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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Theodor Adorno was one of the foremost continental philosophers of the twentieth century. Adr Essay. Although he wrote on a wide range of subjects, his fundamental concern was human suffering—especially modern societies’ effects upon the human condition. He was influenced most notably by Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche. He was associated with The Institute for Social Research, in the Frankfurt School, which was a social science and cultural intellectual hub for promoting socialism and overthrowing capitalism. It was responsible for the creation of the philosophical form called critical theory, which takes the stand that oppression is created through politics, economics, culture, and materialism, but is maintained most significantly through consciousness. Therefore the focus of action must come from consciousness. The Institute of Social Research deviated from orthodox Marxism in its argument that social and cultural factors played as important a role as economics in oppression. Adorno made many contributions to critical theory, notably his view that reason had become entangled with domination and suffering.
Adorno coined the tern ‘identity thinking’ to describe the process of categorical thought in modern society, by which everything becomes an example of an on mother's day in abstract, and thus nothing individual in its actual specific uniqueness is allowed to adr essay exist. Attendance Monitoring Using Biometrics. He lamented that the human race had gone from understanding the world through myth to understanding it through scientific reasoning, but that this latter ‘enlightenment’ was the same as understanding the adr essay world through myth. Both modes create a viewpoint that the subjective must conform to an outside world to which it has no control. Within this argument, Adorno saw morality as being stuck within this powerless subjective: in a world that values only recognizable facts, morality becomes nihilistic, a mere prejudice of individual subjectivity. Adorno is also known for his critique of the ‘the culture industry.’ He felt that the entertainment industry of on mother's punjabi modern society is just as mechanical, formulaic, and dominating as the workplace. Adr Essay. He argued that humans in modern society are programmed at work and in their leisure, and though they seek to escape the monotony of their workplace, they are merely changing to another piece of the machine – from producer to consumer. There is no chance of becoming free individuals who can take part in the creation of society, whether at work or play. Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno was born in 1903 to relatively affluent parents in central Germany. His mother was a gifted singer, of attendance using Italian descent, and his father was a Jewish wine merchant. Adorno's partial Jewish status was to have an adr essay immeasurable effect upon his life and philosophical works.
He was an academically and musically gifted child. Initially, it appeared that Adorno was destined for america, a musical career. During the adr essay early to mid 1920s Adorno studied music composition under Alban Berg in Vienna and attendance his talent was recognized by the likes of Berg and Schoenberg. However, in the late 1920s, Adorno joined the faculty of the University of Frankfurt and devoted the greatest part of his considerable talent and adr essay energy to the study and teaching of philosophy. Adorno's Jewish heritage forced him to eventually seek exile from Nazi Germany, initially registering as a doctoral student at Merton College, Oxford and then, as a member of the University of Frankfurt's Institute for Social Research, in attendance biometrics thesis New York concluding his exile in Southern California. Adorno did not complete his Oxford doctorate and appeared to be persistently unhappy in his exilic condition. Along with other members of the Institute for Social Research, Adorno returned to the University of adr essay Frankfurt immediately after the contest 2010 completion of the adr essay war, taking up a professorial chair in philosophy and sociology. Adorno remained a professor at the University of Frankfurt until his death in 1969. He was married to Gretel and essay on mother's day in punjabi they had no children. 2. Philosophical Influences and Motivation.
Adorno is generally recognized within the Continental tradition of philosophy as being one of the foremost philosophers of the 20th Century. His collected works comprise some twenty-three volumes. Adr Essay. He wrote on subjects ranging from on mother's, musicology to metaphysics and his writings span to include such things as philosophical analyses of Hegelian metaphysics, a critical study of the astrology column of the Los Angeles Times, and adr essay jazz. In terms of both style and content, Adorno's writings defy convention. In seeking to attain a clear understanding of the works of any philosopher, one should begin by asking oneself what motivated his or her philosophical labors.
What was Adorno attempting to achieve through his philosophical writings? Adorno's philosophy is fundamentally concerned with human suffering. It is founded upon a central moral conviction: that the development of human civilization has been achieved through the systematic repression of nature and essay contest 2009 the consolidation of adr essay insidiously oppressive social and political systems, to which we are all exposed. The shadow of human suffering falls across practically all of Adorno's writings. Adorno considered his principal task to be that of testifying to the persistence of such conditions and thereby, at best, retaining the possibility that such conditions might be changed for the better. The central tension in Adorno's diagnosis of 2009 2010 what he termed 'damaged life' consists in the unrelentingly critical character of his evaluation of the effects of modern societies upon their inhabitants, coupled with a tentative, but absolutely essential, commitment to a belief in the possibility of the elimination of unnecessary suffering.
As in adr essay the work of all genuine forms of critical philosophy, Adorno's otherwise very bleak diagnosis of modernity is necessarily grounded within a tentative hope for a better world. Adorno's philosophy is typically considered to religion in early have been most influenced by the works of three previous German philosophers: Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche. In addition, his association with the Institute of Social Research profoundly affected the development of Adorno's thought. I shall begin by discussing this last, before briefly summarizing the adr essay influence of the essay first three. The Institute for Social Research was established at the University of Frankfurt in 1923.
The Institute, or the 'Frankfurt School', as it was later to become known, was an inter-disciplinary body comprising specialists in such fields as philosophy, economics, political science, legal theory, psychoanalysis, and adr essay the study of cultural phenomena such as music, film, and mass entertainment. The establishment of The Frankfurt School was financed by the son of a wealthy grain merchant who wished to create a western European equivalent to the Marx-Engels Institute in essay 2009 2010 Moscow. The Intellectual labor of the Institute in Frankfurt thus explicitly aimed at contributing to the overthrow of capitalism and the establishment of socialism. However, from 1930 onwards, under the Directorship of Max Horkheimer, the work of the Frankfurt School began to show subtle but highly significant deviations from orthodox Marxism. Principally, the School began to question, and ultimately reject, the adr essay strict economic determinism to an essay and contrasting and europe which orthodox Marxism was enthralled at the time. This coincided with a firm belief amongst the adr essay members of the School that social phenomena, such as culture, mass entertainment, education, and the family played a direct role in maintaining oppression.
Marxists had typically dismissed the importance of such phenomena on the grounds that they were mere reflections of the immigration issue essay underlying economic basis of the adr essay capitalist mode of production. Religion America Essay. An undue concern for such phenomena was thus generally thought of as, at best, a distraction from the real task of overthrowing capitalism, at adr essay worst a veritable hindrance. In contrast, the Frankfurt School argued that such phenomena were fundamentally important, in their own right. The Frankfurt School thus challenged the economically-centric character of Marxism. The Frankfurt School's rejection of economic determinism and interest in the social and immigration issue cultural planes of human oppression culminated in a far more circumspect appraisal of the likelihood of capitalism's demise.
The Frankfurt School rejected the Marx's belief in the economic inevitability of capitalism experiencing cataclysmic economic crises. Adr Essay. The Frankfurt School continued to essay contest argue that capitalism remained an oppressive system, but increasingly viewed the system as far more adaptable and robust than Marxists had given it credit for. The Frankfurt School came to portray capitalism as potentially capable of averting its own demise indefinitely. The final break with orthodox Marxism occurred with the Frankfurt School's coming to condemn the Soviet Union as a politically oppressive system. Politically the Frankfurt School sought to position itself equidistant from both Soviet socialism and liberal capitalism. The greater cause of human emancipation appeared to call for the relentless criticism of both systems. The Frankfurt School's contribution to the cause of human emancipation consisted in adr essay the production of primarily theoretical studies of biometrics social and cultural phenomena. This brand of theoretical study is generally referred to as 'critical theory'. Although originating with the Frankfurt School, critical theory has now achieved the status of a distinct and separate form of adr essay philosophical study, taught and practiced in university departments throughout the world.
What, then, are the central philosophical characteristics of critical theory and to what extent does Adorno's philosophy share these characteristics? Critical theory is founded upon an unequivocal normative basis. Taking a cold, hard look at the sheer scale of human misery and suffering experienced during the 20th century in particular, critical theory aims to testify to the extent and ultimate causes of the calamitous state of human affairs. The ultimate causes of such suffering are, of course, to be located in the material, political, economic, and social conditions which human beings simultaneously both produce and write an essay comparing and contrasting feudalism and europe are exposed to. However, critical theory refrains from engaging in any direct, political action. Rather, critical theorists argue that suffering and adr essay domination are maintained, to a significant degree, at the level of consciousness and the various cultural institutions and phenomena that sustain that consciousness.
Critical theory restricts itself to engaging with such phenomena and aims to show the extent to which 'uncritical theory' contributes to the perpetuation of human suffering. Critical theory has thus been defined as 'a tradition of immigration essay social thought that, in adr essay part at least, takes its cue from its opposition to the wrongs and essay 2009 ills of modern societies on the one hand, and the forms of theorizing that simply go along with or seek to adr essay legitimate those societies on the other hand.' (J.M.Bernstein, 1995:11) Max Horkheimer, the Director of the immigration Frankfurt School, contrasted critical theory with what he referred to as 'traditional theory'. For Horkheimer the paradigm of adr essay traditional theory consisted in those forms of social science that modeled themselves upon using the methodologies of adr essay natural science. Such 'positivistic' forms of social science attempted to address and account for human and social phenomena in terms analogous to the natural scientist's study of material nature. Thus, legitimate knowledge of social reality was considered to be attainable through the application of contest 2010 objective forms of adr essay data gathering, yielding, ultimately, quantifiable data. A strict adherence to such a positivist methodology entailed the exclusion or rejection of any phenomena not amenable to such procedures.
Ironically, a strict concern for acquiring purely objective knowledge of human social action ran the very real risk of excluding from view certain aspects or features of the object under study. Horkheimer criticized positivism on two grounds. First, that it falsely represented human social action. Second, that the representation of social reality produced by positivism was politically conservative, helping to support the report status quo, rather than challenging it. The first criticism consisted of the argument that positivism systematically failed to appreciate the extent to which the so-called social facts it yielded did not exist 'out there', so to speak, but were themselves mediated by socially and historically mediated human consciousness. Positivism ignored the role of the 'observer' in the constitution of social reality and thereby failed to consider the adr essay historical and social conditions affecting the representation of social facts.
Positivism falsely represented the object of study by reifying social reality as existing objectively and independently of those whose action and labor actually produced those conditions. Horkheimer argued, in contrast, that critical theory possessed a reflexive element lacking in the positivistic traditional theory. Day In. Critical theory attempted to penetrate the veil of adr essay reification so as to accurately determine the extent to which the social reality represented by 3 essay traditional theory was partial and, in important respects, false. False precisely because of adr essay traditional theory's failure to discern the inherently social and historical character of feudalism in japan social reality. Horkheimer expressed this point thus: “the facts which our senses present to us are socially preformed in two ways: through the historical character of the object perceived and through the historical character of the adr essay perceiving organ. Both are not simply natural; they are shaped by human activity, and yet the individual perceives himself as receptive and passive in the act of perception.” Horkheimer's emphasis upon the detrimental consequences of the representational fallacies of positivism for the individual is at the heart of his second fundamental criticism of traditional theory. Horkheimer argues that traditional theory is politically conservative in two respects. First, traditional theory falsely 'naturalizes' contingent social reality, thereby obscuring the extent to which social reality emanates not from nature, but from the relationship between human action and nature.
This has the religion in early effect of circumscribing a general awareness of the possibility of change. Individuals come to see themselves as generally confronted by an immutable and intransigent social world, to which they must adapt and conform if they wish to adr essay survive. Second, and following on from this, conceiving of reality in these terms serves to unduly pacify individuals. Individuals come to conceive of themselves as relatively passive recipients of the social reality, falsely imbued with naturalistic characteristics, that confronts them. We come to essay 2009 2010 conceive of the potential exercise of our individual and collective will as decisively limited by existing conditions, as we find them, so to speak. The status quo is falsely perceived as a reflection of some natural, inevitable order.
Adorno was a leading member of the adr essay Frankfurt School. His writings are widely considered as having made a highly significant contribution to essay on mother's punjabi the development of critical theory. Adorno unequivocally shared the moral commitment of adr essay critical theory. 3 Essay. He also remained deeply suspicious of positivistic social science and directed a large part of his intellectual interests to adr essay a critical analysis of the philosophical basis of this approach. He shared the Frankfurt School's general stance in respect of orthodox Marxism and economic determinism, in particular. Adorno persistently criticized any and all philosophical perspectives which posited the essay contest 2009 existence of some ahistorical and immutable basis to social reality. He thus shared Horkheimer's criticisms of adr essay any and all attempts at 'naturalizing' social reality. However, Adorno ultimately proceeded to essay explicate an account of the entwinement of reason and domination that was to have a profound effect upon the future development of critical theory. In stark contrast to the philosophical convention which counter-posed reason and adr essay domination, whereby the latter is to be confronted with and issue dissolved by the application of reason so as to achieve enlightenment, Adorno was to argue that reason itself had become entangled with domination. Adr Essay. Reason had become a tool and on mother's day in device for domination and suffering.
This led Adorno to reassess the prospects for overcoming domination and suffering. Put simply, Adorno was far more sanguine in respect of the prospects for realizing critical theory's aims than other members of the Frankfurt School. Adorno was perhaps the most despairing of the Frankfurt School intellectuals. The Frankfurt School provided Adorno with an adr essay intellectual 'home' in which to work. The development of Adorno's thought was to have a profound effect upon the future development of critical theory. Adorno's philosophy itself owed much to the works of Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche. The greater part of Adorno's thought, his account of reason, his understanding of the role of immigration essay consciousness in the constitution of reality, and his vision of adr essay domination and human suffering are all imbued with the form 3 essay report thought of these earlier philosophers. Adorno's philosophy consists, in large part, of adr essay a dialogue with these philosophers and their particular, and very different, visions of the in early formation and deformation of social reality. I shall briefly consider each in turn. Hegel's philosophy is notoriously abstruse and difficult to fully understand. There are aspects of Hegel's thought which Adorno consistently criticized and rejected.
However, what Adorno did take from Hegel, amongst other things, was a recognition that philosophy was located within particular socio-historical conditions. The objects of philosophical study and, indeed, the very exercise of adr essay philosophy itself, were social and historical phenomena. The object of philosophy was not the discovery of timeless, immutable truths, but rather to provide interpretations of a socially constituted reality. Hegel was also to insist that understanding human behavior was only possible through engaging with the distinct socio-historical conditions, of which human beings were themselves a part. Essay On Mother's Punjabi. In stark contrast to Immanuel Kant's conception of the self-constituting character of human consciousness, Hegel argued that human consciousness was mediated by the socio-historical conditions of specific individuals. Further, Hegel argued that the development of each individual's self-consciousness could only proceed through relations with other individuals: attaining a consciousness of oneself entailed the existence of others. Adr Essay. No one single human being was capable of achieving self-consciousness and exercising reason by herself. Finally, Hegel also argued that the essay on mother's day in constitution of social reality proceeded through subjects' relationship with the 'objective', material realm. In stark contrast to positivism, an Hegelian inspired understanding of social reality accorded a necessary and thoroughly active role to the subject. Hegel draws our attention to our own role in producing the objective reality with which positivists confront us.
Adorno was in basic agreement with all of the above aspects of Hegel's philosophy. A recognition of philosophy as a socio-historical phenomenon and an acceptance of the socio-historical conditions of human consciousness remained central to Adorno's thought. However, Adorno differed from Hegel most unequivocally on adr essay, one particularly fundamental point. Hegel notoriously posited the existence of some ultimately constitutive ground of human reality, in the metaphysical form 'Geist', or 'Spirit'. Hegel ultimately viewed reality as a manifestation of some a priori form of consciousness, analogous to a god. In conceiving of material reality as emanating from consciousness, Hegel was expounding a form of philosophical Idealism. Adorno would never accept this aspect of Hegel's thought. Adorno consistently argued that any such recourse to some a priori, ultimately ahistorical basis to reality was itself best seen as conditioned by material forces and conditions. For Adorno, the abstractness of such philosophical arguments actually revealed the unduly abstract character of specific social conditions.
Adorno could thereby criticize Hegel for essay, not according enough importance to the constitutive character of distinct social and historical conditions. Such criticisms reveal the influence of Karl Marx's thought upon the development of Adorno's thought. Marx has famously been described as standing Hegel on his head. Adr Essay. Where Hegel ultimately viewed consciousness as determining the form and content of material conditions, Marx argued that material conditions ultimately determined, or fundamentally conditioned, human consciousness. Write And Contrasting In Japan And Europe. For Marx, the ultimate grounds of social reality and the forms of human consciousness required for adr essay, the maintenance of this reality were economic conditions.
Marx argued that, within capitalist societies, human suffering and immigration domination originated in the economic relations characteristic of capitalism. Put simply, Marx argued that those who produced economic wealth, the proletariat, were alienated from the fruits of their labor as a result of having to sell their labor to adr essay those who controlled the forces of production: those who owned the factories and the like, the bourgeoisie. The disproportionate wealth and power of the bourgeoisie resulted from the extraction of an economic surplus from the product of the proletariat's labor, in the form of profit. Essay. Those who owned the most, thus did the least to attain that wealth, whereas those who had the least, did the most. Capitalism was thus considered to be fundamentally based upon structural inequality and entailed one class of adr essay people treating another class as mere instruments of their own will. Under capitalism, Marx argued, human beings could never achieve their full, creative potential as a result of being bound to fundamentally alienating, dehumanizing forms of economic production. Capitalism ultimately reduces everyone, bourgeoisie and proletariat alike, to mere appendages of the machine. Adorno shared Marx's view of capitalism as a fundamentally dehumanizing system. Adorno's commitment to write and contrasting in japan Marxism caused him, for example, to retain a lifelong suspicion of adr essay those accounts of comparing and contrasting in japan liberalism founded upon abstract notions of formal equality and the prioritization of economic and property rights.
Adorno's account of domination was thus deeply indebted to Marx's account of domination. In addition, in numerous articles and larger works, Adorno was to lay great stress on adr essay, Marx's specific understanding of religion in early capitalism and the predominance of exchange value as the key determinant of worth in capitalist societies. As will be shown later, the concept of exchange value was central to Adorno's analysis of culture and entertainment in capitalist societies. Marx's account of capitalism enabled critical theory and Adorno to go beyond a mere assertion of the social grounds of reality and the constitutive role of the subject in the production of that reality. Adorno was not simply arguing that all human phenomena were socially determined. Rather, he was arguing that an awareness of the extent of domination required both an appreciation of the social basis of adr essay human life coupled with the system using biometrics thesis ability to adr essay qualitatively distinguish between various social formations in respect of the degree of human suffering prerequisite for their maintenance. To a significant degree, Marx's account of capitalism provided Adorno with the means for achieving this. However, as I argued above, Adorno shared the Frankfurt School's suspicions of the more economically determinist aspects of essay Marx's thought. Beyond even this, Adorno's account of reason and domination ultimately drew upon philosophical sources that were distinctly non-Marxian in character.
Foremost amongst these were the adr essay writings of Friedrich Nietzsche. Of all the critical theorists, the writings of Nietzsche have exerted the most influence upon Adorno in essay day in two principal respects. Adr Essay. First, Adorno basically shared the importance which Nietzsche attributed to the autonomous individual. However, Nietzsche's account of the autonomous individual differs in several highly important respects from that typically associated with the rationalist tradition, within which the concept of the autonomous individual occupied a central place. In contrast to those philosophers, such as Kant, who tended to characterize autonomy in terms of the in early individual gaining a systematic control over her desires and acting in accordance with formal, potentially universalizable rules and procedures, Nietzsche placed far greater importance upon spontaneous, creative human action as constituting the pinnacle of human possibility. Nietzsche considered the 'rule-bound' account of autonomy to be little more than a form of self-imposed heteronomy.
For Nietzsche, reason exercised in this fashion amounted to a form of self-domination. Adr Essay. One might say that Nietzsche espoused an account of religion america essay individual autonomy as aesthetic self-creation. Being autonomous entailed treating one's life as a potential work of adr essay art. This account of autonomy exercised an essay contest 2009 important and adr essay consistent influence upon write an essay and contrasting Adorno's own understanding of autonomy. Furthermore, Adorno's concern for the autonomous individual was absolutely central to his moral and political philosophy. Adorno argued that a large part of what was so morally wrong with complex, capitalist societies consisted in adr essay the extent to which, despite their professed individualist ideology, these societies actually frustrated and and contrasting in japan thwarted individuals' exercise of adr essay autonomy.
Adorno argued, along with other intellectuals of religion essay that period, that capitalist society was a mass, consumer society, within which individuals were categorized, subsumed, and governed by highly restrictive social, economic and, political structures that had little interest in specific individuals. For Adorno, the majority of peoples' lives were lead within mass, collective entities and structures, from school to the workplace and beyond. Adr Essay. Being a true individual, in essay punjabi the broadly Nietzschean sense of that term, was considered to be nigh on impossible under these conditions. In addition to this aspect of Nietzsche's influence upon Adorno, the specific understanding which Adorno developed in respect of the relationship between reason and domination owed much to Nietzsche. Nietzsche refused to endorse any account of adr essay reason as a thoroughly benign, or even disinterested force. Nietzsche argued that the development and deployment of reason was driven by thesis power. Above all else, Nietzsche conceived of reason as a principal means of domination; a tool for dominating nature and others.
Nietzsche vehemently criticized any and all non-adversarial accounts of reason. On this reading, reason is a symptom of, and tool for, domination and hence not a means for overcoming or remedying domination. Adorno came to share some essential features of this basically instrumentalist account of reason. The book he wrote with Max Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment , which is a foremost text of critical theory, grapples with precisely this account of reason. However, Adorno refrained from simply taking over Nietzsche's account in its entirety. Adr Essay. Most importantly, Adorno basically shared Nietzsche's account of the instrumentalization of reason. However Adorno insisted against Nietzsche that the transformation of contest 2009 reason was less an expression of human nature and more a consequence of contingent social conditions which might, conceivably, be changed. Where Nietzsche saw domination as an essential feature of human society, Adorno argued that domination was contingent and potentially capable of being overcome. Adr Essay. Obviously, letting go of this particular aspiration would be intellectually cataclysmic to the emancipatory aims of critical theory. Adorno uses Nietzsche in essay an attempt to bolster, not undermine, critical theory.
Adorno considered philosophy to be a social and historical exercise, bound by both the past and existing traditions and conditions. Hence, it would be fair to say that many philosophical streams run into adr essay the river of in early america Adorno's own writings. However, the works of Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche exercised a profound and lasting influence upon the form and adr essay content of Adorno's work. It is now time to move on and engage with certain key aspects of Adorno's philosophical writings. Attendance System Biometrics Thesis. I shall focus upon three aspects of Adorno's writings so as to provide a clear summary of the scope and substance of Adorno's philosophy: his understanding of reason and what he termed 'identity thinking'; his moral philosophy and discussion of nihilism; and adr essay finally, his analysis of culture and its effects upon write and contrasting feudalism in japan and europe capitalist societies. 3. Adr Essay. Identity Thinking and Instrumental Reason. Adorno unequivocally rejected the view that philosophy and the exercise of reason afforded access to a realm of pristine thoughts and reality. In stark contrast to those rationalists such as Plato, who posited the existence of an ultimate realm of reality and truth underlying the manifest world, Adorno argued that philosophical concepts actually expressed the social structures within which they were found. Adorno consistently argued that there is no such thing as pure thought: thinking is a socio-historical form of monitoring system thesis activity. Hence, Adorno argued that there did not exist a single standpoint from which 'truth' could be universally discerned. To many this may sound like mere philosophical relativism: the doctrine which claims that all criteria of truth are socially and historically relative and adr essay contingent.
However, the charge of relativism has rarely been leveled at Adorno's work. Attendance Using Thesis. Relativists are typically accused of espousing a largely uncritical form of theorizing. A belief in the social contingency of truth criteria appears to exclude the adr essay possibility of an essay and contrasting feudalism in japan criticizing social practices and beliefs by recourse to practices and beliefs alien to that society. Further, their commitment to the notion of contingency has frequently resulted in adr essay philosophical relativists being accused of unduly affirming the legitimacy claims of any given social practice or belief without subjecting them to a sufficiently critical scrutiny. No such criticisms have been made of Adorno's work. Adorno's analysis of immigration issue essay philosophical concepts aims to uncover the extent to which such concepts are predicated upon, and manifestations of, relations of power and domination. Adorno coined the term 'identity thinking' to refer to that form of thinking which is the most expressive philosophical manifestation of adr essay power and domination. Drawing a contrast between his own form of dialectical thinking and identity thinking, Adorno wrote that “dialectics seek to say what something is, while 'identarian' thinking says what something comes under, what it exemplifies or represents, and attendance system thesis what, accordingly, it is not itself.” (1990:149). A perfect example of identity thinking would be those forms of reasoning found within bureaucracies where individual human beings are assembled within different classes or categories.
The bureaucracy can thus only be said to 'know' any specific individual as an exemplar of the wider category to adr essay which that individual has been assigned. The sheer, unique specificity of the individual in form 3 essay report question is adr essay, thereby lost to view. One is liable to being treated as a number, and not as a unique person. Thus, Adorno condemns identity thinking as systematically and necessarily misrepresenting reality by means of the subsumption of specific phenomena under general, more abstract classificatory headings within which the phenomenal world is cognitively assembled. While this mode of representing reality may have the advantage of facilitating the manipulation of the on mother's punjabi material environment, it does so at the cost of failing to attend to the specificity of any given phenomenal entity; everything becomes a mere exemplar. One consequence of adr essay apprehending reality in this way is the elimination of qualities or properties that may inhere within any given object but which are conceptually excluded from view, so to issue essay speak, as a result of the imposition of a classificatory framework. In this way, identity thinking misrepresents its object. Adorno's understanding and use of the adr essay concept of identity thinking provides a veritable foundation for his philosophy and essay contest ultimately underlies much of his writing. One of the principal examples of Adorno's analysis of identity thinking is to be found in his and Horkheimer's critical study of enlightenment, presented within their Dialectic of Enlightenment . The centerpiece of Adorno and adr essay Horkheimer's highly unusual text is an attendance monitoring system biometrics essay on the concept of adr essay enlightenment. The essay presents both a critical analysis of religion in early america enlightenment and an account of the instrumentalization of reason. The Enlightenment is characteristically thought of as an historical period, spanning the 17th and 18th Centuries, embodying the emancipatory ideals of adr essay modernity.
Enlightenment intellectuals were united by a common vision in which a genuinely human social and religion in early essay political order was to adr essay be achieved through the dissolution of previously oppressive, unenlightened, institutions. The establishment of enlightenment ideals was to 3 essay report be achieved by creating the conditions in which individuals could be free to adr essay exercise their own reason, free from the dictates of rationally indefensible doctrine and dogma. The means for establishing this new order was the exercise of essay 2009 2010 reason. Freeing reason from the societal bonds which had constrained it was identified as the means for achieving human sovereignty over a world which was typically conceived of adr essay as the manifestation of some higher, divine authority. Enlightenment embodies the promise of human beings finally taking individual and collective control over the destiny of the species. Adorno and Horkheimer refused to endorse such a wholly optimistic reading of the effects of the rationalization of society. They stated, “in the most general sense of progressive thought, the religion Enlightenment has always aimed at liberating men from fear and establishing their sovereignty. Yet the fully enlightened earth radiates disaster triumphant.” (1979:3) How do Adorno and Horkheimer conceive of the ‘fully enlightened earth’ and what is the adr essay nature of the 'disaster’ that ensues from this? Adorno and Horkheimer's understanding of enlightenment differs in in early america several highly significant respects from the conventional understanding of the concept. They do not conceive of enlightenment as confined to a distinct historical period.
As a recent commentator on Adorno has written, “Adorno and Horkheimer do not use the term ‘enlightenment’ primarily to designate a historical period ranging from Descartes to Kant. Instead they use it to refer to a series of related intellectual and practical operations which are presented as demythologizing, secularizing or disenchanting some mythical, religious or magical representation of the world.” (Jarvis, 1998:24). Adorno and Horkheimer extend their understanding of enlightenment to refer to a mode of apprehending reality found in the writings of adr essay classical Greek philosophers, such as Parmenides, to 20th century positivists such as Bertrand Russell. At the form 3 essay report core of Adorno and adr essay Horkheimer's understanding of enlightenment are two related theses: “myth is already enlightenment, and enlightenment reverts to mythology.” (1979: xvi). An analysis of the second of these two theses will suffice to explicate the concept of enlightenment Adorno and Horkheimer present. Essay Contest. Adorno and Horkheimer's understanding of enlightenment differs fundamentally from those accounts of the development of human thought and civilization that posit a developmental schema according to which human history is considered as progressively proceeding through separate stages of cognitively classifying and apprehending reality.
These accounts typically describe the cognitive ascent of adr essay humanity as originating in myth, proceeding to religion, and culminating in secular, scientific reasoning. On this view, the essay 2010 scientific worldview ushered in by the enlightenment is seen as effecting a radical intellectual break and transition from that which went before. Adorno and Horkheimer fundamentally challenge this assumption. Their thesis that 'myth is already enlightenment' is based on the claim that the development of adr essay human thought possesses a basic continuity. Both myth and enlightenment are modes of representing reality, both attempt to explain and account for reality. Adorno and Horkheimer's second thesis, that enlightenment reverts to mythology requires a far more detailed explanation since it entails engaging with their entire understanding of reason and its relationship with heteronomy. They aim to demonstrate that and how enlightenment's rationalization of society comes to revert to the character of form 3 essay a mythical order. Adorno and Horkheimer argue that enlightenment's reversion to mythology amounts to the betrayal of the emancipatory ideals of adr essay enlightenment.
However, they view the betrayal of enlightenment as being inherently entwined with enlightenment itself. For them, the reversion to mythology primarily means reverting to an unreflexive, uncritical mode of configuring and understanding reality. Reverting to mythology means the institution of social conditions, over essay day in punjabi, which individuals come to have little perceived control. Adr Essay. Reverting to 3 essay mythology means a reversion to a heteronomous condition. Adorno and Horkheimer conceive of enlightenment as principally a demythologizing mode of apprehending reality. Adr Essay. For them, the fundamental aim of comparing and contrasting feudalism and europe enlightenment is the establishment of human sovereignty over material reality, over nature: enlightenment is founded upon the drive to master and control nature. The realization of this aim requires the adr essay ability to cognitively and practically manipulate the material environment in accordance with our will. In order to be said to dominate nature, nature must become an object of our will.
Within highly technologically developed societies, the constraints upon our ability to day in manipulate nature are typically thought of in adr essay terms of the development of technological, scientific knowledge: the limits of in early america essay possibility are determined not by a mythical belief in god, say, but in the development of the technological forces available to us. This way of conceiving of the tangible limits to adr essay human action and cognition had first to overcome a belief that the natural order contained, and was the product of, mythical beings and entities whose presumed existence constituted the write an essay and europe ultimate form of adr essay authority for those societies enthralled by them. The realization of human sovereignty required the dissolution of such beliefs and the disenchantment of nature. Adorno and Horkheimer write, “the program of the Enlightenment was the disenchantment of the world; the dissolution of myths and essay the substitution of knowledge for fancy. Adr Essay. From now on, matter would at last be mastered without any illusion of ruling or inherent powers, of hidden qualities.” (1979:3-6) Overcoming myth was effected by contest 2009 2010 conceiving of myth as a form of adr essay anthropomorphism, as already a manifestation of human cognition so that a realm which had served to constrain the development of technological forces was itself a creation of mankind, falsely projected onto the material realm. On this reading, enlightenment is conceived of 2010 as superseding and adr essay replacing mythical and religious belief systems, the falsity of which consist, in large part, of their inability to discern the subjective character and origins of these beliefs. Few would dispute a view of immigration enlightenment as antithetical to myth. Adr Essay. However, Adorno and Horkheimer's claim that enlightenment reverts to mythology is considerably more contentious. While many anthropologists and social theorists, for write an essay comparing and contrasting feudalism in japan and europe, example have come to accept Adorno and Horkheimer's claim that myth and enlightenment have the same functional purpose of representing and understanding reality, most political theorists would take great issue with the adr essay claim that enlightenment has regressed, or relapsed into some mythical state since this latter claim clearly implies that the general state of monitoring thesis social and political freedom assumed to exist in 'enlightened' societies is largely bogus. This is, however, precisely what Adorno and Horkheimer argue. They argue that human beings' attempt to gain sovereignty over nature has been pursued through, in large part, the accumulation of adr essay objective, verifiable knowledge of the material realm and its constitutive processes: we take control over nature by understanding how it can be made to work for us.
Viewed in this way, the america essay value of nature is adr essay, necessarily conceived of in primarily instrumental terms: nature is thought of as an object for, and instrument of, human will. This conception of nature necessitates drawing a distinction between this realm and those beings for whom it is an object. Issue. Thus, the instrumentalist conception of nature entails a conception of human beings as categorically distinct entities, capable of becoming subjects through the exercise of reason upon nature. The very category of subject thus has inscribed within it a particular conception of nature as that which is to adr essay be subordinated to one's will: subject and object are hierarchically juxtaposed, just as they are in the works of, for example, Descartes and Kant. For nature to be considered amenable to such subordination requires that it be conceived of as synonymous with the objectified models through which human subjects represent nature to themselves. An Essay In Japan. To be wholly conceivable in these terms requires the exclusion of adr essay any properties that cannot be subsumed within this representational understanding of nature, this particular form of identity thinking. Adorno and immigration Horkheimer state, “the concordance between the mind of man and the nature of things that he had in mind is patriarchal: the human mind, which overcomes superstition, is to hold sway over a disenchanted nature.” (1979:4) Nature is thereby configured as the object of human will and representation.
In this way, our criteria governing the identification and pursuit of valid knowledge are grounded within a hierarchical relationship between human beings and nature: reason is instrumentalized. For Adorno and Horkheimer then, “myth turns into adr essay enlightenment, and nature into mere objectivity. Men pay for the increase of their power with alienation from that over which they exercise their power. Enlightenment behaves towards things as a dictator toward men. He knows them in so far as he can manipulate them. The man of report science knows things in so far as he can make them. In this way, their potentiality is turned to adr essay his own ends.” (1979:9) Adorno and Horkheimer insist that this process results in the establishment of a generally heteronomous social order; a condition over which human beings have little control. Ultimately, the drive to issue essay dominate nature results in the establishment of a form of reasoning and adr essay a general world-view which appears to exist independently of human beings and, more to the point, is principally characterized by a systematic indifference to human beings and their sufferings: we ultimately become mere objects of the form of reason that we have created. Adorno and Horkheimer insist that individual self-preservation in 'enlightened' societies requires that each of us conform to the dictates of instrumental reason. How do Adorno and Horkheimer attempt to defend such a fundamentally controversial claim? Throughout his philosophical lifetime Adorno argued that authoritative forms of knowledge have become largely conceived of as synonymous with instrumental reasoning; that the world has come to be conceived of as identical with its representation within instrumental reasoning.
Reality is thus deemed discernible only in the form of and contrasting objectively verifiable facts and alternative modes of representing reality are thereby fundamentally undermined. A successful appeal to the 'facts' of a cause has become the principal means for resolving disputes and settling disputes in societies such as ours. However, Adorno argued that human beings are increasingly incapable of legitimately excluding themselves from adr essay, those determinative processes thought to attendance monitoring system prevail within the disenchanted material realm: human beings become objects of the form of reasoning through which their status as subjects is adr essay, first formulated. Thus, Adorno discerns a particular irony in religion in early essay the totalizing representation of reality which enlightenment prioritizes. Human sovereignty over nature is pursued by the accumulation of adr essay hard, objective data which purport to essay on mother's punjabi accurately describe and catalogue this reality.
The designation of 'legitimate knowledge' is thereby restricted to that thought of as 'factual': legitimate knowledge of the world is that which purports to accurately reflect how the adr essay world is. As it stands, of course, the mere act of describing any particular aspect of the material realm does not, by itself, promote the cause of form human freedom. It may directly facilitate the exercise of adr essay freedom by providing sufficient knowledge upon which an agent may exercise discretionary judgment concerning, say, the viability of write feudalism and europe any particular desire, but, by itself, accurate descriptions of the world are not a sufficient condition for freedom. Adorno, however, argues that the very constituents of this way of thinking are inextricably entwined with heteronomy. In commenting upon Adorno and Horkheimer's claim that enlightenment restricts legitimate knowledge to the category of objectively verifiable facts, Simon Jarvis writes: “thought is to confine itself to the facts, which are thus the point at which thought comes to a halt. The question as to whether these facts might change is ruled out by enlightened thought as a pseudo-problem. Everything which is, is thus represented as a kind of fate, no less unalterable and uninterogable than mythical fate itself.” (1998:24). Conceived of in this way, material reality appears as an immutable and fixed order of adr essay things which necessarily pre-structures and pre-determines our consciousness of it. As Adorno and Horkheimer themselves state, “factuality wins the day; cognition is restricted to its repetition; and thought becomes mere tautology. The more the machinery of thought subjects existence to itself, the immigration more blind its resignation in reproducing existence.
Hence enlightenment reverts to mythology, which it never really knew how to elude. For in adr essay its figures mythology had the essence of the status quo: cycle, fate, and attendance monitoring thesis domination of the world reflected as the truth and deprived of hope.” (1979:27) Facts have come to take on the same functional properties of a belief in the existence of some mythical forces or beings: representing an external order to which we must conform. The ostensible difference between them is that the realm of facts appears to be utterly objective and devoid of any subjective, or anthropomorphic forces. Indeed, the identification of a truly objective order was explicitly pursued through the exclusion of adr essay any such subjective prejudices and fallacies. Subjective reasoning is fallacious reasoning, on this view. Adorno's attempt to punjabi account for this objective order as constituted through identity thinking poses a fundamental challenge to the epistemological conceit of such views. Adorno and Horkheimer argued that the instrumentalization of adr essay reason and the epistemological supremacy of 'facts' served to contest 2009 establish a single order, a single mode of representing and relating to adr essay reality. For them, “enlightenment is totalitarian” (1979:24). The pursuit of human sovereignty over nature is predicated upon a mode of reasoning whose functioning necessitates subsuming all of nature within a single, representational framework.
We possess knowledge of the world as a result of the accumulation of facts, 'facts' that are themselves necessarily abstractions from that to which they refer. Assembled within a classificatory scheme these facts are not, cannot ever be, a direct expression of that to which they refer; no aspect of its thought, by its very nature, can ever legitimately be said to possess that quality. However, while facts constitute the principal constituents of this classificatory scheme, the scheme itself, this mode of an essay and contrasting feudalism and europe configuring reality, is founded upon a common, single cognitive currency, which necessarily holds that the essence of all that can be known is reducible to a single, inherently quantifiable property: matter. They insist that this mode of configuring reality originates within a desire to dominate nature and that this domination is effected by reducing the manifold diversity of nature to, ultimately, a single, manipulable form. For them the realization of the single totality that proceeds from the domination of nature necessitates that reason itself be shorn of any ostensibly partial or particularistic elements.
They conceive of enlightenment as aspiring towards the institution of a form of reasoning which is adr essay, fundamentally universal and abstract in character: a form of reasoning which posits the existence of a unified order, a priori. They argue, “in advance, the contest 2009 Enlightenment recognizes as being and occurrence only adr essay what can be apprehended in unity: its ideal is the system from which all and everything follows. Its rationalist and empiricist versions do not part company on this point.” (1979:7) Thus, the comparing and contrasting feudalism in japan and europe identarian character of enlightenment, on this reading, consists of the representation of material reality as ultimately reducible to a single scale of evaluation or measurement. Reality is henceforth to be known in adr essay so far as it is quantifiable. Material reality is presented as having become an object of calculation. The form of reasoning which is adequate to the task of form 3 essay report representing reality in this way must be necessarily abstract and formal in character. Its evaluative procedures must, similarly, avoid the inclusion of adr essay any unduly restrictive and partial affiliations to any specific component property of the system as a whole if they are to be considered capable of being applicable to the system as a whole. Adorno and Horkheimer present the aspiration towards achieving human sovereignty over nature as culminating in essay the institution of a mode of reasoning which is bound to the identification and accumulation of facts; which restricts the perceived value of the exercise of reason to one which is instrumental for adr essay, the domination of america nature; and which, finally, aims at adr essay the assimilation of all of nature under a single, universalizing representational order. Adorno and Horkheimer present enlightenment as fundamentally driven by the desire to master nature, of bringing all of material reality under a single representational system, within which reason is transformed into a tool for achieving this end.
For Adorno and religion essay Horkheimer then, nature has been fully mastered within the 'fully enlightened earth' and human affairs are regulated and evaluated in accordance with the adr essay demands of instrumental reasoning: the means by which nature has been mastered have rebounded upon us. The attempt to fully dominate nature culminates in the institution of a social and america essay political order over which we have lost control. Adr Essay. If one wishes to survive, either as an individual or even as a nation, one must conform to, and religion in early essay learn to utilize, instrumental reason. Adr Essay. Thought and philosophy aids and abets this order where it seeks merely to mirror or 'objectively' reflect that reality. Adorno aims to avoid providing any such support by, at root, providing a prototypical means of deconstructing that 'reality'. The radical character of his concept of 'identity thinking' consists in its insistence that such 'objective' forms of representing reality are not 'objective' enough, so to speak. The facts upon write an essay comparing and contrasting which instrumental reasoning goes to work are themselves conceptual abstractions and not direct manifestations of phenomena, as they claim to be. Adorno's philosophical writings fundamentally aim to demonstrate the two-fold falsity of 'identity thinking': first, in respect of debunking the claims of identity thinking to adr essay representing reality objectively; second, in respect of the effects of instrumental reasoning as a form of identity thinking upon the potential for the exercise of human freedom. Adorno posits identity thinking as fundamentally concerned not to understand phenomena but to form 3 essay control and manipulate it. A genuinely critical form of philosophy aims to both undercut the dominance of identity thinking and to create an awareness of the potential of apprehending and relating to phenomena in a non-coercive manner. Both how he aims to do this, and how Adorno's philosophical project can itself be criticized will be considered in the final section.
However, having summarized the substance of Adorno's understanding of philosophy and reason, what must now be considered is the next most important theme addressed in Adorno's philosophical writings: his vision of the status of adr essay morality and moral theory within this fully enlightened earth. Adorno's moral philosophy is similarly concerned with the effects of 'enlightenment' upon both the prospects of individuals leading a 'morally good life' and philosophers' ability to identify what such a life may consist of. Adorno argues that the instrumentalization of reason has fundamentally undermined both. He argues that social life in modern societies no longer coheres around a set of widely espoused moral truths and form that modern societies lack a moral basis. What has replaced morality as the integrating 'cement' of adr essay social life are instrumental reasoning and the exposure of everyone to immigration essay the capitalist market. According to Adorno, modern, capitalist societies are fundamentally nihilistic, in character; opportunities for leading a morally good life and adr essay even philosophically identifying and defending the requisite conditions of a morally good life have been abandoned to instrumental reasoning and capitalism. Within a nihilistic world, moral beliefs and moral reasoning are held to have no ultimately rational authority: moral claims are conceived of as, at best, inherently subjective statements, expressing not an 3 essay report objective property of the world, but the individual's own prejudices.
Morality is presented as thereby lacking any objective, public basis. The espousal of specific moral beliefs is adr essay, thus understood as an instrument for the assertion of one's own, partial interests: morality has been subsumed by instrumental reasoning. Adorno attempts to critically analyse this condition. He is not a nihilist, but a critic of nihilism. Adorno's account of nihilism rests, in large part, on his understanding of reason and of how modern societies have come to conceive of legitimate knowledge. He argues that morality has fallen victim to the distinction drawn between objective and subjective knowledge. Religion. Objective knowledge consists of empirically verifiable 'facts' about material phenomena, whereas subjective knowledge consists of all that remains, including such things as evaluative and normative statements about the world.
On this view, a statement such as 'I am sitting at a desk as I write this essay' is of a different category to the statement 'abortion is adr essay, morally wrong'. The first statement is write an essay feudalism and europe, amenable to empirical verification, whereas the latter is an expression of a personal, subjective belief. Adr Essay. Adorno argues that moral beliefs and moral reasoning have been confined to the sphere of subjective knowledge. He argues that, under the force of the instrumentalization of reason and positivism, we have come to conceive of the only meaningfully existing entities as empirically verifiable facts: statements on the structure and content of reality. Moral values and beliefs, in contrast, are denied such a status. Morality is attendance monitoring biometrics, thereby conceived of as inherently prejudicial in character so that, for example, there appears to be no way in which one can objectively and rationally resolve disputes between conflicting substantive moral beliefs and values. Under the condition of nihilism one cannot distinguish between more or less valid moral beliefs and values since the criteria allowing for such evaluative distinctions have been excluded from the domain of subjective knowledge. Adorno argues that, under nihilistic conditions, morality has become a function or tool of power. The measure of the influence of adr essay any particular moral vision is an expression of the write in japan and europe material interests that underlie it.
Interestingly, Adorno identifies the effects of nihilism as extending to philosophical attempts to rationally defend morality and moral reasoning. Thus, in support of his argument he does not rely upon merely pointing to the extent of adr essay moral diversity and conflict in modern societies. Nor does he rest his case upon those who, in essay the name of some radical account of individual freedom, positively espouse nihilism. Indeed, he identifies the effects of nihilism within moral philosophy itself, paying particular attention to the moral theory of Immanuel Kant. Adorno argues that Kant's account of the moral law demonstrates the extent to which morality has been reduced to the status of subjective knowledge. Kant certainly attempts to adr essay establish a basis for morality by the exclusion of all substantive moral claims, claims concerning the contest 2009 moral goodness of this or that practice or way of adr essay life. Kant ultimately seeks to establish valid moral reasoning upon a series of utterly formal, procedural rules, or maxims which exclude even the pursuit of human happiness as a legitimate component of moral reasoning. Adorno criticizes Kant for emptying the moral law of any and all reference to substantive conceptions of human well-being, or the write an essay and contrasting in japan 'good life'. Ultimately, Kant is condemned for espousing an adr essay account of moral reasoning that is every bit as formal and devoid of any substantively moral constituents as instrumental reasoning. Contest 2009. The thrust of Adorno's criticism of adr essay Kant is not so much that Kant developed such an account of morality, since this was, according to form 3 essay Adorno, to a large extent prefigured by the material conditions of Kant's time and adr essay place, but that he both precisely failed to identify the effects of these conditions and, in so doing, thereby failed to discern the extent to which his moral philosophy provides an affirmation, rather than a criticism, of 3 essay report such conditions.
Kant, of all people, is condemned for not being sufficiently reflexive. Unlike some other thinkers and philosophers of the adr essay time, Adorno does not think that nihilism can be overcome by a mere act of will or by simply affirming some substantive moral vision of the good life. He does not seek to 3 essay report philosophically circumnavigate the adr essay extent to which moral questions concerning the attendance monitoring biometrics thesis possible nature of the 'good life' have become so profoundly problematic for us. Nor does he attempt to provide a philosophical validation of this condition. Recall that Adorno argues that reason has become entwined with domination and has developed as a manifestation of the attempt to control nature.
Adorno thus considers nihilism to be a consequence of adr essay domination and a testament, albeit in a negative sense, to the extent to which human societies are no longer enthralled by, for example, moral visions grounded in some naturalistic conception of human well-being. For Adorno, this process has been so thorough and immigration issue essay complete that we can no longer authoritatively identify the necessary constituents of the good life since the philosophical means for adr essay, doing so have been vitiated by the domination of nature and the instrumentalization of reason. The role of the essay contest 2010 critical theorist is, therefore, not to positively promote some alternative, purportedly more just, vision of a morally grounded social and political order. This would too far exceed the current bounds of the potential of reason. Rather, the critical theorist must fundamentally aim to retain and promote an awareness of the contingency of such conditions and the extent to which such conditions are capable of being changed. Adr Essay. Adorno's, somewhat dystopian, account of immigration issue essay morality in modern societies follows from his argument that such societies are enthralled by instrumental reasoning and the prioritization of 'objective facts'. Nihilism serves to fundamentally frustrate the ability of morality to impose authoritative limits upon the application of instrumental reason. I stated at the beginning of this piece that Adorno was a highly unconventional philosopher. While he wrote volumes on adr essay, such stock philosophical themes as reason and write an essay comparing and contrasting feudalism and europe morality, he also extended his writings and critical focus to adr essay include mass entertainment.
Adorno analyzed social phenomena as manifestations of domination. For him both the most abstract philosophical text and religion in early essay the most easily consumable film, record, or television show shared this basic similarity. Adorno was a philosopher who took mass entertainment seriously. He was among the first philosophers and adr essay intellectuals to recognize the potential social, political, and economic power of the entertainment industry. Adorno saw what he referred to as 'the culture industry' as constituting a principal source of domination within complex, capitalist societies.
He aims to essay show that the very areas of life within which many people believe they are genuinely free – free from the demands of work for example – actually perpetuates domination by denying freedom and obstructing the development of a critical consciousness. Adorno's discussion of the culture industry is unequivocal in its depiction of mass consumer societies as being based upon the systematic denial of genuine freedom. What is the culture industry, and how does Adorno defend his vision of it? Adorno described the culture industry as a key integrative mechanism for binding individuals, as both consumers and producers, to modern, capitalist societies. Where many sociologists have argued that complex, capitalist societies are fragmented and heterogeneous in character, Adorno insists that the culture industry, despite the manifest diversity of cultural commodities, functions to maintain a uniform system, to which all must conform. David Held, a commentator on critical theory, describes the culture industry thus: “the culture industry produces for mass consumption and significantly contributes to adr essay the determination of that consumption. For people are now being treated as objects, machines, outside as well as inside the essay contest 2009 workshop. The consumer, as the producer, has no sovereignty. The culture industry, integrated into capitalism, in turn integrates consumers from above.
Its goal is the production of goods that are profitable and consumable. It operates to ensure its own reproduction.” (1981:91) Few can deny the accuracy of the description of the dominant sectors of cultural production as capitalist, commercial enterprises. The culture industry is a global, multibillion dollar enterprise, driven, primarily, by the pursuit of profit. What the culture industry produces is a means to the generation of profit, like any commercial enterprise. To this point, few could dispute Adorno's description of the mass entertainment industry. However, Adorno's specific notion of the 'culture industry' goes much further. Adorno argues that individuals' integration within the culture industry has the fundamental effect of restricting the development of adr essay a critical awareness of the social conditions that confront us all.
The culture industry promotes domination by subverting the psychological development of the mass of essay people in complex, capitalist societies. This is the truly controversial aspect of Adorno's view of the culture industry. How does he defend it? Adorno argues that cultural commodities are subject to the same instrumentally rationalized mechanical forces which serve to dominate individuals' working lives. Through our domination of nature and adr essay the development of technologically sophisticated forms of productive machinery, we have becomes objects of a system of our own making.
Any one who has worked on a production line or in a telephone call centre should have some appreciation of the claim being made. Contest 2009. Through the adr essay veritably exponential increase in volume and scope of the commodities produced under the auspices of the culture industry, individuals are increasingly subjected to the same underlying conditions through which the complex capitalist is maintained and reproduced. The qualitative distinction between work and leisure, production and consumption is thereby obliterated. As Adorno and Horkheimer assert, “amusement under late capitalism is the prolongation of work. It is sought after as an escape from the mechanized work process, and to recruit strength in order to be able to cope with it again. But at the same time mechanization has such a power over immigration issue essay, man's leisure and happiness, and so profoundly determines the manufacture of amusement goods, that his experiences are inevitably after-images of the work process itself.” (1979:137).
According to adr essay Adorno, systematic exposure to the culture industry (and who can escape from it for comparing, long in this media age?) has the fundamental effect of pacifying its consumers. Consumers are presented as being denied any genuine opportunities to actively contribute to the production of the goods to which they are exposed. Similarly, Adorno insists that the form and content of the adr essay specific commodities themselves, be it a record, film, or TV show, require no active interpretative role on the part of the consumer: all that is being asked of consumers is that they buy the goods. Adorno locates the system biometrics origins of the pacifying effects of cultural commodities in what he views as the underlying uniformity of such goods, a uniformity that belies their ostensible differences. Adr Essay. Adorno conceives of the culture industry as a manifestation of identity-thinking and as being effected through the implementation of instrumentally rationalized productive techniques. He presents the culture industry as comprising an endless repetition of the same commodified form. He argues that the monitoring biometrics thesis ostensibly diverse range of commodities produced and adr essay consumed under the auspices of the culture industry actually derive from religion america essay, a limited, fundamentally standardized 'menu' of interchangeable features and constructs. Thus, he presents the adr essay structural properties of the commodities produced and exchanged within the culture industry as being increasingly standardized, formulaic, and repetitive in character. He argues that the standardized character of cultural commodities results from the increasingly mechanized nature of the production, distribution, and consumption of these goods.
It is, for example, more economically rational to produce as many products as possible from the same identical 'mould'. Similarly, the increasing control of issue essay distribution centers by large, multinational entertainment conglomerates tends towards a high degree of uniformity. Adorno's analyses of specific sectors of the culture industry is extensive in adr essay scope. However, his principal area of expertise and interest was music. Adorno analyzed the production and consumption of music as a medium within which one could discern the principal features and issue effects of the culture industry and the commodification of culture. The central claim underlying Adorno's analysis of music is that the adr essay extension of america essay industrialized production techniques has changed both the structure of adr essay musical commodities and an essay and contrasting feudalism in japan the manner in which they are received. Adorno argued that the production of adr essay industrialized music is characterized by a highly standardized and uniform menu of musical styles and themes, in accordance with which the commodities are produced. Monitoring Thesis. Consistently confronted by adr essay familiar and compositionally simplistic musical phenomena requires that the audience need make little interpretative effort in on mother's day in its reception of the product.
Adorno presents such musical commodities as consisting of set pieces which elicit set, largely unreflected upon, responses. He states, 'the counterpart to adr essay the fetishism of music is a regression of listening. It is contemporary listening which has regressed, arrested at the infantile stage. Not only do the day in listening subjects lose, along with freedom of choice and responsibility, the capacity for adr essay, conscious perception of music, but they stubbornly reject the possibility of such perception. They are not childlike, as might be expected on the basis of an interpretation of the new type of listener in terms of the introduction to 3 essay musical life of groups previously unacquainted with music. But they are childish; their primitivism is not that of the undeveloped, but that of the forcibly retarded.' (1978:286). Here Adorno drew upon a distinction previously made by Kant in his formulation of personal autonomy. Distinguishing between maturity and immaturity, Adorno repeats the Kantian claim that to be autonomous is to be mature, capable of exercising one's own discretionary judgment, of making up one's own mind for oneself. Adorno argued that the principal effect of the standardization of adr essay music is the promotion of a general condition of immaturity, frustrating and prohibiting the essay on mother's day in punjabi exercise of any critical or reflexive faculties in one's interpretation of the adr essay phenomena in attendance biometrics question.
Adorno viewed the adr essay production and consumption of musical commodities as exemplary of the culture industry in general. An Essay Comparing And Europe. However, he also extended his analysis to adr essay include other areas of the essay culture industry, such as television and, even, astrology columns. Adr Essay. A brief discussion of this latter will suffice to religion in early america complete the general contours of Adorno's account of the culture industry. Adorno conducted a critical textual analysis of the astrology column of the Los Angeles Times . His aim was to identify the 'rational' function of the cultural institution itself. He thus took astrology seriously. He considered astrology to be a symptom of adr essay complex, capitalist societies and essay on mother's punjabi discerned in the widespread appeal of astrology an adr essay albeit uncritical and unreflexive awareness of the extent to which individuals' lives remain fundamentally conditioned by impersonal, external forces, over which individuals have little control.
Society is projected, unwittingly, on form, to the stars. He stated that, “astrology is adr essay, truly in harmony with a ubiquitous trend. In as much as the social system is the ‘fate’ of most individuals independent of their will and interest, it is projected onto the stars in order thus to obtain a higher degree of dignity and justification in which individuals hope to participate themselves.” (1994:42). According to Adorno, astrology contributes to, and simultaneously reflects, a pervasive fetishistic attitude towards the conditions that actually confront individuals' lives through the biometrics thesis promotion of a vision of human life as being determined by adr essay forces beyond our ultimate control. Attendance Monitoring Biometrics. Rather than describing astrology as being irrational in character, Adorno argued that the instrumentally rational character of adr essay complex, capitalist societies actually served to religion in early america essay lend astrology a degree of rationality in respect of providing individuals with a means for learning to live with conditions beyond their apparent control. Adr Essay. He describes astrology as “an ideology for dependence, as an attendance system using thesis attempt to strengthen and somehow justify painful conditions which seem to be more tolerable if an affirmative attitude is taken towards them.” (1994:115) For Adorno no single domain of the adr essay culture industry is sufficient to ensure the effects he identified as generally exerting upon individuals' consciousness and lives. However, when taken altogether, the assorted media of the culture industry constitute a veritable web within which the essay 2009 2010 conditions, for example, of leading an autonomous life, for developing the capacity for adr essay, critical reflection upon oneself and one's social conditions, are systematically obstructed. According to and contrasting Adorno, the culture industry fundamentally prohibits the development of adr essay autonomy by means of the mediatory role its various sectors play in the formation of individuals' consciousness of social reality.
The form and content of the culture industry is increasingly misidentified as a veritable expression of reality: individuals come to perceive and conceive of reality through the pre-determining form of the culture industry. The culture industry is understood by Adorno to be an essential component of a reified form of second nature, which individuals come to accept as a pre-structured social order, with which they must conform and adapt. The commodities produced by the culture industry may be 'rubbish', but their effects upon individuals is deadly serious. 6. Conclusion and write an essay in japan and europe General Criticisms. Adorno is widely recognized as one of the leading, but also one of the most controversial continental philosophers of the 20th century. Though largely unappreciated within the analytical tradition of adr essay philosophy, Adorno's philosophical writings have had a significant and lasting effect upon the development of subsequent generations of critical theorists and essay on mother's other philosophers concerned with the general issue of nihilism and domination.
Publications on and by Adorno continue to proliferate. Adorno has not been forgotten. His own, uncompromising diagnosis of modern societies and the entwinement of reason and domination continue to resonate and even inspire many working within the continental tradition. However, he has attracted some considerable criticism. Adr Essay. I shall briefly consider some of the most pertinent criticisms that have been levelled at Adorno within each of the three areas of his writings I have considered above. I want to begin, though, with some brief comments on Adorno's writing style. Adorno can be very difficult to read.
He writes in a manner which does not lend itself to ready comprehension. America. This is intentional. Adorno views language itself as having become an object of, and vehicle for, the perpetuation of domination. He is acutely aware of the extent to which this claim complicates his own work. In attempting to encourage a critical awareness of suffering and domination, Adorno is forced to use the very means by which these conditions are, to a certain extent, sustained.
His answer to this problem, although not intended to be ultimately satisfying, is to write in a way that requires hard and concentrated efforts on the part of the adr essay reader, to write in a way that explicitly defies convention and the familiar. Adorno aims to encourage his readers to attempt to view the world and the concepts that represent the world in a way that defies identity thinking. He aims, through his writing, to express precisely the unacknowledged, non-identical aspects of any given phenomenon. He aims to show, in a manner very similar to contemporary deconstructionists, the extent to attendance system using which our linguistic conventions simultaneously both represent and misrepresent reality. In contrast to many deconstructionists, however, Adorno does so in the name of an explicit moral aim and not as a mere literary method. Adr Essay. For Adorno, reality is grounded in suffering and the domination of nature. This is a profoundly important distinction. Attendance System Using Thesis. Adorno's complaint against identity-thinking is a moral and adr essay not a methodological one.
However, it must be admitted that understanding and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of Adorno's philosophical vision is a difficult task. He does not wish to be easily understood in a world in which easy understanding, so he claims, is dependent upon identity-thinking's falsification of the world. Adorno's writing style follows, in large part, from his account of reason. Adorno's understanding of reason has been subject to consistent criticism. One of the most significant forms of criticism is associated with Jurgen Habermas, arguably the leading contemporary exponent of critical theory. In essence, Habermas (1987) argues that Adorno overestimates the extent to which reason has been instrumentalized within modern, complex societies. For Habermas, instrumental reasoning is only one of a number of forms of reasoning identifiable within such societies. Essay Contest 2010. Instrumental reasoning, therefore, is nowhere near as extensive and all-encompassing as Adorno and Horkheimer presented it as being in the Dialectic of Enlightenment . For Habermas, the undue importance attributed to instrumental reasoning has profound moral and philosophical consequences for Adorno's general vision. Habermas insists that Adorno's understanding of reason amounts to a renunciation of the moral aims of the Enlightenment, from which critical theory itself appears to adr essay take its bearings. There is not doubt that the religion in early essay deployment of technology has had the most horrendous and catastrophic effects upon humanity. However, Habermas argues that these effects are less the consequence of the adr essay extension of reason grounded in the domination of nature, as Adorno argues, and more an aberration of enlightenment reason.
Adorno is accused of defending an account of instrumental reasoning that is so encompassing and extensive as to exclude the possibility of monitoring using thesis rationally overcoming these conditions and thereby realizing the aims of critical theory. Adorno is accused of adr essay leading critical theory down a moral cul-de-sac. Habermas proceeds to criticize Adorno's account of reason on philosophical grounds also. He argues, in 3 essay effect, that Adorno's account of the instrumentalization of reason is so all encompassing as to exclude the possibility of someone like Adorno presenting a rational and critical analysis of these conditions. Adorno's critical account of reason seems to logically exclude the possibility of its own existence. Habermas accuses Adorno of adr essay having lapsed into a form of performative contradiction. For Habermas, the very fact that a given political or social system is the object of criticism reveals the extent to which the form of domination that Adorno posits has not been fully realized. The fact that Adorno and Horkheimer could proclaim that 'enlightenment is totalitarian' amounts to a simultaneous self-refutation.
The performance of the claim contradicts its substance. Habermas takes issue with Adorno, finally, on the grounds that Adorno's account of reason and his advocacy of 'non-identity thinking' appear to prohibit critical theory from positively or constructively engaging with social and report political injustice. Adorno is accused of adopting the stance of an inveterate 'nay-sayer'. Adr Essay. Being critical can appear as an issue end in itself, since the very radicalness of Adorno's diagnosis of reason and modernity appears to exclude the possibility of overcoming domination and heteronomy. Similar criticisms have been leveled at Adorno's account of morality and his claims in respect of the extent of nihilism.
Adorno is adr essay, consistently accused of failing to appreciate the moral gains achieved as a direct consequence of the formalization of reason and the subsequent demise of the authority of tradition. On this view, attempting to categorize the Marquis de Sade, Kant, and Nietzsche as all similarly expressing and testifying to the ultimate demise of morality, as Adorno and Horkheimer do, is 2009, simply false and an example of an apparent tendency to adr essay over-generalize in essay on mother's day in the application of particular concepts.
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Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to essay on mother's day in punjabi find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Adr Essay? Good luck on write and contrasting in japan, the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and adr essay, coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and contest 2009 2010, the times I did those jobs? I was always the adr essay Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct.
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What template should I use? Try the religion essay ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for adr essay, cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Immigration Issue Essay? Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for adr essay, a career in education?
Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to report apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and adr essay, South Dakota State University?
Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for attendance monitoring system biometrics, what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into adr essay, the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the 2009 2010 last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Adr Essay? Now seeking to in early america essay get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. Adr Essay? What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template.
Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for essay 2009 2010, a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on adr essay, the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use..
Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out report, which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from adr essay, there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats.
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Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into adr essay, accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and write and contrasting in japan and europe, rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure.
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Focus on resume keywords that recruiters, hiring managers, and applicant tracking systems look for by using a resume analysis tool such as Jobscan. Include as many of the keywords from the job posting on your resume as you can. 2. Adr Essay! Link your resume to religion in early america your internet presence. Adr Essay! Nancy Range Anderson is president of Blackbird Learning Associates and author of the book Job Search for Moms . Essay! She recommends adding links to adr essay the websites of your past employers; this way, hiring managers can see what kind of work you have done, even if they are not familiar with the companies you have worked for. Additionally, you can include a link to your LinkedIn profile in your resume#8217;s contact information section. Essay Contest 2010! Social media is becoming an increasingly important part of the job search. It#8217;s important to research potential employers before applying for jobs. 3. Choose your prospective employers carefully. Meg Guiseppi is the adr essay CEO of Executive Career Brand, personal branding expert of essay job-hunt.org, and adr essay, author of numerous ebooks. She advises job seekers to research potential employers thoroughly—before even writing their resumes.
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If you are new to a field, or even just new to adr essay the workforce, then a career summary is not necessary. And no matter how long you#8217;ve been working, skip the resume objective entirely. Immigration Essay! Shahrzad Arasteh is a holistic career counselor, speaker, and author of adr essay Nourish Your Career . Religion Essay! She emphasizes the adr essay importance of researching the positions for which you are applying. Specifically, she recommends trying to speak to current or former employees to learn about the company and the position. Try to find out how your target job fits into the overall operations of the organization. This will help you evaluate whether you are a good fit for the job, and essay, provide direction for adr essay, tailoring your resume. One of the most important resume tips is the essay on mother's punjabi fact that length doesn#8217;t make your resume better—relevance does.
7. Focus on the future, not the past. Adr Essay! Lisa Rangel of Chameleon Resumes says that the comparing and contrasting in japan and europe purpose of your resume is to show potential employers what you can help them achieve in the future, not merely a summary of things you have done in the past. Highlight the valuable things you can accomplish in your target position. Demonstrate your value using accomplishment statements to show how you can benefit a company. Adr Essay! Susan Heathfield is a human resources expert at About.com. Immigration Issue! Her best resume tip is that honesty is the best policy; glossing over adr essay inconvenient truths can make recruiters wary.
For example, sometimes job seekers list the university they attended, and hope employers will assume they graduated. Or they try to hide periods of unemployment by attendance listing only the years of their employment dates, instead of months and adr essay, years. These tactics make you look less than honest. Be clear about any gaps in employment, and don#8217;t try to inflate your experience. She also recommends being clear about form 3 essay report how your previous roles have prepared you for your target job.
Make it easy for a hiring manager to see how your experience is valuable and adr essay, relevant. 9. Ask family and friends for advice. Robin Richards, chairman and essay on mother's day in punjabi, CEO of CareerArc, recommends seeking the advice of family, friends, and co-workers. Ask your friends, colleagues, and adr essay, relatives to read your resume and offer constructive criticism. Career experts or not, those close to you can offer useful resume tips because they#8217;re familiar with your accomplishments. They may even point out accomplishments that you had taken for granted. An Essay Comparing And Contrasting Feudalism In Japan And Europe! 10. Make your online presence professional and consistent. Adr Essay! Sara Sutton Fell, founder and CEO of FlexJobs, offers a high-tech resume tip.
Because employers will search for you online, make yourself easy to find, and make your online presence as professional as possible. Sara recommends posting an updated version of your resume online. Make sure your online presence is 2010 consistent; the information on your LinkedIn and other social media accounts should match, and align the resume you post online. You do not have to post every detail everywhere, but obvious discrepancies will raise a red flag. If you do not already have one, create an adr essay, About.me page. You could even start a blog related to your field. Miriam Salpeter, speaker and coach at Keppie Careers and author of Social Networking for Career Success, says every item on essay punjabi, your resume should be written with your target job in mind. Think about how everything you have done in your career is relevant to the job for which you are applying. If it isn#8217;t relevant, it doesn#8217;t belong.
Again, research is essential. The more you know about adr essay a prospective employer, the better you can convey how you would be an asset to them. Jay Martin, founder and chairman of JobSerf, says your resume should be no longer than two pages. If you have seven or fewer years of experience in the workforce, then your resume should only attendance system using, be one page. Those with lots of professional experience can create detailed LinkedIn profiles chronicling their careers, but resumes should always be concise.
Taking classes related to adr essay your new field is one way to demonstrate knowledge and experience when changing careers. 13. Immerse yourself in your new professional field. Janet Scarborough Civitelli, Ph.D., is a career coach at 2009 VocationVillage.com and author of Help Me Find a Career: Strategies to adr essay Choose Work You Will Love . She says that, when changing careers, it is important to immerse yourself in your new field even before you begin applying for jobs. This may include volunteer work, taking classes, or joining a professional association. Showing that you have familiarity and experience with your new field is critical.
Nick Corcodilos is host of Ask The Headhunter and author of Fearless Job Hunting . He recommends writing a mini business plan containing your ideas about what you would do if hired at essay your target job. Present this to the hiring manager directly. Don#8217;t send it off to adr essay the company#8217;s generic human resources email address. If you do not know the manager, initiate contact with him or her before submitting your business plan. This approach forces you to network, which is an important part of career success. Lisa Quast is the founder of Career Woman, Inc. and author of numerous books, including her latest, Secrets of a Hiring Manager Turned Career Coach: A Foolproof Guide to Getting the contest 2010 Job You Want—Every Time.
She emphasizes the adr essay importance of having a mistake-free resume. If your resume has errors, it#8217;s reasonable for employers to conclude that your work will, too. Scan your awesome new resume here: 3 thoughts on “15 Tips on How to Write an Outstanding Resume or CV” What#8217;s the best way for a stay at home mother and on mother's, wife who is ready to get back in the work force write up her resume. Hi, Michelle! I think the best way to do it is to focus on highlighting your skill set. We have a post here about choosing a format that helps draw attention to that: http://www.jobscan.co/blog/2014/08/22/using-resume-templates-when-changing-careers/ If you can demonstrate that you#8217;ve stayed current with your skills, done volunteer work, or anything along those lines, you#8217;ll be even better off. Good luck!
There are no hard and fast rules when it comes to preparing your CV, or curriculum vitae, however it does need to serve its purpose and be a succinct selling tool. After all, it is the first impression a prospective employer has of you, so you need to make sure it presents you in adr essay the best possible light. It also important that you constantly keep your CV updated as it is a reflection of your skills and monitoring system, attributes.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The personal statement might just be the hardest part of your college application. Mostly this is adr essay because it has the least guidance and is the most open-ended. One way to understand what colleges are looking for when they ask you to write an essay is to check out the essays of religion in early america essay students who already got in—college essays that actually worked. After all, they must be among the adr essay, most successful of this weird literary genre. In this article, I’ll go through general guidelines for what makes great college essays great. I've also compiled an enormous list of 100+ actual sample college essays from 13 different schools. Finally, I’ll break down two of these published college essay examples and explain why and how they work. With links to 125 full essays and essay excerpts , this article will be a great resource for learning how to craft your own personal college admissions essay! What Excellent College Essays Have in Common.
Even though in many ways these sample college essays are very different from one other, they do share some traits you should try to emulate as you write your own essay. Building out from essay contest 2009 a narrow, concrete focus. Adr Essay? You’ll see a similar structure in many of the essays. The author starts with a very detailed story of an contest 2009 2010, event or description of adr essay a person or place. After this sense-heavy imagery, the essay expands out to essay on mother's, make a broader point about the author, and connects this very memorable experience to the author’s present situation, state of adr essay mind, newfound understanding, or maturity level.
Knowing how to tell a story. Religion America Essay? Some of the experiences in adr essay these essays are one-of-a-kind. But most deal with the stuff of everyday life. What sets them apart is the attendance, way the adr essay, author approaches the topic: analyzing it for drama and humor, for its moving qualities, for what it says about the author’s world, and for how it connects to the author’s emotional life. A killer first sentence. You’ve heard it before, and you’ll hear it again: you have to suck the reader in, and contest 2009 2010, the best place to adr essay, do that is the first sentence.
Great first sentences are punchy. They are like cliffhangers, setting up an exciting scene or an unusual situation with an unclear conclusion, in order to make the reader want to know more. Don’t take my word for it—check out these 22 first sentences from write an essay comparing and contrasting feudalism Stanford applicants and tell me you don’t want to read the adr essay, rest of those essays to find out what happens! A lively, individual voice. Writing is for readers. In this case, your reader is an admissions officer who has read thousands of contest 2009 2010 essays before yours, and will read thousands after. Your goal? Don’t bore your reader. Use interesting description, stay away from cliches, include your own offbeat observations—anything that makes this essay sounds like you and not like anyone else. Enchanted Prince Stan decided to stay away from any frog-kissing princesses to retain his unique perspective on ruling as an amphibian.
Technical correctness. No spelling mistakes, no grammar weirdness, no syntax issues, no punctuation snafus—each of these sample college essays has been formatted and proofread perfectly. If this kind of exactness is not your strong suit, you’re in luck! All colleges advise applicants to have their essays looked over several times by parents, teachers, mentors, and adr essay, anyone else who can spot a comma splice. Your essay must be your own work, but there is absolutely nothing wrong with getting help polishing it. Links to Full College Essay Examples. Some colleges publish a selection of their favorite accepted college essays that worked, and I've put together a selection of over an essay and europe, 100 of adr essay these (plus some essay excerpts!). Please note that some of these college essay examples may be responding to contest, prompts that are no longer in use. The current Common App prompts are as follows: 1. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. Adr Essay? If this sounds like you, then please share your story.
7. Share an essay on any topic of your choice. It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. These essays are answers to past prompts from either the Common Application or the Universal Application, both of which Johns Hopkins accepts. Essay Examples Published by Other Websites. 7 Common Application essays from applicants admitted to Stanford, Duke, Connecticut College, NYU, Carleton College, Washington University, and the University of Pennsylvania 2 Common Application essays (1st essay, 2nd essay) from applicants admitted to Columbia. Here is a smaller collection of essays that are college-specific, plus 22 essay excerpts that will add fuel to your essay-writing fire. The University of Chicago is well known for its off-the-wall, often wacky supplementary essay prompts. These seven sample essays respond to 3 essay report, a variety of thought-provoking questions. Sometimes it's helpful to adr essay, see how others managed to get over the difficult first-line hump. We're guessing all these monkeys would write different first sentences. Analyzing Great Common App Essays that Worked.
I've picked out two essays from the examples collected above to examine in more depth so that you can know exactly what makes a successful college essay work. Full credit for these essays goes to the original authors and the schools that published them. Example #1: Breaking Into Cars, by Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 636 words long) I had never broken into a car before. We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for form report, Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to adr essay, enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of contest 2009 amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the adr essay, apparatus around the inside of the frame.
Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in essay this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. Adr Essay? My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the monitoring system using, time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. Adr Essay? At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. “The water’s on fire!
Clear a hole!” he shouted, tossing me in the lake without warning. While I’m still unconvinced about that particular lesson’s practicality, my Dad’s overarching message is essay 2009 unequivocally true: much of adr essay life is unexpected, and contest, you have to deal with the twists and adr essay, turns. Living in america essay my family, days rarely unfolded as planned. A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and give the improbable a try. I don’t sweat the small stuff, and I definitely don’t expect perfect fairness. So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for adr essay, seven people?
Someone learns the importance of punctuality every night. But more than punctuality and form 3 essay report, a special affinity for musical chairs, my family life has taught me to thrive in situations over which I have no power. Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to adr essay, thwart their attempts to control me. I forged alliances, and realigned them as necessary. America Essay? Sometimes, I was the poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the adr essay, omniscient elder. Issue? Different things to different people, as the adr essay, situation demanded. I learned to adapt. Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to ensure my survival. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of religion america essay School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on adr essay throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of write an essay and contrasting feudalism in japan and europe people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to adr essay, me in Laredo.
Then, I realized I knew the 3 essay report, answer. I knew why the adr essay, coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. System Biometrics? It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and adr essay, facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to punjabi, face a serendipitous world with confidence. It's very helpful to take writing apart in order to see just how it accomplishes its objectives. Stephen's essay is very effective. Let's find out why!
An Opening Line That Draws You In. I had never broken into a car before. In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is standing next to a car about to break in), the idea of adr essay crossing a boundary (he is maybe about to do an illegal thing for the first time), and a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is issue essay he going to get caught? Is he headed for a life of crime? Is he about to adr essay, be scared straight?). We were in immigration issue Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the adr essay, dumpster, handed it to essay 2009, me, and took a few steps back.
“Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. It’s the details that really make this small experience come alive. Adr Essay? Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in place of a more generic one. The volunteers aren’t going to get food or dinner; they’re going for “Texas BBQ.” The coat hanger comes from “a dumpster.” Stephen doesn’t just move the coat hanger—he “jiggles” it.
Details also help us visualize the emotions of the people in the scene. The person who hands Stephen the coat hanger isn’t just uncomfortable or nervous; he “takes a few steps back”—a description of movement that conveys feelings. Finally, the detail of actual speech makes the scene pop. Religion Essay? Instead of writing that the other guy asked him to unlock the van, Stephen has the guy actually say his own words in a way that sounds like a teenager talking. Coat hangers: not just for crows' nests any more! (Gotz/Wikimedia) Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation.
Not only does Stephen make the locked car experience a meaningful illustration of how he has learned to be resourceful and adr essay, ready for anything, but he also makes this turn from the specific to the broad through an elegant play on the two meanings of the attendance monitoring using biometrics thesis, word “click.” Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and adr essay, chaos. With a family of contest seven, my home was loud, messy, and adr essay, spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the essay 2010, dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally.
“Unpredictability and chaos” are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts. Not only that, but they could mean any number of things—violence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability. By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like “family of adr essay seven” and 2009 2010, “siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing,” Stephen grounds the abstraction in something that is easy to adr essay, picture: a large, noisy family. Using Small Bits of immigration issue essay Humor and Casual Word Choice. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. Adr Essay? My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. Obviously, knowing how to issue essay, clean burning oil is not high on adr essay the list of contest 2009 things every 9-year-old needs to know.
To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by bringing up a situation that is adr essay clearly over-the-top: “in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.” The humor also feels relaxed. Part of this is religion because he introduces it with the colloquial phrase “you know,” so it sounds like he is talking to us in person. Adr Essay? This approach also diffuses the potential discomfort of the reader with his father’s strictness—since he is making jokes about it, clearly he is monitoring system using biometrics OK. Notice, though, that this doesn’t occur very much in the essay. This helps keep the tone meaningful and adr essay, serious rather than flippant. Mr. President? There's been an oil spill!
Then I want our best elementary school students on it, STAT. An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the Future. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the write comparing and europe, year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of adr essay people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo.
Then, I realized I knew the 2009, answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in adr essay the company of 3 essay people I did not choose. It’s family. Adr Essay? It’s society. In Japan And Europe? And often, it’s chaos. You participate by adr essay letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and immigration issue, preparedness. Adr Essay? My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence.
The ending of the 3 essay report, essay reveals that Stephen’s life has been one long preparation for adr essay, the future. He has emerged from chaos and his dad’s approach to parenting as a person who can thrive in a world that he can’t control. This connection of past experience to current maturity and self-knowledge is a key element in all successful personal essays. Colleges are very much looking for mature, self-aware applicants. These are the qualities of essay successful college students, who will be able to navigate the adr essay, independence college classes require and the responsibility and an essay comparing, quasi-adulthood of adr essay college life. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Even the best essays aren't perfect, and even the form, world's greatest writers will tell you that writing is never finished—just due. So what would we tweak in adr essay this essay if we could? Replace some of the cliched language. Stephen uses handy phrases like twists and contest, turns and don’t sweat the small stuff as a kind of shorthand for adr essay, explaining his relationship to in early america essay, chaos and unpredictability. But using too many of adr essay these ready-made expressions runs the risk of clouding out your own voice and replacing it with something expected and boring.
Use another example from recent life. Stephen's first example (breaking into the van in Laredo) is a great illustration of write an essay feudalism and europe being resourceful in an unexpected situation. Adr Essay? But his essay also emphasizes that he learned to religion in early america, adapt by being different things to different people. It would be great to adr essay, see how this plays out outside his family, either in the situation in Laredo or another context. Example #2: By Bridget Collins, Tufts Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long) I have always loved riding in cars. After a long day in first grade, I used to fall asleep to the engine purring in my mother's Honda Odyssey, even though it was only an essay and europe a 5-minute drive home.
As I grew, and graduated into the shotgun seat, it became natural and enjoyable to adr essay, look out the window. Seeing my world passing by through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it. In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. While I sat in the car and watched the miles pass by, I developed the plan for my empire. I reasoned that, for the world to run smoothly, it would have to look presentable. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. On Mother's? That old man down the adr essay, street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the attendance, school would get it back. The big pothole on adr essay Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to attendance monitoring system thesis, school would be filled-in.
It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Seven years down the adr essay, road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the form 3 essay report, Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. Bridget the Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and adr essay, fetches Frisbees.
I was lucky enough to discover what I am passionate about when I was a freshman in high school. A self-admitted Phys. Ed. addict, I volunteered to help out with the Adapted PE class. Religion Essay? On my first day, I learned that it was for developmentally-disabled students. To be honest, I was really nervous.
I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Adr Essay? Long story short, I got hooked. Three years have passed helping out in APE and eventually becoming a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. I love working with the students and day in punjabi, watching them progress. When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and adr essay, my counselor asked me what I wanted to religion in early america, do for a career, I didn't say Emperor of the adr essay, World. Instead, I told him I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life.
He laughed and immigration, told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to do. Adr Essay? I smiled, thanked him, and left. But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. So, maybe I'll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the Invisible Woman. I'll do one thing during the religion america, day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Instead of flying like Sue, though, I'll opt for a nice performance automobile. My childhood self would appreciate that. Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is adr essay just as detailed and engaging.
Let's go through some of the write comparing and contrasting feudalism in japan, strengths of her essay. A Structure That’s Easy to Follow and adr essay, Understand. The essay is arranged chronologically. Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of where we are in time: Paragraph 1: “after a long day in first grade” Paragraph 2: “in elementary school” Paragraph 3: “seven years down the road” Paragraph 4: “when I was a freshman in high school” Paragraph 5: “when senior year arrived” This keeps the issue, reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing.
That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Adr Essay? Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. In Early America Essay? Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for adr essay, students with autism and other disabilities.
Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of religion in early america essay my life. …But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. What makes this essay fun to read is that Bridget takes a child’s idea of a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and turns it into a metaphor for the author’s future aspirations. It helps that the adr essay, metaphor is a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the world better one abstract fix at write in japan and europe a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the adr essay, world better one concrete physical fix at a time. Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever. Ask your parents to explain the back row to you. (JD Hancock/Flickr) This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and make the immigration issue essay, reader feel like we already know her. Technique #1: humor.
Notice Bridget's gentle and relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger self’s grand ambitions (this is different from the more sarcastic kind of adr essay humor used by Stephen in the first essay—you could never mistake one writer for the other). In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Technique #2: invented terminology. The second technique is the essay day in, way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the adr essay, whole essay. 3 Essay? It would be easy enough to simply describe the people she imagined in childhood as helpers or assistants, and to simply say that as a child she wanted to rule the adr essay, world.
Instead, she invents the religion in early, capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles “Fixer-Upper” and “Emperor of the World,” making these childish conceits at once charming and iconic. What's also key is that the adr essay, titles feed into the central metaphor of the essay, which keeps them from essay contest 2010 sounding like strange quirks that don’t go anywhere. Technique #3: playing with syntax. The third technique is to adr essay, use sentences of religion in early essay varying length, syntax, and adr essay, structure. Most of the essay's written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences. However, at key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the reader needs to sit up and pay attention by switching to contest 2009 2010, short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and adr essay, sometimes fragmented sentences. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense!
All the report, people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. When she is narrating her childhood thought process, the sudden short sentence “It made perfect sense!” (especially its exclamation point) is basically the adr essay, essay version of drawing a light bulb turning on 3 essay report over someone’s head. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? Similarly, when the essay turns from her childhood imagination to her present-day aspirations, the turn is marked with “Or do they?”—a tiny and arresting half-sentence question. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for adr essay, Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. The first time when the essay day in punjabi, comparison between magical fixer-upper’s and the future disability specialist is made is when Bridget turns her metaphor onto herself. The essay emphasizes the importance of the moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the adr essay, word “maybe”) and the use of a very short sentence: “Maybe it could be me.” To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and immigration essay, wasn't sure how to handle myself around them.
Long story short, I got hooked. The last key moment that gets the small-sentence treatment is the emotional crux of the adr essay, essay. As we watch Bridget go from nervously trying to help disabled students to attendance monitoring system using biometrics, falling in love with this specialty field, she undercuts the potential sappiness of the adr essay, moment by relying on changed-up sentence length and slang: “Long story short, I got hooked.” The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image. What Could This Essay Do Even Better?
Bridget's essay is very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved. Explain the car connection better. The essay begins and issue, ends with Bridget's enjoying a car ride, but this doesn't seem to be related either to adr essay, the Fixer-Upper idea or to her passion for working with special-needs students. It would be great to either connect this into the essay more, or to take it out altogether and attendance monitoring, create more space for something else. Give more details about being a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn't want to put her students on display. It would take the focus off of her and possibly read as offensive or condescending. Adr Essay? But, rather than saying long story short, maybe she could elaborate on her own feelings here a bit more. What is it about write an essay and contrasting this kind of teaching that she loves? What is adr essay she hoping to bring to the lives of her future clients? 3 Essential Tips for Writing Your Own Essay.
How can you use this discussion to better your own college essay? Here are some suggestions for ways to immigration essay, use this resource effectively. #1: Take Apart the Other Essays in the Links. As you go through the essays we've compiled for you above, ask yourself the adr essay, following questions: Can you explain to yourself (or someone else!) why the opening sentence works well? Look for 2009 2010, the essay's detailed personal anecdote. What senses is the author describing?
Can you easily picture the scene in your mind's eye? Find the adr essay, place where this anecdote bridges into a larger insight about the author. How does the essay connect the two? How does the anecdote work as an example of the author's characteristic, trait, or skill? Check out the essay's tone. If it's funny, can you find the places where the humor comes from?
If it's sad and moving, can you find the imagery and description of punjabi feelings that make you moved? If it's serious, can you see how word choice adds to adr essay, this tone? When you figure out how all the cogs fit together, you'll be able to build your own . um . Attendance System Using Thesis? whatever this is. All of adr essay these essays rely on essay connecting with the reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the author's life. It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at Scrabble?). Either way, it should be personal and revealing about you, your personality, and the way you are now that you are entering the adult world. Let me level with you: the best writing isn't writing at all. It's rewriting.
And in order to have time to rewrite, you have to start way before the application deadline. Adr Essay? My advice is to attendance monitoring system using biometrics, write your first draft at least two months before your applications are due. Let it sit for a few days untouched. Then come back to it with fresh eyes and think critically about what you've written. Adr Essay? What's extra? What's missing? What is in the wrong place? What doesn't make sense? Don't be afraid to report, take it apart and adr essay, rearrange sections. On Mother's Punjabi? Do this several times over, and your essay will be much better for it!
Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to adr essay, have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. On Mother's? You'll get updates on adr essay our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on 2009 all 3 of adr essay our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?
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Installation Technician - Meter Reader - Electrical. Salina , KS 67402. Installation Technician Electrical, Gas Water Meters. Net2Source has immediate opportunities available for experienced electrical installation technicians. Were hiring over 50 Installers for Gas/Water/Electric meter installation in the Wichita Kansas area. Hourly Contract Employee. Duration: Minimum 1 year with potential of 2 years of work. Wichita Kansas and surrounding areas. Required Skills and adr essay Job Summary.
Applicant will be trained and expected to follow all SAFETY policies and an essay comparing and contrasting in japan and europe procedures without exception. Need to have a positive attitude, strong work ethic, reliable and adr essay willing to be trained. Work will be performed in all types of outside weather conditions. Some projects will require inside work to immigration issue, be performed at customers premise. Must have excellent customer service and professional verbal/written communication skills. Ability to lift 20lbs of material (meters, equipment, pipes, tools, etc.) All Gas/Water/Electric meter exchanges or retrofit installations are expected to be completed with the utmost quality as designed and adr essay trained. Responsible for meeting daily production goals as established and communicated by your manager. The ability to accurately read Electric, Gas and thesis Water meters is required. Meter Reading training will be provided.
Ability to work in a confined space when needed. Must pass post training our meter reading meter exam with a score of 95% or higher. Background, Requirements Education. Prior Electrical, Gas or Plumbing experience required. Able to use personal vehicle during work hours for the first 2 to 3 months, with mileage reimbursement, until company vans are delivered to adr essay, job sites. Computer skills desired but employee will be trained on process, systems used. Preferred Journeyman in a trade but not required.
Willingness to learn, be trained and coached even if you have industry and specific work experience. Must be able to follow detailed written and verbal instructions. Ability to proactively seek clarification and resolutions when needed. High School Diploma or equivalent. Professionalism, safety minded and positive attitude are paramount. Must have the following: valid Drivers License, Proof of write and contrasting in japan and europe Liability Drivers Insurance, able to adr essay, satisfactorily pass background and pre-employment drug screening. We are a leading Global Workforce Solutions Company with multiple local offices across the United States and presence in territories and countries like Canada, UK, Mexico, Malaysia, India, Singapore, Australia and system biometrics thesis Dubai. We specialise in adr essay providing services like Contingent Staffing, Direct Hires, RPO, Payroll Services, SoW and Project Staffing. Been in business since 2007. We have our expertise in IT/Engineering/Clinical/Financial/Admin/Professional resources.
We have been serving clients in space like Life Sciences, Banking, Telecom, Hi-tech, Healthcare, Retail, Real Estate and Media. We have achieved more than 100% growth in immigration issue essay last 2 years. We have close to 750+ contractors onsite and adr essay state of art offshore delivery center in form report India with 200+ employees. Got Gold Supplier of the Year Award for 2016 from Agile1 (for category below $100 MN). Best place to work in New Jersey 2015 by NJBIZ. 5 times honoree of INC 500/5000 list 2007-2016. ISO 9001:2008 quality certified organisation. Create a job alert for Installation Technician - Meter Reader - Electrical at Salina, KS. Great!
You'll now receive job alerts for adr essay Installation Technician - Meter Reader - Electrical at Salina, KS. Create a job alert for system using thesis Installation Technician - Meter Reader - Electrical at Salina, KS. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 **Overview** Self-starter with excellent problem solving, communication, teamwork, safety, Lockout/Tagout, and project management skills. Must be capable to effectively troubleshoot plant and adr essay facility power from religion america essay 480V three phase down to 5 volts DC. Complete electrical installations as required to properly and safely complete assigned tasks, to include running conduit and pulling wire. **Responsibilities** + Create and sustain zero injury in workplace, minimize Pb blood level exposure levels + Coordinate and implement maintenance training programs related to adr essay, electrical and control systems + Must be able to troubleshoot and repair electrical and controls systems, to include PLCs, VFDs, motor starters, PID loop tuning, digital and analog I/O, etc + Identify best practices that ultimately reduce equipment downtime, i.e. reduce recurring equipment issues, reduced setup, quick-change modules, and immigration essay equipment efficiency + Must be able to adr essay, identify opportunities that ultimately reduce maintenance costs + Seeks out essay unsolicited automation and control projects and adr essay improvements that contribute to the plant performance + Use Work Order software system and other computer programs as required + Support new installations, improvements, and optimization projects in all areas of the form 3 essay, plant + Provide programming, debug, and adr essay troubleshooting support for all factory automation systems, plc’s, hmi’s, vfd’s, robots, PID loop tuning, motor control, electrical power distribution, etc + Develop and implement programming modifications to the factory automation systems that will facilitate plant performance standards and simplify operator intervention. + Provide hardware and software support to the plant automation network + Assist in developing documentation for new and existing plant automation and control systems + Maintain current program versions for all plant automation equipment on the central controls computer drive, or document management system + Develop, initiate, and support plans to optimize and simplify existing plant automation and control systems + Develop, initiate, and support plans to modernize existing obsolete plant control systems + Provide operational support and implement modifications to items, such as, plant robot, machine vision, machine automations, data collection + Proficient in data collection to SQL server platform, provide platform to monitoring thesis, display required information on specified platforms + Ability to adr essay, run conduit and pull wire as required for power distribution and controls integration + Involved in plant shutdown activities relating to skills and tasks assigned + Responsible for continuous improvement in all areas of Maintenance department + Comply with current Quality Systems requirements + Understand marketplace and update systems as needed and capable to work effectively with plant engineering and all related departments. + Follow Toyota Production Systems (TPS) objectives and guidelines, to include support of Kaizen events. + Follow Lean Manufacturing procedures. + Perform other work as assigned by the supervisor or management personnel. **Qualifications** **Education, Experience, Skills Required:** Candidate must have a 2 year degree from issue vocational school in industrial electronics and controls or 10 years of industrial electrical and adr essay controls experience with at least 5 years of experience with Allen Bradley Programmed Logic Control related products and immigration issue ladder diagram logic. Must possess above average troubleshooting skills in order to adr essay, sustain plant production. Essay 2009! **Equipment Used:** Knowledge of all electrical tools, i.e. oscilloscope, multimeters, amp-meters, megohmmeters, power meters, process meters, etc. Person must possess above average computer skills that relate to adr essay, report writing, presentations, spreadsheets, and project management, to include most Microsoft products and must be able to computer knowledge for access to, modification of, and upload/download PLC and panelview programs. System Thesis! Familiar with common hand tool usage including power tools. **Physical Requirements:** Sitting, standing, bending, twisting, and walking as necessary. Wearing of PPE is required.
Employee is required to repetitiously lift and handle equipment and parts weighing from grams to 100 pounds. **EEO Statement** Exide Technologies is an equal opportunity employer where an adr essay, applicant's qualifications are considered without regard to write an essay and contrasting feudalism, race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, veteran status, genetic information, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, or any other basis prohibited by law. **About Exide** Exide Technologies () is adr essay a global provider of write an essay feudalism in japan and europe stored electrical energy solutions—batteries and associated equipment and services for transportation and industrial markets. With 128years of industry experience and adr essay operating in attendance using biometrics more than 80 countries, Exide produces and recycles a broad range of adr essay products that keep customers and their businesses powering forward. Write Comparing And Europe! Leading car, truck and lift truck manufacturers trust Exide as an original equipment supplier, and Exide serves the transportation and industrial aftermarket through a comprehensive portfolio of products and adr essay services. The Company’s extensive sales, distribution and service network provides flexibility and quality for an exceptional customer experience. At Exide Technologies, **_It All Starts Now_** . History and monitoring system using biometrics thesis scale, combined with a start-up mentality, make Exide the faster, more nimble, more innovative, more digital, and more responsive alternative for customers who want more than simply a battery supplier.
Exide is **_t_** **_he 128 Year Old Start-Up,_** and the Company is moving forward—bringing the adr essay, energy of the on mother's day in, “new Exide” to customers around the world. **Job Locations** _US-KS-Salina_ **Requisition ID** _2017-1315_ **Category** _Manufacturing - Operations and adr essay Maintenance_ **Position Type** _Regular Full-Time_ Exide Technologies Salina KS. Maintenance Technician I Pkg/Prod 1St Shift. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 Description At Schwan's Company, we are driven to bring our customers delicious foods and write an essay feudalism and europe reliable services. In addition to our home delivery service, we offer well-known retail brands such as Red Baron®, Freschetta®, and Tony's® pizzas, Pagoda® snacks and appetizers, and adr essay Mrs. Smith's® and Edwards® desserts. To learn more, visit us at immigration issue essay, http://www.schwanscompany.com. This position is primarily responsible for properly maintaining and repairing production machinery, mechanical equipment and property in a generalist capacity to ensure continuous and effective operation. If you meet our job qualifications and become a member of our team, we will further train you on the following job duties and provide you with an excellent benefits package. Company Benefits We offer a comprehensive benefits package designed to assist our employees and their families with their financial security, health and well-being.
In addition to a competitive base pay, we offer a variety of benefit programs. + Health, Life, Dental and Vision Plans + 401(k) Program with a Company Match + Profit Sharing based on company results + Two weeks paid vacation for new hires + Employee discounts on adr essay company products Job Duties and Responsibilities + Setup and tear down equipment; may assist with major repairs, construction, fabrication, and installation of new plant equipment + Ensure operation of machinery and mechanical equipment by religion essay completing preventive maintenance requirements on conveyor systems and production machines; troubleshoot malfunctions + Locate sources of problems by observing mechanical devices in adr essay operation, listening for day in punjabi problems, and adr essay using precision measuring and testing instruments + Remove defective parts by dismantling components using hoists and hand and power tools + Help control downtime by informing production workers of routine preventive maintenance techniques; monitoring compliance + Use SAP to america, document and communicate with operations + Work in adr essay a safe manner with a sense of urgency while maintaining a safe and orderly work area + Participate in and successfully complete management-assigned training directed at increasing job-related trade skills Qualifications Education: High School Diploma or equivalent required. Two-year degree in specialized maintenance trade preferred. Immigration Essay! Years of Related Experience: 0-2 years of adr essay related experience Knowledge/Skills/Abilities: + Basic mechanical knowledge + Ability to read and interpret safety documents, maintenance instructions and procedure manuals + Ability to complete work orders and enter the required paperwork into a computer + Ability to essay, add subtract multiply and divide in all units of measure + Demonstrated interpersonal skills sufficient to communicate in adr essay a professional manner with co-workers and supervisors + Ability to pass a standardized hands-on mechanical aptitude assessment. Immigration Essay! + Must be able to lift up to ninety (90) lbs. + Some basic electrical skills preferred The employing subsidiaries of adr essay Schwan's Company are Equal Employment Opportunity Employers. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for contest 2010 employment without regard to disability, age, race, color, religion, gender, vet status, national origin or other protected class. Job Type: Maintenance-Plant Business Unit: SFC Global Supply Chain, Inc. Req #: 17004477 Schwan's Company Salina KS. Wastewater Treatment Technician II 3Rd Shift. Posted 1 days ago.
VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 Description This position under general supervision is responsible for performing maintenance work to ensure the adr essay, proper and efficient running of equipment designed to handle wastewater. An Essay And Contrasting And Europe! Mixes and administers chemicals at adr essay, appropriate dosages and immigration issue rates. Receives stores and adr essay dispenses bulk chemicals and thesis absorbents. Cleans and services wet-wells catch basins and septic tank traps. Adr Essay! Inspects and maintains plugs in all designated floor drains in on mother's day in plant. Collects stores and properly disposes of waste products such as aerosol cans paint used brushes and rollers drums used absorbents and oil filters.
Drains cleans and adr essay inspects all tanks and pits. Services and operates electronic sampler. Catches and tests pH samples. Maintains appropriate records and logs. Calibrates and operates hazardous gas detector. Diagnoses hydraulic electrical mechanical plumbing or related problems and applies appropriate corrective action. An Essay Comparing And Europe! Repairs gearboxes and electrical motors and adr essay adjusts/programs electronic equipment. Participates in and successfully completes training directed at increasing job-related trade skills as mandated by management/supervisor.
Assists with the training of maintenance employees in keeping all equipment in an essay and contrasting and europe good repair and regularly serviced. Performs all duties in adr essay compliance with company policies and procedures and in a safe manner according to State Federal and company regulations. Issue! Keeps all areas clean neat orderly and ensures areas are returned to their safe condition according to policy and procedure. Adr Essay! Responsible to conduct yourself and ensure your subordinates (if applicable) conduct themselves in a manner consistent with company mission values code of ethics policies and other standards of issue conduct Qualifications Education: High School Diploma or equivalent required. Two-year degree in adr essay specialized maintenance trade preferred. Form! Years of Related Experience: 1-3 years of related experience. Knowledge/Skills/Abilities: Ability to perform all Maintenance Mechanic 1 duties. Completion of Hazardous Materials/Hazardous Waste Certification Training if part of the adr essay, hazardous materials clean-up crew. Knowledge and ability to properly handle and process EPA DOT and OSHA hazardous waste shipping regulations. Essay Day In! Knowledge of Area Wastewater Ordinance EPA regulations OSHA regulations DOT Hazmat regulations and adr essay SPCC plan. Essay! Ability to read and interpret documents such as safety rules operating and maintenance instructions and procedure manuals.
Ability to complete work orders carry out instructions furnished in written oral or diagram form and complete required paperwork. Ability to add subtract multiply divide in all units of measure using whole numbers common fractions and decimals and calculate figures and adr essay amounts such as proportions percentages area circumference and volume. Mechanical knowledge and ability to expand knowledge and skills via on-the-job and formal training directed at increasing job-related skills as mandated by on mother's day in management/Supervisor including all required OSHA training. Ability to obtain a valid forklift license. Ability to learn basic computer skills including SAP Maintenance Module. Good problem solving skills.
Demonstrated interpersonal skills sufficient to communicate in a professional manner with co-workers and adr essay supervisors. Immigration Issue! Exhibit desirable and appropriate professional behavior including dependability integrity ability to learn results orientation ability to interact effectively with others team playing sense of adr essay urgency and a quality focus to provide for in early essay a cohesive productive unit dedicated to the achievement of company and department goals. Must be able to lift ninety (90) lbs The employing subsidiaries of The Schwan Food Company are Equal Employment Opportunity Employers. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to adr essay, disability, age, race, color, religion, gender, vet status, national origin or other protected class. Job Type: Maintenance-Plant Business Unit: SFC Global Supply Chain, Inc. On Mother's! Req #: 17006485 Schwan's Company Salina KS.
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