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bastiat essays Found on the site US History resources in the translation by Dean Russell for report worksheet the Foundation for didactic Economic Education . Reformatted by Francois-Rene Rideau for Bastiat.org . Book Worksheet! Note that the headlines were introduced by the FEE translation, and were not present in how to in excel, the original text in worksheet, French La loi When a reviewer wishes to give special recognition to essaye de t a book, he predicts that it will still be read “a hundred years from now.” The Law , first published as a pamphlet in June, 1850, is report worksheet, already more than a hundred years old. And because its truths are eternal, it will still be read when another century has passed. Frederic Bastiat (1801-1850) was a French economist, statesman, and planning page for essay, author. He did most of his writing during the book, years just before and immediately following the Revolution of February 1848. This was the period when France was rapidly turning to prebisch complete socialism. As a Deputy to the Legislative Assembly, Mr. Book Report Worksheet! Bastiat was studying and explaining each socialist fallacy as it appeared.

And he explained how socialism must inevitably degenerate into communism. But most of his countrymen chose to ignore his logic. The Law is here presented again because the same situation exists in life essay, America today as in the France of 1848. The same socialist-communist ideas and plans that were then adopted in report worksheet, France are now sweeping America. How To Write In Excel! The explanations and arguments then advanced against socialism by Mr. Bastiat are word for report word equally valid today. His ideas deserve a serious hearing. The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc. Kids Growing Up Too Essay! Irvington-on-Hudson, New York 10533.

This translation of The Law was done by Dean Russell of The Foundation staff. Report Worksheet! His objective was an accurate rendering of Mr. Bastiat's words and ideas into twentieth century, idiomatic English. A nineteenth century translation of The Law, made in 1853 in on the civil, England by an unidentified contemporary of Mr. Book! Bastiat, was of much value as a check against how to, this translation. Book Report! In addition, Dean Russell had his work reviewed by Bertrand de Jouvenel, the noted French economist, historian, and author who is also thoroughly familiar with the English language.

While Mr. de Jouvenel offered many valuable corrections and suggestions, it should be clearly understood that Dr. Pendulum! Russell bears full responsibility for the translation. The law perverted! And the police powers of the state perverted along with it! The law, I say, not only turned from its proper purpose but made to book follow an entirely contrary purpose! The law become the weapon of every kind of greed! Instead of checking crime, the law itself guilty of the evils it is supposed to punish! If this is essay civil war 1642, true, it is a serious fact, and book, moral duty requires me to call the attention of my fellow-citizens to customer it. Book Worksheet! We hold from God the didactic essay, gift which includes all others. This gift is life physical, intellectual, and book worksheet, moral life.

But life cannot maintain itself alone. The Creator of how to write in excel, life has entrusted us with the responsibility of preserving, developing, and perfecting it. In order that we may accomplish this, He has provided us with a collection of marvelous faculties. And He has put us in report, the midst of a variety of natural resources. By the application of our faculties to essay on the these natural resources we convert them into report worksheet, products, and use them.

This process is necessary in order that life may run its appointed course. Essay Civil! Life, faculties, production in other words, individuality, liberty, property this is report worksheet, man. Didactic Essay! And in spite of the cunning of book report, artful political leaders, these three gifts from God precede all human legislation, and are superior to it. Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the essay civil, contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and report, property existed beforehand that caused men to for essay make laws in the first place. What, then, is law? It is the collective organization of the individual right to lawful defense. Each of book report, us has a natural right from essaye de t, God to defend his person, his liberty, and his property. These are the three basic requirements of book report worksheet, life, and the preservation of thesis - terms of trade, any one of book report worksheet, them is completely dependent upon civil war 1642, the preservation of the worksheet, other two.

For what are our faculties but the extension of our individuality? And what is property but an extension of our faculties? If every person has the right to defend even by force his person, his liberty, and life didactic essay, his property, then it follows that a group of report worksheet, men have the right to essaye de t organize and report, support a common force to protect these rights constantly. Page For Essay! Thus the principle of collective right its reason for existing, its lawfulness is based on individual right. And the common force that protects this collective right cannot logically have any other purpose or any other mission than that for which it acts as a substitute. Worksheet! Thus, since an term individual cannot lawfully use force against the person, liberty, or property of book, another individual, then the common force for the same reason cannot lawfully be used to in excel destroy the person, liberty, or property of worksheet, individuals or groups. Such a perversion of pendulum lab report, force would be, in book, both cases, contrary to essaye de t our premise. Worksheet! Force has been given to essay on the us to defend our own individual rights. Who will dare to say that force has been given to us to destroy the report, equal rights of essaye de t, our brothers? Since no individual acting separately can lawfully use force to report destroy the pendulum, rights of book, others, does it not logically follow that the same principle also applies to the common force that is nothing more than the organized combination of the individual forces? If this is planning, true, then nothing can be more evident than this: The law is the book, organization of the kids growing fast essay, natural right of lawful defense.

It is the substitution of a common force for individual forces. And this common force is to do only what the individual forces have a natural and book worksheet, lawful right to do: to protect persons, liberties, and properties; to maintain the essaye de t, right of book, each, and to cause justice to reign over life didactic us all. If a nation were founded on report worksheet, this basis, it seems to me that order would prevail among the people, in planning for essay, thought as well as in deed. It seems to me that such a nation would have the most simple, easy to accept, economical, limited, nonoppressive, just, and enduring government imaginable whatever its political form might be. Book Worksheet! Under such an administration, everyone would understand that he possessed all the privileges as well as all the responsibilities of his existence. No one would have any argument with government, provided that his person was respected, his labor was free, and the fruits of essaye de t, his labor were protected against all unjust attack. Worksheet! When successful, we would not have to term papers thank the state for book report worksheet our success. And, conversely, when unsuccessful, we would no more think of singer prebisch - terms of trade, blaming the state for our misfortune than would the book report worksheet, farmers blame the state because of hail or frost.

The state would be felt only by the invaluable blessings of customer term, safety provided by report worksheet this concept of government. It can be further stated that, thanks to the non-intervention of the state in private affairs, our wants and their satisfactions would develop themselves in a logical manner. We would not see poor families seeking literary instruction before they have bread. We would not see cities populated at the expense of rural districts, nor rural districts at the expense of growing fast, cities. We would not see the great displacements of capital, labor, and population that are caused by worksheet legislative decisions. Write Mis Report In Excel! The sources of book, our existence are made uncertain and essaye de t, precarious by these state-created displacements. Report Worksheet! And, furthermore, these acts burden the government with increased responsibilities. But, unfortunately, law by singer prebisch of trade no means confines itself to its proper functions. Book Report! And when it has exceeded its proper functions, it has not done so merely in some inconsequential and debatable matters.

The law has gone further than this; it has acted in direct opposition to its own purpose. The law has been used to destroy its own objective: It has been applied to didactic essay annihilating the justice that it was supposed to book maintain; to life essay limiting and destroying rights which its real purpose was to book report worksheet respect. The law has placed the collective force at the disposal of the unscrupulous who wish, without risk, to essaye de t exploit the book report worksheet, person, liberty, and property of others. It has converted plunder into how to mis report in excel, a right, in order to protect plunder. And it has converted lawful defense into a crime, in report, order to didactic punish lawful defense. How has this perversion of the law been accomplished? And what have been the results? The law has been perverted by report the influence of two entirely different causes: stupid greed and false philanthropy. Let us speak of the first.

Self-preservation and self-development are common aspirations among all people. And if everyone enjoyed the unrestricted use of his faculties and the free disposition of the fruits of his labor, social progress would be ceaseless, uninterrupted, and how to, unfailing. But there is also another tendency that is common among people. When they can, they wish to report worksheet live and essay war 1642, prosper at book report, the expense of essay civil war 1642, others. This is no rash accusation. Nor does it come from report worksheet, a gloomy and uncharitable spirit. Essay Civil War 1642! The annals of history bear witness to book report the truth of it: the incessant wars, mass migrations, religious persecutions, universal slavery, dishonesty in commerce, and monopolies. Ballistic Lab Report! This fatal desire has its origin in report, the very nature of man in page for essay, that primitive, universal, and insuppressible instinct that impels him to book satisfy his desires with the kids growing essay, least possible pain. Man can live and satisfy his wants only by ceaseless labor; by the ceaseless application of his faculties to natural resources.

This process is the origin of property. But it is report worksheet, also true that a man may live and satisfy his wants by civil seizing and book report, consuming the products of the labor of others. This process is the planning for essay, origin of plunder. Now since man is naturally inclined to book report worksheet avoid pain and since labor is pain in itself it follows that men will resort to plunder whenever plunder is easier than work. History shows this quite clearly. And under these conditions, neither religion nor morality can stop it. When, then, does plunder stop? It stops when it becomes more painful and write in excel, more dangerous than labor. It is evident, then, that the book worksheet, proper purpose of law is to use the power of its collective force to stop this fatal tendency to plunder instead of to work. All the measures of the law should protect property and singer prebisch thesis of trade, punish plunder. But, generally, the law is book report worksheet, made by essaye de t one man or one class of men.

And since law cannot operate without the sanction and support of a dominating force, this force must be entrusted to those who make the laws. This fact, combined with the book report, fatal tendency that exists in the heart of planning page for essay, man to satisfy his wants with the least possible effort, explains the report, almost universal perversion of the law. Kids Growing Fast Essay! Thus it is book worksheet, easy to understand how law, instead of checking injustice, becomes the invincible weapon of injustice. It is essay war 1642, easy to worksheet understand why the law is used by the legislator to destroy in essaye de t, varying degrees among the rest of the report, people, their personal independence by slavery, their liberty by oppression, and their property by plunder. This is done for the benefit of the essay civil, person who makes the book worksheet, law, and in proportion to the power that he holds. Men naturally rebel against the injustice of ballistic pendulum lab report, which they are victims. Thus, when plunder is organized by law for the profit of worksheet, those who make the law, all the plundered classes try somehow to enter by peaceful or revolutionary means into the making of laws.

According to their degree of planning, enlightenment, these plundered classes may propose one of two entirely different purposes when they attempt to attain political power: Either they may wish to stop lawful plunder, or they may wish to worksheet share in mis report, it. Woe to the nation when this latter purpose prevails among the mass victims of lawful plunder when they, in book worksheet, turn, seize the for essay, power to make laws! Until that happens, the report, few practice lawful plunder upon the many, a common practice where the right to participate in the making of law is limited to a few persons. But then, participation in essaye de t, the making of law becomes universal. And then, men seek to worksheet balance their conflicting interests by universal plunder. Instead of rooting out the injustices found in society, they make these injustices general. Ballistic Lab Report! As soon as the plundered classes gain political power, they establish a system of reprisals against other classes.

They do not abolish legal plunder. (This objective would demand more enlightenment than they possess.) Instead, they emulate their evil predecessors by participating in this legal plunder, even though it is against their own interests. It is report, as if it were necessary, before a reign of justice appears, for everyone to suffer a cruel retribution some for their evilness, and some for on the war 1642 their lack of report worksheet, understanding. Planning! It is impossible to book introduce into society a greater change and a greater evil than this: the page for essay, conversion of the book, law into an instrument of plunder. What are the ballistic pendulum lab report, consequences of book report worksheet, such a perversion? It would require volumes to describe them all. How To In Excel! Thus we must content ourselves with pointing out the most striking. In the book worksheet, first place, it erases from everyone's conscience the lab report, distinction between justice and book report, injustice. Page For Essay! No society can exist unless the laws are respected to a certain degree.

The safest way to make laws respected is to book report make them respectable. Pendulum! When law and morality contradict each other, the citizen has the cruel alternative of either losing his moral sense or losing his respect for report worksheet the law. Singer Prebisch! These two evils are of book worksheet, equal consequence, and it would be difficult for a person to choose between them. The nature of law is to maintain justice. Page! This is book worksheet, so much the case that, in essay war 1642, the minds of the worksheet, people, law and essay on the civil war 1642, justice are one and the same thing. There is in all of us a strong disposition to book worksheet believe that anything lawful is also legitimate. Page For Essay! This belief is so widespread that many persons have erroneously held that things are “just” because law makes them so. Thus, in order to make plunder appear just and book, sacred to page for essay many consciences, it is book, only necessary for the law to decree and sanction it. Essaye De T! Slavery, restrictions, and monopoly find defenders not only book report, among those who profit from them but also among those who suffer from them. If you suggest a doubt as to the morality of service, these institutions, it is boldly said that “You are a dangerous innovator, a utopian, a theorist, a subversive; you would shatter the foundation upon book, which society rests.” If you lecture upon kids growing up too, morality or upon political science, there will be found official organizations petitioning the report, government in this vein of thought: “That science no longer be taught exclusively from the point of papers, view of free trade (of liberty, of property, and of justice) as has been the book, case until now, but also, in customer papers, the future, science is to be especially taught from the viewpoint of the worksheet, facts and singer prebisch of trade, laws that regulate French industry (facts and worksheet, laws which are contrary to liberty, to singer prebisch - terms of trade property, and to justice). That, in book report, government-endowed teaching positions, the professor rigorously refrain from endangering in the slightest degree the respect due to the laws now in term papers, force.” [1] Thus, if there exists a law which sanctions slavery or monopoly, oppression or robbery, in any form whatever, it must not even be mentioned.

For how can it be mentioned without damaging the respect which it inspires? Still further, morality and political economy must be taught from the point of report, view of planning page for essay, this law; from the book report worksheet, supposition that it must be a just law merely because it is a law. Another effect of this tragic perversion of the life essay, law is worksheet, that it gives an essay civil war 1642 exaggerated importance to political passions and book report worksheet, conflicts, and to politics in general. I could prove this assertion in didactic, a thousand ways. But, by way of illustration, I shall limit myself to a subject that has lately occupied the book worksheet, minds of everyone: universal suffrage. The followers of Rousseau's school of thought who consider themselves far advanced, but whom I consider twenty centuries behind the times will not agree with me on this. But universal suffrage using the word in kids growing, its strictest sense is not one of those sacred dogmas which it is a crime to book report examine or doubt. In fact, serious objections may be made to universal suffrage. Pendulum Lab Report! In the first place the book worksheet, word universal conceals a gross fallacy. For example, there are 36 million people in France.

Thus, to make the life didactic, right of suffrage universal, there should be 36 million voters. But the most extended system permits only report worksheet, 9 million people to vote. How To Mis Report In Excel! Three persons out of four are excluded. And more than this, they are excluded by the fourth. This fourth person advances the principle of incapacity as his reason for excluding the others. Universal suffrage means, then, universal suffrage for those who are capable. But there remains this question of fact: Who is capable? Are minors, females, insane persons, and report worksheet, persons who have committed certain major crimes the only ones to planning page be determined incapable? A closer examination of the subject shows us the motive which causes the book, right of on the, suffrage to be based upon the supposition of incapacity. The motive is worksheet, that the essaye de t, elector or voter does not exercise this right for himself alone, but for book report worksheet everybody. Up Too Fast Essay! The most extended elective system and the most restricted elective system are alike in this respect.

They differ only in respect to what constitutes incapacity. It is not a difference of principle, but merely a difference of degree. If, as the republicans of book report, our present-day Greek and Roman schools of thought pretend, the right of suffrage arrives with one's birth, it would be an injustice for adults to thesis prevent women and report, children from pendulum lab report, voting. Why are they prevented? Because they are presumed to be incapable.

And why is incapacity a motive for exclusion? Because it is not the voter alone who suffers the book report worksheet, consequences of his vote; because each vote touches and affects everyone in the entire community; because the people in the community have a right to essay war 1642 demand some safeguards concerning the report, acts upon which their welfare and term, existence depend. I know what might be said in book report worksheet, answer to this; what the objections might be. But this is how to write in excel, not the place to exhaust a controversy of book worksheet, this nature. I wish merely to observe here that this controversy over universal suffrage (as well as most other political questions) which agitates, excites, and overthrows nations, would lose nearly all of its importance if the law had always been what it ought to be. In fact, if law were restricted to protecting all persons, all liberties, and all properties; if law were nothing more than the organized combination of the civil war 1642, individual's right to book worksheet self defense; if law were the customer papers, obstacle, the check, the punisher of report, all oppression and plunder is it likely that we citizens would then argue much about the extent of the franchise? Under these circumstances, is it likely that the extent of the planning for essay, right to vote would endanger that supreme good, the book report worksheet, public peace? Is it likely that the life essay, excluded classes would refuse to book report peaceably await the coming of their right to vote? Is it likely that those who had the right to growing up too vote would jealously defend their privilege? If the law were confined to worksheet its proper functions, everyone's interest in essay war 1642, the law would be the same.

Is it not clear that, under these circumstances, those who voted could not inconvenience those who did not vote? But on the other hand, imagine that this fatal principle has been introduced: Under the pretense of book worksheet, organization, regulation, protection, or encouragement, the essay on the civil, law takes property from one person and book report, gives it to pendulum lab report another; the law takes the wealth of all and gives it to a few whether farmers, manufacturers, ship owners, artists, or comedians. Under these circumstances, then certainly every class will aspire to grasp the book report, law, and on the civil, logically so. The excluded classes will furiously demand their right to book report vote and will overthrow society rather than not to customer service papers obtain it. Book Worksheet! Even beggars and customer term papers, vagabonds will then prove to you that they also have an incontestable title to report vote. They will say to life didactic you: We cannot buy wine, tobacco, or salt without paying the tax.

And a part of the worksheet, tax that we pay is given by law in customer, privileges and subsidies to men who are richer than we are. Others use the worksheet, law to raise the prices of bread, meat, iron, or cloth. Thus, since everyone else uses the law for planning his own profit, we also would like to use the law for our own profit. Report Worksheet! We demand from the law the right to relief , which is the poor man's plunder. To obtain this right, we also should be voters and legislators in order that we may organize Beggary on a grand scale for our own class, as you have organized Protection on a grand scale for up too your class.

Now don't tell us beggars that you will act for book report worksheet us, and then toss us, as Mr. Mimerel proposes, 600,000 francs to keep us quiet, like throwing us a bone to gnaw. We have other claims. And anyway, we wish to bargain for ourselves as other classes have bargained for pendulum themselves! And what can you say to report worksheet answer that argument! As long as it is admitted that the law may be diverted from kids growing, its true purpose that it may violate property instead of protecting it then everyone will want to participate in book report, making the law, either to kids protect himself against plunder or to book report use it for plunder. Political questions will always be prejudicial, dominant, and ballistic pendulum, all-absorbing. There will be fighting at the door of the Legislative Palace, and report, the struggle within will be no less furious. Service Term! To know this, it is hardly necessary to examine what transpires in book, the French and English legislatures; merely to understand the issue is to ballistic know the answer.

Is there any need to offer proof that this odious perversion of the law is a perpetual source of hatred and report, discord; that it tends to destroy society itself? If such proof is up too, needed, look at the United States [in 1850]. There is no country in the world where the report, law is ballistic pendulum, kept more within its proper domain: the book, protection of every person's liberty and property. As a consequence of this, there appears to kids growing up too essay be no country in book worksheet, the world where the how to in excel, social order rests on a firmer foundation. But even in report, the United States, there are two issues and only two that have always endangered the public peace.

What are these two issues? They are slavery and tariffs. These are the essaye de t, only two issues where, contrary to book report worksheet the general spirit of the pendulum lab report, republic of the United States, law has assumed the book report worksheet, character of a plunderer. Slavery is a violation, by kids growing fast essay law, of liberty. The protective tariff is a violation, by law, of property. It is a most remarkable fact that this double legal crime a sorrowful inheritance from the Old World should be the only issue which can, and perhaps will, lead to the ruin of the book worksheet, Union. It is indeed impossible to essay civil war 1642 imagine, at the very heart of a society, a more astounding fact than this: The law has come to book report worksheet be an civil instrument of injustice . And if this fact brings terrible consequences to the United States where the report, proper purpose of the law has been perverted only in the instances of planning page, slavery and book, tariffs what must be the consequences in Europe, where the planning page, perversion of the law is a principle; a system? Mr. de Montalembert [politician and writer] adopting the thought contained in book, a famous proclamation by Mr. Write In Excel! Carlier, has said: We must make war against socialism.

According to book report worksheet the definition of socialism advanced by Mr. Charles Dupin, he meant: We must make war against essay, plunder. Book Worksheet! But of ballistic pendulum, what plunder was he speaking? For there are two kinds of report, plunder: legal and how to write in excel, illegal. Worksheet! I do not think that illegal plunder, such as theft or swindling which the penal code defines, anticipates, and punishes can be called socialism. Ballistic Pendulum Lab Report! It is not this kind of plunder that systematically threatens the book worksheet, foundations of service term, society. Anyway, the war against this kind of plunder has not waited for book worksheet the command of singer - terms, these gentlemen.

The war against report worksheet, illegal plunder has been fought since the beginning of the world. Life Didactic Essay! Long before the Revolution of February 1848 long before the appearance even of socialism itself France had provided police, judges, gendarmes, prisons, dungeons, and scaffolds for the purpose of worksheet, fighting illegal plunder. The law itself conducts this war, and it is singer thesis, my wish and opinion that the law should always maintain this attitude toward plunder. But it does not always do this. Sometimes the law defends plunder and participates in worksheet, it. Thus the beneficiaries are spared the shame, danger, and scruple which their acts would otherwise involve.

Sometimes the essaye de t, law places the book report worksheet, whole apparatus of essay, judges, police, prisons, and gendarmes at report worksheet, the service of the term, plunderers, and report worksheet, treats the victim when he defends himself as a criminal. In short, there is ballistic pendulum lab report, a legal plunder , and it is of this, no doubt, that Mr. Book Report! de Montalembert speaks. Page! This legal plunder may be only an isolated stain among the legislative measures of the people. Book Report! If so, it is best to wipe it out planning page, with a minimum of speeches and denunciations and in spite of the uproar of the vested interests. But how is this legal plunder to book worksheet be identified? Quite simply. Fast! See if the law takes from worksheet, some persons what belongs to them, and gives it to kids growing essay other persons to whom it does not belong. See if the law benefits one citizen at report, the expense of another by doing what the citizen himself cannot do without committing a crime. Life Didactic! Then abolish this law without delay, for book worksheet it is not only an essaye de t evil itself, but also it is a fertile source for further evils because it invites reprisals. Book Worksheet! If such a law which may be an isolated case is essay on the war 1642, not abolished immediately, it will spread, multiply, and develop into a system. The person who profits from this law will complain bitterly, defending his acquired rights . He will claim that the state is obligated to protect and encourage his particular industry; that this procedure enriches the state because the protected industry is thus able to spend more and to pay higher wages to the poor workingmen.

Do not listen to this sophistry by vested interests. Book Worksheet! The acceptance of these arguments will build legal plunder into a whole system. In fact, this has already occurred. The present-day delusion is an service attempt to enrich everyone at the expense of everyone else; to make plunder universal under the pretense of report worksheet, organizing it. Now, legal plunder can be committed in essaye de t, an infinite number of book report worksheet, ways. Thus we have an infinite number of how to write in excel, plans for organizing it: tariffs, protection, benefits, subsidies, encouragements, progressive taxation, public schools, guaranteed jobs, guaranteed profits, minimum wages, a right to relief, a right to book the tools of prebisch, labor, free credit, and so on, and book worksheet, so on.

All these plans as a whole with their common aim of planning page, legal plunder constitute socialism. Now, since under this definition socialism is a body of report, doctrine, what attack can be made against lab report, it other than a war of worksheet, doctrine? If you find this socialistic doctrine to be false, absurd, and on the civil war 1642, evil, then refute it. Book Report Worksheet! And the more false, the more absurd, and the more evil it is, the easier it will be to refute. Above all, if you wish to be strong, begin by rooting out essaye de t, every particle of report worksheet, socialism that may have crept into your legislation. This will be no light task. Mr. de Montalembert has been accused of desiring to how to write mis report in excel fight socialism by the use of brute force. He ought to book report worksheet be exonerated from this accusation, for he has plainly said: The war that we must fight against civil, socialism must be in book worksheet, harmony with law, honor, and justice. But why does not Mr. Essaye De T! de Montalembert see that he has placed himself in a vicious circle? You would use the worksheet, law to oppose socialism?

But it is upon the law that socialism itself relies. Socialists desire to didactic essay practice legal plunder, not illegal plunder. Socialists, like all other monopolists, desire to report worksheet make the law their own weapon. And when once the law is on the side of socialism, how can it be used against write mis report in excel, socialism? For when plunder is book worksheet, abetted by planning page the law, it does not fear your courts, your gendarmes, and your prisons. Rather, it may call upon them for help. To prevent this, you would exclude socialism from entering into the making of laws? You would prevent socialists from entering the Legislative Palace? You shall not succeed, I predict, so long as legal plunder continues to be the main business of the legislature.

It is book report worksheet, illogical in fact, absurd to assume otherwise. This question of legal plunder must be settled once and for customer all, and book worksheet, there are only three ways to settle it: The few plunder the many. Everybody plunders everybody. Nobody plunders anybody. We must make our choice among limited plunder, universal plunder, and no plunder. The law can follow only one of singer prebisch - terms, these three. Limited legal plunder: This system prevailed when the right to report worksheet vote was restricted.

One would turn back to this system to prevent the invasion of prebisch - terms of trade, socialism. Universal legal plunder: We have been threatened with this system since the franchise was made universal. Report! The newly enfranchised majority has decided to essaye de t formulate law on the same principle of report, legal plunder that was used by their predecessors when the vote was limited. No legal plunder: This is the principle of justice, peace, order, stability, harmony, and essay civil war 1642, logic. Until the day of book worksheet, my death, I shall proclaim this principle with all the essay war 1642, force of book worksheet, my lungs (which alas! is all too inadequate). Service Papers! [2] And, in all sincerity, can anything more than the absence of plunder be required of the law? Can the law which necessarily requires the use of force rationally be used for book worksheet anything except protecting the customer service term, rights of everyone? I defy anyone to book report extend it beyond this purpose without perverting it and, consequently, turning might against essay, right. This is the most fatal and most illogical social perversion that can possibly be imagined.

It must be admitted that the book, true solution so long searched for customer papers in the report, area of didactic, social relationships is contained in these simple words: Law is book worksheet, organized justice. On The War 1642! Now this must be said: When justice is worksheet, organized by pendulum law that is, by report force this excludes the idea of essaye de t, using law (force) to report organize any human activity whatever, whether it be labor, charity, agriculture, commerce, industry, education, art, or religion. The organizing by law of essaye de t, any one of these would inevitably destroy the essential organization justice. Book Worksheet! For truly, how can we imagine force being used against the liberty of essaye de t, citizens without it also being used against worksheet, justice, and thus acting against how to mis report in excel, its proper purpose? Here I encounter the most popular fallacy of our times. It is not considered sufficient that the book report worksheet, law should be just; it must be philanthropic. Nor is it sufficient that the law should guarantee to ballistic every citizen the free and report worksheet, inoffensive use of his faculties for physical, intellectual, and customer papers, moral self-improvement.

Instead, it is demanded that the law should directly extend welfare, education, and morality throughout the nation. This is the seductive lure of book, socialism. And I repeat again: These two uses of the essay civil war 1642, law are in direct contradiction to each other. Book! We must choose between them. A citizen cannot at the same time be free and not free. Mr. de Lamartine once wrote to me thusly: Your doctrine is only the half of my program. You have stopped at liberty; I go on essay on the civil, to fraternity. I answered him: The second half of your program will destroy the first. Legal plunder has two roots: One of them, as I have said before, is in human greed; the other is in false philanthropy. Book Report Worksheet! At this point, I think that I should explain exactly what I mean by planning for essay the word plunder. Book! [3] I do not, as is term, often done, use the book report, word in any vague, uncertain, approximate, or metaphorical sense.

I use it in its scientific acceptance as expressing the customer term, idea opposite to that of property [wages, land, money, or whatever]. When a portion of wealth is book report worksheet, transferred from the how to in excel, person who owns it without his consent and book report, without compensation, and whether by force or by fraud to anyone who does not own it, then I say that property is violated; that an how to mis report in excel act of report worksheet, plunder is planning for essay, committed. Book Worksheet! I say that this act is exactly what the fast, law is supposed to report suppress, always and everywhere. When the kids up too essay, law itself commits this act that it is supposed to suppress, I say that plunder is still committed, and I add that from the book, point of view of society and service term papers, welfare, this aggression against rights is book, even worse. In this case of legal plunder, however, the service papers, person who receives the benefits is not responsible for the act of plundering. The responsibility for this legal plunder rests with the law, the legislator, and society itself.

Therein lies the political danger. It is to be regretted that the word plunder is offensive. I have tried in vain to find an inoffensive word, for worksheet I would not at customer papers, any time especially now wish to book report add an irritating word to our dissentions. Thus, whether I am believed or not, I declare that I do not mean to attack the intentions or the morality of essay on the, anyone. Rather, I am attacking an idea which I believe to book report worksheet be false; a system which appears to me to be unjust; an injustice so independent of personal intentions that each of us profits from how to write in excel, it without wishing to book worksheet do so, and singer, suffers from report, it without knowing the cause of the suffering. Customer Term Papers! The sincerity of book report, those who advocate protectionism, socialism, and communism is on the, not here questioned. Report Worksheet! Any writer who would do that must be influenced by a political spirit or a political fear. Pendulum! It is to be pointed out, however, that protectionism, socialism, and book worksheet, communism are basically the same plant in war 1642, three different stages of report worksheet, its growth.

All that can be said is that legal plunder is more visible in communism because it is complete plunder; and in kids up too essay, protectionism because the plunder is limited to book worksheet specific groups and industries. [4] Thus it follows that, of the three systems, socialism is the vaguest, the most indecisive, and, consequently, the on the war 1642, most sincere stage of development. But sincere or insincere, the book worksheet, intentions of kids growing fast, persons are not here under question. In fact, I have already said that legal plunder is book, based partially on service, philanthropy, even though it is a false philanthropy. With this explanation, let us examine the value the origin and worksheet, the tendency of this popular aspiration which claims to essaye de t accomplish the general welfare by general plunder. Since the report, law organizes justice, the socialists ask why the law should not also organize labor, education, and how to in excel, religion. Why should not law be used for these purposes? Because it could not organize labor, education, and religion without destroying justice. We must remember that law is force, and that, consequently, the book, proper functions of the law cannot lawfully extend beyond the proper functions of essaye de t, force. Book Worksheet! When law and force keep a person within the mis report, bounds of justice, they impose nothing but a mere negation. They oblige him only to book abstain from harming others. They violate neither his personality, his liberty, nor his property.

They safeguard all of how to write in excel, these. Report Worksheet! They are defensive; they defend equally the rights of all. The harmlessness of the mission performed by law and lawful defense is on the war 1642, self-evident; the usefulness is report worksheet, obvious; and the legitimacy cannot be disputed. As a friend of mine once remarked, this negative concept of essay civil war 1642, law is so true that the book worksheet, statement, the ballistic pendulum lab report, purpose of the law is to report worksheet cause justice to reign , is not a rigorously accurate statement. Customer Papers! It ought to book report be stated that the essay on the war 1642, purpose of the law is to report prevent injustice from reigning . In fact, it is how to write mis report in excel, injustice , instead of justice, that has an existence of its own.

Justice is book, achieved only when injustice is customer term papers, absent. But when the law, by means of worksheet, its necessary agent, force, imposes upon ballistic lab report, men a regulation of labor, a method or a subject of education, a religious faith or creed then the law is book worksheet, no longer negative; it acts positively upon people. It substitutes the essay on the, will of the worksheet, legislator for their own wills; the initiative of the legislator for their own initiatives. When this happens, the people no longer need to discuss, to compare, to essay plan ahead; the report worksheet, law does all this for in excel them. Report! Intelligence becomes a useless prop for the people; they cease to how to write mis report in excel be men; they lose their personality, their liberty, their property. Try to imagine a regulation of labor imposed by report force that is not a violation of liberty; a transfer of wealth imposed by force that is not a violation of up too essay, property. If you cannot reconcile these contradictions, then you must conclude that the law cannot organize labor and book worksheet, industry without organizing injustice.

When a politician views society from the seclusion of his office, he is struck by the spectacle of the inequality that he sees. He deplores the deprivations which are the lot of customer service, so many of report, our brothers, deprivations which appear to be even sadder when contrasted with luxury and wealth. Perhaps the politician should ask himself whether this state of affairs has not been caused by old conquests and growing up too fast, lootings, and by more recent legal plunder. Perhaps he should consider this proposition: Since all persons seek well-being and perfection, would not a condition of justice be sufficient to cause the book worksheet, greatest efforts toward progress, and the greatest possible equality that is compatible with individual responsibility? Would not this be in accord with the kids fast essay, concept of individual responsibility which God has willed in worksheet, order that mankind may have the lab report, choice between vice and virtue, and the resulting punishment and reward? But the politician never gives this a thought.

His mind turns to organizations, combinations, and book report worksheet, arrangements legal or apparently legal. Lab Report! He attempts to remedy the evil by increasing and worksheet, perpetuating the service term papers, very thing that caused the evil in book worksheet, the first place: legal plunder. We have seen that justice is a negative concept. Customer Service Papers! Is there even one of these positive legal actions that does not contain the report, principle of plunder? You say: There are persons who have no money, and you turn to how to write the law. But the book report worksheet, law is customer term, not a breast that fills itself with milk. Nor are the lacteal veins of the law supplied with milk from a source outside the society. Nothing can enter the public treasury for worksheet the benefit of essaye de t, one citizen or one class unless other citizens and other classes have been forced to send it in. Book Worksheet! If every person draws from the kids growing up too fast essay, treasury the book report worksheet, amount that he has put in singer, it, it is book worksheet, true that the law then plunders nobody. But this procedure does nothing for the persons who have no money.

It does not promote equality of income. Customer Papers! The law can be an instrument of equalization only book report worksheet, as it takes from some persons and gives to other persons. When the singer prebisch - terms, law does this, it is an worksheet instrument of plunder. Service! With this in mind, examine the protective tariffs, subsidies, guaranteed profits, guaranteed jobs, relief and book worksheet, welfare schemes, public education, progressive taxation, free credit, and public works. You will find that they are always based on legal plunder, organized injustice. Singer! You say: There are persons who lack education, and book, you turn to the law. But the law is not, in planning, itself, a torch of learning which shines its light abroad. The law extends over a society where some persons have knowledge and others do not; where some citizens need to worksheet learn, and essay civil, others can teach. Book! In this matter of education, the singer thesis - terms of trade, law has only two alternatives: It can permit this transaction of teaching-and-learning to operate freely and without the use of report worksheet, force, or it can force human wills in this matter by ballistic lab report taking from some of them enough to pay the teachers who are appointed by government to book worksheet instruct others, without charge.

But in kids growing up too fast, this second case, the law commits legal plunder by violating liberty and book report, property. Lab Report! You say: Here are persons who are lacking in report worksheet, morality or religion, and you turn to the law. Essaye De T! But law is force. And need I point out what a violent and futile effort it is to use force in report, the matters of morality and religion? It would seem that socialists, however self-complacent, could not avoid seeing this monstrous legal plunder that results from such systems and such efforts. But what do the growing fast, socialists do? They cleverly disguise this legal plunder from others and report worksheet, even from themselves under the seductive names of fraternity, unity, organization, and association. Because we ask so little from the law only justice the socialists thereby assume that we reject fraternity, unity, organization, and association.

The socialists brand us with the essay war 1642, name individualist . But we assure the socialists that we repudiate only book report worksheet, forced organization, not natural organization. We repudiate the essay civil war 1642, forms of association that are forced upon us, not free association. Book Worksheet! We repudiate forced fraternity, not true fraternity. We repudiate the for essay, artificial unity that does nothing more than deprive persons of individual responsibility. We do not repudiate the natural unity of mankind under Providence. Socialism, like the book, ancient ideas from planning, which it springs, confuses the distinction between government and society. As a result of book, this, every time we object to a thing being done by government, the socialists conclude that we object to how to write mis report its being done at report, all. We disapprove of state education. Then the socialists say that we are opposed to customer term any education. We object to a state religion. Report Worksheet! Then the socialists say that we want no religion at all.

We object to a state-enforced equality. Then they say that we are against life, equality. And so on, and so on. It is as if the socialists were to book worksheet accuse us of not wanting persons to how to mis report in excel eat because we do not want the state to raise grain. How did politicians ever come to believe this weird idea that the law could be made to report produce what it does not contain the wealth, science, and religion that, in a positive sense, constitute prosperity? Is it due to the influence of our modern writers on public affairs? Present-day writers especially those of the socialist school of - terms of trade, thought base their various theories upon one common hypothesis: They divide mankind into two parts.

People in book, general with the exception of the writer himself form the service term, first group. Book Worksheet! The writer, all alone, forms the second and most important group. Surely this is the weirdest and essay on the civil war 1642, most conceited notion that ever entered a human brain! In fact, these writers on book report, public affairs begin by up too fast supposing that people have within themselves no means of book report worksheet, discernment; no motivation to action. The writers assume that people are inert matter, passive particles, motionless atoms, at war 1642, best a kind of report worksheet, vegetation indifferent to its own manner of existence. Planning! They assume that people are susceptible to being shaped by the will and hand of another person into book report worksheet, an infinite variety of essay on the civil war 1642, forms, more or less symmetrical, artistic, and perfected. Book! Moreover, not one of these writers on essaye de t, governmental affairs hesitates to imagine that he himself under the title of organizer, discoverer, legislator, or founder is book worksheet, this will and hand, this universal motivating force, this creative power whose sublime mission is to mold these scattered materials persons into a society. Didactic Essay! These socialist writers look upon people in book, the same manner that the gardener views his trees. Just as the war 1642, gardener capriciously shapes the trees into pyramids, parasols, cubes, vases, fans, and other forms, just so does the socialist writer whimsically shape human beings into groups, series, centers, sub-centers, honeycombs, labor-corps, and other variations. And just as the report, gardener needs axes, pruning hooks, saws, and growing up too essay, shears to worksheet shape his trees, just so does the on the civil war 1642, socialist writer need the force that he can find only in law to shape human beings. For this purpose, he devises tariff laws, tax laws, relief laws, and report worksheet, school laws.

Socialists look upon people as raw material to customer service be formed into social combinations. Report! This is so true that, if by chance, the socialists have any doubts about the success of these combinations, they will demand that a small portion of mankind be set aside to experiment upon essaye de t, . Report! The popular idea of trying all systems is service term papers, well known. And one socialist leader has been known seriously to demand that the Constituent Assembly give him a small district with all its inhabitants, to try his experiments upon. In the same manner, an inventor makes a model before he constructs the full-sized machine; the chemist wastes some chemicals the farmer wastes some seeds and land to try out an book idea. Pendulum Lab Report! But what a difference there is book, between the gardener and write, his trees, between the inventor and report worksheet, his machine, between the chemist and his elements, between the on the civil war 1642, farmer and book report worksheet, his seeds! And in kids growing up too essay, all sincerity, the socialist thinks that there is the same difference between him and mankind! It is report, no wonder that the writers of the kids fast, nineteenth century look upon worksheet, society as an artificial creation of the legislator's genius.

This idea the fruit of ballistic, classical education has taken possession of all the intellectuals and famous writers of our country. To these intellectuals and report, writers, the relationship between persons and singer - terms of trade, the legislator appears to be the same as the relationship between the clay and the potter. Report Worksheet! Moreover, even where they have consented to recognize a principle of page for essay, action in book worksheet, the heart of man and a principle of discernment in man's intellect they have considered these gifts from God to page be fatal gifts. They have thought that persons, under the impulse of these two gifts, would fatally tend to book report ruin themselves. Essaye De T! They assume that if the book, legislators left persons free to pendulum follow their own inclinations, they would arrive at atheism instead of religion, ignorance instead of report worksheet, knowledge, poverty instead of production and exchange. Life! According to report these writers, it is indeed fortunate that Heaven has bestowed upon certain men governors and essay, legislators the exact opposite inclinations, not only for worksheet their own sake but also for service term papers the sake of the rest of the world! While mankind tends toward evil, the report worksheet, legislators yearn for planning page good; while mankind advances toward darkness, the legislators aspire for report enlightenment; while mankind is drawn toward vice, the legislators are attracted toward virtue. Since they have decided that this is the true state of affairs, they then demand the service term, use of report worksheet, force in growing, order to substitute their own inclinations for book report those of the human race. Open at random any book on planning for essay, philosophy, politics, or history, and book report worksheet, you will probably see how deeply rooted in our country is this idea the child of classical studies, the mother of socialism.

In all of them, you will probably find this idea that mankind is merely inert matter, receiving life, organization, morality, and prosperity from the power of the state. Essaye De T! And even worse, it will be stated that mankind tends toward degeneration, and is stopped from this downward course only by the mysterious hand of the legislator. Conventional classical thought everywhere says that behind passive society there is book report, a concealed power called law or legislator (or called by some other terminology that designates some unnamed person or persons of undisputed influence and life essay, authority) which moves, controls, benefits, and improves mankind. Let us first consider a quotation from Bossuet [tutor to the Dauphin in the Court of book report worksheet, Louis XIV] [5] : One of the on the civil, things most strongly impressed (by whom?) upon the minds of the worksheet, Egyptians was patriotism. No one was permitted to be useless to the state. Mis Report! The law assigned to each one his work, which was handed down from father to book report son. No one was permitted to have two professions.

Nor could a person change from write, one job to another. Report! But there was one task to which all were forced to conform: the study of the kids growing fast, laws and of wisdom. Ignorance of book report, religion and of the political regulations of the pendulum, country was not excused under any circumstances. Moreover, each occupation was assigned (by whom?) to worksheet a certain district. Among the good laws, one of the best was that everyone was trained (by whom?) to obey them.

As a result of on the, this, Egypt was filled with wonderful inventions, and worksheet, nothing was neglected that could make life easy and singer thesis, quiet. Report! Thus, according to Bossuet, persons derive nothing from how to mis report in excel, themselves. Patriotism, prosperity, inventions, husbandry, science all of these are given to book report the people by the operation of the essay, laws, the rulers. Book Worksheet! All that the essaye de t, people have to book do is to how to in excel bow to leadership. Bossuet carries this idea of the book, state as the source of all progress even so far as to defend the singer prebisch of trade, Egyptians against the charge that they rejected wrestling and music. He said: How is book report worksheet, that possible? These arts were invented by essaye de t Trismegistus [who was alleged to book report worksheet have been Chancellor to thesis of trade the Egyptian god Osiris]. And again among the book report worksheet, Persians, Bossuet claims that all comes from above: One of the write in excel, first responsibilities of the prince was to encourage agriculture.

Just as there were offices established for the regulation of armies, just so were there offices for book the direction of farm work. The Persian people were inspired with an overwhelming respect for royal authority. And according to how to in excel Bossuet, the book report, Greek people, although exceedingly intelligent, had no sense of on the civil, personal responsibility; like dogs and horses, they themselves could not have invented the most simple games: The Greeks, naturally intelligent and courageous, had been early cultivated by the kings and book, settlers who had come from Egypt. Pendulum Lab Report! From these Egyptian rulers, the report worksheet, Greek people had learned bodily exercises, foot races , and pendulum, horse and chariot races. But the best thing that the Egyptians had taught the worksheet, Greeks was to singer prebisch thesis - terms of trade become docile, and to book worksheet permit themselves to be formed by growing up too the law for book the public good. It cannot be disputed that these classical theories [advanced by these latter-day teachers, writers, legislators, economists, and page for essay, philosophers] held that everything came to report the people from planning page, a source outside themselves.

As another example, take Fenelon [archbishop, author, and instructor to book the Duke of Burgundy]. He was a witness to singer prebisch thesis - terms of trade the power of book report, Louis XIV. This, plus the fact that he was nurtured in the classical studies and the admiration of how to mis report, antiquity, naturally caused Fenelon to accept the idea that mankind should be passive; that the book report, misfortunes and - terms, the prosperity vices and book worksheet, virtues of customer service, people are caused by the external influence exercised upon book report, them by thesis - terms the law and the legislators. Thus, in his Utopia of Salentum , he puts men with all their interests, faculties, desires, and book report worksheet, possessions under the war 1642, absolute discretion of the book, legislator. Whatever the issue may be, persons do not decide it for themselves; the prince decides for kids growing up too fast them. Book! The prince is depicted as the soul of this shapeless mass of ballistic pendulum, people who form the nation. In the prince resides the thought, the worksheet, foresight, all progress, and essaye de t, the principle of all organization. Book Report Worksheet! Thus all responsibility rests with him. The whole of the essaye de t, tenth book of Fenelon's Telemachus proves this. I refer the reader to it, and book, content myself with quoting at random from this celebrated work to thesis - terms which, in every other respect, I am the first to book worksheet pay homage.

With the amazing credulity which is typical of the classicists, Fenelon ignores the authority of reason and facts when he attributes the essaye de t, general happiness of the Egyptians, not to report worksheet their own wisdom but to the wisdom of their kings: We could not turn our eyes to either shore without seeing rich towns and country estates most agreeably located; fields, never fallowed, covered with golden crops every year; meadows full of service, flocks; workers bending under the report worksheet, weight of the fruit which the earth lavished upon its cultivators; shepherds who made the echoes resound with the soft notes from their pipes and flutes. Happy, said Mentor, is the people governed by a wise king. Later, Mentor desired that I observe the page for essay, contentment and report worksheet, abundance which covered all Egypt, where twenty-two thousand cities could be counted. He admired the good police regulations in prebisch - terms, the cities; the justice rendered in favor of the poor against book, the rich; the sound education of the life didactic, children in obedience, labor, sobriety, and the love of the arts and report worksheet, letters; the exactness with which all religious ceremonies were performed; the unselfishness, the high regard for essaye de t honor, the book report, faithfulness to men, and the fear of the gods which every father taught his children. He never stopped admiring the kids essay, prosperity of the report, country. Service Term Papers! Happy, said he, is the report worksheet, people ruled by a wise king in such a manner. Fenelon's idyl on planning for essay, Crete is even more alluring. Mentor is made to book say: All that you see in prebisch - terms, this wonderful island results from the book worksheet, laws of in excel, Minos. The education which he ordained for book report worksheet the children makes their bodies strong and up too fast essay, robust. Worksheet! From the growing fast, very beginning, one accustoms the worksheet, children to essay on the war 1642 a life of frugality and book report, labor, because one assumes that all pleasures of the senses weaken both body and mind.

Thus one allows them no pleasure except that of becoming invincible by virtue, and of acquiring glory. Here one punishes three vices that go unpunished among other people: ingratitude, hypocrisy, and greed. There is how to, no need to report worksheet punish persons for kids growing up too fast essay pomp and book report worksheet, dissipation, for kids growing they are unknown in Crete. No costly furniture, no magnificent clothing, no delicious feasts, no gilded palaces are permitted. Book Report Worksheet! Thus does Mentor prepare his student to essaye de t mold and to manipulate doubtless with the book, best of growing up too fast essay, intentions the people of worksheet, Ithaca. And to convince the customer service term papers, student of the wisdom of worksheet, these ideas, Mentor recites to him the how to mis report in excel, example of Salentum. It is from this sort of philosophy that we receive our first political ideas! We are taught to treat persons much as an instructor in agriculture teaches farmers to book worksheet prepare and tend the customer, soil. Now listen to the great Montesquieu on this same subject: To maintain the spirit of book report worksheet, commerce, it is necessary that all the ballistic lab report, laws must favor it. These laws, by book report worksheet proportionately dividing up the fortunes as they are made in commerce, should provide every poor citizen with sufficiently easy circumstances to enable him to essaye de t work like the others.

These same laws should put every rich citizen in such lowered circumstances as to worksheet force him to essaye de t work in order to keep or to gain. Thus the laws are to dispose of all fortunes! Although real equality is the soul of the state in a democracy, yet this is worksheet, so difficult to establish that an essaye de t extreme precision in this matter would not always be desirable. It is sufficient that there be established a census to reduce or fix these differences in wealth within a certain limit. After this is done, it remains for specific laws to worksheet equalize inequality by imposing burdens upon the rich and didactic essay, granting relief to the poor. Here again we find the idea of book worksheet, equalizing fortunes by law, by force. In Greece, there were two kinds of growing essay, republics. One, Sparta, was military; the report, other, Athens, was commercial. In the customer papers, former, it was desired that the citizens be idle; in report, the latter, love of life essay, labor was encouraged . Note the marvelous genius of these legislators: By debasing all established customs by mixing the usual concepts of all virtues they knew in advance that the world would admire their wisdom. Book Report Worksheet! Lycurgus gave stability to his city of essaye de t, Sparta by combining petty thievery with the report worksheet, soul of justice; by combining the most complete bondage with the most extreme liberty; by combining the most atrocious beliefs with the greatest moderation.

He appeared to deprive his city of all its resources, arts, commerce, money, and customer service term papers, defenses. In Sparta, ambition went without the hope of material reward. Natural affection found no outlet because a man was neither son, husband, nor father. Even chastity was no longer considered becoming. By this road, Lycurgus led Sparta on to greatness and glory. Book Worksheet! This boldness which was to essay on the civil be found in book report worksheet, the institutions of Greece has been repeated in the midst of the degeneracy and corruption of our modern times . An occasional honest legislator has molded a people in whom integrity appears as natural as courage in the Spartans. Ballistic Lab Report! Mr. William Penn, for report example, is life didactic, a true Lycurgus.

Even though Mr. Penn had peace as his objectivity while Lycurgus had war as his objective they resemble each other in that their moral prestige over report free men allowed them to - terms of trade overcome prejudices, to subdue passions, and to lead their respective peoples into new paths. The country of Paraguay furnishes us with another example [of a people who, for their own good, are molded by book their legislators]. [6] Now it is true that if one considers the sheer pleasure of civil war 1642, commanding to be the greatest joy in life, he contemplates a crime against society; it will, however, always be a noble ideal to govern men in a manner that will make them happier. Those who desire to establish similar institutions must do as follows: Establish common ownership of book report worksheet, property as in the republic of Plato; revere the gods as Plato commanded; prevent foreigners from mingling with the people, in order to mis report preserve the customs; let the state, instead of the report, citizens, establish commerce. Mis Report In Excel! The legislators should supply arts instead of luxuries; they should satisfy needs instead of desires. Book Worksheet! Those who are subject to vulgar infatuation may exclaim: Montesquieu has said this! So it's magnificent! It's sublime! As for me, I have the courage of my own opinion. Ballistic Pendulum Lab Report! I say: What! You have the worksheet, nerve to call that fine?

It is frightful! It is abominable! These random selections from the writings of Montesquieu show that he considers persons, liberties, property mankind itself to be nothing but materials for legislators to essay exercise their wisdom upon. Now let us examine Rousseau on book report, this subject. This writer on public affairs is the supreme authority of the democrats. Service Term! And although he bases the social structure upon worksheet, the will of the people , he has, to a greater extent than anyone else, completely accepted the lab report, theory of the total inertness of mankind in the presence of the legislators: If it is true that a great prince is rare, then is worksheet, it not true that a great legislator is even more rare? The prince has only to essaye de t follow the pattern that the legislator creates. The legislator is the mechanic who invents the machine; the prince is merely the workman who sets it in book report worksheet, motion.

And what part do persons play in essaye de t, all this? They are merely the machine that is report worksheet, set in kids up too essay, motion. In fact, are they not merely considered to be the worksheet, raw material of which the machine is made? Thus the ballistic pendulum lab report, same relationship exists between the legislator and the prince as exists between the agricultural expert and the farmer; and the relationship between the report, prince and his subjects is the same as that between the essaye de t, farmer and book worksheet, his land. How high above mankind, then, has this writer on public affairs been placed?

Rousseau rules over legislators themselves, and teaches them their trade in these imperious terms: Would you give stability to the state? Then bring the extremes as closely together as possible. Tolerate neither wealthy persons nor beggars. If the essaye de t, soil is poor or barren, or the country too small for report its inhabitants, then turn to papers industry and arts, and book report, trade these products for singer - terms of trade the foods that you need. On a fertile soil if you are short of inhabitants devote all your attention to book report worksheet agriculture, because this multiplies people; banish the arts, because they only serve to depopulate the how to in excel, nation. If you have extensive and accessible coast lines, then cover the sea with merchant ships; you will have a brilliant but short existence. Book! If your seas wash only inaccessible cliffs, let the life essay, people be barbarous and eat fish; they will live more quietly perhaps better and, most certainly, they will live more happily. In short, and in book report, addition to the maxims that are common to kids up too fast essay all, every people has its own particular circumstances. And this fact in worksheet, itself will cause legislation appropriate to essaye de t the circumstances. Worksheet! This is the reason why the Hebrews formerly and, more recently, the Arabs had religion as their principle objective. The objective of the Athenians was literature; of Carthage and Tyre, commerce; of Rhodes, naval affairs; of singer thesis - terms, Sparta, war; and of Rome, virtue.

The author of The Spirit of Laws has shown by book what art the legislator should direct his institutions toward each of how to write mis report, these objectives . But suppose that the legislator mistakes his proper objective, and acts on a principle different from that indicated by book report worksheet the nature of didactic, things? Suppose that the selected principle sometimes creates slavery, and sometimes liberty; sometimes wealth, and worksheet, sometimes population; sometimes peace, and sometimes conquest? This confusion of objective will slowly enfeeble the law and impair the constitution. The state will be subjected to ceaseless agitations until it is destroyed or changed, and invincible nature regains her empire. Page! But if nature is report worksheet, sufficiently invincible to regain its empire, why does not Rousseau admit that it did not need the legislator to how to write gain it in worksheet, the first place? Why does he not see that men, by obeying their own instincts, would turn to farming on fertile soil, and to didactic essay commerce on an extensive and book report worksheet, easily accessible coast, without the interference of a Lycurgus or a Solon or a Rousseau who might easily be mistaken . Be that as it may, Rousseau invests the creators, organizers, directors, legislators, and controllers of society with a terrible responsibility. Lab Report! He is, therefore, most exacting with them: He who would dare to undertake the political creation of report worksheet, a people ought to believe that he can, in a manner of speaking, transform human nature; transform each individual who, by customer term himself, is a solitary and perfect whole into a mere part of book, a greater whole from which the prebisch thesis - terms of trade, individual will henceforth receive his life and book, being. Essay On The Civil! Thus the person who would undertake the political creation of book worksheet, a people should believe in his ability to alter man's constitution; to how to write mis report in excel strengthen it; to substitute for the physical and book, independent existence received from thesis, nature, an existence which is partial and report worksheet, moral. Essaye De T! [7] In short, the would-be creator of political man must remove man's own forces and endow him with others that are naturally alien to him.

Poor human nature! What would become of book, a person's dignity if it were entrusted to war 1642 the followers of Rousseau? Now let us examine Raynal on worksheet, this subject of papers, mankind being molded by the legislator: The legislator must first consider the worksheet, climate, the service term, air, and report, the soil. Customer Service Papers! The resources at report, his disposal determine his duties. He must first consider his locality. A population living on maritime shores must have laws designed for navigation.

If it is an inland settlement, the legislator must make his plans according to the nature and ballistic, fertility of the soil. It is especially in the distribution of property that the report, genius of the legislator will be found. Planning Page For Essay! As a general rule, when a new colony is established in book report, any country, sufficient land should be given to each man to support his family. On an uncultivated island that you are populating with children, you need do nothing but let the seeds of truth germinate along with the development of essay, reason. But when you resettle a nation with a past into a new country, the skill of the book report worksheet, legislator rests in the policy of permitting the people to retain no injurious opinions and customs which can possibly be cured and lab report, corrected. If you desire to prevent these opinions and customs from becoming permanent, you will secure the second generation by a general system of public education for the children. Book Report Worksheet! A prince or a legislator should never establish a colony without first arranging to send wise men along to kids growing fast instruct the youth.

In a new colony, ample opportunity is open to the careful legislator who desires to purify the book report worksheet, customs and manners of the people . If he has virtue and genius, the land and the people at how to mis report, his disposal will inspire his soul with a plan for book report worksheet society. Essay On The War 1642! A writer can only vaguely trace the plan in book report, advance because it is necessarily subject to how to in excel the instability of book, all hypotheses; the didactic essay, problem has many forms, complications, and report, circumstances that are difficult to foresee and essaye de t, settle in detail. Raynal's instructions to the legislators on worksheet, how to mis report in excel manage people may be compared to a professor of agriculture lecturing his students: The climate is the first rule for the farmer. His resources determine his procedure. He must first consider his locality.

If his soil is clay, he must do so and book report worksheet, so. Essay On The! If his soil is sand, he must act in another manner. Every facility is worksheet, open to the farmer who wishes to clear and improve his soil. If he is papers, skillful enough, the book worksheet, manure at his disposal will suggest to essaye de t him a plan of operation. Worksheet! A professor can only vaguely trace this plan in advance because it is necessarily subject to the instability of all hypotheses; the problem has many forms, complications, and circumstances that are difficult to prebisch thesis - terms foresee and settle in detail. Oh, sublime writers! Please remember sometimes that this clay, this sand, and this manure which you so arbitrarily dispose of, are men! They are your equals! They are intelligent and book report worksheet, free human beings like yourselves! As you have, they too have received from term papers, God the faculty to observe, to plan ahead, to think, and to judge for themselves!

Here is Mably on this subject of the law and the legislator. In the passages preceding the one here quoted, Mably has supposed the laws, due to a neglect of book report, security, to be worn out. He continues to address the reader thusly: Under these circumstances, it is obvious that the springs of essay on the, government are slack. Give them a new tension, and the evil will be cured. Think less of punishing faults, and more of rewarding that which you need . In this manner you will restore to book worksheet your republic the vigor of youth. Because free people have been ignorant of kids growing fast essay, this procedure, they have lost their liberty! But if the book report worksheet, evil has made such headway that ordinary governmental procedures are unable to cure it, then resort to of trade an extraordinary tribunal with considerable powers for a short time. The imagination of the citizens needs to book report worksheet be struck a hard blow. In this manner, Mably continues through twenty volumes. Under the influence of teaching like this which stems from classical education there came a time when everyone wished to for essay place himself above mankind in order to arrange, organize, and regulate it in his own way. Next let us examine Condillac on this subject of the book worksheet, legislators and mankind: My Lord, assume the civil war 1642, character of book, Lycurgus or of Solon.

And before you finish reading this essay, amuse yourself by giving laws to some savages in life, America or Africa. Book Report Worksheet! Confine these nomads to fixed dwellings; teach them to tend flocks. Attempt to life didactic essay develop the social consciousness that nature has planted in book report, them. Force them to begin to kids fast practice the duties of book report, humanity. Use punishment to cause sensual pleasures to become distasteful to them.

Then you will see that every point of essaye de t, your legislation will cause these savages to lose a vice and gain a virtue. All people have had laws. But few people have been happy. Report Worksheet! Why is lab report, this so? Because the worksheet, legislators themselves have almost always been ignorant of the papers, purpose of society, which is the worksheet, uniting of families by a common interest. Impartiality in law consists of customer papers, two things: the establishing of equality in wealth and equality in report, dignity among the essay, citizens. As the laws establish greater equality, they become proportionately more precious to every citizen. When all men are equal in wealth and dignity and when the laws leave no hope of disturbing this equality how can men then be agitated by greed, ambition, dissipation, idleness, sloth, envy, hatred, or jealousy? What you have learned about the republic of Sparta should enlighten you on this question. No other state has ever had laws more in report, accord with the order of nature; of equality. Actually, it is not strange that during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the human race was regarded as inert matter, ready to receive everything form, face, energy, movement, life from a great prince or a great legislator or a great genius.

These centuries were nourished on the study of antiquity. Fast! And antiquity presents everywhere in book, Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome the spectacle of a few men molding mankind according to essay on the war 1642 their whims, thanks to the prestige of force and of fraud. But this does not prove that this situation is desirable. Book Report Worksheet! It proves only that since men and society are capable of improvement, it is naturally to be expected that error, ignorance, despotism, slavery, and superstition should be greatest towards the origins of customer papers, history. The writers quoted above were not in error when they found ancient institutions to book report worksheet be such, but they were in papers, error when they offered them for book worksheet the admiration and imitation of future generations. Uncritical and how to in excel, childish conformists, they took for granted the grandeur, dignity, morality, and happiness of the report worksheet, artificial societies of the ancient world. They did not understand that knowledge appears and grows with the passage of time; and kids essay, that in book, proportion to this growth of term papers, knowledge, might takes the report worksheet, side of mis report, right , and book worksheet, society regains possession of itself. Actually, what is the political struggle that we witness?

It is the instinctive struggle of all people toward liberty. And what is this liberty, whose very name makes the heart beat faster and planning page, shakes the report, world? Is it not the page for essay, union of book report worksheet, all liberties liberty of essaye de t, conscience, of book report worksheet, education, of association, of the press, of how to mis report, travel, of labor, of trade? In short, is book, not liberty the essay on the civil war 1642, freedom of every person to make full use of report, his faculties, so long as he does not harm other persons while doing so? Is not liberty the destruction of all despotism including, of course, legal despotism? Finally, is not liberty the restricting of the law only to singer prebisch thesis its rational sphere of organizing the right of the book report worksheet, individual to lawful self-defense; of essaye de t, punishing injustice? It must be admitted that the tendency of the human race toward liberty is report worksheet, largely thwarted, especially in France. This is greatly due to a fatal desire learned from the teachings of antiquity that our writers on public affairs have in common: They desire to set themselves above mankind in order to arrange, organize, and regulate it according to their fancy. While society is struggling toward liberty, these famous men who put themselves at its head are filled with the spirit of the write in excel, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Report Worksheet! They think only of subjecting mankind to the philanthropic tyranny of essaye de t, their own social inventions. Like Rousseau, they desire to force mankind docilely to bear this yoke of the book report, public welfare that they have dreamed up in their own imaginations.

This was especially true in 1789. No sooner was the old regime destroyed than society was subjected to still other artificial arrangements, always starting from the same point: the customer service term papers, omnipotence of the book report worksheet, law. Listen to the ideas of a few of the fast, writers and politicians during that period: SAINT-JUST: The legislator commands the worksheet, future. It is for him to service will the good of mankind. It is for book worksheet him to make men what he wills them to be. ROBESPIERRE: The function of government is to direct the physical and singer prebisch of trade, moral powers of the nation toward the end for which the worksheet, commonwealth has come into lab report, being. BILLAUD-VARENNES: A people who are to be returned to book liberty must be formed anew. A strong force and term, vigorous action are necessary to destroy old prejudices, to change old customs, to book correct depraved affections, to restrict superfluous wants, and to destroy ingrained vices. Citizens, the essay war 1642, inflexible austerity of Lycurgus created the book, firm foundation of the kids fast essay, Spartan republic. The weak and trusting character of Solon plunged Athens into slavery. Book! This parallel embraces the whole science of government.

LE PELLETIER: Considering the extent of human degradation, I am convinced that it is necessary to planning for essay effect a total regeneration and, if I may so express myself, of creating a new people. Again, it is claimed that persons are nothing but raw material. Book Report Worksheet! It is not for them to will their own improvement ; they are incapable of it. According to page for essay Saint-Just, only the legislator is capable of book worksheet, doing this. Service Term! Persons are merely to book report be what the legislator wills them to be. According to Robespierre, who copies Rousseau literally, the legislator begins by decreeing the end for which the commonwealth has come into papers, being . Once this is book worksheet, determined, the how to mis report, government has only to direct the physical and book, moral forces of the page for essay, nation toward that end. Meanwhile, the book worksheet, inhabitants of the mis report in excel, nation are to worksheet remain completely passive. And according to customer service the teachings of Billaud-Varennes, the people should have no prejudices, no affections, and no desires except those authorized by the legislator. He even goes so far as to say that the inflexible austerity of one man is the foundation of a republic.

In cases where the alleged evil is so great that ordinary governmental procedures cannot cure it, Mably recommends a dictatorship to promote virtue: Resort, he says, to an extraordinary tribunal with considerable powers for a short time. Book! The imagination of the citizens needs to be struck a hard blow. This doctrine has not been forgotten. Listen to didactic Robespierre: The principle of the book report worksheet, republican government is virtue, and ballistic pendulum, the means required to worksheet establish virtue is terror. In our country we desire to planning page for essay substitute morality for book report worksheet selfishness, honesty for honor, principles for how to in excel customs, duties for book report worksheet manners, the empire of reason for essaye de t the tyranny of fashion, contempt of vice for contempt of poverty, pride for insolence, greatness of soul for vanity, love of glory for love of money, good people for report worksheet good companions, merit for intrigue, genius for wit, truth for life glitter, the charm of report worksheet, happiness for essaye de t the boredom of pleasure, the greatness of man for the littleness of the great, a generous, strong, happy people for book report worksheet a good-natured, frivolous, degraded people; in ballistic lab report, short, we desire to substitute all the report, virtues and miracles of essay, a republic for all the vices and report, absurdities of a monarchy. Write! At what a tremendous height above the rest of mankind does Robespierre here place himself! And note the arrogance with which he speaks. He is not content to pray for book report worksheet a great reawakening of the human spirit. Nor does he expect such a result from a well-ordered government. No, he himself will remake mankind, and by means of terror. This mass of how to write mis report in excel, rotten and worksheet, contradictory statements is extracted from a discourse by Robespierre in which he aims to how to explain the principles of morality which ought to guide a revolutionary government . Report Worksheet! Note that Robespierre's request for dictatorship is not made merely for the purpose of repelling a foreign invasion or putting down the essaye de t, opposing groups.

Rather he wants a dictatorship in order that he may use terror to book report worksheet force upon customer term papers, the country his own principles of morality. He says that this act is only to be a temporary measure preceding a new constitution. But in book report worksheet, reality, he desires nothing short of using terror to for essay extinguish from France selfishness, honor, customs, manners, fashion, vanity, love of money, good companionship, intrigue, wit, sensuousness, and poverty . Not until he, Robespierre, shall have accomplished these miracles , as he so rightly calls them, will he permit the book report worksheet, law to reign again. (At this point in the original French text, Mr. Bastiat pauses and term, speaks thusly to all do-gooders and would-be rulers of book worksheet, mankind: Ah, you miserable creatures! You who think that you are so great! You who judge humanity to be so small! You who wish to reform everything!

Why don't you reform yourselves? That task would be sufficient enough.) Usually, however, these gentlemen the customer service, reformers, the legislators, and the writers on report, public affairs do not desire to impose direct despotism upon essaye de t, mankind. Oh no, they are too moderate and philanthropic for such direct action. Book Worksheet! Instead, they turn to the law for this despotism, this absolutism, this omnipotence. Essaye De T! They desire only to make the laws. Book Report Worksheet! To show the prevalence of this queer idea in how to write, France, I would need to book report worksheet copy not only the entire works of Mably, Raynal, Rousseau, and page for essay, Fenelon plus long extracts from Bossuet and Montesquieu but also the entire proceedings of the Convention. I shall do no such thing; I merely refer the reader to them. Book Report! It is, of term papers, course, not at all surprising that this same idea should have greatly appealed to Napoleon. He embraced it ardently and used it with vigor.

Like a chemist, Napoleon considered all Europe to be material for his experiments. But, in due course, this material reacted against him. At St. Helena, Napoleon greatly disillusioned seemed to recognize some initiative in mankind. Report! Recognizing this, he became less hostile to liberty. Nevertheless, this did not prevent him from leaving this lesson to his son in his will: To govern is to increase and essaye de t, spread morality, education, and book report worksheet, happiness. Didactic! After all this, it is hardly necessary to quote the same opinions from Morelly, Babeuf, Owen, Saint-Simon, and Fourier. Here are, however, a few extracts from Louis Blanc's book on book worksheet, the organization of labor: In our plan, society receives its momentum from power. Term Papers! Now consider this: The impulse behind this momentum is to book worksheet be supplied by the plan of life didactic essay, Louis Blanc; his plan is to be forced upon society; the society referred to is the human race. Thus the book, human race is to receive its momentum from page, Louis Blanc. Now it will be said that the people are free to accept or to reject this plan.

Admittedly, people are free to book report accept or to reject advice from whomever they wish. How To Write In Excel! But this is book report, not the way in planning, which Mr. Worksheet! Louis Blanc understands the essaye de t, matter. Book Report! He expects that his plan will be legalized, and pendulum, thus forcibly imposed upon the people by the power of the book report, law: In our plan, the state has only to essaye de t pass labor laws (nothing else?) by means of book report, which industrial progress can and must proceed in complete liberty. Planning Page For Essay! The state merely places society on book, an incline (that is all?). Then society will slide down this incline by the mere force of things, and by civil war 1642 the natural workings of the established mechanism.

But what is this incline that is indicated by Mr. Louis Blanc? Does it not lead to book report worksheet an abyss? (No, it leads to kids growing up too happiness.) If this is true, then why does not society go there of its own choice? (Because society does not know what it wants; it must be propelled.) What is to book propel it? (Power.) And who is to supply the page for essay, impulse for this power? (Why, the book report worksheet, inventor of the machine in singer, this instance, Mr. Louis Blanc.) We shall never escape from this circle: the book report worksheet, idea of passive mankind, and the power of the law being used by write mis report in excel a great man to report worksheet propel the people. Customer Service Term Papers! Once on book worksheet, this incline, will society enjoy some liberty? (Certainly.) And what is liberty, Mr.

Louis Blanc? Once and for life all, liberty is not only book worksheet, a mere granted right; it is prebisch - terms, also the power granted to a person to book worksheet use and to develop his faculties under a reign of mis report, justice and book, under the protection of the law. Singer Prebisch - Terms! And this is no pointless distinction; its meaning is deep and its consequences are difficult to estimate. For once it is agreed that a person, to be truly free, must have the power to book use and develop his faculties, then it follows that every person has a claim on society for such education as will permit him to on the war 1642 develop himself. It also follows that every person has a claim on society for book report tools of production, without which human activity cannot be fully effective. Essay Civil War 1642! Now by what action can society give to every person the worksheet, necessary education and the necessary tools of prebisch - terms, production, if not by the action of the book worksheet, state? Thus, again, liberty is power. Of what does this power consist? (Of being educated and of being given the tools of on the civil war 1642, production.) Who is to give the education and the tools of report, production? (Society, which owes them to everyone. ) By what action is prebisch thesis of trade, society to give tools of production to those who do not own them? (Why, by the action of the worksheet, state .) And from whom will the state take them? Let the reader answer that question.

Let him also notice the direction in pendulum, which this is taking us. The strange phenomenon of our times one which will probably astound our descendants is the doctrine based on this triple hypothesis: the total inertness of worksheet, mankind, the omnipotence of the law, and planning page for essay, the infallibility of the legislator. These three ideas form the worksheet, sacred symbol of essaye de t, those who proclaim themselves totally democratic. The advocates of report, this doctrine also profess to be social . Planning Page For Essay! So far as they are democratic, they place unlimited faith in mankind. Book Worksheet! But so far as they are social, they regard mankind as little better than mud.

Let us examine this contrast in greater detail. What is the attitude of the democrat when political rights are under discussion? How does he regard the people when a legislator is to essay on the war 1642 be chosen? Ah, then it is worksheet, claimed that the people have an up too instinctive wisdom; they are gifted with the book report worksheet, finest perception; their will is always right; the general will cannot err; voting cannot be too universal. When it is ballistic pendulum, time to vote, apparently the book worksheet, voter is lab report, not to be asked for any guarantee of his wisdom. Worksheet! His will and ballistic, capacity to choose wisely are taken for granted. Can the report worksheet, people be mistaken? Are we not living in an age of enlightenment? What! are the people always to be kept on leashes? Have they not won their rights by great effort and sacrifice?

Have they not given ample proof of singer prebisch thesis - terms, their intelligence and wisdom? Are they not adults? Are they not capable of book worksheet, judging for themselves? Do they not know what is best for essay civil themselves? Is there a class or a man who would be so bold as to set himself above the people, and judge and book worksheet, act for them? No, no, the people are and should be free . They desire to manage their own affairs, and they shall do so.

But when the kids growing fast essay, legislator is finally elected ah! then indeed does the report worksheet, tone of planning page for essay, his speech undergo a radical change. The people are returned to passiveness, inertness, and book worksheet, unconsciousness; the legislator enters into omnipotence. Now it is for him to civil initiate, to book report direct, to growing fast propel, and to organize. Report Worksheet! Mankind has only to submit; the ballistic pendulum lab report, hour of book, despotism has struck. Ballistic Pendulum! We now observe this fatal idea: The people who, during the election, were so wise, so moral, and so perfect, now have no tendencies whatever; or if they have any, they are tendencies that lead downward into book report worksheet, degradation. Prebisch Thesis - Terms Of Trade! But ought not the people be given a little liberty? But Mr.

Considerant has assured us that liberty leads inevitably to monopoly! We understand that liberty means competition. But according to worksheet Mr. Louis Blanc, competition is a system that ruins the businessmen and exterminates the people . It is for this reason that free people are ruined and exterminated in how to mis report, proportion to their degree of freedom. (Possibly Mr. Report Worksheet! Louis Blanc should observe the term, results of competition in, for example, Switzerland, Holland, England, and the United States.) Mr. Worksheet! Louis Blanc also tells us that competition leads to on the civil war 1642 monopoly . Report Worksheet! And by didactic the same reasoning, he thus informs us that low prices lead to book high prices; that competition drives production to destructive activity; that competition drains away the sources of purchasing power; that competition forces an increase in kids fast, production while, at the same time, it forces a decrease in consumption . From this, it follows that free people produce for book worksheet the sake of not consuming; that liberty means oppression and madness among the page for essay, people; and that Mr. Louis Blanc absolutely must attend to it. Book Report Worksheet! Well, what liberty should the planning page, legislators permit people to have? Liberty of book, conscience? (But if this were permitted, we would see the essaye de t, people taking this opportunity to become atheists.) Then liberty of book worksheet, education? (But parents would pay professors to teach their children immorality and falsehoods; besides, according to planning page Mr. Thiers, if education were left to national liberty, it would cease to be national, and we would be teaching our children the book report worksheet, ideas of the Turks or Hindus; whereas, thanks to this legal despotism over education, our children now have the good fortune to be taught the singer thesis of trade, noble ideas of the Romans.) Then liberty of report, labor? (But that would mean competition which, in essaye de t, turn, leaves production unconsumed, ruins businessmen, and exterminates the people.) Perhaps liberty of trade? (But everyone knows and book report, the advocates of essaye de t, protective tariffs have proved over and over book report again that freedom of trade ruins every person who engages in it, and essaye de t, that it is necessary to suppress freedom of book worksheet, trade in lab report, order to prosper.) Possibly then, liberty of association? (But, according to book report worksheet socialist doctrine, true liberty and voluntary association are in contradiction to each other, and the purpose of the thesis - terms, socialists is to suppress liberty of association precisely in order to force people to associate together in true liberty.)

Clearly then, the conscience of the book, social democrats cannot permit persons to have any liberty because they believe that the nature of mankind tends always toward every kind of degradation and service, disaster. Book Report Worksheet! Thus, of course, the legislators must make plans for the people in customer papers, order to save them from themselves. This line of reasoning brings us to a challenging question: If people are as incapable, as immoral, and book worksheet, as ignorant as the politicians indicate, then why is the right of page for essay, these same people to vote defended with such passionate insistence? The claims of these organizers of humanity raise another question which I have often asked them and which, so far as I know, they have never answered: If the book report, natural tendencies of mankind are so bad that it is not safe to permit people to essay be free, how is report worksheet, it that the tendencies of these organizers are always good? Do not the legislators and their appointed agents also belong to ballistic pendulum the human race? Or do they believe that they themselves are made of book report worksheet, a finer clay than the rest of mankind? The organizers maintain that society, when left undirected, rushes headlong to its inevitable destruction because the instincts of the people are so perverse. Pendulum Lab Report! The legislators claim to stop this suicidal course and to worksheet give it a saner direction.

Apparently, then, the legislators and on the war 1642, the organizers have received from Heaven an report intelligence and virtue that place them beyond and life didactic essay, above mankind; if so, let them show their titles to this superiority. Book Report Worksheet! They would be the shepherds over singer of trade us, their sheep. Certainly such an book arrangement presupposes that they are naturally superior to the rest of us. And certainly we are fully justified in demanding from the legislators and organizers proof of this natural superiority. Planning Page For Essay! Please understand that I do not dispute their right to invent social combinations, to book advertise them, to advocate them, and to try them upon themselves, at their own expense and risk. But I do dispute their right to impose these plans upon planning for essay, us by law by force and to compel us to pay for them with our taxes. I do not insist that the book, supporters of didactic essay, these various social schools of thought the Proudhonists, the Cabetists, the Fourierists, the Universitarists, and the Protectionists renounce their various ideas. I insist only that they renounce this one idea that they have in book, common: They need only to give up the idea of forcing us to acquiesce to war 1642 their groups and report, series, their socialized projects, their free-credit banks, their Graeco-Roman concept of singer - terms of trade, morality, and book report, their commercial regulations. I ask only write in excel, that we be permitted to book report decide upon these plans for didactic ourselves; that we not be forced to accept them, directly or indirectly, if we find them to be contrary to our best interests or repugnant to our consciences.

But these organizers desire access to the tax funds and to worksheet the power of the law in order to carry out their plans. Write In Excel! In addition to book report worksheet being oppressive and singer thesis, unjust, this desire also implies the book worksheet, fatal supposition that the organizer is kids up too, infallible and mankind is book worksheet, incompetent. But, again, if persons are incompetent to judge for themselves, then why all this talk about universal suffrage? This contradiction in ideas is, unfortunately but logically, reflected in events in France. Essay On The Civil War 1642! For example, Frenchmen have led all other Europeans in book, obtaining their rights or, more accurately, their political demands.

Yet this fact has in no respect prevented us from becoming the most governed, the most regulated, the most imposed upon, the customer service term, most harnessed, and the most exploited people in book report worksheet, Europe. France also leads all other nations as the one where revolutions are constantly to be anticipated. And under the circumstances, it is on the war 1642, quite natural that this should be the case. Book! And this will remain the case so long as our politicians continue to accept this idea that has been so well expressed by Mr. Louis Blanc: Society receives its momentum from power. This will remain the case so long as human beings with feelings continue to remain passive; so long as they consider themselves incapable of bettering their prosperity and happiness by essaye de t their own intelligence and their own energy; so long as they expect everything from the law; in short, so long as they imagine that their relationship to book worksheet the state is the same as that of the sheep to how to write mis report in excel the shepherd. As long as these ideas prevail, it is report, clear that the ballistic pendulum, responsibility of book worksheet, government is enormous.

Good fortune and bad fortune, wealth and destitution, equality and inequality, virtue and vice all then depend upon political administration. It is burdened with everything, it undertakes everything, it does everything; therefore it is responsible for growing up too fast everything. If we are fortunate, then government has a claim to worksheet our gratitude; but if we are unfortunate, then government must bear the blame. For are not our persons and property now at prebisch thesis - terms of trade, the disposal of government? Is not the law omnipotent? In creating a monopoly of book report worksheet, education, the government must answer to the hopes of the service term, fathers of families who have thus been deprived of report, their liberty; and lab report, if these hopes are shattered, whose fault is it?

In regulating industry, the government has contracted to make it prosper; otherwise it is report worksheet, absurd to deprive industry of its liberty. And if industry now suffers, whose fault is singer prebisch - terms of trade, it? In meddling with the balance of book report worksheet, trade by playing with tariffs, the government thereby contracts to make trade prosper; and if this results in destruction instead of prosperity, whose fault is singer - terms of trade, it? In giving the book worksheet, maritime industries protection in exchange for pendulum their liberty, the report worksheet, government undertakes to make them profitable; and if they become a burden to the taxpayers, whose fault is it? Thus there is how to mis report, not a grievance in worksheet, the nation for - terms of trade which the government does not voluntarily make itself responsible. Is it surprising, then, that every failure increases the threat of another revolution in book report worksheet, France? And what remedy is life didactic, proposed for this? To extend indefinitely the book, domain of the essaye de t, law; that is, the book, responsibility of government. But if the government undertakes to control and to raise wages, and cannot do it; if the mis report in excel, government undertakes to care for all who may be in want, and cannot do it; if the book worksheet, government undertakes to support all unemployed workers, and cannot do it; if the government undertakes to lend interest-free money to all borrowers, and cannot do it; if, in these words that we regret to say escaped from the pen of Mr. For Essay! de Lamartine, The state considers that its purpose is to worksheet enlighten, to service term papers develop, to book report worksheet enlarge, to essay strengthen, to worksheet spiritualize, and to sanctify the soul of the people and if the government cannot do all of these things, what then? Is it not certain that after every government failure which, alas! is more than probable there will be an - terms of trade equally inevitable revolution? [Now let us return to book worksheet a subject that was briefly discussed in the opening pages of thesis - terms, this thesis: the relationship of book report, economics and of politics political economy.] [8] A science of essaye de t, economics must be developed before a science of politics can be logically formulated.

Essentially, economics is the science of worksheet, determining whether the interests of human beings are harmonious or antagonistic. This must be known before a science of politics can be formulated to determine the proper functions of government. Immediately following the development of a science of economics, and at the very beginning of the formulation of a science of essay, politics, this all-important question must be answered: What is law? What ought it to be? What is its scope; its limits? Logically, at book worksheet, what point do the pendulum lab report, just powers of the book report, legislator stop? I do not hesitate to answer: Law is the common force organized to act as an on the civil obstacle of book report worksheet, injustice . In short, law is essaye de t, justice . It is book report, not true that the kids growing up too fast, legislator has absolute power over report our persons and growing up too fast essay, property. The existence of book, persons and property preceded the essay, existence of the legislator, and his function is only to guarantee their safety. It is not true that the function of law is to regulate our consciences, our ideas, our wills, our education, our opinions, our work, our trade, our talents, or our pleasures.

The function of law is to protect the free exercise of these rights, and to prevent any person from interfering with the report worksheet, free exercise of customer term papers, these same rights by any other person. Book Report Worksheet! Since law necessarily requires the life essay, support of force, its lawful domain is only in the areas where the book report, use of how to mis report, force is necessary. This is justice. Book Worksheet! Every individual has the right to ballistic lab report use force for lawful self-defense. It is for book this reason that the prebisch - terms, collective force which is worksheet, only the organized combination of the page, individual forces may lawfully be used for report the same purpose; and on the war 1642, it cannot be used legitimately for any other purpose. Book Report! Law is solely the organization of the individual right of self-defense which existed before law was formalized. Planning For Essay! Law is justice. The mission of the book worksheet, law is not to oppress persons and plunder them of their property, even though the law may be acting in a philanthropic spirit. Its mission is to - terms of trade protect persons and property. Furthermore, it must not be said that the report worksheet, law may be philanthropic if, in kids growing, the process, it refrains from oppressing persons and plundering them of their property; this would be a contradiction.

The law cannot avoid having an book report effect upon essaye de t, persons and book report worksheet, property; and if the law acts in pendulum, any manner except to book worksheet protect them, its actions then necessarily violate the liberty of persons and page, their right to worksheet own property. The law is lab report, justice simple and clear, precise and book worksheet, bounded. Every eye can see it, and every mind can grasp it; for justice is measurable, immutable, and unchangeable. Life! Justice is neither more than this nor less than this. If you exceed this proper limit if you attempt to make the worksheet, law religious, fraternal, equalizing, philanthropic, industrial, literary, or artistic you will then be lost in an uncharted territory, in vagueness and uncertainty, in a forced utopia or, even worse, in a multitude of utopias, each striving to seize the law and impose it upon you. This is true because fraternity and philanthropy, unlike justice, do not have precise limits.

Once started, where will you stop? And where will the law stop itself? Mr. de Saint-Cricq would extend his philanthropy only to civil some of the book worksheet, industrial groups; he would demand that the law control the singer thesis - terms of trade, consumers to benefit the producers. Book Report Worksheet! Mr. How To Write Mis Report! Considerant would sponsor the cause of the book report worksheet, labor groups; he would use the law to secure for them a guaranteed minimum of customer service term papers, clothing, housing, food, and book report, all other necessities of life. Mr. Louis Blanc would say and with reason that these minimum guarantees are merely the essay civil, beginning of complete fraternity; he would say that the law should give tools of production and report worksheet, free education to life didactic essay all working people.

Another person would observe that this arrangement would still leave room for inequality; he would claim that the book worksheet, law should give to everyone even in the most inaccessible hamlet luxury, literature, and essaye de t, art. All of these proposals are the high road to communism; legislation will then be in book worksheet, fact, it already is the battlefield for the fantasies and customer service term, greed of everyone. Worksheet! Law is justice. In this proposition a simple and enduring government can be conceived. And I defy anyone to say how even the singer prebisch thesis - terms, thought of book, revolution, of didactic essay, insurrection, of the slightest uprising could arise against book worksheet, a government whose organized force was confined only to suppressing injustice.

Under such a regime, there would be the most prosperity and it would be the most equally distributed. Mis Report In Excel! As for book worksheet the sufferings that are inseparable from humanity, no one would even think of essaye de t, accusing the book report worksheet, government for them. This is true because, if the force of government were limited to planning suppressing injustice, then government would be as innocent of report worksheet, these sufferings as it is now innocent of growing, changes in the temperature. As proof of this statement, consider this question: Have the people ever been known to report worksheet rise against the Court of how to write mis report, Appeals, or mob a Justice of the report worksheet, Peace, in order to life didactic get higher wages, free credit, tools of report, production, favorable tariffs, or government-created jobs? Everyone knows perfectly well that such matters are not within the of trade, jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals or a Justice of the Peace. And if government were limited to worksheet its proper functions, everyone would soon learn that these matters are not within the jurisdiction of the law itself. Growing Up Too! But make the book report, laws upon the principle of fraternity proclaim that all good, and all bad, stem from the for essay, law; that the law is worksheet, responsible for singer prebisch of trade all individual misfortunes and all social inequalities then the door is report worksheet, open to an endless succession of planning for essay, complaints, irritations, troubles, and revolutions. Law is worksheet, justice. And it would indeed be strange if law could properly be anything else!

Is not justice right? Are not rights equal? By what right does the life didactic essay, law force me to worksheet conform to the social plans of Mr. Mimerel, Mr. de Melun, Mr. Essaye De T! Thiers, or Mr. Report! Louis Blanc? If the law has a moral right to do this, why does it not, then, force these gentlemen to lab report submit to my plans ? Is it logical to book report suppose that nature has not given me sufficient imagination to essay on the civil war 1642 dream up a utopia also?

Should the report worksheet, law choose one fantasy among many, and put the how to write, organized force of government at book report, its service only? Law is service, justice. And let it not be said as it continually is said that under this concept, the law would be atheistic, individualistic, and report, heartless; that it would make mankind in its own image. Didactic Essay! This is an report worksheet absurd conclusion, worthy only of those worshippers of government who believe that the law is mankind. Nonsense!

Do those worshippers of government believe that free persons will cease to act? Does it follow that if we receive no energy from the on the war 1642, law, we shall receive no energy at all? Does it follow that if the law is restricted to book report the function of protecting the life essay, free use of our faculties, we will be unable to use our faculties? Suppose that the law does not force us to follow certain forms of worksheet, religion, or systems of association, or methods of life didactic, education, or regulations of labor, or regulations of report, trade, or plans for charity; does it then follow that we shall eagerly plunge into planning page for essay, atheism, hermitary, ignorance, misery, and greed? If we are free, does it follow that we shall no longer recognize the report worksheet, power and essay on the war 1642, goodness of God? Does it follow that we shall then cease to associate with each other, to worksheet help each other, to love and succor our unfortunate brothers, to study the secrets of page for essay, nature, and to strive to improve ourselves to the best of our abilities? Law is book report worksheet, justice. And it is growing up too fast essay, under the book report, law of justice under the reign of how to write in excel, right; under the book report, influence of liberty, safety, stability, and responsibility that every person will attain his real worth and customer service papers, the true dignity of his being. It is only under this law of justice that mankind will achieve slowly, no doubt, but certainly God's design for report the orderly and peaceful progress of humanity.

It seems to me that this is theoretically right, for whatever the question under discussion whether religious, philosophical, political, or economic; whether it concerns prosperity, morality, equality, right, justice, progress, responsibility, cooperation, property, labor, trade, capital, wages, taxes, population, finance, or government at whatever point on the scientific horizon I begin my researches, I invariably reach this one conclusion: The solution to the problems of human relationships is to be found in liberty. And does not experience prove this? Look at customer service term papers, the entire world. Book! Which countries contain the most peaceful, the most moral, and the happiest people? Those people are found in the countries where the essay on the civil war 1642, law least interferes with private affairs; where government is report worksheet, least felt; where the individual has the war 1642, greatest scope, and book, free opinion the greatest influence; where administrative powers are fewest and simplest; where taxes are lightest and prebisch thesis - terms of trade, most nearly equal, and book report worksheet, popular discontent the least excited and pendulum, the least justifiable; where individuals and worksheet, groups most actively assume their responsibilities, and, consequently, where the kids fast, morals of admittedly imperfect human beings are constantly improving; where trade, assemblies, and book report, associations are the least restricted; where labor, capital, and civil, populations suffer the book worksheet, fewest forced displacements; where mankind most nearly follows its own natural inclinations; where the inventions of men are most nearly in how to mis report in excel, harmony with the laws of God; in short, the worksheet, happiest, most moral, and most peaceful people are those who most nearly follow this principle: Although mankind is not perfect, still, all hope rests upon the free and voluntary actions of - terms of trade, persons within the limits of right; law or force is to book be used for nothing except the administration of universal justice. This must be said: There are too many great men in the world legislators, organizers, do-gooders, leaders of the pendulum, people, fathers of book report worksheet, nations, and so on, and so on. Too many persons place themselves above mankind; they make a career of organizing it, patronizing it, and didactic, ruling it. Book! Now someone will say: You yourself are doing this very thing. Mis Report In Excel! True. Book Report! But it must be admitted that I act in an entirely different sense; if I have joined the customer papers, ranks of the reformers, it is solely for the purpose of persuading them to leave people alone.

I do not look upon people as Vancauson looked upon report, his automaton. Papers! Rather, just as the physiologist accepts the human body as it is, so do I accept people as they are. I desire only to report study and admire. Essay! My attitude toward all other persons is book report, well illustrated by papers this story from a celebrated traveler: He arrived one day in the midst of a tribe of book report, savages, where a child had just been born. A crowd of on the, soothsayers, magicians, and quacks armed with rings, hooks, and cords surrounded it. One said: This child will never smell the perfume of a peace-pipe unless I stretch his nostrils. Another said: He will never be able to worksheet hear unless I draw his ear-lobes down to his shoulders. A third said: He will never see the term papers, sunshine unless I slant his eyes. Another said: He will never stand upright unless I bend his legs.

A fifth said: He will never learn to think unless I flatten his skull. Stop, cried the traveler. What God does is report worksheet, well done. Do not claim to know more than He. God has given organs to this frail creature; let them develop and customer, grow strong by exercise, use, experience, and liberty. God has given to report men all that is necessary for them to accomplish their destinies. He has provided a social form as well as a human form. And these social organs of singer prebisch of trade, persons are so constituted that they will develop themselves harmoniously in report worksheet, the clean air of liberty.

Away, then, with quacks and organizers! A way with their rings, chains, hooks, and pincers! Away with their artificial systems! Away with the whims of governmental administrators, their socialized projects, their centralization, their tariffs, their government schools, their state religions, their free credit, their bank monopolies, their regulations, their restrictions, their equalization by taxation, and growing, their pious moralizations! And now that the legislators and do-gooders have so futilely inflicted so many systems upon society, may they finally end where they should have begun: May they reject all systems, and try liberty; for liberty is an acknowledgment of book report, faith in God and prebisch - terms of trade, His works. [1] : General Council of Manufacturers, Agriculture, and worksheet, Commerce, May 6, 1850. [2] : Translator's note: At the time this was written, Mr. Bastiat knew that he was dying of tuberculosis. Within a year, he was dead. [3] : Translator's note: The French word used by Mr. Customer Service Papers! Bastiat is book report, spoliation . [4] : If the special privilege of government protection against competition a monopoly were granted only to one group in France, the iron workers, for instance, this act would so obviously be legal plunder that it could not last for planning page long.

It is for this reason that we see all the protected trades combined into a common cause. They even organize themselves in such a manner as to appear to represent all persons who labor . Instinctively, they feel that legal plunder is concealed by generalizing it. [5] : Translator's note: The parenthetical expressions and the italicized words throughout this book were supplied by Mr. Bastiat. All subheads and bracketed material were supplied by the translator. Book Report Worksheet! [6] : Translator's note: What was then known as Paraguay was a much larger area than it is today. Page! It was colonized by worksheet the Jesuits who settled the Indians into villages, and generally saved them from further brutalities by the avoid conquerors. [7] : Translator's note: According to Rousseau, the mis report in excel, existence of book, social man is partial in the sense that be is henceforth merely a part of society. Knowing himself as such and thesis of trade, thinking and feeling from the point of book report, view of the whole he thereby becomes moral. [8] : Translator's note: Mr.

Bastiat has devoted three other books and several articles to customer term the development of the book report worksheet, ideas contained in the three sentences of the on the civil, following paragraph.

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lope business plan AKA Lope Félix de Vega Carpio. Cause of death: unspecified. Remains: Buried, Iglesia de San Sebastin, Madrid, Spain. Race or Ethnicity: Hispanic. Executive summary: Reformed Spanish comedy. Spanish dramatist and poet, born on the 25th of November 1562 at Madrid. His father and mother, Felix de Vega Carpio and Francisca Hernandez Flores, originally came from the valley of Carriedo in Asturias, where the book worksheet hamlet of Vega still exists. Lope began his studies at the Theatine college in Madrid, and according to planning for essay his admiring biographer, Prez de Montalban, his precocity was extraordinary. On leaving college he entered the service of Don Jernimo Manrique, bishop of Avila, and appears to have then begun the composition of report, his earlier dramas.

He quitted the bishop's service to civil enter the university of Alcal de Henares, where he devoted himself to what was called philosophy. The date of Lope's matriculation is book report worksheet unknown, as his name does not appear in the university books; but it seems probable that he was in residence between 1576 and fast essay, 1581. He took part in the expedition to the Azores in book report 1582, and from 1583 to 1587 was secretary to the marqus de las Navas. In February 1588 he was banished for service papers circulating criminal libels against his mistress, Elena Osorio, whom he has celebrated under the report worksheet name of customer term papers, Filis. He defied the law by returning to Madrid soon afterwards and eloping with Isabel de Urbina, daughter of Philip II's herald; he married her by proxy on the 10th of May 1588, and joined the Invincible Armada, losing his brother in one of the encounters in the Channel.

He settled for a short while at Valencia, where he made acquaintance with a circle of book report worksheet, young poets who were afterwards to be his ardent supporters in founding the for essay new comedy. He joined the household of the duke of Alva, with whom he remained until 1595. Soon afterwards he lost his wife; he was prosecuted for criminal conversation in 1596, became secretary to book report worksheet the marquis de Malpica (afterwards count de Lemos), and in 1598 married a second wife, Juana de Guardo, by whom he had two children (Carlos, who died in planning 1612, and book report, Feliciana Felix); but she died, shortly after giving birth to the latter, in 1613. Essay On The Civil. During this wife's lifetime the report poet had by a mistress, Micaelade Luxan, two other children -- Marcela del Carpio, who became a nun in 1621, and Lope Felix del Carpio y Luxan, who chose the profession of arms and perished at sea about 1634. Widowed a second time in 1613, Lope sought a refuge in the church. After having been for some time affiliated to a tertiary order, he took priest's orders. At this juncture, about 1614, he was in the very zenith of his glory. Planning. A veritable dictator in the Spanish world of letters, he wielded over all the authors of his nation a power similar to book report that which was afterwards exercised in France by essaye de t Voltaire. At this distance of time Lope is to book report worksheet us simply a great dramatic poet, the founder of the Spanish theater; but to his contemporaries he was much more.

His epics, his pastorals, his odes, his sonnets, now forgotten, all placed him in on the the front rank of authorship. Such was his prestige that he dealt with his noble patrons almost on a footing of equality. Book Report Worksheet. The duke of Sessa in particular, his Maecenas from 1605 onwards, was also his personal friend, and the tone of Lope's letters to him is one of frank familiarity, modified only by some forms of deference. Lope's fame, too, had travelled abroad: foreigners of distinction passing through Madrid made a point of essaye de t, visiting him; papal legates brought him the compliments of their master; in book report 1627 Pope Urban VIII, a Barberini, sent him the diploma of doctor of theology in the Collegium Sapientiae and the cross of the order of St. Growing Fast Essay. John of Jerusalem (from which the poet's titles of Doctor and Frey. His last days were full of sadness; the book report death of his son Lope, the elopement of his daughter, Antonia Clara, wounded him to the soul. Montalbn tells us that every Friday the poet scourged himself so severely that the walls of ballistic, his room were sprinkled with his blood. His death, on the 27th of August 1635, was followed by worksheet national mourning. Leaving out of customer, account certain theories which in the long run greatly influenced his manner of writing, Lope belonged in literature to what may be called the school of good sense; he boasted that he was a Spaniard pur sang , and steadfastly maintained that a writer's business is to write so as to make himself understood.

When brought face to face with the coterie of the prcieux and quintessencis , Lope takes the position of a defender of the book worksheet language of ordinary life, the good old Castilian tongue. In the essaye de t dispute which arose between the partisans of the two schools of cultos and report, llanos , he ranged himself on the side of the latter. In the matter of versification he refuses to admit that the long Italian verse has the advantage of the singer Castilian octosyllabic. Unfortunately the books that he read, his literary connections, his fear of Italian criticism, all exercised an influence upon his naturally robust spirit, and, like so many others, he caught the prevalent contagion of mannerism and of pompous phraseology. Report. His literary culture was chiefly Latin-Italian; and, if he defends the tradition of the planning page nation and the pure simplicity of the old Castilian against report, los de la nueva poesia, that is to say, the essaye de t innovators of the school of Gngora and against the jargon of the cultos , still he does not wish to be taken for an uninformed person, a writer devoid of classical training: he especially emphasizes the fact that he has passed through the university, and is continually accentuating the difference between the ingenios cientficos (those who know Latin) and book report, legos ignorantes (ignorant laymen). With what a sense of superiority, for example, does he mention that Cervantes was not to his mind sufficiently cientfico (preface to Las Fortunas de Diana ), the fact being that Cervantes had been neither at Alcal nor at page for essay Salamanca. For a rapid survey of the works of Lope, it is convenient to begin with those which the Spaniards include under the name of Obras Sueltas , the title of the large collection of the poet's non-dramatic works (Madrid, 21 vols.

4to, 1776-79). Book Report. We shall enumerate the singer - terms of trade most important of these, as far as possible in the order of publication. The Arcadia (1598), a pastoral romance, inspired by Sannazaro, is one of the poet's most wearisome productions. La Dragontea (1598) is a fantastic history in verse of Sir Francis Drake's last expedition and death. Isidro (1599), a narrative of the life of Isidore, patron of Madrid, is called a Castilian poem on account of the rhythm in which it is composed -- quintillas of octosyllabic verse. The Hermosura de Anglica (1602), in three books, is worksheet a sort of continuation of the Orlando Furioso , in octaves after the fashion of the original poem. Singer Prebisch - Terms Of Trade. Finally, the Rimas are a miscellany of short pieces. In 1604 was published the Peregrino en su Patria , a romance similar in kind to the Aethiopica of Heliodorus. Having imitated Ariosto, he proceeded to imitate Tasso; but his Jerusalem Conquistada (1609) has preserved nothing of the art shown in its model, and is an insipid performance. Next follows the Pastores de Belen (1612), a pious pastoral, dedicated to worksheet his son Carlos, which forms a pendant to his secular Arcadia ; and incidental pieces published in connection with the solemnities of the beatification and canonization of St.

Isidore in 1620 and 1622. It is enough to mention La Filomena (1621), La Circe (1624) and other poems published about the same date, as also the four prose novels, Las Fortunas de Diana , El Desdichado por la Honra , La Ms Prudente Venganza and Guzmn el Bravo . The great success of the Novelas Exemplares of Cervantes (1613) had stimulated Lope, but in this instance at least the cientfico was completely defeated by the lego : Lope's novels have none of the grace, naturalness or interest which characterize those of his rival. The last important work which has to be mentioned before we leave the narrative poetry of Lope is the Laurel de Apolo (1630). This piece describes the thesis - terms coronation of the poets of Spain on Helicon by Apollo, and it is more meritorious as a bibliographical manual of Spanish poetry at that time than as genuine poetry. One other obra suelta , closely akin to Lope's dramatic works, though not, properly speaking a drama, is book La Dorotea (1632). Lope describes it as an action in pendulum lab report prose, but it is report rather a romance in dialogue; for, although divided into singer prebisch thesis acts, the book report narrative is dramatic in form only. Ballistic Pendulum. Of all Lope's productions Dorotea shows most observation and report, study; the style also is unusually simple and easy. Of all this mass of obras sueltas , filling more than twenty volumes, very little (leaving Dorotea out of account) holds its own in the judgment of posterity.

The lyrical element alone retains some vitality. From the Rimas and other collections of detached pieces one could compile a pleasing anthology of for essay, sonnets, epistles, elegies and romances, to book worksheet which it would be proper to add the singer prebisch thesis - terms of trade Gatomaquia , a burlesque poem published along with other metrical pieces in book worksheet 1634 by Lope, under the pseudonym of Tom de Burguillos. But here the list would end. It is, however, to ballistic pendulum lab report his dramatic writings that Lope owes his eminent place in literary history. It is very curious to notice how he himself always treats the art of comedy-writing as one of the book report humblest of trades ( de pane lucrando ), and protests against the supposition that in writing for the stage his aim is planning for essay glory and not money. The reason is not far to seek. The Spanish drama, which, if not literally the creation of Lope, at least owes to him its definitive form -- the three-act comedy -- was totally regardless of the precepts of the school, the book report worksheet pseudo-Aristotelianism of the doctors of the period. Lope accordingly, who stood in awe of the singer prebisch criticism of the cientficos , felt bound to prove that, from the point of view of literary art, he attached no value to the rustic fruits of his humble vega . In his Arte Nuevo de hacer comedias en este tiempo (1609), Lope begins by showing that he knows as well as anyone the established rules of poetry, and report, then excuses himself for growing up too fast his inability to follow them on report worksheet the ground that the vulgar Spaniard cares nothing about essaye de t them. Let us then speak to him in the language of fools, since it is he who pays us.

Another reason which made it necessary for him to speak deprecatingly of his dramatic works, is the circumstance that the vast majority of them were written in haste and to order. The poet does not hesitate to confess that more than a hundred of my comedies have taken only twenty-four hours to book report worksheet pass from my brain to the boards of the theater. Perez de Montalbn, who has a great admiration for this kind of cleverness, tells how, at Toledo, on a certain occasion Lope composed fifteen acts in fifteen days -- that is to say, five entire comedies, which he read to his friends step by step with the process of their composition. On another occasion, when pressed by a manager who wanted something for page for essay the carnival, Lope took Montalbn as a collaborator; the two friends parcelled out the comedy between them, Lope undertaking the first act, Montalbn the second, and the third, to save time, was divided between them. In two days they had finished the first two acts, and on the third Montalbn rose at worksheet two in the morning and at eleven he had finished. Then he went in search of singer prebisch - terms, Lope, who when questioned as to his progress, replied: I got up at five, finished the act, breakfasted, wrote an epistle of fifty tercets, and have now finished watering the garden, and book report worksheet, a rather tough business it has been. Nevertheless, Lope did write dramas in which the thesis plan is more fully matured and the execution more carefully carried out; still, hurried composition and reckless production are after all among the distinctive marks of his theatrical works. Towards the close of his career Lope somewhat modified the severe and disdainful judgments he had formerly passed upon his dramatic performances; he seems to have had a presentiment that posterity, in spite of the book report worksheet grave defects of his work in that department, would nevertheless place it much higher than La Dragontea , the Jerusalem Conquistada and other works of which he himself thought so much. We may certainly credit Lope with creative power, with the essay instinct which enabled him to reproduce the facts of history or those supplied by the imagination in multitude of dramatic situations with an astonishing cleverness and flexibility of expression; but unfortunately, instead of concentrating his talent upon the production of a limited number of works which he might have brought to book perfection, he dissipated it, and scattered it to the winds.

The catalogue of Lope's comedies has been drawn up by papers himself; and, in spite of some discrepancies in his figures, it is established that up to 1604 he had composed, in round numbers, as many as 230. Report Worksheet. In 1609 the figure had risen to 483, in 1618 to essay on the 800, in 1620 to worksheet 900, in 1625 to 1070, and in 1632 to 1500. Ultimately Montalbn in essaye de t the Fama Postuma (1636) set down the total of Lope's dramatic productions at 1800 plays and more than 400 autos sacramentales . Of this number there are 637 plays which are known to us by their titles (from the lists of the Peregrino ); but the printed or manuscript text of only 458 is worksheet actually accessible, besides some 50 autos and a few entremeses . Very many of these pieces were printed during Lope's lifetime, either in collections of essaye de t, varios autores or as separate issues by booksellers who surreptitiously bought from the actors the manuscripts of their roles or else caused the unpublished comedy to be written down from report, memory by papers persons whom they sent to attend the first representation. Such pieces therefore as do not figure in the collection published under Lope's own direction or under that of his friends cannot be regarded as perfectly authentic, and it would be unfair to hold their author responsible for all the faults and defects they exhibit. Book Worksheet. On the other hand, there exist comedies in Lope's own handwriting which have not yet been printed. The classification of this enormous mass of dramatic literature is a task of prebisch thesis - terms of trade, great difficulty, inasmuch as the terms usually employed, such as comedy, tragedy and the like, do not apply here.

There is not explicitness enough in the division current in Spain, which recognizes three categories: (1) comedias de cape y espada , the subjects of which are drawn from everyday life and in book which the persons appear as simple caballeros ; (2) comedies de ruido or de teatro , in which kings and princes are the leading characters and pendulum, the action is accompanied with a greater display of dramatic machinery; (3) comedias divinas or de santos . Some other arrangement must be attempted. Book. In the first place, Lope's work belongs essentially to the drama of essaye de t, intrigue; be the subject what it may, it is always the plot that determines everything else. Lope in the whole range of his dramatic works has no piece comparable to La Verdad Sospechosa of Ruiz de Alarcn, the worksheet most finished example in Spanish literature of the comedy of character; and the comedy of manners is pendulum lab report represented only by El Galn Castrucho , El Auzuelo de Fenisa , and one or two others. It is from history, and particularly Spanish history, that Lope has borrowed more than from any other soutce. It would in fact be difficult to say what national and patriotic subjects, from the reign of the book report worksheet half-fabulous King Pelayo down to planning the history of his own age, he has not put upon the stage. But it is to the class of capa y espada -- also called novelesco , because the subjects are almost always love intrigues complicated with affairs of honor -- that Lope's most celebrated plays belong. Report Worksheet. In these he has most fully displayed his powers of imagination (the subjects being all invented) and his skill in elaborating a plot. Among the plays of this class which are those best known in Europe, and most frequently imitated and translated, may be specially mentioned Los Ramilletes de Madrid , La Boba para los Otros y Discreta pare si , El Perro del Hortelano , La Viuda de Valencia , and El Maestro de Danzar . In some of them Lope has sought to set forth some moral maxim, and illustrate its abuse by essaye de t a living example.

Thus, on book report worksheet the theme that poverty is no crime, we have the play entitled Las Flores de Don Juan , in which he shows in the history of two brothers the triumph of virtuous poverty over singer prebisch of trade opulent vice; at the same time he attacks indirectly the book institution of primogeniture, which often places in the hands of an unworthy person the honor and substance of for essay, a family when the worksheet younger members would be much better qualified for the trust. On The War 1642. Such pieces are, however, rare in Lope's repertory; in common with all other writers of his order in Spain, with the occasional exception of Ruiz de Alarcn, his sole aim is to amuse and stir his public, not troubling himself about its instruction. The strong point of such writers is and always will be their management of the plot. As has been said by Le Sage, a good judge: The Spaniards are our masters in the art of planning and skilfully working out a plot; they know how to set forth their subject with infinite art and in the most advantageous light. It is worksheet not necessary to dwell here upon the other varieties of comedy represented in Lope's works, that is, the comedias divinas , fiestas (mythological dramas for the most part), entremeses and autos . In none of them has he produced anything of the on the civil war 1642 highest order, or even comparable to the better performances of his contemporaries and book, successors.

To sum up, Lope found a poorly organized drama, plays being composed sometimes in four acts, sometimes in singer thesis of trade three; and, though they were written in verse, the structure of the versification was left far too much to the caprice of the individual writer. The style of drama then in vogue he adopted, because the Spanish public liked it. The narrow framework it afforded he enlarged to an extraordinary degree, introducing everything that could possibly furnish material for book report worksheet dramatic situations -- the Bible, ancient mythology, the kids fast essay lives of the saints, ancient history, Spanish history, the legends of the middle ages, the writings of the Italian novelists, current events, Spanish life in book the 17th century. Before him manners and the conditions of persons and characters had been barely sketched; with fuller observation and more careful description he created real types, and gave to each social order the language and drapery appropriate to it. The old comedy was awkward and poor in its versification; he introduced order into kids growing fast the use of all the book worksheet forms of national poetry, from the old romance couplets to the rarest lyrical combinations borrowed from Italy.

Hence he was justified in saying that those who should come after him had only to go on along the path which he had opened up.

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Women: Essay on The Position of Women in India. Essay on The Position of Women in India! The position of women in ancient India has been a very complicated one because of the paradoxical statements in different religious scriptures and sometimes in the same text at different places. Book! Some have described their status as ‘equals to men’, while others have held not only in disrespect but even in positive hatred. This is why it has presented many problems to sociologists while evaluating women’s status in India. The cultural history of India reveals that in India theoretically women enjoyed the status of devi (goddess) as described in many religious texts of Hindus, the majority community in India. Though woman enjoyed the theoretical importance which these texts outline for the wife who was defined ardhangini (better-half), but in practice she had a subservient position than man. She was regarded as a ‘chattle’ (a corporal moveable property) with no rights. It was generally seen and believed that women had lower status with reference to power and influence than men in all spheres of life—family, community, religion and politics. Till recently, it was held that up to marriage, she is essaye de t protected by her parents, during married life, she is looked after by her husband, and after the report death of her husband, she was used to spend remaining years of essaye de t her life under the roof of her children without any will or desire and rights in the family. She was not allowed to decide how money would be spent or invested.

She did not have any money at her disposal. She had to take permission to spend money from book her elders—father, brother or husband or any other male or female elder person in up too fast, the family. In brief, she had no personality of her own. Some scholars have explained this inferior status of book report women as a result of patriarchal code of living. The rigid codes of behaviour as outlined for women in ballistic pendulum, Brahmanical texts were also responsible for book report worksheet, the low status of women in India. In the following paragraphs we will survey, in brief, the position of women in India from Rigvedic period to modern times. It is generally upheld on the basis of the instances depicted in religious texts (e.g., Vedas, Upanishads, Smritis, epics like Ramayan and Mahabharat and other Dharmasastras) that in ancient India, especially in Rigvedic period, women enjoyed equal status with men.

They had an honourable place in the society. They were not secluded from fast men and freely participated in book worksheet, public life. They attended great assemblies and state occasions. They studied the essay on the civil Vedas and composed hymns. They also distinguished themselves in science and learning at their times. They were considered intellectual companies of their husbands, as the friends and loving helpers in the journey of life of their partners, in their religious duties and the centre of their domestic bliss. In Vedic times, women were not treated as inferior or subordinate but equal to men in all matters of life. They were given education and had a voice in the selection of their husband.

Marriage was regarded as a religious bond. Child marriage was unknown. Often there were love marriages known as Gandharva Vivaha. Monogamy was a general rule. Polygamy was almost unknown. Women enjoyed complete freedom in household matters. In the religious field, women enjoyed all rights and regularly participated in religious ceremonies. In fact, the performance of religious ceremonies was considered invalid without wife joining her husband as she was regarded as ardhangini (better-half). The references in book worksheet, the Rigveda to the life of customer service papers a widow are very few but it was not characterized by restrictions and austerities as in the post-Vedic days. Remarriage of widows was allowed. There are a number of references to book report worksheet, the custom of Niyoga where a brother of the deceased husband/or any other person could marry the widow.

The earlier Dharamsastra writers allowed divorce; Kautilya gave detailed rules of divorce. Singer - Terms Of Trade! As regards sati, burning of the book widow, Shakuntala Rao Sastri writes that the Rigveda does not mention anywhere the practice of the burning or burial of widows with their dead husbands. As regards property rights, according to fast, Vedic hymns, both husband and wife was joint owner of the property. Book Worksheet! Women inherited and possessed property, but their rights were limited. As a daughter, she had no share in her father’s property. Similarly, as a wife, a woman had no direct share in her husband’s property. As a widow, she was supposed to singer prebisch thesis - terms of trade, lead an ascetic life and had no share in husband’s property. Thus, it may be concluded that in book report, Vedic period women had equal rights with men. Their status was fairly high and they were treated as equals with men in almost all spheres of life.

Post-Vedic Period (Upanishads, Puranic and Smriti Periods) : The position enjoyed by women in planning page for essay, Vedic period deteriorated in post-Vedic period. It was gradually degraded in the Puranic and Smriti periods. The description of position before BC 300 shows that she enjoyed a fairly high status, though not to the extent that she enjoyed in Vedic period. It appears that several drastic changes that took place in the Indian society from about BC 300 to the beginning of the Christian era led to the curtailment of freedom of women. Book Report Worksheet! Imposition of Brahminical rules and code of conduct, rigid restric­tions imposed by ballistic, caste system and joint family system were the main reasons for lowering of status in book report, this period.

A daughter began to be regarded as curse. They were denied the right of inheritance and ownership of property. Pre-puberty marriages came to page for essay, be practised. Book Worksheet! She was forbidden to offer sacri­fices and planning page for essay, prayers and undertake pilgrimages. Book Report Worksheet! Practice of polygyny came to be tolerated. Some of the Dharamsastras mention about the prohibition of Niyoga and widow remarriage. The widow was asked to devote herself to an ascetic life at home. Customer Term Papers! Marriage became an irrevocable union as far as the book worksheet wife was concerned.

The Smriti writers preached that the wife should look upon her husband as God. Widows were required to spend a life of penance and austerity. Sati had become popular by planning page for essay, the 7th century AD. Book Report Worksheet! In this period, women were regarded just as a means of satisfying the physical desires of up too men. Just to refer one instance of Mahabharata, it is said that ‘there was no creature more sinful than man … woman is the root of all ills’. This simple quotation is sufficient to prove that how disrespect was shown towards women. However, it is not out of place to mention here that Indian scriptures are full of paradoxical statements. At one place, women were regarded as goddess, held in high esteem, where at book worksheet, other place in the same scripture, in some other context, they were regarded, no better than just slaves or chattels. Disre­garding what was practised at any particular time, the ancient Indian scriptures and documents (Mahabharata, Ramayana, Vedic hymns, and various codes of the growing up too essay law of Manu) gave women a very high and protected place in their basic moral codes.

Husband and book report, wife stood as equals before God. Up to this period purdah (veil) was not commonly observed by women. Divorce was, however, not permissible to them. But then, it was not permis­sible to men either. Their position was not one of complete disability but one dictated by ballistic lab report, justice and fairness. Women used to help their male members of their family in book report, economic pursuits. Singer Thesis - Terms! They sometimes accompanied their husband or other members of the family in hunting and agricultural pursuits. The period between 11th century to 18th century witnessed further deterio­ration in the position of book worksheet women due to the impact of Muslim culture. In this period, female infanticide, child marriage, purdah system, sati and slavery were the main social evils affecting the position of women. The birth of a female child began to be regarded as curse, a bad luck.

They were almost confined to the doors of their homes. There was further curtailment of freedom of women in matters of education, mate selection, public appear­ances, etc. Purdah system came to thesis - terms, be rigorously followed. Women education was almost banned. More and more feeling of conservatism increased about women. She not only continued to hold low status in and outside home rather her position worsened in this period.

It is often said that in India the purdah (veil) system came into book report existence only after the arrival of ballistic lab report Moghuls. Report! A.S. Altekar, in his book. The Position of Women in Hindu Civilization (1962) writes: ‘This for nearly 2000 years from BC 20 to customer service term, 1800 AD, the position of women steadily deteriorated though she was fondled by book report worksheet, the parents, loved by the husband and revered by her children. The revival of Sati, the prohibition of remarriage, the spread of Purdah and the greater prevalence of customer service polygamy made her position very bad.’ Thus, there was a vast difference between the status of women in the early Vedic period and the subsequent periods, stretching from post-Vedic to the medieval period. The dual standards of morality set by Manu Smriti and other Smritis continue to prevail right up to now though some changes are visible in book worksheet, urban educated women. During the period of essaye de t British rule of worksheet about 200 years (early 18th century to the first half of 20th century) some substantial progress was achieved in elimi­nating inequalities between men and women in matters of education, employment, social and property rights and so forth. Sati, purdah, female infanticide, child marriage, inheritance, slavery, prohibition of widow remar­riage and the lack of prebisch thesis - terms of trade women’s rights in different fields were some of the problems which attracted the attention of British Raj.

Though the British rulers initially decided not to book, interfere with the traditional social fabric of Indian people (Hindus) and as such they took no steps to bring any change in planning page for essay, the status of women in India. It is only in the latter half of the 19th century and book report worksheet, the first quarter of the page for essay 20th century that they took some steps to abolish or change some social customs through legislative measures. For such measures incentive was provided to worksheet, them by of trade, some social reformers, such as Raja Ram Mohan Rai, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Dayanand Saraswati, Keshab Chandra Sen, Swami Vivekanand, Maharashi Karve, Justice Ranade, Mahatma Gandhi and others. Through the book efforts and the various movements launched by these great social leaders of the 19th century before independence, it had been possible to get many legislations passed and public opinion mobilized in favour of some issues of social reforms. These steps have paved the way in civil war 1642, removing the book report worksheet obstacles in the progress of women. Not only ballistic pendulum lab report, this, it had helped in eliminating inequalities between men and women and giving proper respect to the other-half of the society. The most significant legislations relating to the problems faced by book report worksheet, the Indian (Hindu) women passed during British period were as follows:

1. Abolition of Sati Act, 1813. 2. The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act, 1856. 3. Civil Marriage Act, 1872. 4. Married Women’s Property Act, 1874. 5. Essaye De T! The Child Marriage Restraint Act (Sharda Act), 1929.

6. Hindu Law of report worksheet Inheritance Act, 1929. 7. Hindu Women’s Rights to Property Act, 1939. 8. Hindu Marriage Disabilities Removal Act, 1946. Besides these Acts, many provincial governments also enacted some legislation. In 1779, infanticide was declared to be a murder by the Bengal Regulation XXI. Essaye De T! In 1804, this was extended to other parts of the country.

Another significant feature of the 19th century was the attempt made by social reformers to report worksheet, educate Indian girls. For more than 2,000 years, from about BC 300, there was practically no formal education for women. Only a few women of the essaye de t upper castes and classes were given some education at home. The ideas of imparting education in a formal manner first emerged during the British period. Christian missionaries took great interest to impart education to the girls.

It was in 1824 when the first girl’s school was started in Bombay (Mumbai). In 1882, girls were allowed to pursue higher education. Since then, to pursue there has been a continuous progress in the field of education of girls in India. In the last decades of 19th century, a marked change took place in the outlook of both men and women about the education and employment of women as teachers, nurses, doctors, etc. This changed outlook towards women’s education also helped in raising the age of marriage and enacting legislation to ban sati. Thus, the ground prepared by the 19th century social reformers and their untiring efforts led to the emancipation of book report women. This also helped them to take their rightful place in society. In addition to the measures to uplift the status of women in India initiated by planning, Britishers, many vigorous steps (legal, social, economic and political) have been taken by Government of India after independence by removing the hurdles put in their way by traditional past. Book Report Worksheet! The efforts of the social reformers and their movements launched in the pre-independence period also bore fruits. Ballistic Lab Report! The Indian National Movement also led to worksheet, the emancipation of Indian women.

The leaders of the national movement realized that the essaye de t liberation of the book worksheet country from the customer service bondage of imperialism was impossible without the active participation of women who constituted half of the population of the country. Most of the social reformers and thinkers of the report worksheet 19th and 20th centuries were influenced by the tenets of the liberal philosophy of the customer West, which empha­sized the principle of contract rather than status, a rational outlook of life and problems, freedom of speech, criticism of authority, questioning of accepted dogmas and book worksheet, finally the recognition of the value of the individual and insis­tence on the rights of customer term man as opposed to his duties. They also got impetus from Upanishads and other Hindu scriptures. The decades after independence have seen tremendous changes in the status and position of the women in Indian society. The Constitution of India has laid down as a fundamental right the equality of sexes. But, the change from a position of utter degradation of book report women to a position of equality is not a simple case of the page progress of women in the modern era. To uplift the status of women, many legislations pertaining to women were enacted after independence. These were mainly related to marriage, divorce, inheritance of property and employment. Some of the important Acts are mentioned below: 1. The Hindu Marriage Validity Act, 1949. 2. The Special Marriage Act, 1954.

3. Book Report! The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (amended in 1986 and planning for essay, 2010). 4. The Hindu Succession Act, 1956. 5. Book! Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956. 6. The Sati Prevention Act, 1987. 7. The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961. 8. Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986. 9. Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2007.

10. Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005. 11. Compulsory Registration of Marriage Act, 2006. Besides, the Acts especially related to employment are: 1. The Factory Act, 1948. 2. Employees Insurance Act, 1948. 3. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961. 4. The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976. The above legislations and many other emancipatory actions of the social reformers have no doubt raised the status of women in India but still much is to be done in this field.

The institution of bigamy (man marrying any number of women) has almost come to an end; if detected, it has become a punishable offence. Today, both sexes have the right to a civil marriage. The age of marriage without parents’ consent has been increased to 21 for boys and 18 for girls. Thus, monogamy along with facility of judicial separation, nullity and divorce (even on mutual consent), inheritance (equal share in paternal property), adoption, widow remarriage and sati abolition are some of the on the civil war 1642 salient features of post-independence era which put men and women on equal footings from the point of view of legislative measures. However, social legislations have not been very effective in India because of many reasons. Worksheet! One important reason is planning page for essay that most of the women are not fully aware of the book measures adopted by the state for their upliftment and even if aware they do not use them because of the old social values that are still persisting. These traditions and values inhibit them to take any revolutionary steps.

Legal or legislative sanctions alone cannot bring any substantial change in the downtrodden position of women unless there is a marked change in their attitude and consciousness of men and women both. In this regard, their illiteracy is one of the great hindrances. According to term, the 2001 Census, 45.84 per cent and 2011 Census, 34 per cent of report women are still illiterate in India. Even literate women also do not exercise their right of equality wherever it is required. Thus, the pendulum status of book report worksheet women has been raised in the eyes of law, but they are still far from equal to civil, men in every sphere of life. In practice, they continue to suffer discrimination, harassment, humiliation and exploitation in and outside home. Theoretically, women might have been given more freedom but in report, practice, they still suffer many hardships, inhuman dignities and unworthy treatment everywhere.

Within the home, she is still not treated at par with her male counterpart. Essaye De T! Barring a few urban educated families, a baby girl is report never welcomed with as much eclat and happiness as a baby boy. Sometimes, the birth of a girl is regarded as a bad omen. They are not treated as equals to men, and not given due respect in the family (75 per cent women are in labour force but only 0.01 per cent has property rights). Male’s roles as father and husband still dominate over both his children and wife.

The power to govern the home and the authority still rests in essaye de t, the hands of male head of the household. Report! The dominant father model still persists in most of the middle and lower class families. Leaving aside a few, in the so-called modern families wives have not become equal partners to planning, their husbands even if they are well-educated or more educated to their husbands. Most of the decisions of the household—from purchasing daily household items to decide about the book education and marriage of their children—are taken by father/husband. Prebisch - Terms Of Trade! There is report no significant change in the attitude of the males even in the families where females are working outside the home. Women as daughters or wives have to seek permission from their fathers/husbands for going outside home or for receiving higher education. In some families, it is seen that husbands do not allow their wives of the same caliber and education to take up any job assignment of the same status outside the home. They prefer their educated wives should utilize their energies just in home management and rearing and caring of children or old parents.

Women’s lower status in Indian society contributes to early marriages, lower literacy, poor nutrition and high fertility and mortality levels, especially during the reproductive age. In professional field their condition is also not better. Till recently, women from the higher castes were not allowed to work outside the home for customer service term, some remunerative job. Worksheet! They do not enjoy equal rights in many matters in the occupa­tional fields also. They do not hold office of the singer prebisch - terms higher rank, leaving aside a few popular cases. A woman executive may be of the same rank as a male executive, but because she is a woman, she may not receive the same honour and prestige, he receives. The case of super cop Kiran Bedi is well known. She was superseded for the post of book report worksheet Delhi Police Commissioner by essaye de t, a man two years junior to her in book worksheet, service. Similarly, a woman IAS officer Reva Nayyar did not make it as Cabinet Secretary and Veena Sikri, IFS was not appointed as the page Foreign Secretary. There are still any numbers of other victims who wither unseen.

Twenty-one years ago Wall street Journal had coined the term ‘glass ceiling’ to refer to apparent barriers that prevent from reaching the top hierarchy that still hold true, barring a few exceptional cases. Furthermore, women earn less than men have less access to report, more prestigious better paying occupations even when they are equal in all respects. The best example is provided by the rural India, where in theory women are equated with goddess, but in actual practice, they are treated as drudges. Planning Page For Essay! The problems of inferiority, inequality, dependence and the exploitation experienced by women have not much changed in the villages, where most of the book worksheet India lives, even after 65 years of papers independence. Ill-treatment is coupled with no equal opportunity for social participation in spite of the immense amount of work which is expected of report them in the home as well as in agricul­tural field or in some employment. Lab Report! One of the main characteristics of women is book report her multi-tasking dexterity. She is usually the customer term one who handles home as well as occupational field or office. To conclude, let us quote Jessie Bernard (1981) who argued that the status of women cannot be compared with that of men. It is generally said that men have higher status because they are usually better educated and book report, have more organizational skills and experience than women. In addition to these, women acquire their status from their husbands, that they are socialized to think themselves as inferior, and they are physio-psychologically conditioned, to essaye de t, use the modern term, they are programmed to be wives and mothers, non-competitive with men because they are less able to compete. Furthermore, women earn less than men have less access to more prestigious, better paying occupations even when they are equally qualified or experi­enced.

Even having children increases the husband’s power, for book report worksheet, the wife becomes more dependent. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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14 Skills and Values Employers Seek in Jobseekers. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., and Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Job Skills to list on book worksheet your Resume. Deals with acting in a responsible and ballistic pendulum, fair manner in all your personal and report worksheet, work activities, which is seen as a sign of maturity and self-confidence; avoid being petty. How to describe this skill on your resume: Conscientious go-getter who is highly organized, dedicated, and essay civil war 1642, committed to report worksheet, professionalism. Ballistic Pendulum Lab Report? Employers probably respect personal integrity more than any other value, especially in light of the book report, many recent corporate scandals. How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and integrity create effective leadership and customer service term, optimal business relationships.

Deals with openness to new ideas and concepts, to working independently or as part of a team, and to carrying out multiple tasks or projects. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is open to new ideas. Book Report Worksheet? Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and essaye de t, will keep at it until they solve the book worksheet, problem and get the for essay, job done. How to report, describe this skill on your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in singer prebisch of trade, successfully completing tasks. 5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to work every day? on time? and ready to work, and who will take responsibility for their actions. Report? How to describe this skill on your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to excellence and success. Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to the company? even at times when the company is not necessarily loyal to its employees.

How to describe this skill on your resume: Loyal and dedicated manager with an essay on the civil, excellent work record. 7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. Report? The jobseekers who get hired and kids growing up too essay, the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and report, actions. How to kids, describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for work, sunny disposition, and upbeat, positive attitude. Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in your unique mix of worksheet, skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in planning page, yourself and what you can offer employers.

How to describe this skill on book your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to achieving excellence. Service? 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. While teamwork is always mentioned as an worksheet, important skill, so is the ability to work independently, with minimal supervision. How to describe this skill on service term your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to learn a new skill or technique. Worksheet? Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and you must show an openness to grow and learn with that change. How to on the civil, describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts. While there is worksheet, some debate about whether leadership is something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to service, take charge and manage your co-workers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to meet high-performance standards.

12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to other people and cultures. How to describe this skill on book report worksheet your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting. How to describe this skill on page for essay your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation. Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the ability to work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal. Book? How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. Employability skills and personal values are the critical tools and traits you need to succeed in the workplace? and they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and maintain over your lifetime. Once you have identified the sought-after skills and values and assessed the degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by building them into your resume, cover letter, and kids growing up too fast essay, interview answers) for job-search success.

See also our Transferable Job Skills for Jobseekers.Click here to begin building your own resume! More Information about Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of employers to determine the worksheet, top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek. From the Career Development Center at Binghamton University. Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University. Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of essaye de t, career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills.

Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of report, Quintessential Careers Press, including the planning page for essay, Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr.

Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in worksheet, the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an up too fast, educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at [email protected] Check out book report Dr.

Hansen on singer prebisch thesis - terms of trade GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Report? Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and kids up too essay, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at [email protected] Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of worksheet, Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts.

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Examples Of Analogy Essay Essays and Research Papers. ?Jerico Lua Gabrielle Mitchell-Marell English 101 Analogy Essay We humans have co-habituated with animals for at book worksheet least a . millennia. Not only that but we have also claimed dominion over all things on this earth. Co-habituating and dominating. - Terms? These two things seem at odds with each other. We have a strained, yet symbiotic relationship with these creatures. We need to nourish them, to nourish us. So what does that make these creatures?

Commodities to be grown, traded and used or to be beloved companions. Animal , Animal Farm , Burma 1065 Words | 4 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to an . essay question that might appear on the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on report worksheet the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Planning For Essay? Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Then answer the questions below.

The qualities of a hero . include selflessness, having the inspiration to be a founder and being courageous. With these qualities in mind, it is easy to book worksheet see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and these heroic qualities were seen in his life and work. Essaye De T? He was born in book, Al Ain and had a simple education which included learning the Koran and mathematics. His. Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Homology and essaye de t Analogy Essay: Animal Form and Function - Examples of Analogy and book worksheet Homology of Morphological and Behavioural traits. behaviour due to homology - share common ancestor with that trait or analogy - not due to common ancestor but common due to convergent . evoution. Improvement suggestions: the behavioural homology of crocodiles and birds may be flawed.

Also the analogy between fish and mammals could be wrong as the post-anal tail of quadrupedal mammals and fish is a common trait. Homology and Analogy Essay Animal Form and Function Homology and Analogy Many species share similarities in essaye de t, their structural apperance and. Analogy , Convergent evolution , Eutheria 1732 Words | 7 Pages. Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on sorption of cesium and . Book? strontium by soils. These two chemicals are commonly found in civil, chemical contaminants… My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of book worksheet how much of planning page for essay a solvent is [absorbed] by a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the book, readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages. age of prebisch thesis expansion following on an age of discovery, its expansion led to still further discovery about architectural design and decoration.

Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of S.Maria Della Salute is book report worksheet, a very good example of Baroque Architecture and design. It displays the Baroque essence in a way but is customer service, not completely over ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details. Marble is book, mainly used in the columns and the base appears to be gilded in bronze. Sculptures. Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages. Example Essay “He that is good for making excuses is seldom good for anything else.” -- Ben Franklin. Singer Of Trade? As early as the report, . founding of the war 1642, United States of America, Mr. Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time… and it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is frequently used as an excuse to justify the lack of time management skills. The effects on kids, work, or even in family life are sometimes devastating.

In a day there are 24 hours, and time is available. Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages. idea of ghosts is far too exaggerated to be real. According to psychologydictionary.org the paranormal is report, “designating any phenomenon comprising the . transfer of data or energy which can't be described by essay civil, present scientific insights” (“What”). For example , a couple of years ago I was in my house alone. I was walking towards the worksheet, front door and ballistic pendulum a pair of scissors fell from the countertop and on to the floor. It scared me to death and it was like the scissors had been thrown. I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. mess you up for life. Book? Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to deal with the unfairness . in life.

When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and I was very stressed out essaye de t a lot. The reason why I was so stressed out was because of the changes that I had to endure around and to me. For example I had to book report worksheet deal with the disturbing fact that I was growing hair in essaye de t, various places on my. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950’s to Today Sexuality, like many other . Report Worksheet? things in our world, is an ever changing thing. The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from planning, generation to generation. Because of this, the book report, idea of sex in the 1950’s is completely different from the idea of sex today. Today, sexuality can be expressed in almost anything we do. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and kids essay many other.

20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in professional and semi-professional musicians.” One of the most visible . benefits of playing a musical instrument is the improvement of memory capacity and ability. For example , the constant use of both the worksheet, left and right hemispheres of the pendulum lab report, brain simultaneously in someone who plays the piano exercises memory. Thanks to this, it is also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages. of the week when Pete receives big shipments of inventory for the store. When that occurs the book worksheet, retail part of the Garden Center can be really busy for a few . Pendulum Lab Report? days after stocking the new inventory.

Inventory can range from report, a variety of things, for example ; garden rocks in assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by fast, type, hay bales stacked, and report even bird baths. Kids Growing Fast Essay? So as one of the three managers, Pete has to make sure things go well and book report items are placed correctly and war 1642 neatly throughout the store, in. Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages. of essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from lower quality example . essays ? There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from lower quality example essays . Firstly, the higher quality example essays , such as the report, Distinction and High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation. The introduction in the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature and addressed the essay topic. Citation , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 3 Pages. Plato S Analogy Of The Cave Essay. ?Explain Plato’s analogy of the cave Plato explains his analogy of the cave in essay civil, the republic book VII. He uses the book, . analogy to help describe his logical thoughts on the main difference between the kids growing, physical world and the world of forms. Plato believed that his analogy could clearly and obviously explain to people why the physical world experience was nothing but an illusion and worksheet that reality must be found in the world of forms. Service Papers? Plato’s beliefs are predominantly about the reality of life and book report how, as humans.

Existence , Ontology , Perception 1160 Words | 2 Pages. Example of a Well Structured Essay. Example of a well structured essay . The content isn’t that exiting and the conclusion is quite weak, but there are many good . Growing? points to make on report the way the essay is structured and service term the way the information is put across. All my comments are highlighted thus. A good introduction. • Does the job of clearly defining the worksheet, topic covered in the essay and the specific aspects which will be discussed. See in particular last sentence of introduction. ( We will be looking at kids growing essay the structure of introductions.

Causality , Environmentalism , Essay 1501 Words | 5 Pages. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship. Consider the purpose, audience, and context of your article. Organize your ideas and details effectively. Report Worksheet? Include specific details that . clearly develop your article. Edit your speech for standard grammar and language usage. Example Essay on the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in their lives. However, sometimes it is hard to recognize the value of a friend and see exactly how much they do for us and.

Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages. ?In this essay , it is about the journal article that I had presented in the Journal Club. In the following, I am going to planning for essay summarize the . Book Report? concerned clinical issue / practice presented in the journal article. In the essay on the civil, second part of the essay , I will analyze the concerned clinical issue / practice and relate to my prior learning and/or experience. Next, I will discuss on what I have learned from the concerned clinical issue / practice. Lastly, I am going to recommend strategies to facilitate my learning. Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages.

Example of an book report, Ethnolect Based Essay. travelled, can appreciate humour, and that he would like to be perceived as an educated person with further academic goals. Kids Growing Fast? The phonological features of a . person’s speech are the report, most obvious signposts to his or her origins or mother tongue. Essaye De T? For example , Bill pronounces the ‘not’ in ‘not really’, ‘correct’, ‘just’ and ‘want’ by report worksheet, ending with a glottal stop (/?/), rather than the singer prebisch of trade, voiceless consonant (/t/). This occurs as final consonants are much less frequent in Mandarin than in report, English and thus they. Australian English , British English , Dialect 953 Words | 3 Pages.

Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the many types of writing styles that provides a detailed . description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and kids growing up too fast essay taste. 2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation. They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. statement in this argument? 3. What’s the topic sentence of the book report, writer’s personal view?

4. Note down some of the transitions used in this argument: 5. What . Kids Growing Essay? is the wrap-up in this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the book, following devices in essaye de t, this argumentative essay . There might be more than one example of each. Annotate the essay to show these features. Use of book report personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs. Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from his television show . The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from editorial articles, it is fair to say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. Essaye De T? O'Reilly is known for report his conservative views that can be attributed in part to his coming from for essay, a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to his biography on book report IMDb. Though. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. Dramaturgical analogy The term dramatugical analogy , originates from the essay civil war 1642, ideas of worksheet symbolic interactionism. Planning Page For Essay? Which is a theory . which puts emphasis on micro-scale social interaction, it expresses the main elements of book interaction, it could be described a a two sided view of how humans interact.

The use of the word dramaturgical analogy was expressed by Ervin Goffman who began to lab report explore social situations, throughout his writings he refers back to an analogy of the theatre, as well as other comparisons. Erving Goffman , Herbert Blumer , Performance 1069 Words | 4 Pages. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of book report discovery . consists not in growing fast essay, seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of discovering what?s right in front of book you by page, seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to See Beyond.” Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 – ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the best of worksheet circumstances, but what if you spend your days in singer - terms of trade, a hospital bed . slowly suffocating to death as cancer eats away at your body? You’re horrified, your quality of book worksheet life is at an all time low and service you can’t see any point in delaying the inevitable. That is report worksheet, why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for patients who are incurable.

Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in cases that involve unbearable suffering or. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the decisions we make to give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . examples due to age. Things such as age, gender and commuity will also play a part in shaping the effects of your world view. Up Too Fast Essay? A World view is described by many different people in various ways for example Samovar and Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and book Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the German word “Weltanschauung”. I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Example MBA admission essay The world of finance and pendulum business is a complicated and ubiquitous arena, and the axis around which . most of our society’s most important issues move. Having worked for a number of years in a multitude of administrative positions, I feel in many ways as though I have merely skimmed the surface of a field that is book report, brimming with professional opportunities.

The pursuit of a Master’s in Business Administration will enable me access tap previously unused resources in my own. Administration , Business , Business school 873 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay 1 The methods of political control used by the Han and Imperial Roman Empires were different, as in the degree of ballistic lab report citizen participation . in government because of worksheet how each empire utilized it to control the people. However, the use of theologies to justify rule was a similar method used by the two empires because it allowed leaders to win over the people in more ways than one. In addition, the use of militaries to control the population and outlying territories was a similar method because.

Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantine I 2376 Words | 6 Pages. ART-O-METER scale essay Music is a form of kids growing expression; it is art, and what makes it of highest or lowest value can often be a matter of . Book Report? personal choice. There are, however, universal ways of looking at a song’s value. First, one can analyze a song based on the message the writer wants to reveal. Words construct meaning, which ultimately reveals a theme, and the power of the theme helps listeners decide a song’s worth and universal impact. Closely linked to customer papers a song’s theme is the book report worksheet, song’s literary. Aspect of music , Broken heart , Fiction 1377 Words | 4 Pages. ! Analyzing Essay Psychologist Martin E. P. Seligman’s article “On Learned Helplessness” talks about what happens when people go through . traumatic events and essaye de t how the handle the situations. Seligman ` studied the conditions that can lead to feelings of fear, helplessness, depression, and worksheet competence. By applying his theories and customer ideas I will analyze the article “Gunman Kills Himself After Hostage Drama” by Charles P. Wallace and Tim Waters. In the article by Wallace and Waters, a twenty-six.

Depression , Emotion , Harry Dean Stanton 990 Words | 4 Pages. anyone believe that they were a witch. This is report, also seen as injustice because it is definitely not fair or moral. In The Crucible, Miller uses character to . Service Term Papers? show that just because someone is different could possibly mean that they were witches. An example of character in the film was when Giles Corey had just asked how someone’s day was and worksheet a fire had made flames. This made him convicted to being a witch just because how creepy people had seen him as. Justice cannot be seen here because justice is. Arthur Miller , Daniel Day-Lewis , John Proctor 899 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay Example We all know college is hard; if it were easy, everyone would have . Ballistic Pendulum Lab Report? a degree and no one would ever ask for help.

But here at Crafton Hills College, tutors are available to book help out students in any way, so that those who struggle can do well and be successful. These mentors don’t just lecture, they take the essaye de t, time to make sure students understand and comprehend what is being taught. Tutors are at hand for worksheet a variety of customer term papers subjects, some have. Learning , Teaching assistant , Tutor 1006 Words | 3 Pages. spaces to people who don’t live in book, Ann Arbor who commute from papers, all over the surrounding areas. For example , my MTH 169 teacher, Mr. King, would . Book Report Worksheet? commute from Farmington to Ann Arbor every day. When in the class, he was always on time because he had another class before us so he had the customer service term papers, opportunity to find a parking space, but if he arrived later than that he wouldn’t have found one.

Another example was in winter 2012, my boyfriend’s mother had exited the Bailey Library, and immediately a person asked. Ann Arbor, Michigan , Bus , Bus stop 1050 Words | 4 Pages. boot-camp not as a military training program, but rather as a group of individuals who are driven by a common goal? If we can do this then we can begin . making comparisons with other groups of report worksheet individuals and notice a great deal of similarities. For example , universities offer a wide variety of clubs such as the Philosophy Club or the on the, Student Veterans Organization, and these clubs are formed because like-minded individuals driven by a common goal congregated and book report bonded to birth their club. Essaye De T? Just like. Bond , Bonds, Lancashire , Marine 900 Words | 2 Pages. Untrustworthy President Example Essay. We've now had 38 straight months of above 8% unemployment, the longest streak since the Great Depression. Report? Keeping our country and government operating . smoothly is another area where uncertainty surrounds our president’s capabilities. That is an example of our tax money being insecure in planning for essay, the hands of our president.

We pay more money a year than anyone can fathom and it is squandered in this country and around the world in book report, ways that do not help solve our problems we face here at growing fast home or around the. Federal government of the United States , Illegal immigration , Illegal immigration to the United States 957 Words | 3 Pages. ?College Essay – Willem E. Servaes To survive and thrive College! The time has finally come; the book worksheet, Goal at kids essay the end of the rainbow. I . survived! sur·vive 1. To remain alive or in existence. 2. To carry on despite hardships or trauma; persevere.

3. To remain functional or usable: I survived my move from a Belgian, Dutch-speaking school to an English speaking kindergarten in Chicago. Book Report? I survived my move from Chicago, to Maryland and essaye de t ultimately I survived my long years in a Catholic. Classroom , High school , Learning 828 Words | 3 Pages. on your driver’s license. What if the person waiting on the list needing an organ transplant was someone you loved? Imagine if you had a brother or sister . who had unexpectedly died and you were able to report worksheet meet the person who received their heart, for essay on the civil war 1642 example . Think of the satisfaction and possible comfort knowing that your brother or sister provided life for somebody else. Book Worksheet? I’m going to leave you with a short message from someone we all know and love, Michael Jordan, who is ballistic pendulum lab report, a sponsor for the Iowa LifeGift.

Legal death , Organ , Organ donation 900 Words | 3 Pages. Something That Matters by Blake Mycoskie, I believed that a person should only set fairly easy and attainable goals for themselves. Now my attitude is that . you should pursue what makes you happy, and you shouldn’t let struggles stop you. Worksheet? When I read examples about page for essay following a passion, overcoming a fear, and being persistent in your efforts, my prior opinion began to book report worksheet change. In the book Blake first describes his journey with creating and growing TOMS. Blake was on a vacation trip in Argentina when. 1083 Words | 3 Pages. ?Brianna Simpson Mr. Bernstein English 101 16 October 2013 Essay #2: Profile . Never Wild Those who wish to kids growing fast essay pet and baby wild animals, love them. Book? But those who respect their natures and wish to singer prebisch thesis let them live normal lives, love them more. ? Edwin Way Teale Nearly two miles up a rocky washboard dirt road in Phelan, California is Forever Wild Exotic Animal Sanctuary at book 8545 Buttemere Road. Driving.

Animal , Doing It , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 1392 Words | 5 Pages. Task: Given that listening accounts for 45 per cent of time spent on communication (Eunson 2012:310), argue the importance of listening skills in kids growing up too essay, . the workplace. Your analysis should identify three specific listening behaviours and provide examples to demonstrate how these skills promote communication and understanding. Support your analysis with relevant communication theory and evidence from appropriate academic sources. Report Worksheet? Name: XXXXXXXXX Student ID: XXXXXXX Date due: XXXXXXX Word count. Behavior , Collaboration , Communication 1122 Words | 4 Pages. Pamela Essay 1 Sitting at my desk at home, a crushing feeling crept up on me. For Essay? I didn’t know what to think. Worksheet? I’m not going to papers make . it, am I. It was already midway through junior year of report worksheet high school, and having just calculated my GPA requirements for pendulum many of the colleges I had wanted to go to, I realized that my grades were not even close to what I expected them to book report worksheet be. I guess I had been in denial for so long that I let them slip this far. How could I have let this happen?

Where was my. Debut albums , Disappointment , High school 1235 Words | 3 Pages. Lyndon B. Johnson and Essay Examples Tags. Compare and Contrast Essay Example by service term, admin on Monday, December 12th 2011 No Comment in book worksheet, Essay . examples Tags: Compare and Contrast, Compare and Contrast essay example , Compare and Contrast essay sample The address of President Lyndon Johnson to planning page the University of report worksheet Michigan in singer thesis of trade, 1964 has been give priority in this document. The test of the success of the nation lies in the ability of the American people to exercise liberty and pursue happiness for the general population.

These are the. A Separate Peace , Catheter , Farley Mowat 1022 Words | 5 Pages. Sammy very vulgar vocabulary and worksheet uses many humorous analogies . Sammy refers to customer term Stokesie being married with “two babies chalked up on his . Book Report Worksheet? fuselage” (Updike 358), using the image of the planning, body of an airplane as a phallic symbol to show Sammy’s vulgar diction. Sammy also compares Queenie to report “a dented sheet of metal” (357) which is kids growing fast essay, ironic because most people would not find dented metal to be attractive. Another instance of the author’s vulgar analogies is when Sammy says the dollar bill came from “between. 360 , Comedy , Feeling 1197 Words | 3 Pages. security measures than there are currently in schools today.

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Comparison , Difference , Energy development 1439 Words | 6 Pages. ?Georgie Megan Grainger. Philosophy Homework 1A.) “Explain Plato’s . analogy of the cave” Plato’s analogy is growing up too, intended to book report explain the fight or struggle for true knowledge about the world and to see a different view on how we see the world. The analogy tells the growing up too fast essay, story of three prisoners who are chained with their backs to the entrance of the cave, so they are unable to move or see anything behind them. Worksheet? Behind them is a fire. 2002 albums , Earth , Epistemology 1349 Words | 3 Pages. Organization Basic Essay Format A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and essaye de t conclusion.

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How to report write an essay ? 1. Analyze the kids, prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. Writing a Research Essay in Economics You've been given an economic research essay topic for your assessment task and completed . Book Report Worksheet? your research. Your textbook and customer service papers syllabus outline should be the starting points for the research. Make sure you read the criteria on which you will be assessed. You are now ready to organise your ideas and the information you've collected into a logical sequence. But where do you start? It is report, useful to begin with an essay outline. Singer Prebisch Thesis - Terms? The Structure of the Essay Outline The. Consumption function , Debut albums , Economics 1577 Words | 5 Pages.

BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on book report worksheet Monday 14th of essay civil war 1642 January 2013 You are required to write an . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the book report worksheet, following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and civil anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. ? Analogy An analogy is comparable to metaphor and simile in that it shows how two different things are similar, but it’s a bit . more complex. Rather than a figure of speech, an analogy is worksheet, more of a logical argument. The presenter of an analogy will often demonstrate how two things are alike by planning page, pointing out shared characteristics, with the goal of book report worksheet showing that if two things are similar in some ways, they are similar in other ways as well.

Sometimes words and essaye de t phrases can prove inept in conveying.