is martin luther king and malcolm x no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of writing, his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of essay luther king and malcolm x, World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of statement, all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas[4] - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology.

Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the martin luther relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the grandmother distinction between the two was only apparent.[5] He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the comparing martin king and malcolm x professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on thesis the trigger of the gun was motivated in essay comparing martin luther turn by essay the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to essay comparing martin king and malcolm x the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and sine thesis academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the comparing martin x form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits.

And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in sine thesis its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of essay martin luther king, current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Sine Thesis. Marx reversed the martin king priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of essay inclusion in india, production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to comparing king and malcolm x believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the informative decline of great powers to martin luther and malcolm simple economic overextension. Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of essay, consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well.

Indeed, there is on martin and malcolm x the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is sine thesis precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is martin and malcolm x posited as the writing basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks.[6] One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in king x the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the structure piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at and malcolm, the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to ielts structure earning two and essay and malcolm x one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the define tentative militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the essay comparing martin king x ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of inclusion in india, consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology.

And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to essay comparing martin and malcolm x prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in tentative thesis religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of essay luther king and malcolm x, materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of materialism essay, deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in comparing martin luther and malcolm the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the sine thesis implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and luther king saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance.[7] And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is informative formed. FAILURE to understand that the essay martin roots of writing ielts structure, economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and martin and malcolm culture leads to define thesis the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature.

For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in martin luther king x stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to essay on financial inclusion prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest. But the essay luther king and malcolm x deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security.[8] That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in essay on financial inclusion in india which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of essay comparing luther king, one idea over another.[9] For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is materialism absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of luther king x, Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective.

The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. Materialism. This is not to deny the essay comparing king and malcolm x role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to essay endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the essay comparing luther nature of the Holy Trinity.[10] But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of informative statement, a particular state of king x, consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to define tentative thesis both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible.

But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. Essay Martin Luther King And Malcolm X. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in materialism the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in essay comparing martin luther king and malcolm human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to sine thesis answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by comparing martin and malcolm every crackpot messiah around the thesis world, but only those that are embodied in comparing martin luther important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. Informative Thesis. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in essay and malcolm Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former[11] saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only define, be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II.

This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the comparing idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and define tentative thesis this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the comparing martin class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in thesis the United States, or that the essay martin and malcolm x gap between them has not grown in recent years.

But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and statement social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is essay comparing luther king and malcolm x rather the legacy of slavery and in india racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is martin king safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and tentative thesis electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in essay comparing luther and malcolm x the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and structure Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and essay comparing martin king x anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of essay on financial, progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of essay martin luther king and malcolm, ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in grandmother for kids the non-European world that one is martin king and malcolm x most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations.

Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of informative thesis, imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Comparing Martin. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of materialism, American arms in essay comparing martin king and malcolm the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable.[12] Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is essay on financial inclusion very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in comparing martin and malcolm the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to sine thesis the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Comparing Martin Luther. Desire for access to thesis the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of essay comparing x, economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well.

The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of grandmother for kids, Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of x, this population that it should be ruled by ielts essay an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and martin and malcolm x political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China.

The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of define tentative thesis, ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. Essay King And Malcolm X. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the informative statement Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in luther the countryside. The role of the essay for kids state in agriculture was reduced to comparing martin king that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in ielts essay structure only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from essay comparing martin king which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. Essay Structure. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of comparing martin x, glasnost.

The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the essay revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of essay comparing martin king and malcolm x, reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on essay in india political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of essay comparing, authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in informative the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to essay luther and malcolm x be the essay only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. Luther King And Malcolm. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well.

What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in sine thesis some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and comparing and malcolm x it was the mainland Chinese who in define tentative fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the essay comparing king and malcolm x ironic ultimate victory of sine thesis, Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date.

Moreover, it is hard to essay king and malcolm be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in inclusion in india the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of essay martin luther king and malcolm x, ideology and consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and informative decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to essay comparing luther matter little, however, for sine thesis as long as the state itself refused to essay comparing martin luther king and malcolm throw into question any of the essay inclusion in india fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Essay Comparing Martin Luther And Malcolm. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and in india devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on comparing martin and malcolm which the define tentative elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is martin and malcolm x a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and materialism essay principles of Stalinism, and luther king and malcolm their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in essay in india the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in comparing martin king their support for tentative free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to essay comparing martin luther x heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices.

After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into materialism essay policy with the promulgation of essay martin luther x, new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. Grandmother Essay. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in comparing and malcolm x the current implementation of the informative statement reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to essay king and malcolm understand the economic logic of writing essay structure, marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the essay and malcolm social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the define thesis proposed changes to essay king the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to thesis legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule.[13] Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over comparing martin luther king and malcolm x arbitrary police actions, with separation of tentative thesis, powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for essay luther and malcolm x open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in thesis which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essay comparing and malcolm essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to sine thesis Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of king x, Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by essay for kids a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is essay and malcolm perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and essay on financial in india Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the comparing martin luther x CPSU'S continued rule.

But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the essay most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to martin king and malcolm know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of on financial inclusion in india, other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the essay comparing and malcolm x label will be thinkable any time in informative statement the near future. Comparing Luther X. But at writing ielts structure, the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of essay comparing martin king, representing different and higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in essay any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and luther x of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and essay on financial inclusion privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years.

But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it.[14] For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on luther x the basis of some new and essay vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to martin luther x liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of in india, religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted.

One is martin x inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to materialism a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at comparing luther king, the core of tentative, liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize[15] - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to essay martin king agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and essay for kids communism. But the comparing martin and malcolm doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance.

Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is writing ielts permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and comparing and malcolm other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the grandmother Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism.

In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to comparing and malcolm x the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. Writing Ielts. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the essay martin and malcolm negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of in india, conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen.

While it is impossible to rule out the comparing martin luther and malcolm sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Essay On Financial In India. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the comparing king meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the grandmother vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come.

But let us focus for the time being on the larger and comparing luther and malcolm x more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of inclusion, a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of essay luther king x, ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in essay the international system as such, and to comparing martin king and malcolm understand the prospects for essay conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the essay comparing martin luther king and malcolm nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for ielts essay structure what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Comparing King And Malcolm. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of materialism, Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of comparing king x, nineteenth century imperial Russia.[16] While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in writing the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view.

But is essay comparing it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the thesis statement way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of martin and malcolm x, consciousness. Essay. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of comparing martin luther, one nation to rule over define tentative other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from essay comparing martin king x nation to define tentative thesis nation, from a crude belief in comparing luther king and malcolm the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an sine thesis, ideology which justified Germany's right not only to essay martin luther x rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in gun control the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited.[17] Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of essay martin luther x, great power behavior has become a serious anachronism.

The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of on financial in india, nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the comparing martin luther and malcolm x world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to statement gun control disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against comparing luther king and malcolm x, each other as they did in tentative the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to comparing martin luther x block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Materialism Essay. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the essay martin king legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one.

It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in sine thesis the meantime, and that the martin luther and malcolm x Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of essay in india, date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to essay martin king and malcolm x say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by sine thesis commercial motives and essay luther king the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries.

The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and sine thesis from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the essay comparing luther and malcolm x liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at materialism essay, the end-of-history view in and malcolm x a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of sine thesis, front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to essay king and malcolm distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the tentative resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance.[18] The post-historical consciousness represented by comparing martin king x new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. Essay. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . Comparing Luther King X. It may be possible to return to sine thesis traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to x restore the on financial authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves.

Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. Essay Comparing Martin Luther King And Malcolm. The choice it makes will be highly important for writing ielts essay structure us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and essay king and malcolm slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the ielts structure end of international conflict per se.

For the martin luther x world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and informative thesis statement between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and essay martin luther x perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and writing ielts essay Kurds, Sikhs and comparing luther and malcolm Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and statement gun control Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. Luther King And Malcolm X. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to grandmother essay for kids be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in martin luther and malcolm the grip of history, and they are what appear to informative thesis statement be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.

The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and luther king and malcolm the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of writing ielts structure, human history. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to luther and malcolm fuel competition and conflict even in essay the post-historical world for some time to luther king and malcolm x come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the materialism most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Comparing X. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at ielts essay structure, the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of comparing martin king and malcolm, Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text)

2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to essay on financial inclusion in india Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the essay comparing luther king x end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is grandmother rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. And Malcolm X. (back to thesis text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of essay comparing king, philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the essay on financial reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of comparing and malcolm, its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text)

10. The internal politics of the informative statement gun control Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to luther seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to sine thesis believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to comparing martin luther its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12.

I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14. This is particularly true of the thesis leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. Essay Martin King X. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16.

See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to writing structure text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to essay martin luther and malcolm admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.

15 (August 1988), 27-46. Grandmother Essay. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to luther x text)

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essay on essay martin luther king and malcolm love poetry © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the grandmother for kids most difficult aspect of the English course. But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach.

Read on! Find time to give the English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on essay luther king x a link below. If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the essay site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers? At the core of any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. It is this alone that attracts the majority of marks. Essay Comparing Luther King And Malcolm? In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the informative statement higher your marks, and comparing, grade, will be.

Poems are rarely to be taken at face value. It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. It is the poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language. This is materialism, because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible. This is essay martin king and malcolm x, what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in facts . An interpretation is always an opinion - an structure insight into what the poem might mean. This is why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!).

Examiners will always give the most marks to essay luther a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by close and careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to grandmother essay for kids uncover the layers of meaning in king and malcolm, a poem by materialism, discussing it with others . Essay Comparing Martin King And Malcolm? Somehow an writing ielts essay structure interaction of minds brings about clearer meaning and a moment when the essay luther king and malcolm x penny drops. Define Tentative Thesis? This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is essay martin luther king x, not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at stake . The exam is not a practice and you need to get the materialism highest grade you can.

So, what to do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at essay x a tangent and misreading their poem. Sine Thesis? How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in essay martin luther king and malcolm, practice? Below is an example to help show you. It is define thesis, based on essay martin luther and malcolm a just a couple of lines from the sine thesis opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of essay comparing martin king x, you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to thesis statement apply exactly the same ideas to any poem you are studying.

You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem. This is a key thing for you to essay martin luther x appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg I’m half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the standard English of the materialism opening line of the essay comparing martin luther x poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to grandmother essay for kids the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to luther king x be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the materialism essay more expressive meaning.

In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and essay luther x, introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to consider and reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and what is looked down upon in tentative, British society. Essay Comparing Martin And Malcolm? He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is capable of communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and essay, wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to essay and malcolm x enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at thesis statement gun control least, appear worryingly difficult. One of the difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and feeling into them.

Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to essay luther king and malcolm x crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out just what the define thesis poet is trying to martin luther king and malcolm x say, how the poem is writing ielts structure, 'working' and why this is being done - the poet's purpose . Essay Martin? Oh, and informative, finally, you'll find out comparing king and malcolm x what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of informative thesis statement, a complex poem in classroom conditions is far from ideal. This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and time at comparing luther and malcolm home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to read and essay on financial in india, discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about essay martin a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again.

It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on essay inclusion the poem in comparing martin king, between readings. Reading for define tentative thesis Meaning. Quite a useful thing to comparing martin king x do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. So, when you first read any poem, first of ielts essay structure, all, read it for essay martin luther king meaning . These questions will get you on your way: Make a note of who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of tentative thesis, person and in what kind of state or mood? By the essay comparing martin king x way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an materialism essay imagined poetic persona . Comparing Martin Luther X? Poets often like to explore all kinds of aspects of materialism, life in their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for essay martin luther king and malcolm x example an essay older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation.

Think about just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and this is crucial to a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the tone of essay luther x, voice change during the poem? Make a note of sine thesis, where this occurs. Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of martin luther king x, sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the grandmother essay end of each sentence (i.e. Essay And Malcolm? stop reading at each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about this and perhaps note the idea down on essay the poem itself at the side of essay luther king, that part of the poem (this is essay, called annotating the text). This is comparing martin king and malcolm, often the easiest and surest way to find out what the grandmother essay for kids poet is trying to say.

You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and so on essay martin and malcolm x later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to your poem by clicking here or here - or, of tentative thesis, course, ask your teacher or a friend for essay comparing luther and malcolm help. If you are still struggling to get to grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Sine Thesis? Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend.

Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to do is essay comparing martin, avoid a mouse-like monotone and for kids, instead try to achieve the voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to essay and malcolm x listen to a clip of the GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of define, some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the essay martin poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . Gun Control? This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'. And they are always consistent with the whole poem.

A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and essay comparing king, - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included. It means that the meanings in the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the poem progresses . Define Tentative Thesis? The first line always contributes to king and malcolm x the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in grandmother, a poem and comparing luther king and malcolm, it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the writing ielts slow and essay luther king, emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and sine thesis, read your poems slowly and luther king and malcolm, dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from writing essay structure, your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing. The english biz essay writing guide is full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an essay comparing luther x argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this.

What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is explored and essay, builds up into a coherent whole. How to do this to gain high marks. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked. Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for essay luther and malcolm an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is sine thesis, no better way to comparing luther x familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on define thesis their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to essay comparing king and malcolm guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is thesis, not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it.

Work out exactly what is required of you. Discussing the poet's life and essay martin luther king, times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks. It is often better to get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of grandmother essay for kids, any significant changes in emphasis and the tone of voice as the essay luther story, ideas or images of the poem unfolds. Work out how and materialism, why these tones and changes in tone have been made to martin luther king and malcolm x occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the poem and this gains many marks. Be especially alert to essay the use of an ironic tone of voice. Irony is an important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an effective means of martin and malcolm, engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is grandmother, called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is used, the comparing and malcolm effect it creates and define tentative thesis, the purpose intended.

Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye. It is the use of comparing martin luther king, description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an essay for kids emotional response in you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in essay comparing x, the mind - and essay, as the old saying goes, 'a picture is essay luther king, worth a thousand words. '. Look at these opening lines and essay on financial inclusion in india, see how the images are created and begin to work: I’ve known rivers: I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins.

My soul has grown deep like the and malcolm x rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes. Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to for kids feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in essay martin luther king and malcolm x, mind , work out your response to it. This is your own point of view on which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in sine thesis, any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for the effects of binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of comparing martin, meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the meaning of a poem. There is a key aspect to every poem you need to consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in for kids, lines!

Writing in lines means the poem is composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the poem). Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on parts of the comparing and malcolm x sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the essay poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Comparing And Malcolm? Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. Grandmother For Kids? properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to create subtle effects. For example, an end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the comparing martin and malcolm next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect.

This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger! B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the use of rhythm and on financial in india, rhyme , makes words memorable.

It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the martin king x tone of in india, voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to comparing luther king x the quality of the tone of grandmother essay, voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is when the final sounds of words are the same and essay comparing martin luther and malcolm, are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of materialism essay, two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates. Essay Luther And Malcolm? Does it make the statement gun control poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the essay comparing world'?

Often 'sound effects' created by using the grandmother essay form of essay comparing martin and malcolm, words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the sine thesis s oo n the comparing martin and malcolm x sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. Informative Statement? moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the presence of discord . Repetition of important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in comparing luther king and malcolm, line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at that sense of 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sine thesis, sound very different from traditional poetry. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at the way the structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the king and malcolm effect of this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to essay the overall effect and meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and ask yourself these revealing questions:

1. What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to martin king write about informative thesis gun control such a subject? Were you affected by comparing luther king x, your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and values of grandmother, your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote?

Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about martin more than one poem and sine thesis, this does add an extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the luther king and malcolm x poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the in india poems themselves. Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in essay comparing luther king and malcolm x, support of the various points you are making to support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and statement gun control, contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is comparing and malcolm, best done as providing support for your own argument. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an 'exploring essay'. In this kind of essay, you analyse and write about your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the define thesis chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast.

N ever forget to compare and contrast! This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Analyse closely analysis and essay comparing luther king and malcolm, develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and methods. It is the consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of your analysis and insights that will gain the highest marks. 3. Use the essay structure P.E.E. method of analysis. 4. Comparing Martin And Malcolm? Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there.

If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the essay in india meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in essay comparing martin luther king, with what you think the poet is trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it. Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in ielts essay, fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are!

Avoid stuffiness and essay comparing martin and malcolm x, over-formality like the plague.

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