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Becton Dickinson Vacutainer Systems - Mechanical Associate Resume Example. Middle English. XXX-XXXX-XXX Cell: XXX-XXXX-XXX - [email protected] Essay About. Knowledge of gear boxes Efficient troubleshooter Steam turbine maintenance Chain drives. Quality control analysis Keen manual dexterity Large lathe operation Mechanical drawing interpretation. Metathesis English. Working knowledge of 3.5 paragraph essay TC MAX, MICT, and Microsoft Office applications, i.e.: Word, Excel, Outlook, and metathesis middle english PowerPoint.

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russell essay By Bertrand Russell. The Lecture that is here reproduced was delivered at the Battersea Town Hall on Sunday March 6, 1927, under the auspices of the South London Branch of the National Secular Society. It is issued in booklet form at the request of metathesis middle english many friends. It should be added that the in india essay author alone is responsible for the political and middle english, other opinions expressed.

As your Chairman has told you, the subject about which I am going to speak to you tonight is ‘Why I am not a Christian’. Perhaps it would be as well, first of brothers all, to metathesis, try to make out what one means by the word ‘Christian’. It is of a letter used these days in a very loose sense by a great many people. Some people mean no more by it than a person who attempts to live a good life. In that sense I suppose there would be Christians in all sects and creeds; but I do not think that that is the proper sense of the middle english word, if only because it would imply that all the people who are not Christiansall the Buddhists, Confucians, Mohammedans, and so onare not trying to live a good life.

I do not mean by a Christian any person who tries to live decently according to his lights. Essay Sports Day Pmr? I think that you must have a certain amount of definite belief before you have a right to call yourself a Christian. Middle English? The word does not have quite such a full-blooded meaning now as it had in the times of St Augustine and St Thomas Aquinas. In those days, if a man said that he was a Christian it was known what he meant. Application Depression? You accepted a whole collection of creeds which were set out with great precision, and every single syllable of those creeds you believed with the metathesis english whole strength of your convictions. WHAT IS A CHRISTIAN? Nowadays it is not quite that.

We have to on founding brothers, be a little more vague in our meaning of Christianity. I think, however, that there are two different items which are quite essential to anybody calling himself a Christian. The first is one of a dogmatic naturenamely, that you must believe in God and immortality. If you do not believe in those two things, I do not think that you can properly call yourself a Christian. Then, further than that, as the metathesis english name implies, you must have some kind of belief about Christ. The Mohammedans, for instance, also believe in pregnancy interview essay, God and in immortality, and metathesis middle, yet they would not call themselves Christians. I think you must have at the very lowest the education reforms essay belief that Christ was, if not divine, at least the best and english, wisest of men. If you are not going to believe that much about Christ, I do not think you have any right to call yourself a Christian. Of course there is of a letter another sense which you find in Whitaker’s Almanack and in geography books, where the population of the world is said to be divided into metathesis Christians, Mohammedans, Buddhists, fetish worshippers, and essay sutter, so on; and in that sense we are all Christians.

The geography books count us all in, but that is a purely geographical sense, which I suppose we can ignore. Therefore I take it that when I tell you why I am not a Christian I have to tell you two different things; first, why I do not believe in God and in immortality; and, secondly, why I do not think that Christ was the best and wisest of men, although I grant Him a very high degree of moral goodness. But for the successful efforts of unbelievers in the past, I could not take so elastic a definition of Christianity as that. As I said before, in olden days it had a much more full-blooded sense. For instance, it concluded the belief in hell. Belief in eternal hell fire was an essential item of metathesis Christian belief until pretty recent times. In this country, as you know, it ceased to be an essential item because of a decision of the Privy Council, and of a cover letter, from that decision the Archbishop of Canterbury and middle, the Archbishop of York dissented; but in this country our religion is settled by essay on founding brothers, Act of metathesis middle Parliament, and therefore the Privy Council was able to override Their Graces and hell was no longer necessary to reforms in india, a Christian. Consequently I shall not insist that a Christian must believe in hell.

THE EXISTENCE OF GOD. To come to this question of the existence of God, it is a large and serious question, and if I were to attempt to deal with it in any adequate manner I should have to keep you here until Kingdom Come, so that you will have to excuse me if I deal with it in english, a somewhat summary fashion. You know, of course, that the Catholic Church has laid it down as a dogma that the existence of God can be proved by the unaided reason. That is a somewhat curious dogma, but it is picture of a letter one of their dogmas. They had to introduce it because at one time the metathesis middle english Freethinkers adopted the in india essay habit of saying that there were such and such arguments which mere reason might urge against the existence of God, but of english course they knew as a matter of about sports faith that God did exist.

The arguments and the reasons were set out at great length, and the Catholic Church felt that they must stop it. Therefore they laid it down that the existence of God can be proved by the unaided reason, and they had to set up what they considered were arguments to middle english, prove it. There are, of course, a number of them, but I shall take only a few. THE FIRST CAUSE ARGUMENT. Perhaps the simplest and easiest to understand is the argument of the First Cause. (It is maintained that everything we see in this world has a cause, and as you go back in the chain of causes further and further you must come to a First Cause, and to application essay, that First Cause you give the name of God). That argument, I suppose, does not carry very much weight nowadays, because, in the first place, cause is english not quite what it used to be. The philosophers and essay, the men of science have got going on cause, and it has not anything like the vitality it used to have; but, apart from metathesis middle, that, you can see that the argument that there must be a First Cause is one that cannot have any validity. I may say that when I was a young man and application essay, was debating these questions very seriously in my mind, I for a long time accepted the argument of the First Cause, until one day, at the age of eighteen, I read John Stuart Mill’s Autobiography , and I there found this sentence: ‘My father taught me that the question, “Who made me?” cannot be answered, since it immediately suggests the further question, “Who made God?” ’ That very simple sentence showed me, as I still think, the fallacy in the argument of the First Cause. If everything must have a cause, then God must have a cause.

If there can be anything without a cause, it may just as well be the world as God, so that there cannot be any validity in metathesis english, that argument. It is exactly of the same nature as the Hindu’s view, that the world rested upon an elephant and the elephant rested upon a tortoise; and when they said, ‘How about the tortoise?’ the Indian said, ‘Suppose we change the subject.’ The argument is really no better than that. Essay? There is no reason why the metathesis middle world could not have come into being without a cause; nor, on the other hand, is there any reason why it should not have always existed. There is no reason to suppose that the world had a beginning at all. The idea that things must have a beginning is really due to picture of a, the poverty of our imagination. Therefore, perhaps, I need not waste any more time upon the argument about the First Cause. THE NATURAL LAW ARGUMENT. Then there is a very common argument from natural law. That was a favourite argument all through the eighteenth century, especially under the influence of metathesis Sir Isaac Newton and his cosmogony. People observed the essay on founding brothers planets going round the sun according to metathesis middle english, the law of gravitation, and they thought that God had given a behest to these planets to move in cover letter, that particular fashion, and that was why they did so.

That was, of course, a convenient and simple explanation that saved them the trouble of looking any further for english, explanations of the law of gravitation. Essay Sutter? Nowadays we explain the law of gravitation in a somewhat complicated fashion that Einstein has introduced. I do not propose to give you a lecture on the law of gravitation as interpreted by Einstein, because that again would take some time; at any rate, you no longer have the sort of natural law that you had in the Newtonian system, where, for some reason that nobody could understand, nature behaved in middle english, a uniform fashion. Brothers? We now find that a great many things we thought were natural laws are really human conventions. You know that even in metathesis, the remotest depths of in india stellar space there are still three feet to a yard. That is, no doubt, a very remarkable fact, but you would hardly call it a law of nature. And a great many things that have been regarded as laws of metathesis middle english nature are of on john that kind. On the other hand, where you can get down to any knowledge of metathesis english what atoms actually do, you will find they are much less subject to law than people thought, and that the laws at which you arrive are statistical averages of just the sort that would emerge from chance.

There is, as we all know, a law that if you throw dice you will get double sixes only about once in thirty-six times, and essay brothers, we do not regard that as evidence that the metathesis middle english fall of the dice is regulated by design; on application depression the contrary, if the double sixes came every time we should think that there was design. The laws of nature are of that sort as regards a great many of them. They are statistical averages such as would emerge from the metathesis laws of chance; and that makes this whole business of natural law much less impressive than it formerly was. Of A Cover? Quite apart from that, which represents the momentary state of science that may change tomorrow, the whole idea that natural laws imply a law-giver is due to a confusion between natural and human laws. Human laws are behests commanding you to english, behave a certain way, in which way you may choose to behave, or you may choose not to behave; but natural laws are a description of how things do in fact behave, and essay, being a mere description of what they in fact do, you cannot argue that there must be somebody who told them to do that, because even supposing that there were you are then faced with the question, ‘Why did God issue just those natural laws and no others?’ If you say that He did it simply from His own good pleasure, and without any reason, you then find that there is metathesis middle english something which is not subject to law, and so your train of natural law is interrupted. If you say, as more orthodox theologians do, that in all the laws which God issues He had a reason for giving those laws rather than othersthe reason, of college course, being to create the best universe, although you would never think it to look at itif there was a reason for the laws which God gave, then God Himself was subject to law, and therefore you do not get any advantage by metathesis, introducing God as an intermediary. You have really a law outside and reforms in india, anterior to middle english, the divine edicts, and picture cover, God does not serve your purpose, because He is english not the ultimate lawgiver. In short, this whole argument about natural law no longer has anything like the strength that it used to about, have. I am travelling on in time in metathesis, my review of the arguments. The arguments that are used for education in india essay, the existence of metathesis middle english God change their character as time goes on. They were at first hard, intellectual arguments embodying certain quite definite fallacies.

As we come to of a cover letter, modern times they become less respectable intellectually and metathesis, more and more affected by a kind of moralising vagueness. THE ARGUMENT FROM DESIGN. The next step in this process brings us to the argument from education, design. Metathesis Middle English? You all know the argument from design: everything in the world is made just so that we can manage to live in the world, and reforms, if the world was ever so little different we could not manage to live in it. That is the argument from design.

It sometimes takes a rather curious form; for instance, it is argued that rabbits have white tails in order to be easy to middle, shoot. I do not know how rabbits would view that application. It is an on john sutter, easy argument to parody. You all know Voltaire’s remark, that obviously the metathesis middle english nose was designed to be such as to fit spectacles. That sort of parody has turned out to be not nearly so wide of the mark as it might have seemed in the eighteenth century, because since the application time of Darwin we understand much better why living creatures are adapted to metathesis english, their environment.

It is not that their environment was made to be suitable to them, but that they grew to be suitable to it, and that is the college application essay basis of adaptation. There is no evidence of design about it. When you come to look into this argument from design, it is a most astonishing thing that people can believe that this world, with all the things that are in metathesis english, it, with all its defects, should be the best that omnipotence and picture of a letter, omniscience has been able to produce in metathesis middle, millions of years. I really cannot believe it. Do you think that, if you were granted omnipotence and omniscience and picture of a cover, millions of years in which to perfect your world, you could produce nothing better than the Ku-Klux-Klan or the Fascists? Moreover, if you accept the ordinary laws of science, you have to metathesis middle, suppose that human life and life in general on pregnancy essay this planet will die out in due course: it is a stage in the decay of the solar system; at a certain stage of decay you get the sort of conditions of middle temperature and so forth which are suitable to protoplasm, and there is life for a short time in on john, the life of the whole solar system. You see in middle english, the moon the sort of thing to which the earth is essay on founding tendingsomething dead, cold, and lifeless. I am told that that sort of view is depressing, and people will sometimes tell you that if they believed that they would not be able to go on living.

Do not believe it; it is all nonsense. Nobody really worries much about what is metathesis middle going to happen millions of years hence. Pregnancy Essay? Even if they think they are worrying much about that, they are really deceiving themselves. They are worried about something much more mundane, or it may merely be a bad digestion; but nobody is really seriously rendered unhappy by the thought of something that is metathesis going to happen to this world millions of years hence. Therefore, although it is of course a gloomy view to suppose that life will die outat least I suppose we may say so, although sometimes when I contemplate the things that people do with their lives I think it is almost a consolationit is not such as to render life miserable. It merely makes you turn your attention to other things. THE MORAL ARGUMENTS FOR DEITY. Now we reach one stage further in what I shall call the intellectual descent that the Theists have made in their argumentations, and we come to what are called the moral arguments for the existence of picture of a cover letter God. You all know, of course, that there used to be in the old days three intellectual arguments for the existence of God, all of which were disposed of by Immanuel Kant in the Critique of Pure Reason ; but no sooner had he disposed of those arguments than he invented a new one, a moral argument, and english, that quite convinced him. Picture Cover? He was like many people: in metathesis english, intellectual matters he was sceptical, but in moral matters he believed implicitly in the maxims that he had imbibed at of a his mother’s knee.

That illustrates what the psychoanalysts so much emphasisethe immensely stronger hold upon us that our very early associations have than those of later times. Kant, as I say, invented a new moral argument for the existence of God, and that in varying forms was extremely popular during the nineteenth century. It has all sorts of forms. Middle? One form is to about sports day pmr, say that there would be no right or wrong unless God existed. I am not for the moment concerned with whether there is a difference between right and wrong, or whether there is english not: that is another question. The point I am concerned with is that, if you are quite sure there is a difference between right and wrong, you are then in this situation: is that difference due to God’s fiat or is it not? If it is college application depression due to God’s fiat, then for God Himself there is metathesis middle english no difference between right and sutter, wrong, and it is no longer a significant statement to say that God is good. Middle English? If you are going to essay about sports day pmr, say, as theologians do, that God is good, you must then say that right and wrong have some meaning which is independent of metathesis middle God’s fiat, because God’s fiats are good and not bad independently of the mere fact that He made them. If you are going to say that, you will then have to say that it is not only through God that right and wrong came into being, but that they are in their essence logically anterior to God. You could, of course, if you liked, say that there was a superior deity who gave orders to the God who made this world, or could take up the essay about day pmr line that some of the gnostics took upa line which I often thought was a very plausible onethat as a matter of fact this world that we know was made by the devil at metathesis middle english a moment when God was not looking.

There is a good deal to essay brothers, be said for that, and I am not concerned to refute it. THE ARGUMENT FOR THE REMEDYING OF INJUSTICE. Then there is another very curious form of moral argument, which is this: they say that the existence of God is required in order to bring justice into the world. In the metathesis english part of this universe that we know there is great injustice, and often the good suffer, and often the wicked prosper, and one hardly knows which of those is the more annoying; but if you are going to have justice in the universe as a whole you have to suppose a future life to reforms, redress the metathesis balance of life here on earth. So they say that there must be a God, and pregnancy essay, there must be heaven and hell in order that in the long run there may be justice. Metathesis Middle English? That is a very curious argument. If you looked at the matter from reforms essay, a scientific point of view, you would say: ‘After all, I know only this world. I do not know about the rest of the english universe, but so far as one can argue at all on probabilities one would say that probably this world is a fair sample, and if there is injustice here the picture cover odds are that there is metathesis injustice elsewhere also.’ Supposing you got a crate of sutter oranges that you opened, and you found all the top layer of oranges bad, you would not argue: ‘The underneath ones must be good, so as to redress the balance.’ You would say: ‘Probably the whole lot is a bad consignment’; and that is really what a scientific person would argue about the universe. Metathesis? He would say: ‘Here we find in this world a great deal of injustice and so far as that goes that is a reason for supposing that justice does not rule in the world; and therefore so far as it goes it affords a moral argument against deity and not in favour of one.’ Of course I know that the sort of intellectual arguments that I have been talking to you about are not what really moves people. What really moves people to education essay, believe in God is not any intellectual argument at all.

Most people believe in God because they have been taught from early infancy to do it, and that is the main reason. Then I think that the next most powerful reason is the wish for safety, a sort of feeling that there is a big brother who will look after you. Metathesis Middle? That plays a very profound part in influencing people’s desire for a belief in sutter, God. THE CHARACTER OF CHRIST. I now want to say a few words upon a topic which I often think is middle not quite sufficiently dealt with by Rationalists, and that is the question whether Christ was the best and the wisest of men.

It is generally taken for granted that we shall all agree that that was so. I do not myself. I think that there are a good many points upon which I agree with Christ a great deal more than the professing Christians do. I do not know that I could go with Him all the way, but I could go with Him much farther than most professing Christians can. You will remember that He said: ‘Resist not evil, but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.’ That is not a new precept or a new principle. It was used by Lao-Tze and Buddha some five or six hundred years before Christ, but it is not a principle which as a matter of fact Christians accept. Pregnancy Interview Essay? I have no doubt that the metathesis present Prime Minister,1 [footnote 1. Stanley Baldwin.] for instance, is a most sincere Christian, but I should not advise any of you to go and essay day pmr, smite him on one cheek. I think you might find that he thought this text was intended in a figurative sense. Then there is another point which I consider is metathesis excellent. Of A Cover Letter? You will remember that Christ said: ‘Judge not lest ye be judged.’ That principle I do not think you would find was popular in the law courts of Christian countries.

I have known in my time quite a number of judges who were very earnest Christians, and middle, they none of them felt that they were acting contrary to interview essay, Christian principles in what they did. English? Then Christ says: ‘Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.’ That is a very good principle. Your Chairman has reminded you that we are not here to brothers, talk politics, but I cannot help observing that the last general election was fought on the question of how desirable it was to middle english, turn away from him that would borrow of thee, so that one must assume that the pregnancy essay Liberals and Conservatives of this country are composed of people who do not agree with the teaching of Christ, because they certainly did very emphatically turn away on middle english that occasion. Then there is one other maxim of education reforms essay Christ which I think has a great deal in it, but I do not find that it is very popular among some of our Christian friends. He says: ‘If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor.’ That is a very excellent maxim, but, as I say, it is not much practised. All these, I think, are good maxims, although they are a little difficult to live up to. I do not profess to live up to them myself; but then after all, it is middle not quite the same thing as for a Christian. DEFECTS IN CHRIST’S TEACHING.

Having granted the excellence of these maxims, I come to certain points in which I do not believe that one can grant either the superlative wisdom or the superlative goodness of Christ as depicted in the Gospels; and in india essay, here I may say that one is not concerned with the metathesis middle historical question. Historically it is picture of a letter quite doubtful whether Christ ever existed at all, and if He did we do not know anything about Him, so that I am not concerned with the historical question, which is a very difficult one. I am concerned with Christ as He appears in the Gospels, taking the middle Gospel narrative as it stands, and there one does find some things that do not seem to be very wise. For one thing, He certainly thought that His second coming would occur in clouds of glory before the death of interview essay all the metathesis middle people who were living at that time. There are a great many texts that prove that. He says, for college essay, instance: ‘Ye shall not have gone over metathesis middle english, the cities of Israel, till the Son of Man be come.’ Then He says: ‘There are some standing here which shall not taste death till the essay about sports day pmr Son of english Man comes into His kingdom’; and there are a lot of places where it is quite clear that He believed that His second coming would happen during the lifetime of many then living. Essay On John? That was the belief of His earlier followers, and it was the basis of middle english a good deal of picture letter His moral teaching. When He said, ‘Take no thought for the morrow,’ and things of that sort, it was very largely because He thought that the second coming was going to be very soon, and that all ordinary mundane affairs did not count. I have, as a matter of fact, known some Christians who did believe that the second coming was imminent.

I knew a parson who frightened his congregation terribly by telling them that the second coming was very imminent indeed, but they were much consoled when they found that he was planting trees in his garden. The early Christians did really believe it, and they did abstain from such things as planting trees in their gardens, because they did accept from Christ the belief that the second coming was imminent. In that respect clearly He was not so wise as some other people have been, and he was certainly not superlatively wise. THE MORAL PROBLEM. Then you come to english, moral questions. There is one very serious defect to my mind in Christ’s moral character, and that is pregnancy interview essay that He believed in hell. I do not myself feel that any person who is really profoundly humane can believe in everlasting punishment. Christ certainly as depicted in the Gospels did believe in everlasting punishment, and middle english, one does find repeatedly a vindictive fury against sutter, those people who would not listen to His preachingan attitude which is not uncommon with preachers, but which does somewhat detract from superlative excellence. You do not, for instance, find that attitude in Socrates. You find him quite bland and urbane towards the people who would not listen to him; and it is, to metathesis, my mind, far more worthy of on john sutter a sage to middle, take that line than to take the line of essay indignation. You probably all remember the sort of middle things that Socrates was saying when he was dying, and the sort of things that he generally did say to people who did not agree with him.

You will find that in the Gospels Christ said: ‘Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the college damnation of hell?’ That was said to people who did not like His preaching. It is not really to my mind quite the best tone, and there are a great many of these things about hell. There is, of course, the metathesis english familiar text about the sin against the Holy Ghost: ‘Whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost it shall not be forgiven him neither in this world nor in the world of come.’ That text has caused an pregnancy essay, unspeakable amount of middle misery in the world, for application, all sorts of people have imagined that they have committed the sin against metathesis middle, the Holy Ghost, and thought that it would not be forgiven them either in this world or in the world to come. I really do not think that a person with a proper degree of kindliness in on john, his nature would have put fears and terrors of metathesis that sort into the world. Then Christ says: ‘The Son of Man shall send forth His angels, and depression, they shall gather out of His kingdom all things that offend, and middle, them which do iniquity, and shall cast them into a furnace of fire; there shall be wailing and gnashing of on john teeth’; and He goes on about the wailing and metathesis english, gnashing of teeth. College Essay? It comes in one verse after another, and metathesis english, it is quite manifest to the reader that there is a certain pleasure in essay on john, contemplating wailing and gnashing of teeth, or else it would not occur so often.

Then you all, of course, remember about the sheep and the goats; how at the second coming to divide the sheep and the goats He is going to say to the goats: ‘Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire.’ He continues: ‘And these shall go away into everlasting fire.’ Then He says again: ‘If thy hand offend thee, cut it off; it is better for metathesis middle english, thee to enter into life maimed, than having two hands to go into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched; where the worm dieth not and the fire is not quenched.’ He repeats that again and interview essay, again also. I must say that I think all this doctrine, that hell-fire is a punishment for sin, is a doctrine of cruelty. It is a doctrine that put cruelty into the world and gave the world generations of cruel torture; and the Christ of the Gospels, if you could take Him as His chroniclers represent Him, would certainly have to english, be considered partly responsible for pregnancy essay, that. There are other things of less importance. There is the instance of the Gadarene swine where it certainly was not very kind to metathesis, the pigs to put the devils into them and make them rush down the essay depression hill to the sea. You must remember that He was omnipotent, and metathesis middle, He could have made the about sports day pmr devils simply go away; but He chooses to send them into the pigs. Then there is the curious story of the fig-tree, which always rather puzzled me.

You remember what happened about the fig-tree. ‘He was hungry; and seeing a fig-tree afar off having leaves, He came if haply He might find anything thereon; and metathesis english, when He came to it He found nothing but leaves, for the time of essay on john sutter figs was not yet. And Jesus answered and said unto it: “No man eat fruit of metathesis middle english thee hereafter for education in india, ever,” . . . and Peter . . . saith unto Him: “Master, behold the fig-tree which thou cursedst is withered away”.’ This is a very curious story, because it was not the right time of metathesis english year for figs, and sports, you really could not blame the tree. I cannot myself feel that either in the matter of wisdom or in the matter of virtue Christ stands quite as high as some other people known to history. I think I should put Buddha and Socrates above Him in those respects. Middle English? s THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. As I said before, I do not think that the real reason why people accept religion has anything to do with argumentation. They accept religion on emotional grounds. Application Essay? One is often told that it is a very wrong thing to attack religion, because religion makes men virtuous.

So I am told; I have not noticed it. You know, of course, the parody of that argument in Samuel Butler’s book, Erewhon Revisited . You will remember that in Erewhon there is a certain Higgs who arrives in a remote country, and after spending some time there he escapes from that country in a balloon. Twenty years later he comes back to that country and finds a new religion, in which he is metathesis english worshipped under the name of the reforms essay ‘Sun Child’, and it is said that he ascended into Heaven. Metathesis? He finds that the Feast of the Ascension is about to letter, be celebrated, and he hears Professors Hanky and Panky say to each other that they never set eyes on the man Higgs, and metathesis, they hope they never will; but they are the high priests of the religion of the Sun Child. Essay Depression? He is metathesis middle english very indignant, and he comes up to them, and he says: ‘I am going to expose all this humbug and tell the people of Erewhon that it was only I, the about sports man Higgs, and I went up in a balloon.’ He was told: ‘You must not do that, because all the morals of this country are bound round this myth, and if they once know that you did not ascend into heaven they will all become wicked’; and so he is persuaded of that and he goes quietly away. That is the ideathat we should all be wicked if we did not hold to metathesis middle, the Christian religion. It seems to me that the people who have held to it have been for the most part extremely wicked. You find this curious fact, that the more intense has been the religion of any period and reforms in india, the more profound has been the dogmatic belief, the greater has been the cruelty and the worse has been the state of affairs.

In the so-called ages of faith, when men really did believe the metathesis middle english Christian religion in all its completeness, there was the Inquisition, with its tortures; there were millions of unfortunate women burnt as witches; and there was every kind of application essay depression cruelty practised upon all sorts of people in the name of religion. You find as you look around the world that every single bit of progress in humane feeling, every improvement in the criminal law, every step towards the diminution of middle english war, every step towards better treatment of the depression coloured races, or every mitigation of slavery, every moral progress that there has been in the world, has been consistently opposed by the organised Churches of the world. I say quite deliberately that the Christian religion, as organised in its Churches, has been and still is the principal enemy of moral progress in the world. HOW THE CHURCHES HAVE RETARDED PROGRESS. You may think that I am going too far when I say that that is middle still so.

I do not think that I am. Take one fact. You will bear with me if I mention it. It is college application essay depression not a pleasant fact, but the Churches compel one to mention facts that are not pleasant. Supposing that in middle english, this world that we live in today an inexperienced girl is married to a syphilitic man, in that case the Catholic Church says: ‘This is an indissoluble sacrament. Essay? You must stay together for middle english, life.’ And no steps of any sort must be taken by that woman to prevent herself from giving birth to syphilitic children. That is what the Catholic Church says. Of A Cover Letter? I say that that is fiendish cruelty, and nobody whose natural sympathies have not been warped by dogma, or whose moral nature was not absolutely dead to all sense of suffering, could maintain that it is right and proper that that state of things should continue. That is only an example.

There are a great many ways in which at the present moment the Church, by its insistence upon what it chooses to call morality, inflicts upon all sorts of people undeserved and unnecessary suffering. And of course, as we know, it is in its major part an opponent still of progress and of improvement in all the ways that diminish suffering in the world, because it has chosen to label as morality a certain narrow set of rules of conduct which have nothing to do with human happiness; and when you say that this or that ought to be done because it would make for english, human happiness, they think that has nothing to do with the pregnancy interview essay matter at all. ‘What has human happiness to do with morals? The object of morals is not to make people happy.’ FEAR THE FOUNDATION OF RELIGION. Religion is based, I think, primarily and mainly upon fear. It is partly the metathesis middle english terror of the unknown, and partly, as I have said, the wish to feel that you have a kind of elder brother who will stand by you in all your troubles and disputes. Fear is the basis of the whole thingfear of the mysterious, fear of about day pmr defeat, fear of death. Fear is the parent of cruelty, and therefore it is no wonder if cruelty and english, religion has gone hand-in-hand.

It is because fear is at sutter the basis of those two things. In this world we can now begin a little to understand things, and a little to master them by help of metathesis middle science, which has forced its way step by step against the Christian religion, against essay on john, the Churches, and against middle english, the opposition of all the cover letter old precepts. Science can help us to get over this craven fear in which mankind has lived for so many generations. Science can teach us, and I think our own hearts can teach us, no longer to look round for imaginary supports, no longer to metathesis middle, invent allies in the sky, but rather to interview, look to our own efforts here below to make this world a fit place to live in, instead of the sort of place that the churches in all these centuries have made it. WHAT WE MUST DO. We want to metathesis middle english, stand upon essay, our own feet and look fair and square at the worldits good facts, its bad facts, its beauties, and middle, its ugliness; see the world as it is, and be not afraid of it. Conquer the world by intelligence, and of a, not merely by being slavishly subdued by the terror that comes from metathesis english, it. The whole conception of God is a conception derived from the ancient Oriental despotisms. It is a conception quite unworthy of interview free men. When you hear people in church debasing themselves and saying that they are miserable sinners, and all the rest of it, it seems contemptible and not worthy of self-respecting human beings.

We ought to stand up and metathesis, look the world frankly in the face. We ought to education reforms essay, make the best we can of the world, and if it is not so good as we wish, after all it will still be better than what these others have made of it in all these ages. Metathesis? A good world needs knowledge, kindliness, and courage; it does not need a regretful hankering after the past, or a fettering of the free intelligence by the words uttered long ago by interview, ignorant men. It needs a fearless outlook and a free intelligence. It needs hope for metathesis middle, the future, not looking back all the time towards a past that is dead, which we trust will be far surpassed by the future that our intelligence can create.

* Bertrand Russell, Why I Am Not a Christian , Watts Co., for the Rationalist Press Association Limited, 1927 First published as a pamphlet and reissued many times since then.

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alternative essay This IELTS sample essay tackles the subject of#xa0; alternative medicine.#xa0; Here is the question: Currently there is a trend towards the use of alternative forms of medicine. However, at metathesis middle, best these methods are ineffective, and at worst they may be dangerous. To what extent do you agree with this statement? When you are asked whether you agree (or disagree) , you can look at both sides of the argument if you want. This shows that you have good academic skills as you are able to see both sides of the issue. Picture Cover Letter! It can also sometimes be a good idea to look at both sides of the argument because it may be easier for you to brainstorm ideas.

If you just look at one side, you may run out of middle ideas. Interview! In this IELTS sample essay, the writer disagrees overall with the opinion presented - that alternative medicine is ineffective and possibly dangerous. However, in the first body paragraph the writer discusses what those who agree with this opinion think. If you are going to put in metathesis middle, an opinion that disagrees with your own, it is common to put this argument first. Pregnancy Interview Essay! This makes your argument stronger as you can then refute it in the following paragraph. As you can see, in the second body paragraph, the writer gives the reasons why he/she disagrees. Body 1 = the disadvantages of alternative medicine. Middle! Body 2 = the sports advantages of alternative medicine. It is then a good balanced conclusion as the writer states that they are best used together.

You should spend about metathesis 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: Currently there is a trend towards the use of alternative forms of medicine. However, at essay on john, best these methods are ineffective, and at worst they may be dangerous. To what extent do you agree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge. Write at least 250 words. Alternative medicine is not new. It is accepted that it pre-dates conventional medicine and middle english, it is still used by many people all over the world. I am unconvinced that it is dangerous, and feel that both alternative and conventional medicine can be useful.

There are several reasons why the conventional medical community is often dismissive of alternatives.#xa0; Firstly, there has been little scientific research into such medicine, so there is a scarcity of evidence to support the application depression claims of their supporters. Metathesis! Furthermore, people often try such treatment because of recommendations from friends, and therefore come to the therapist with a very positive attitude, which may be part of the reason for the cure. Moreover, these therapies are usually only in india, useful for middle english long-term, chronic conditions. Acute medical problems, such as accidental injury, often require more conventional methods. On the other hand, there remain strong arguments for the use of alternatives.#xa0; Despite the lack of on john sutter scientific proof, there is a lot of anecdotal evidence to suggest that these therapies work. In addition, far from being dangerous, they often have few or no side effects, so the metathesis worst outcome would be no change. Essay Sutter! One of the strongest arguments for the effectiveness of alternative therapies in the West is that, whilst conventional medicine is available without charge, many people are prepared to pay considerable sums for alternatives. If they were totally unhelpful, it would be surprising if this continued. Middle English! I strongly believe that conventional medicine and alternative therapies can and should coexist. They have different strengths, and can both be used effectively to target particular medical problems. The best situation would be for alternative therapies to be used to support and complement conventional medicine.

The writer in this IELTS sample essay introduces the topic in the introductory paragraph (Alternative medicine. ) and puts forward a clear view on the issue (I am unconvinced. and feel. ) . The essay has a well-balanced argument looking at both sides of the issue. The first body paragraph expresses some doubt about alternative therapies (. little scientific research.. Brothers! .only useful for long term. ) , but in the second body paragraph the metathesis middle writer takes a different view (On the other hand. ) and examines the essay on john sutter benefits (. few side effects) . English! The writer's concluding paragraph offers a strong opinion (I strongly believe. Essay! ) and sums up the fact that both types of treatment are valid today. There is also a good range of grammatical structures (If they were totally unhelpful, it would be. Metathesis! ) , and connectors (despite the fact, in addition, finally) . Home › Sample Essays › Alternative Medicine Essay. Oct 02, 17 12:12 PM. Essay On John! You are going to another country to metathesis middle english, study.

You would like to do a part-time job while you are studying, so you want to pregnancy interview essay, ask a friend who lives there for. September 2017 - Brainstorming and Planning an Essay. Oct 01, 17 04:32 PM. I sent you an essay question last Friday and metathesis, asked you to come up with a plan to answer the education reforms essay question. This was the metathesis english essay question: The best way to understand. Multinational Organisations and Culture Essay. Oct 01, 17 04:11 PM. Multinational Organisations and Culture Essay: Improve you score for IELTS Essay writing by studying model essays. More Sample Essays: discuss two opinions. discuss two opinions. discuss two opinions. advantages / disadvantages / solutions. causes / advantages / disadvantages. College Essay! discuss two opinions. discuss two opinions. causes / advantages / disadvantages.

discuss two opinions. causes and solutions. causes and effects. problems and solutions. causes and solutions. discuss two opinions. effects and metathesis middle english, opinion. Copyright and copy; IELTSbuddy 2011-2017 All rights reserved#xa0;

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1503 1507. Learn more here. This document has been published in the Federal Register . Use the PDF linked in the document sidebar for the official electronic format. Rural Utilities Service, USDA. The Rural Utilities Service (RUS or Agency) is middle publishing policies and procedures for loan and guarantee financial assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by electric utilities for essay about sports the benefit of rural persons in their service territory.

This final rule amends RUS regulations on General and Pre-Loan Policies and Procedures Common to middle Electric Loans and Guarantees, which were codified on December 20, 1993. The final rule also includes conforming amendments to additional RUS regulations. Interview Essay! Under Section 2 of the Rural Electrification Act (RE Act), RUS is middle english authorized to day pmr assist electric borrowers in implementing Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems. The scope of this regulation falls within the authority of the Act. This final rule is effective February 3, 2014. Start Further Info. Gerard Moore, USDA-Rural Utilities Service, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., Stop 1569, Washington, DC 20250-1569, telephone (202) 205-9692 or email to english [email protected] End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information.

The Rural Utilities Service (RUS or Agency) is picture of a cover publishing policies and procedures for loan and guarantee financial assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by electric utilities for middle the benefit of rural persons in their service territory. This final rule is in india essay designed to supplement the metathesis policies contained in 7 CFR part 1710, GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES, which were finalized in December 1993. Under Section 2(a) of the Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 902(a)), the essay sports day pmr Secretary of Agriculture is metathesis middle explicitly “authorized and essay sports day pmr, empowered to metathesis make loans in the several States and Territories of the United States . . . for the purpose of assisting electric borrowers to implement Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and essay sutter, on-grid and metathesis english, off-grid renewable energy systems.” Section 6101 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of pregnancy 2008 (2008 Farm Bill) inserted the metathesis middle english words “and energy efficiency” into this provision. In order to implement this new focus of the program, RUS amends 7 CFR part 1710 by adding a new Subpart H entitled “Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program.” (EECLP). In fiscal year 2014 the pregnancy Rural Utilities Service will make $250 million available to support energy efficiency as indicated in the President's climate change action plan. In future years, the amount of funding made available will be based on the performance of the middle english program. The goals of an interview essay, eligible Energy Efficiency project eligible for funding under this program and Subpart H include: (1) Increasing energy efficiency at the end user level; (2) modifying electric load such that there is a reduction in overall system demand; (3) effecting a more efficient use of existing electric distribution, transmission and generation facilities; (4) attracting new businesses and metathesis english, creating jobs in rural communities by investing in energy efficiency; and (5) encouraging the picture of a cover letter use of renewable energy fuels for either Demand side management or the reduction of conventional fossil fuel use within the service territory.

Although not a goal, RUS recognizes that there will be a reduction of green house gases with energy efficiency improvements. The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program may include loans supporting energy efficiency activities undertaken by the utility itself, the metathesis middle finance of energy efficiency projects undertaken by education reforms in india others, and metathesis, investments made by the utility to accomplish their obligations under utility energy services contracts. It is important to distinguish that there are potentially two different types of loans associated with this regulation. RUS will loan funds to a utility for an energy efficiency program. Pregnancy Essay! The utility, in turn, may choose to relend these funds to their consumers (ultimate recipient) for energy efficiency improvements in industrial, commercial, or residential applications.

The utility may also use the funds to middle english complete energy efficiency activities on their own property. The anticipated transfers during the first year of the pregnancy interview program will be the funding availability of metathesis middle $250 million. Sutter! RUS expects this to metathesis increase over the life of the program. The new Subpart H for the Energy Efficiency and brothers, Conservation Loan Program can have several economic impacts. Middle English! The benefits include: (1) The value of essay sports purchased energy saved; (2) the metathesis middle value of essay sutter corresponding avoided generation, transmission and/or distribution; and (3) savings in energy bills.

The final loan program is english estimated to essay sutter have administrative costs to the applicant and middle, federal government, at picture of a letter about $740,000 total for applicants, and about $1.7 million for the Federal government. The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program will impose administrative costs on applicants and the Federal government. Quantitative estimates of these costs have been made and are presented below. Estimates of costs for applicants: the middle twenty expected applications are broken down into education in india two sectionsapplications and reporting. Table 2 summarizes the estimated costs. Table 2Estimate Burden to Applicants. All entities seeking financial assistance under this program must submit certain information to the Agency in order to apply for metathesis english a loan. The total estimated cost for picture cover applying is approximately $593,356, calculated by multiplying the number of applicants (20) by the labor hours associated with the additional burden (823.20) by an estimated $45 per hour for labor. See OPM's Web site at http://www.opm.gov/#8203; Start Printed Page 73357 policy-data-oversight/#8203;pay-leave/#8203;salaries-wages/#8203; All applicants that are awarded funds must submit reports to the Agency to provide information on their performance.

The total estimated cost for metathesis middle english reporting is on founding brothers approximately $148,338, calculated by the number of middle applicants (20) by labor cost ($45) by hours per year (164.82). Estimates of interview costs to the Federal government were made based on the activities that the Federal government would incur to implement the metathesis middle rule and the length of essay time each activity required. A cost of $48.35 per hour was used in making these cost estimates. Table 3Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Burden Cost to the Federal Government. The following paragraphs summarize the activities and costs to be incurred by the Federal government for this program. RUS is responsible for reviewing and approving applications. As part of this process, RUS will acknowledge receipt of applications and inform the applicants whether their application was selected for funding. The estimated cost for metathesis middle these application activities is essay approximately $1,585,880. RUS is responsible for reviewing various reports, including, but not limited to, project management plan, energy efficiency work plan, quality control plan, etc.

The estimated cost for metathesis middle reviewing these reports annually is approximately $125,710. This final rule has been reviewed under Executive Order (EO) 12866, “Regulatory Planning and Review,” 58 FR 51735 (Oct. 4, 1993), and application depression, has been determined to be “economically significant” by the Office of Management and Budget. Middle! The EO defines an economically significant regulatory action as one that is on john likely to result in a rule that may have an annual effect on middle english the economy of $100 million or more or adversely affect, in a material way, the college application essay depression economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or tribal governments or communities. As required by OMB circular A-4 the regulatory impact analysis will be published along with this rule on middle english regulations.gov.

The agency has also reviewed this regulation pursuant to essay about sports day pmr EO 13563, issued on January 18, 2011 (76 FR 3281, Jan. 21, 2011). EO 13563 is supplemental to and explicitly reaffirms the principles, structures, and definitions governing regulatory review established in EO 12866. To the metathesis extent permitted by law, agencies are required by EO 13563 to: (1) Propose or adopt a regulation only upon a reasoned determination that its benefits justify its costs (recognizing that some benefits and on founding, costs are difficult to english quantify); (2) tailor regulations to impose the least burden on society, consistent with obtaining regulatory objectives, taking into account, among other things, and to the extent practicable, the costs of cumulative regulations; (3) select, in choosing among alternative regulatory approaches, those approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety, and other advantages; distributive impacts; and equity); (4) to the extent feasible, specify performance objectives, rather than specifying the behavior or manner of compliance that regulated entities must adopt; and (5) identify and sports day pmr, assess available alternatives to direct regulation, including providing economic incentives to encourage the desired behavior, such as user fees or marketable permits, or providing information upon which choices can be made by the public. The Agency conducted a cost-benefit analysis to fulfill the requirements of EO 12866 and 13563. In this analysis, the Agency identifies potential benefits and costs of the metathesis middle Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program to borrowers, and RUS. The analysis contains quantitative estimates of the burden to the public and the Federal government and qualitative descriptions of the on founding expected economic, environmental, and energy impacts associated with the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program.

This analysis will be made publicly available in the docket. RUS will only make loans for these purposes to electric utility systems. English! RUS anticipates that borrowers under this subpart will be generation and transmission (GT) borrowers or their distribution members or unaffiliated distribution borrowers who are current on their loan payments and in compliance with their loan documents. This program is held to the same high standards and regulatory requirements as the existing RUS electric loan program. RUS also anticipates that the energy efficiency improvements installation work may be contracted by either the utility or the essay about sports day pmr Ultimate Recipient, or performed directly by employees of the borrower, at middle english the discretion of the utility designing the essay sports energy efficiency program. In all cases, the english eligible borrower is expected to in india essay hold title to the receivables funded by the RUS loan. It is metathesis middle english estimated that approximately 20 loans will be submitted annually. Considering applicants are existing RUS borrowers, it is anticipated that all 20 loans would be awarded. Essay Sports! The administrative cost to metathesis the Applicant and the Federal government to apply, award and interview, maintain these loans is $2.458 million. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance.

The program described by this rule is an eligible purpose/subsidiary program of the metathesis middle english Electrification Loans and Loan Guarantee program as listed in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Programs under number 10.850, Rural Start Printed Page 73358 Electrification Loans and Loan Guarantees. The Catalog is available on the Internet at http://www.cfda.gov. This final rule is excluded from the scope of essay about Executive Order 12372, Intergovernmental Consultation, which may require consultation with State and local officials. See the final rule related notice entitled, “Department Programs and Activities Excluded from Executive Order 12372” (50 FR 47034). In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Metathesis Middle! chapter 35), the information collection for this program has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under OMB Control Number 0572-0032.

The Agency is committed to college the E-Government Act, which requires Government agencies in general to provide the public the metathesis middle english option of submitting information or transacting business electronically to essay the maximum extent possible. National Environmental Policy Act Review. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the metathesis Agency has prepared and essay, published a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for middle this loan program activity as part of this rulemaking process. The PEA was published on February 6, 2013 in the Federal Register at 78 FR 8444, and prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality's (CEQ) regulations for implementing NEPA (40 CFR parts 1500-1508), and RUS' NEPA implementing regulations, Environmental Policies and Procedures (7 CFR part 1794).

A Notice of Finding of picture of a No Significant Impact was published on metathesis Friday August 16, 2013 in the Federal Register at VOL. 78, NO. Essay! 159. Regulatory Flexibility Act Certification. It has been determined the Regulatory Flexibility Act is not applicable to this rule since the RUS is english not required by 5 U.S.C. 551 et seq. or any other provision of law to publish a notice of proposed rulemaking with respect to the subject matter of essay this rule.

This rule contains no Federal mandates (under the metathesis regulatory provisions of title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of picture letter 1995) for state, local, and tribal governments or for the private sector. Therefore, this rule is not subject to the requirements of section 202 and 205 of the middle Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. This rule has been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. The Agency has determined that this rule meets the applicable standards in Section 3 of the pregnancy interview essay Executive Order. Metathesis Middle English! In addition, all state and local laws and regulations that are in conflict with this rule will be preempted, no retroactive effort will be given to this rule, and, in accordance with section 212(e) of the on founding brothers Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6912(e)), administrative appeals procedures, if any, must be exhausted before any action against the Department or its agencies may be initiated. The policies contained in this rule do not have any substantial direct effect on middle english state and local governments, on the relationship between the national government and the state and local governments, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government. Nor does this rule impose substantial direct compliance costs on interview essay state and local governments. Therefore, consultation with the states is not required.

Executive Order 13175, Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments. This Executive Order imposes requirements on the development of regulatory policies that have tribal implications or preempt tribal laws. Between October 2010 and January 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) hosted seven regional regulation Tribal consultation sessions to gain input by elected Tribal officials or their designees concerning the impact of this rule (and other 2008 Farm Bill changes) on Tribal governments, communities, and metathesis, individuals. No comments specific to of a cover letter this rule were received through that process. Metathesis Middle! If a Tribe determines that this rule has implications of which Rural Development is not aware or would like further information regarding the consultation process, please contact Rural Development's Native American Coordinator at (720) 544-2911 or [email protected] This rulemaking amends 7 CFR part 1710 by adding a new Subpart H entitled “Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program.” Under Section 2(a) of the Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C.

902(a)), the Secretary of Agriculture is explicitly “authorized and empowered to make loans in the several States and Territories of the United States . Picture Of A Letter! . . for the purpose of assisting electric borrowers to implement Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems.” As noted, Section 6101 of the 2008 Farm Bill inserted the words “energy efficiency” into this provision, which was originally added as an amendment to the RE Act by the Rural Electrification Loan Restructuring Act of 1993 (“RELRA”) (Pub. L. 103-129 sec. 2(c)(1)(B)). [1] RUS has experience with implementing programs that promote energy conservation, and RELRA explicitly recognized that energy conservation is part of the Agency's mission. Starting in 1980, for example, RUS developed an Energy Resources Conservation Program by issuing RUS Bulletin 20-23, Section 12, “Extensions for Energy Resources Conservation Loans”, dated December 8, 1980. [2] This Bulletin interpreted the Administrator of RUS's discretion under the RE Act to extend the time for payments, and this became the metathesis middle foundation for the “ERC Loan Program.” At that time, RUS did not make ERC Loan Program loans directly. College Application Essay! It operated the english ERC Loan Program by entering into essay about sports agreements with its borrowers to defer amortization of their loans in order for the borrowers to fund energy conservation improvements. Metathesis Middle! The borrowers, generally electric cooperatives, made loans to their members out of the cash flow resulting from the deferments they received from RUS on their own loans. Even though RUS did not make the ERC loans itself, the sutter Agency provided financial assistance to rural Consumers by middle using the essay brothers electric cooperatives as intermediaries. Congress subsequently amended Section 12 of the RE Act in 1990 and Start Printed Page 73359 again in 2008.

In 1990, Congress expanded Section 12 to enable deferments such that borrowers could provide financing to local businesses, with the middle intent of stimulating rural economic development. In 2008, Congress expanded Section 12 of the RE Act to authorize energy efficiency and use audits and to install energy efficiency measures or devices to reduce demand on electric systems. The recent grant of additional authority in Section 2(a) of the RE Act to make loans and reforms in india essay, guarantees for energy efficiency, as contrasted with the Section 12 authority to merely defer payments on direct loans, has become increasingly significant as the percentage of the metathesis middle RUS portfolio represented by direct loans continues to pregnancy interview amortize. In recent times the english Agency delivers nearly all of its electric program assistance in the form of loan guarantees. Pregnancy Interview Essay! As a guarantor, RUS does not have the english same discretion to defer payments that it does when it is the lender. Essay About Sports Day Pmr! Consequently, RUS has determined that it is metathesis middle now necessary and appropriate to finalize a loan program for this RE Act purpose. “The RE Act, 7 U.S.C. 904, commits to the discretion of the Administrator the making of loans for rural electrification. . . .” Alabama Power Co. v. Pregnancy! Ala. Metathesis Middle English! Elec. Coop., 394 F.2d 672 at of a cover letter 675 (CA 5) cert. denied 393 U.S. Metathesis Middle! 1000 (1968). “REA is the administrative agency charged by essay on john Congress with responsibility for middle english facilitating rural electrification.

REA was intended by Congress to determine the appropriate course of conduct to interview essay accomplish the legislative purpose.” Public Utility District No. 1 of Franklin County v. Big Bend Electric Cooperative, Inc., 618 F.2d 601 at 603 (CA 9 1980). Metathesis! By broadly adding “energy efficiency” in the 2008 Farm Bill as a legislative purpose for pregnancy essay the RE Act loans, Congress left it to the Administrator's discretion to fashion the appropriate method to accomplish this purpose. Drawing on more than three decades of experience in using electric cooperatives as local intermediaries to accomplish RE Act objectives at the Consumer level, RUS will deliver this energy efficiency program by drawing upon its favorable past successes and using its electric borrowers as intermediaries. RUS will only make loans for eligible purposes to electric utility systems . An eligible borrower means a utility system that has direct or indirect responsibility for providing retail electric service to persons in metathesis middle a rural area. This definition includes existing borrowers and essay on john sutter, utilities who meet current RUS borrower requirements. English! RUS anticipates that borrowers under the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program will be generation and education in india essay, transmission (GT) borrowers, their distribution members, or unaffiliated distribution borrowers who are current on their RUS loan payments and in compliance with those loan documents. Metathesis Middle English! RUS anticipates that the Energy Efficiency (EE) improvements installation work may be contracted by on john sutter either the utility, the Ultimate Recipient, or performed directly by employees of the borrower. In all cases, the Eligible Borrower will hold title to metathesis middle the receivables funded by on founding the RUS loan. RUS is english authorized by the RE Act to make loans to implement Demand side management (DSM), EE Programs and conservation programs, and essay on founding brothers, on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems. Middle English! Energy efficiency in this regulation is essay on founding defined as the degree a system or component performs its designated function with minimum consumption of resources.

Renewable energy systems have a specific role in this regulation. Middle English! Renewable generation can be used as load modifiers, which can increase the cover letter efficiency of energy consumption from the utilities perspective and are effective at metathesis middle decreasing energy used by decreasing load. Renewable energy and conservation savings associated with this regulation are from the utilities perspective, though the energy savings could be realized by both the college application depression Consumer and middle english, utility, depending on the type of project, as the utility is the RUS borrower and is culpable for repayment of the essay loan. Energy efficiency under this final regulation may accomplish either DSM, energy conservation, or both. The goals of an metathesis english, eligible EE Program under Subpart H may include one or more of the following: (1) Increase energy efficiency at the end user level; (2) modify electric load such that there is pregnancy essay a reduction in overall system demand; (3) effect a more efficient use of existing electric distribution, transmission and generation facilities; (4) attract new businesses and create jobs in rural communities; and (5) encourage the use of middle renewable energy fuels. There are three primary differences between the existing energy resource conservation program codified in 7 CFR part 1721 subpart B (ERC program) and the EECLP final regulation in 7 CFR part 1710, subpart H. First, the existing ERC program is limited to direct loan principal deferments and is not available for RUS guaranteed loans. Second, the list of eligible loan purposes for this program is interview more expansive than the ERC program and, where applicable, emphasizes that the assets in question must be characterized as an integral part of the Consumer's real property that would typically transfer with the title under applicable state law. Lastly, the term of financing available under Subpart H is metathesis middle longer than the term allowed for principal deferments under the ERC loan program. Rural electric cooperatives are proponents of essay about energy efficiency measures. Metathesis Middle! According to the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association: 73 percent of these co-ops plan on significantly expanding existing efficiency programs in the next two years: 70 percent of essay sports co-ops offer financial incentives to promote greater energy efficiency: 96 percent of co-ops have some form of energy efficiency program in place, co-ops are responsible for nearly 25 percent of residential peak load management capacity, and cooperatives have 10 percent of retail electricity sales but are responsible for metathesis english 20 percent of actual peak demand reduction.

Representatives from rural electric cooperatives have commented that access to low interest funds can be the difference between success and failure for an energy efficiency program. Eligible EE Programs can be comprised of a variety of activities, performed by either the utility or third parties. This final rule sets forth the policies and procedures related to eligible EE Programs where the on founding brothers RUS will finance: (1) Energy efficiency activities undertaken by english the utility itself; (2) loans made by the utility to finance energy efficiency projects undertaken by others; and (3) investments made by the utility to accomplish their obligations under utility energy services contracts. The types of activities that are eligible for sutter RUS financing under Subpart H include but are not limited to: (1) Energy audits; (2) community awareness and outreach programs; (3) services, materials and equipment provided by metathesis a qualified local contractor to improve energy efficiency at picture of a cover the Consumer level; and (4) energy efficiency loans made by the utility to its customers. RUS is allowing fuel switching as an eligible activity under this regulation. A description of middle english EE Programs that qualify for RUS financing can be found in § 1710.405. Eligible investments are listed in interview essay § 1710.406. Metathesis Middle English! Finally, eligible borrowers are defined in on founding § 1710.404.

Some programs designed by utilities may have the utility initially owning an asset even though it is located on english a Consumer's premise and the asset is later conveyed to the Consumer after it is paid for or a predetermined time period has elapsed. Where this is the case, RUS is picture of a letter proposing that the application include an additional or Start Printed Page 73360 revised Schedule C to the RUS mortgage listing these assets as Excepted Property under the RUS mortgage, so as to metathesis english preclude the assets being captured under the after acquired clause that is on john sutter standard in middle english the RUS mortgage codified in 7 CFR part 1718. It is the intent of RUS that a release of lien need not be executed by pregnancy interview essay the Agency for the utility to convey to the Consumer clear title to these assets when this Schedule C is recorded. This final rulemaking recognizes that energy may take a variety of forms, not just electricity. The criteria to be met by eligible programs include energy efficiency as measured by British Thermal Unit (Btu) input relative to middle english Btu output, in order to facilitate the widest and application essay depression, greatest contribution by the rural utility in optimizing the energy consumption profile of metathesis its service territory. This rulemaking also provides that an day pmr, eligible program must demonstrate that the financial strength of the electric utility is not harmed by english EE Program activities funded under Subpart H.

An important distinction between eligible energy efficiency assets to college application be financed under this new Subpart H and other energy efficiency activities is english that the assets located at a Consumer's premises, whether or not title is to be held by application depression the utility must, for the most part, be considered an integral part of the metathesis middle real property that would typically transfer with the title under applicable State law in order to be financed pursuant to an eligible program under Subpart H. Eligible programs shall provide that the utility will recoup all or part of the costs from specific ratepayers on whose behalf an investment has been made. Letter! Recoupment may take the form of Consumer loan repayment or a dedicated tariff. An eligible program reviewed under Subpart H must show that the payment terms and loan term offered to the Consumer are generally correlated with the english expected life of the applicable assets. An eligible program must also offer an undertaking that funds, collected from ratepayers, in excess of the current amortization requirements for pregnancy interview the RUS loan will be redeployed for EE Program purposes or used to metathesis middle prepay the RUS loan. These prepayments are in addition to college application depression scheduled principal and interest debt service payments. Applications for program financings under Subpart H must fully describe a Business Plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.407. The Agency recognizes that energy efficiency investments that reduce energy consumption at the Consumer premises (for instance those that affect the power factor) may prompt a need for investments at the system level to sustain the reliability and stability of the grid. The business plan called for in Subpart H must identify the related system investment to be identified as part of the EE Program, but these system level investments would be reflected in metathesis english the utility's construction work plan and financed as part of a traditional loan application. It is essay on john sutter not required that an eligible program fund energy audits performed at Consumer premises. However, if the utility proposes to provide audits; Subpart H requires that the program must also include a provision for middle english assisting Consumers in implementing changes suggested in aggregate to essay on founding be cost effective by the audit.

A program that funds energy audits without providing assistance for implementing audit recommendations included in the audit would not be an eligible program under Subpart H. Only those activities that are cost effective in aggregate are eligible to be funded under Subpart H. The list of eligible investments and activities that a qualified plan may incorporate is not intended to be exhaustive. The intent is to facilitate flexibility for the utility's EE Program consistent with the resources and Consumer profiles in its service territory. This lending program is designed for utility-designed and directed EE Programs. As such it anticipates that eligible loan purposes will include program administrative and other soft costs, such as marketing expenses, where not more than five percent of the middle english loan budget may be used for about sports day pmr these purposes. A utility's program may include acting as an intermediary lender, where the utility uses RUS financing to make Consumer loans to finance these investments on the Consumers' premises. Where this is the metathesis case, Subpart H requires the borrower to have a maximum interest rate to the ultimate consumer at 1.5 percent above the RUS loan cost to on john sutter the borrower unless an exception is granted by the Administrator. Exceptions will be made on middle english a case-by-case basis to ensure repayment of the government's loan. We will not accept an exception if the loan is education reforms in india feasible at 1.5 percent. This rate must be discussed in the applicant's business plan. The process for applying for middle EECLP loans is intended to largely conform to the Agency's existing process for loans relating to other eligible purposes.

Accordingly, the requirements discussed throughout 7 CFR part 1710 apply equally to EECLP loans unless otherwise stated after giving effect to the conforming amendments incorporated in this rulemaking. Of A Cover Letter! Expenditures by the utility will be reimbursed by the Agency after the metathesis english fact pursuant to an inventory of work orders system as is typical for our existing loan process. The analytical material needed to support an pregnancy interview essay, EECLP loan is different from metathesis middle, what is needed to analyze a generation or transmission loan. Accordingly, Subpart H elaborates on interview what is english needed for RUS to essay on founding approve an metathesis middle english, EE Program and on founding, loans to execute the program. EE Program activity will be captured under a separate energy efficiency work plan. Energy efficiency investments will not be listed on middle the traditional construction work plan that applies to utility assets financed by interview essay RUS. As with other loans made pursuant to 7 CFR part 1710, a borrower's Environmental Report (ER) is expected to accompany the energy efficiency work plan associated with the loan request. The ER is in accordance with 7 CFR part 1794. Part 1794 contains the policies and procedures of the Rural Utilities Service for implementing the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act.

In the case of an EECLP loan, this ER will be expected to metathesis reference the picture letter PEA completed by the Agency for metathesis middle english EECLP loans, and essay sutter, identify any investments and their potential environmental impacts proposed in the work plan that were not analyzed in the PEA. This new Subpart H is not intended to be duplicative of requirements otherwise prescribed in part 1710, but rather, supplemental. It identifies requirements that are unique to metathesis loans made under the proposed Subpart H to finance EE Programs. It prescribes requirements for our direct borrowers. Essay! Our direct borrowers will then act as intermediary lenders to accomplish the investments outlined in an approved EE program.

Where there is an express conflict with requirements elsewhere in part 1710, the provisions of Subpart H would apply, but otherwise Subpart H is metathesis middle english not intended to supplant the applicability of the essay on john rest of part 1710 or other applicable parts in the Code of Federal Regulations. In implementing Subpart H, as required for all of part 1710, RUS will work with Department of Energy (DOE), following the requirements set out by the Rural Electrification Act of 1936, Section 16 that states: “the Secretary in making or guaranteeing loans for the construction, operations, or enlargement of generating plants or electric transmission lines or systems shall consider such general criteria consistent with the provisions of middle english this Act as may Start Printed Page 73361 be published by college application the Secretary of Energy.” Summary of Major Changes in middle english Response to Comments on the Rule. The agency published a Proposed rulemaking on July 26, 2012, at 77 FR 43723. RUS received 63 comments on the proposed Energy Efficiency and cover letter, Conservation Loan Program.

The sixty three commenters consisted of industry representatives that included: Electric cooperatives, such as South Carolina Electric and metathesis, Gas company; nonprofit energy efficiency supporters, such as the E3 coalition and the Sierra Club; and envelope organizations that represent RUS borrowers, such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. On Founding! Sixty two of the sixty three letters were extremely supportive of the regulation, and applauded RUS for proposing the program. Middle English! The opposing letter stated that it was against pregnancy interview essay all Federal programs. Major changes in response to these comments, include the following items: 1. Removed restrictions on the size of load modifiers. 2. Adjusted soft cost limitations from 4 percent to 5 percent. 3. Limit Consumer interest rate to 1.5 percent above the middle english cost of the loan to the borrower. 4. Decreased the complexity of the loan program by in india essay eliminating performance thresholds. 5. Defined certified energy auditor. 6. Added fuel switching as an eligible purpose. 7. Clarified the definition of english eligible borrowers to include former and new RUS borrowers that meet RUS standards specified in regulation and statute.

8. Changed the cost effectiveness requirements, extending requirements to 10 years or equipment useful life on an aggregate basis. 9. Education Reforms In India Essay! Removed the metathesis middle Net Utility Plant language. 10. Essay On Founding Brothers! Allowed some pre-retrofitting as an eligible activity. A summary of the comments and RUS's response are as follows:

Small Scale Renewable Energy Projects. Comment: There were 17 comments addressing the small scale renewable energy limitation of “nameplate generation capacity that is less than the 50 percent of the average anticipated electrical load associated with the metathesis end user.” Of the education essay 17 comments, only 4 wanted to decrease or eliminate small scale renewables, on the basis that small scale renewables tend to not be cost effective. Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program regulation has been edited, and will no longer have any restrictions on small scale renewable energy projects. Metathesis! All activities will be eligible, however, state mandates, laws, and cooperative bylaws will override this regulation. Soft Costs Associated With a Borrower's Loan.

Comment: Seven comments requested that RUS not limit the “administrative” costs associated with the loan. On Founding! The current regulation limits administrative costs to 4 percent. Response: RUS acknowledges that there is a cost to our borrowers to start-up and english, maintain an energy efficiency program, and has agreed to increase the on founding brothers “administrative” cost limitation to 5 percent in middle english the final regulation. However, RUS must protect the Electric Program loan portfolio, and increasing the rate any higher may impair the productivity of the program, and subsequently the subsidy rate. Also, cooperatives may have the opportunity to rate-base certain energy efficiency costs. The Rate Borrowers Can Charge to the Ultimate Consumer Above the reforms essay Treasury Based Interest Rate. Comment: RUS requested comments on the appropriate markup borrowers could charge above the Treasury-based interest rate. Twenty-one comments were received. The majority of comments stated that markups must be between 5 and 10 percent, with numerous comments stating that RUS should not specify a cap to make the metathesis middle english program economical to the borrower.

Response: Borrowers are limited to college interest rates 1.5 percent above the cost of their RUS loan. Metathesis! Exceptions will be given on a case-by-case basis that must be clearly articulated in the business plan such as unavoidable program level costs. We will not accept an exception if the loan is feasible at 1.5 percent.This information, combined with all the essay other additional information, will allow RUS to determine the feasibility of the loan. Decrease the Complexity of the Loan Program. Comment: RUS received seven comments stating that the current program requirements were too complicated and burdensome. Requiring an middle, environmental plan, business plan, quality assurance plan, performance thresholds, return on picture of a cover investment demonstrations, additional supporting documents, and load forecasting before and after improvements was too extensive, and would limit borrower's interest in the program.

Response: RUS has simplified the regulation to decrease the Energy Efficiency and middle, Conservation Loan Program's complexity and burden. Performance thresholds have been removed, the cost effectiveness definition has been modified, and procedures edited to keep the program simple and straight forward. Comment: Six comments were submitted, asking RUS to clarify the definition of certified energy auditor. Response: RUS has clarified the definition, allowing a borrower to about sports use an auditor certified under state, local, or federal standards. Identifying the middle Appropriate Performance Thresholds. Comment: Twenty comments were received on education reforms in india what were the appropriate performance thresholds for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program. Seven comments supported the language in the proposed rule, stating “existing energy efficiency standards or criteria such as those from metathesis middle english, Energy Star, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), or other voluntary consensus standards,” 2 comments recommended limiting the thresholds to Energy Star or Energy Efficiency Ratio, and of a cover letter, the remaining 9 comments recommended that RUS fund all market proven energy products that reduce the Consumer's annual Btu. Response: RUS clarified that borrowers are encouraged to use existing energy efficiency standards or criteria such as those from ENERGY STAR, FEMP, ANSI, or other voluntary consensus standards rather than performance thresholds to metathesis english give Borrowers greater latitude. Comment: Twelve comments strongly supported fuel switching.

Fuel switching is picture essential for some borrowers to handle peak demand. Response: RUS has modified the metathesis regulation to allow fuel switching. Many of the pregnancy essay 12 comments in support of fuel switching were associations that represent over 1,000 electric cooperatives and millions of households, including NW Energy Coalition, Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, Utility Geothermal Working Group, Iowa Environmental Council, The Mountain Association for Community Economic Development, and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. Start Printed Page 73362. The $250 Million Funding Limitation. Comment: Sixteen comments were received, all in strong support of removing the $250 million limitation.

Response: The $250 million was an estimate of what the middle Agency believed would be the demand for the program. Public comment indicates more interest in the program than the proposed rule's $250 million per year limitation. In fiscal year 2014, the Rural Utilities Service will make $250 million available to about sports day pmr support energy efficiency as indicated in the Presidents climate change action plan. In future years, the amount of metathesis english funding made available will be based on education in india essay the performance of the program. Additionally, to be consistent, the energy efficiency program should compete equally with other eligible loan purposes. Comment: One comment was submitted proposing a preferred lender program that borrowers could qualify for if they had a loan total of less than $2 million. Middle! Standards would be set for basic, preapproved weatherization practices and be made available to brothers any eligible borrower.

Standard benefit levels would be assigned to those practices and applied when determining benefits. There would not be a requirement for energy audits or post tests. Metathesis English! This would cut the cost of program delivery while maintaining well established and known benefits for the members. The cooperatives that wish to participate at a higher loan level would have to comply with the standards established in the proposed regulations. Response: RUS believes that preferred lending criteria is not needed in the regulation. RUS will use current authorities to essay about sports day pmr streamline the application process.

Former RUS Borrowers and Their Eligibility for the Loan Program. Comment: Four comments were submitted supporting allowance of former RUS borrowers to return to the program. Response: The regulation has been modified to middle clarify that past borrowers are eligible for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program, in accordance with the cover letter statute and any other regulation relating to new or returning borrowers. The Cost Effective Requirement in Section 1710.405. Comment: Nine comments were received, eight requesting a payback period that was longer than the current 5 years stated in the regulation. One comment requested that the payback period be less than the life of the product. Response: The regulation has been modified to more precisely define cost effectiveness and increase the payback to metathesis english 10 years, except in cases where the useful life of the technology on an aggregate basis can be demonstrated to be longer than the 10 year period.

RUS will evaluate the depression useful life assumption on a case-by-case basis. Financial Institutions and metathesis english, Cooperative Relending. Comment: Four comments were received requesting RUS to add language in the regulation that defines who RUS borrowers can work with as intermediaries. Response: RUS will not add any additional language. Business cases will be reviewed to pregnancy interview determine the viability of the loan.

Existing regulation language does not deter borrowers from metathesis, establishing partnerships with other organizations to essay day pmr help implement their energy efficiency programs. Comment: Three comments were received asking RUS to remove the provisions of § 1710.409(d (1)). The commenters believed that the section could seriously limit transmission borrowers who did not own generation. Response: RUS has removed the section. Initially the regulation language anticipated borrowers would own electric generating plants.

Public comments from statewide electric cooperative associations and distribution cooperatives interested in the loan program indicated that they would be excluded from the energy efficiency program with 1710.409(d(1)). These current borrowers are not generation and transmission organizations and therefore do not own electric generation plants. The language has been removed to allow them to participate. Comment: Four comments asked RUS to remove §§ 1710.406(d), 1017.407(g), and 1710.408(i). Each of those sections state borrowers shall follow a bulletin or other publication to be identified later. They claim that the metathesis proposed provision violates the Administrative Procedures Act by pregnancy interview essay purporting to establish as regulatory obligations purely administrative determinations to be made later without notice and comment rulemaking. Response: The proposed rule required borrowers to follow requirements in yet to be developed bulletins. The final regulation has been changed from “shall” to middle english “are strongly encouraged to.” Please see the picture of a letter following regulatory language “(g) The borrowers are strongly encouraged to follow a bulletin or such other publication as RUS deems appropriate that contains and describes best practices for energy efficiency business plans. RUS will make this bulletin or publication publicly available and revise it from time to middle english time or eliminate it as RUS deems it necessary. “ Requiring all Electric Borrowers To Participate in This Program.

Comment: Three comments asked if all current borrowers would be required to in india essay participate in the Energy Efficiency Loan Program. One of the two comments stated that RUS must require all borrowers to participate in metathesis this loan program and have active energy efficiency programs. Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program allows for energy efficiency improvements as an eligible purpose and pregnancy, will be reviewed and approved as other eligible purposes within the statute and the regulation. RUS does not believe it to be appropriate to require Borrowers to participate in this program. Comment: Two comments questioned the need for load forecasting, one comment stated that their current energy efficiency and conservation loan program is made up of only metathesis english, 30-40 members, not affecting the forecast at all. Response: Load Forecasting is an important accountability component of the on john Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. If the energy efficiency program has negligible effect on the Load Forecast then that information should be stated in metathesis the discussion within the Load Forecast. No changes were made to the regulation. Comment: One comment stated that there were very few qualified energy managers and education in india, professional engineers in rural areas that are available to conduct the requirements of metathesis a program evaluation, and questioned who would have to bear the cost of the evaluation. Response: RUS recognizes that there will be additional expenses associated with the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. The borrowers may pass along those costs to the Ultimate Recipient, but it needs to be explained in essay on founding brothers the submitted work plan.

Start Printed Page 73363. Loan Advances on a Reimbursement Basis. Comment: Two comments questioned how funds would be distributed. Metathesis English! They were not supportive of funding projects on pregnancy a reimbursable basis. Response: All of RUS's programs are run on a reimbursable basis, though the regulation currently states that startup capital of up to middle english 5 percent may be made available for an energy efficiency plan. College Application Essay Depression! No changes will be made to middle english our current funding model. Making Post-Installment Evaluations Publically Available. Comment: Two comments requested that all post-installment evaluation and verification requirements be made available to the public.

Response: RUS acknowledges the importance of transparency, but also must weigh the privacy of our borrowers. We will provide information to the public in conformity with the Freedom of Information Act. Comment: One comment reiterated the in india importance of using qualified contractors to install energy efficiency and conservation activities. Response: RUS is a strong supporter of metathesis middle using qualified contractors and will require borrowers to brothers state the types of contractors that will be used, if any, in a borrower's quality assurance plan. Comment: One comment stated that borrowers should be able to metathesis middle english aggregate their various energy efficiency programs to bring them up to picture of a scale, decreasing the metathesis middle english total workload. Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program will hold each borrower accountable. Essay About! Though borrowers can work with each other to decrease costs, each borrower will be individually held responsible for providing the metathesis required level of information and oversight. Comment: One comment stated that the regulation should not specifically call out ground source heat pumps, as the technology is advancing quickly.

Response: Ground source heat pumps are just one eligible activity under the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. Of A Cover Letter! Though mentioned in the regulation as an example, we are neither promoting nor discouraging their use. Offer Technical Assistance to Utilities. Comment: One comment requested RUS provide technical assistance to utilities to design, administer, and evaluate their energy efficiency loan program. Response: RUS will work closely with the borrower, answering any questions they may have on middle english their business plan, quality assurance plan, etc. Encourage Peer-to-Peer Networking Through Webinars. Comment: Six comments requested RUS set up regular webinars, phone conferences and application, an on-line peer-exchange Web site for participating borrowers. Response: RUS supports the exchange of ideas and will facilitate cross communication when possible, but RUS does not have the resources to commit to metathesis english this on a large scale.

RUS will partner with other federal agencies to support broader peer-to-peer exchange. The Definition of Energy Efficiency and Conservation measures. Comment: One comment requested that we add the following language to the energy efficiency and conservation measures definition, “which may also include the picture cover onsite generation of electricity from waste heat resources. Metathesis Middle English! ” Response: RUS believes the on founding brothers definition is inclusive, and the additional language is unnecessary. Comment: Eight comments stated that RUS stress the importance of metathesis middle using on-bill repayment as an effective financing method for energy efficiencies. Response: RUS recognizes that on-bill financing is one way for a borrower to be repaid for their activities, however the borrower will have the essay brothers ultimate decision on how they will recover their expenses.

Their method of choice will be articulated in their business plan. Additional Language Clarifying That Borrowers Cannot Exclude Renters. Comment: Five comments requested that RUS add language to the regulation requiring utilities to identify approaches that would ensure the equitable treatment by all types of consumers, and explicitly include low-income in metathesis english both single-family and multi-family buildings. Response: RUS sympathizes with the comment's concern, however we believe § 1710.122 on Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination located in the overarching Electric Program regulation, fulfills the needs specified by the comments. Pre-Retrofits Should Be Allowed as Program Costs. Comment: Four comments stated that pre-retrofit activities that need to take place to essay sutter make a house structurally sound before weatherization activities can take place, be an metathesis middle english, eligible activity under the Energy Efficiency and Conservation loan program. Response: RUS added language to allow limited pre-retrofits as an eligible loan activity. Essay About Day Pmr! The Department of Energy has established that many opportunities for energy efficiency upgrades exist in low income housing. Often the residential building envelope needs infrastructure improvements to be able to middle english accept energy efficiency upgrades. For example, the education essay floor of a residential building may need structural repairs before efficient insulation can be installed.

This would reduce the overall energy requirement for the structure. Loan Loss Reserves and Credit Enhancements Should Be Allowed as Program Costs. Comment: Four comments stated that RUS allow borrowers to metathesis create loan loss reserve funds to essay on john sutter allow utilities to attract investors and leverage private capital, as an eligible activity under the Energy Efficiency and Conservation loan program. Response: RUS is statutorily required to fund energy efficiency and conservation activities. Additional activities are outside the agency's authority and would require amendments. Additional Language Supporting a Diverse Workforce. Comment: One comment requested that RUS add language to require borrowers to use local and under-represented businesses when implementing their energy efficiency program. Response: A borrower must prove that their energy efficiency program is cost effective; specifying who a borrower must work with is middle beyond the scope of Subpart H. Comment: Seven comments requested that RUS clarify “due diligence” to confirm that ability to repay a loan or participate in a program does not have to include a credit check, but rather rely on utility bill payment history.

Response: The borrower is held accountable for paying off the loan, and needs to determine eligible Consumers. Their method of choice will be articulated in their business plan. Comment: One comment requested clarification on § 1710.255(b), which requires that all facilities being improved be included in the energy Start Printed Page 73364 efficiency work plan, to essay on founding brothers state that this section only applies to utility-owned properties. Response: RUS believes the Energy Efficiency Work Plan (EEWP) must also itemize Consumer upgrades in english aggregate. Clarifying Demand Side Management. Comment: Three comments requested that RUS specifically state that switches for water heaters and on founding, air conditioning units be eligible under Demand side management, or at a minimum clearly state energy efficiency in the definition. Response: RUS believes the definition is metathesis middle inclusive, and education reforms, the additional language is unnecessary. Redefine Energy Efficiency and Conservation Measures.

Comment: Two comments requested that RUS change the sentence “ultimate goal is the reduction of utility energy needs” to “ultimate goal is the middle english reduction of all forms of consumer energy needs (based on annual Btu consumption). Response: RUS believes the current definition fits the ultimate goal, to reduce utility energy needs, Consumer energy needs is of a letter too limiting as utilities are also eligible to finance energy efficiency activities in their facilities. Comment: Two comments requested that the words “power quality equipment” be added. Response: RUS believes the definition is inclusive, and the additional language is unnecessary. Comment: Two comments requested that RUS remove fuel cells as an eligible activity and investment. Response: Fuel cells can be used in energy efficiency and conservation activities and middle, will keep the activity in the regulation.

They can act as load modifiers; load modifiers are already identified as an eligible purpose for loan funds. Comment: Two comments requested that RUS make changes to § 1710.406 (a)(1). The proposed rule states that eligible program activities and investments “shall be designed to improve energy efficiency or MANAGED demand on the customer side of the meter. While demand improvements are a primary goal of the rule, demand improvement can be accomplished through managed or passive improvements on the customer side of the meter. Consequently the word ‘managed' should be removed from the text and replaced with the word “reduce” and the word “peak” should be added before “demand.” The new text should state “shall be designed to improve energy efficiency or reduce peak demand on the customer side of the meter. Response: RUS agrees with the language request and has incorporated it into this final rule. Comment: One comment requests additional clarification in the background section on on john what the rate will be for borrowers. Response: This section has been revised for middle other reasons, the issue is essay moot. Comment: One comment requests the section be modified to remove insured, and revise the language to metathesis english be “a) Purpose and amount. With the exception of minor projects, loan funds will be advanced only for projects which are included in of a letter a RUS approved borrower's construction work plan (CWP), EE Program work plan (EEWP), or approved amendment, that have also received written Environmental Clearance and/or Approval from RUS prior to the start of construction, and follow RUS' contract and metathesis, bidding procedures as set forth in 7 CFR part 1726 if applicable.

Loan fund advances can be requested in an amount up to the actual cost incurred less any contribution in aid of construction. Response: RUS accepts the essay sports day pmr following language change: “a) Purpose and middle, amount. With the exception of sports day pmr minor projects, loan funds will be advanced only for projects which are included in middle a RUS approved borrower's EE Program work plan (EEWP), or approved amendment, that have also received written Environmental Clearance and/or Approval from in india, RUS prior to the start of construction, and follow RUS' contract and bidding procedures as set forth in 7 CFR part 1726 if applicable. Loan fund advances can be requested in an amount up to the actual cost incurred less any contribution in aid of construction. Comment: One comment asked if the Energy Efficiency loan program would override state or federal Law. Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program does not override any statutory state or federal laws. Comment: One comment requested that RUS change the loan program, and loan directly to consumers, bypassing the metathesis middle electric companies.

Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program does not statutorily allow us this discretion. Natural Gas Expansion and Explicit Support of Water Heaters. Comment: Two comments requested RUS explicitly support a given technology or fuel. One comment requested that RUS create a broader regulation that clearly articulates the importance of natural gas. One comment requested that RUS explicitly include installation of solar thermal, gas, and day pmr, electric-resistance water heaters as an eligible use of metathesis english program funds. Response: RUS does not support one technology or fuel source. No changes will be made to the regulation. Appropriate Performance Thresholds for Water Heaters. Comment: One comment requested that RUS set explicit energy efficiency thresholds for water heaters. Response: RUS will not list specific threshold levels in this regulation.

Rather, we have clarified that borrowers are encouraged to on founding use existing energy efficiency standards or criteria such as those from: Energy Star, FEMP, ANSI, or other voluntary consensus standards. Focus on Utility Programs That Support Customer Investments in Energy Efficiency. Comment: One comment asked RUS to establish requirements and guidelines that will ensure program funds are substantially devoted to metathesis english support utility programs designed to support efficiency investments in customer homes, buildings, and facilities. Response: RUS believes our regulation supports these investments, as well as investments in decreasing a utility's total energy use. No additional language was added. Leverage Other Federal Programs With the of a cover Energy Efficiency Program. Comment: One comment asked RUS to explore leveraging options with USDA's Rural Housing Service, Federal Housing Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, and metathesis middle english, the Federal Housing Finance Authority. Response: RUS supports program collaboration, and will continue to essay about work with our Federal partners, but no additional language will be included in the regulation. Start Printed Page 73365. Consider Combined Heat and Power Projects as Eligible Measures.

Comment: One comment asked RUS to explicitly state combined heat and metathesis middle english, power projects are an eligible energy conservation activity under the of a cover regulation. Response: RUS believes our regulation provides enough flexibility to allow these forms of activities, without specifying every eligible activity in the regulation. Comment: One comment requested RUS change the definition of metathesis middle english fuel switching to “the temporary use of non-electric energy sources as a method to limit electric peak loads during limited time periods. The term fuel switching does not include the permanent replacement of in india equipment that uses one energy source with equipment that uses a different energy source.” Response: RUS clarified the definition of “fuel switching.' Comment: One comment asked RUS to adopt data collection procedures to metathesis middle track program financials and letter, measure performance. Response: RUS has and will continue to metathesis english collect data on loan activities, monitoring and tracking performance measures.

No additional language needs to be added to the regulation. Comment: One comment requested RUS target supplementing existing and planned energy efficiency programs and essay about sports, budgets, not replacing the programs. Response: RUS believes our current language will support existing and promote new energy efficiency programs. Start List of middle Subjects. For reasons set forth in the preamble, the Agency amends 7 CFR chapter XVII as follows: PART 1710GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES. 1. The authority citation for pregnancy essay part 1710 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. 2. In § 1710.2(a) revise the metathesis middle definition of “Demand side management” and add a definition of “Eligible Energy Efficiency Programs” in reforms in india essay alphabetical order to read as follows:

End Amendment Part. Demand side management (DSM) means the metathesis deliberate planning and/or implementation of activities to influence Consumer use of electricity provided by a distribution borrower to produce beneficial modifications to essay on john sutter the system load profile. Metathesis Middle! Beneficial modifications to the system load profile ordinarily improve load factor or otherwise help in education essay utilizing electric system resources to best advantage consistent with acceptable standards of service and lowest system cost. Metathesis Middle! Load profile modifications are characterized as peak clipping, valley filling, load shifting, strategic conservation, strategic load growth, and pregnancy, flexible load profile. (See, for example, publications of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, especially “Demand-Side Management Glossary” EPRI TR-101158, Project 1940-25, Final Report, October 1992.) DSM includes energy conservation programs. Eligible Energy Efficiency and Conservation Programs (Eligible EE Program) means an energy efficiency and conservation program that meets the requirements of Subpart H of metathesis middle english this part. Subpart CLoan Purposes and college essay depression, Basic Policies.

3. In § 1710.100, amend the english first sentence by adding the words “efficiency and” before “energy conservation”. End Amendment Part. 4. In § 1710.101, amend the second sentence of paragraph (b) by adding the college application word “direct” before “loans to individual consumers”. End Amendment Part. 5. Amend § 1710.102 as follows: End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part.

a. Amend the first sentence of paragraph (a) by adding “energy efficiency and” before “energy conservation”; and. End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. b. Amend the first sentence of paragraph (b) by adding “energy efficiency and” before “energy conservation”. End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. 6. Amend § 1710.106 by adding paragraph (a)(6) and revising paragraphs (c)(1) and (d) to read as follows:

End Amendment Part. (6) Eligible Energy Efficiency and Conservation Programs pursuant to Subpart H of this part. (1) Electric facilities, equipment, appliances, or wiring located inside the premises of the Consumer, except for assets financed pursuant to an Eligible EE Program, and qualifying items included in a loan for Demand side management or energy resource conservation programs, or renewable energy systems. (d) A distribution borrower may request a loan period of middle up to 4 years. Sports Day Pmr! Except in metathesis middle english the case of loans for new generating and associated transmission facilities, a power supply borrower may request a loan period of not more than 4 years for transmission and substation facilities and improvements or replacements of generation facilities. The loan period for essay on john sutter new generating facilities and DSM activities will be determined on a case-by-case basis. The Administrator may approve a loan period shorter than the period requested by the borrower, if in metathesis english the Administrator's sole discretion, a loan made for application essay depression the longer period would fail to meet RUS requirements for loan feasibility and loan security set forth in §§ 1710.112 and 1710.113, respectively. 7. In § 1710.109 amend the first sentence of metathesis middle paragraph (a) by adding the words “energy efficiency and pregnancy interview essay, conservation program work plan,” after “construction work plan”. End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. 8. English! Amend § 1710.115 by adding paragraph (c) to read as follows:

End Amendment Part. (c) The term for loans made to finance Eligible EE Programs will be determined in of a letter accordance with § 1710.408 of this part. 9. In § 1710.120 add the words “energy efficiency and conservation program work plans,” after “construction work plans,”. End Amendment Part. Subpart DBasic Requirements for Loan Approval. 10.

Amend § 1710.152 by adding paragraph (e) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (e) EE Program work plan (EEWP). In the metathesis english case of essay brothers a loan application to finance an Eligible Energy Efficient Program, an EE Program work plan shall be prepared in metathesis english lieu of a traditional CWP required pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section. The requirements for an EEWP are set forth in § 1710.255 and in subpart H of this part. 11.

Amend § 1710.202 by adding paragraph (d) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (d) Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, a power supply borrower that has an outstanding loan for an Eligible EE Program is required to maintain an approved load forecast and an approved load forecast work plan on an ongoing basis. 12. Amend § 1710.203 by adding paragraph (f) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (f) Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, a distribution borrower that has an outstanding loan for an Eligible EE Program is required to college depression maintain an approved load forecast and an approved load forecast work plan on an ongoing basis.

13. Middle English! In § 1710.205 amend paragraph (b)(5) by adding the words “and energy efficiency and conservation program” after “demand side management”. End Amendment Part. Subpart FConstruction Work Plans and Related Studies. 14. Reforms! Add § 1710.255 to subpart F to read as follows:

End Amendment Part. (a) All energy efficiency borrowers must maintain a current EEWP approved by their board of directors covering in aggregate all new construction, improvements, replacements, and retirements of energy efficiency related equipment and activities; (b) An energy efficiency borrower's EEWP shall cover a period of between 2 and 4 years, and include all facilities to metathesis middle be constructed or improved which are eligible for RUS financing, whether or not RUS financial assistance will be sought or be available for certain facilities. The construction period covered by an EEWP in in india support of a loan application shall not be shorter than the loan period requested for metathesis middle english financing of the facilities; (c) The borrower's EEWP may only include facilities, equipment and other activities that have been approved by RUS as a part of an Eligible Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program pursuant to essay on john sutter subpart H of this part; (d) The borrower's EEWP must be consistent with the documentation provided as part of the middle english current RUS approved EE Program as outlined in § 1710.410(c); and. (e) The borrower's EEWP must include an estimated schedule for the implementation of included projects. Subpart GLong Range Financial Forecasts.

15. In India! Amend § 1710.300 by metathesis english redesignating paragraphs (d)(3) through (5) as paragraphs (d)(4) through (6) respectively; and adding a new paragraph (d)(3) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (3) RUS-approved EE Program work plan; 16. On John! In § 1710.302 amend paragraph (d)(5) by removing the reference “§ 1710.300(d)(5)” and adding in its place “§ 1710.300(d)(6)”. End Amendment Part. Subpart IApplication Requirements and Procedures for Loans. 17a. Metathesis Middle English! In subpart I, redesignate §§ 1710.400 through 1710.407 as §§ 1710.500 through 1710.507, respectively.

End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. 17b. Add Subpart H consisting of application depression §§ 1710.400 through 1710.499, to read as follows: End Amendment Part. Subpart HEnergy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program. (a) This subpart establishes policies and requirements that apply to loans and loan guarantees to finance Energy Efficiency and Conservation programs (EE Programs) undertaken by an eligible utility system to metathesis english finance Demand side management, energy efficiency and on john, conservation, or on-grid and off-grid renewable energy system programs that will result in the better management of their system load growth, a more beneficial load profile, or greater optimization of the use of alternative energy resources in their service territory. Metathesis! These programs may be considered an essential utility service. (b)(1) The goals of an reforms in india, eligible Energy Efficiency project eligible for funding under this program and Subpart H include: (i) Increasing energy efficiency at the end user level; (ii) Modifying electric load such that there is a reduction in overall system demand; (iii) Effecting a more efficient use of existing electric distribution, transmission and generation facilities; Start Printed Page 73367. (iv) Attracting new businesses and creating jobs in metathesis rural communities by investing in energy efficiency; and.

(v) Encouraging the college depression use of renewable energy fuels for either Demand side management or the middle reduction of reforms conventional fossil fuel use within the service territory. (2) Although not a goal, RUS recognizes that there will be a reduction of green house gases with energy efficiency improvements. EE Programs under this subpart may be financed at the distribution level or by middle english an electric generation and interview, transmission provider. RUS encourages borrowers to middle coordinate with the essay relevant member systems regarding their intention to implement a program financed under this subpart. RUS also encourages borrowers to leverage funds available under this subpart with State, local, or other funding sources that may be available to middle english implement such programs. This subpart adapts and picture of a letter, modifies, but does not supplant, the requirements for all borrowers set forth elsewhere where the purpose of the loan is to finance an approved EE program.

In the english event there is essay brothers overlap or conflict between this subpart and the provisions of metathesis middle this part 1710 or other parts of the Code of Federal Regulations, the provisions of this subpart will apply for loans made or guaranteed pursuant to this subpart. EE Programs financed under this subpart may be directed at all forms of energy consumed within a utility's service territory, not just electricity, where the electric utility is in a position to education reforms facilitate the optimization of the energy consumption profile within its service territory and do so in a way that enhances the financial or physical performance of the rural electric system and enables the repayment of the energy efficiency loan. For the purpose of this subpart, the middle english following terms shall have the following meanings. In the pregnancy event there is overlap or conflict between the definitions contained in § 1710.2, the definitions set forth below will apply for metathesis loans made or guaranteed pursuant to this subpart. British thermal unit (Btu) means the quantity of heat required to on john raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. Certified energy auditor for commercial and industrial energy efficiency improvements. (1) An energy auditor shall meet one of the following criteria: (i) An individual possessing a current commercial or industrial energy auditor certification from a national, industry-recognized organization; (ii) A Licensed Professional Engineer in the State in which the audit is conducted with at least 1 year experience and who has completed at least two similar type Energy Audits; (iii) An individual with a four-year engineering or architectural degree with at least 3 years experience and who has completed at least five similar type Energy Audits; or. (iv) Beginning in calendar year 2015, an energy auditor certification recognized by middle the Department of letter Energy through its Better Buildings Workforce Guidelines project. (2) For residential energy efficiency improvements, an energy auditor shall meet one of the following criteria: The workforce qualification requirements of the metathesis middle english Home Performance with Energy Star Program, as outlined in Section 3 of the Home Performance with Energy Star Sponsor Guide; or an individual possessing a current residential energy auditor or building analyst certification from picture letter, a national, industry-recognized organization. Cost effective means the aggregate cost of an EE Program is less than the financial benefit of the program over middle time. Education Essay! The cost of a program for this purpose shall include the costs of incentives, measurement and verification activity and administrative costs, and the benefits shall include, without limitation, the value of energy saved, the value of corresponding avoided generation, transmission or distribution and reserve investments as may be displaced or deferred by middle english program activities, and the value of corresponding avoided greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants. Demand means the electrical load averaged over about sports a specified interval of time.

Demand is expressed in kilowatts, kilovolt amperes, kilovars, amperes, or other suitable units. The interval of time is generally 15 minutes, 30 minutes, or 60 minutes. Demand savings means the quantifiable reduction in the load requirement for electric power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW) such that it reduces the cost to serve the load. Eligible borrower means a utility system that has direct or indirect responsibility for providing retail electric service to persons in a rural area. This definition includes existing borrowers and utilities who meet current RUS borrower requirements. Energy audit means an inspection and metathesis middle, analysis of energy flows in a building, process, or system with the essay brothers goal of identifying opportunities to enhance energy efficiency.

The activity should result in an objective standard-based technical report containing recommendations for middle english improving the energy efficiency. The report should also include an interview essay, analysis of the estimated benefits and costs of pursuing each recommendation and the simple payback period. Energy efficiency and conservation measures means equipment, materials and practices that when installed and used at a Consumer's premises result in a verifiable reduction in energy consumption, measured in metathesis Btus, or demand as measured in Btu-hours, or both, at the point of purchase relative to a base level of output. The ultimate goal is the education in india essay reduction of utility or consumer energy needs. Energy efficiency and english, conservation program (EE Program) means a program of activities undertaken or financed by a utility within its service territory to essay about sports day pmr reduce the amount or rate of energy used by Consumers relative to a base level of output. HVAC means heating, ventilation, and metathesis middle, air conditioning. Load means the Power delivered to power utilization equipment performing its normal function. Load factor means the ratio of the average load over a designated period of in india time to the peak load occurring in the same period. Peak demand (or maximum demand) means the highest demand measured over a selected period of time, e.g., one month.

Peak demand reduction means a decrease in electrical demand on an electric utility system during the system's peak period, calculated as the reduction in maximum average demand achieved over metathesis middle english a specified interval of time. Power means the about rate of generating, transferring, or using energy. The basic unit is the metathesis english watt, where one Watt is approximately 3.41213 Btu/hr. Re-lamping means the reforms in india essay initial conversion of bulbs or light fixtures to more efficient lighting technology but not the replacement of like kind bulbs or fixtures after the initial conversion. SI means the metathesis middle english International System of interview essay Units: the middle english modern metric system. Smart Grid Investments means capital expenditures for devices or systems that are capable of providing real time, two way (utility and Consumer) information and control protocols for individual Consumer owned or operated appliances and reforms in india, equipment, usually Start Printed Page 73368 through a Consumer interface or smart meter. Ultimate recipient means a Consumer that receives a loan from a borrower under this subpart. Utility Energy Services Contract (UESC) means a contract whereby a utility provides a Consumer with comprehensive energy efficiency improvement services or demand reduction services.

Utility system means an entity in the business of middle providing retail electric service to Consumers (distribution entity) or an entity in the business of providing wholesale electric supply to distribution entities (generation entity) or an entity in the business of college application essay depression providing transmission service to distribution or generation entities (transmission entity), where, in metathesis middle english each case, the entities provide the applicable service using self-owned or controlled assets under a published tariff that the entity and any associated regulatory agency may adjust. Watt means the SI unit of power equal to a rate of energy transfer (or the rate at which work is done), of one joule per second. (a) General. Eligible EE Programs shall: (1) Be developed and essay, implemented by metathesis middle english an Eligible borrower and applied within its service territory; (2) Consist of eligible activities and investments as provided in § 1710.406. (3) Provide for the use of State and local funds where available to supplement RUS loan funds; (4) Incorporate the of a letter applicant's policy applicable to the interconnection of distributed resources; (5) Incorporate a business plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.407; (6) Incorporate a quality assurance plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.408; (7) Demonstrate that the program can be expected to middle english be Cost effective; (8) Demonstrate that the program will have a net positive or neutral cumulative impact on the borrower's financial condition over the time period contemplated in the analytical support documents demonstrating that the net present value of picture cover letter program costs incurred by the borrower are positive, pursuant to § 1710.411; (9) Demonstrate energy savings or peak demand reduction for the service territory overall; and.

(10) Be approved in writing by RUS prior to the investment of funds for which reimbursement will be requested. (b) Financial Structures. Eligible EE Programs may provide for direct recoupment of expenditures for eligible activities and investment from Ultimate Recipients as follows: (1) Loans made to metathesis middle english Ultimate Recipients located in a rural area where (i) The Ultimate Recipients may be wholesale or retail; (ii) The loans may be secured or unsecured; (iii) The loan receivables are owned by the Eligible Borrower; (iv) The loans are made or serviced directly by the Eligible Borrower or by application essay a financial institution pursuant to a contractual relationship between the Eligible Borrower and the financial institution; (v) Due diligence is performed to confirm the repayment ability of the Ultimate Recipient; (vi) Loans are funded only upon completion of the project financed or to reimburse startup costs that have been incurred; (vii) The rate charged the Ultimate Recipient is less than or equal to metathesis the direct Treasury rate established daily by the United States Treasury pursuant to § 1710.51(a)(1) or § 1710.52, as applicable, plus the borrower's interest rate from RUS and of a letter, 1.5 percent . Exceptions will be made on english a case-by-case basis to ensure repayment of the government's loan and must be clearly articulated in the business plan RUS will not accept an exception request if the loan is feasible at 1.5 percent; and. (viii) Loans are not used to refinance a preexisting loan. (2) A tariff that is specific to an identified rural Consumer, premise or class of ratepayer; or. (3) On bill repayment and other financial recoupment mechanisms as may be approved by RUS. (c) Period of essay performance (1) Performance standards. (i) Eligible EE Programs activities that are listed under § 1710.406(b) should be designed to achieve the applicable operating performance standards within one year of the date of metathesis middle installation of the facilities. (ii) All activities other than those included in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of college essay this section should be designed to achieve the metathesis english applicable operating performance targets within the time period contemplated by the analytic support documents for the overall EE Program as approved by RUS. (2) Cost effectiveness.

Eligible EE Programs must demonstrate that Cost effectiveness as measured for the program overall will be achieved within ten years of picture initial funding, except in cases where the useful life of the technology on middle english an aggregate basis can be demonstrated to be longer than the ten year period. RUS will evaluate the useful life assumption on education reforms in india a case-by-case basis. (a) General. English! Eligible program activities and investments: (1) Shall be designed to improve energy efficiency and/or reduce peak demand on the customer side of the meter; (2) Shall be Cost effective in the aggregate after giving effect to all activities and investments contemplated in the approved EE Program; and. (3) May apply to all Consumer classes. (b) Eligible activities and investments. Eligible program activities and investments may include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Energy efficiency and conservation measures where assets financed at an Ultimate Recipient premises can be characterized as an integral part of the essay real property that would typically transfer with the title under applicable state law. Where applicable, it is anticipated that the loan obligation would also be expected to transfer with ownership of the metered account serving that property. (2) Renewable Energy Systems, including (i) On or Off Grid Renewable energy systems; (3) Demand side management (DSM) investments including Smart Grid Investments; (4) Energy audits; (5) Utility Energy Services Contracts; (6) Consumer education and outreach programs; (7) Power factor correction equipment on the Ultimate Recipient side of the meter; (8) Re-lamping to more energy efficient lighting; and. (9) Fuel Switching as in: (i) The replacement of existing fuel consuming equipment using a particular fuel with more efficient fuel consuming equipment that uses another fuel but which does not increase direct greenhouse gas emissions; or. (ii) The installation of non-electric fuel consuming equipment to facilitate management of metathesis electric system peak loads.

Fuel switching to fossil or biomass fueled electric generating equipment is expressly excluded. (10) Other activities and investments as approved by RUS as part of the essay brothers EE Program such as, but not limited to, pre-retrofit improvements. (c) Intermediary lending. EE Program loan funds may be used for direct re-lending to Ultimate Recipients where Start Printed Page 73369 the requirements of § 1710.405(b) are met. (d) Performance standards. Borrowers are required to middle use Energy Star qualified equipment where applicable or meet or exceed efficiency requirements designated by the Federal Energy Management Program.

An Eligible EE Program must have a business plan for implementing the essay program. Metathesis Middle English! The business plan is expected to have a global perspective on essay on founding brothers the borrower's energy efficiency plan. Therefore, energy efficiency upgrades should be identified in aggregate. The business plan must have the following elements: (a) Executive summary. The executive summary shall capture the english overall objectives to be met by education the Eligible EE Program and the timeframe in which they are expected to be achieved.

(b) Organizational background. The background section shall include descriptions of the management team responsible for implementing the Eligible EE Program. (c) Marketing plan. The marketing section should identify the target Consumers, promotional activities to be pursued and target penetration rates by Consumer category and investment activity. (d) Operations plan. The operations plan shall include but is not limited to: (1) A list of the activities and investments to be implemented under the middle english EE Program and the Btu savings goal targeted for each category; (2) An estimate of the dollar amount of investment by the utility for each category of activities and reforms, investments listed under paragraph (d)(1) of this section; (3) A staffing plan that identifies whether and how outsourced contractors or subcontractors will be used to deliver the middle program; (4) A description of the process for documenting and picture of a, perfecting collateral arrangements for Ultimate Recipient loans, if applicable; and. (5) The overall Btu savings to be accomplished over the life of the metathesis middle EE Program.

(e) Financial plan. The financial plan shall include but is not limited to: (1) A schedule showing sources and uses of reforms in india essay funds for metathesis middle the program; (2) An itemized budget for each activity and investment category listed in about sports day pmr the operations plan; (3) An aggregate Cost effectiveness forecast; (4) Where applicable, provision for Ultimate Recipient loan loss reserves. These loan loss reserves will not be funded by RUS. Loan loss reserves are not required when a utility will not be relending RUS funds. (5) Identify expected Ultimate Recipient loan delinquency and default rates and report annually on deviations from the expected rates.

(f) Risk analysis. The business plan shall include an evaluation of the financial and operational risk associated with the program, including an middle english, estimate of sutter prospective Consumer loan losses consistent with the middle english loan loss reserve to be established pursuant to paragraph (e)(4) of this section. (g) The borrowers are strongly encouraged to follow a bulletin or such other publication as RUS deems appropriate that contains and describes best practices for energy efficiency business plans. RUS will make this bulletin or publication publicly available and revise it from time-to-time as RUS deems it necessary. An eligible EE program must have a quality assurance plan as part of the program. Interview! The quality assurance plan is expected to have a global perspective on the borrower's energy efficiency plan. Therefore, energy efficiency upgrades should be identified in aggregate. Every effort is made to fund only EE programs that are administered in accordance with quality assurance plans meeting standards designed to achieve the purposes of metathesis this subpart. However, RUS and its employees assume no legal liability for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, product, service, or process funded directly or indirectly with financial assistance provided under this subpart. Nothing in the loan documents between RUS and the energy efficiency borrower shall confer upon on john, any other person any right, benefit or remedy of any nature whatsoever.

Neither RUS nor its employees makes any warranty, express or implied, including the warranties of merchantability and middle, fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to sports any information, product, service, or process available from an middle, energy efficiency borrower. The approval by RUS and its employees of an energy efficiency borrower's quality assurance plan is solely for the benefit of RUS. Approval of the quality assurance plan does not constitute an RUS endorsement. The quality assurance plan must have the following elements: (a) Quality assurance assessments shall include the use of qualified energy managers or professional engineers to evaluate program activities and investments; (b) Where applicable, program evaluation activities should use the protocols for essay sutter determining energy savings as developed by english the U.S. Department of Energy in essay on john the Uniform Methods Project. (c) Energy audits shall be performed for energy efficiency investments involving the building envelope at an Ultimate Recipient premises; (d) Energy audits must be performed by middle certified energy auditors; and. (e) Follow up audits shall be performed within one year after installation on a sample of investments made to confirm whether efficiency improvement expectations are being met. (f) In cases involving energy efficiency upgrades to a single system (such as a ground source heat pump) the new system must be designed and of a letter, installed by certified and insured professionals acceptable to the utility. (g) Industry or manufacturer standard performance tests, as applicable, shall be required on any system upgraded as a result of an english, EE Program. This testing shall indicate the sports installed system is meeting its designed performance parameters. (h) In some programs the utility may elect to middle recommend independent contractors who can perform energy efficiency related work for their customers.

In these cases utilities shall monitor the interview work done by the contractors and confirm that the contractors are performing quality work. Utilities should remove substandard contractors from their recommended lists if the metathesis middle subcontractors fail to perform at interview essay a satisfactory level. RUS does not endorse or recommend any particular independent contractors. (i) Contractors not hired by middle the utility may not act as agents of the utility in performing work financed under this subpart. (j) The borrowers are strongly encouraged to follow a bulletin or other publication that RUS deems appropriate and contains and describes best practices for in india essay energy efficiency quality assurance plans. Metathesis English! RUS will make this bulletin or publication publicly available and revise it from time-to-time as RUS deems it necessary.

(a) Loan term. The maximum term for loans under this subpart shall be 15 years unless the loans relate to ground source loop investments or technology on an aggregate basis that has a useful life greater than 15 years. Ground source loop investments as the term is used in essay this paragraph do not include ancillary Start Printed Page 73370 equipment related to metathesis middle english ground source heat pump systems. (b) Loan feasibility. Loan feasibility must be demonstrated for all loans made under this subpart. Loans made under this subpart shall be secured.

(c) Reimbursement for completed projects. (1) A borrower may request an initial advance not to exceed five percent of the total loan amount for working capital purposes to implement an eligible EE Program; (2) Except for the initial advance provided for in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, all advances under this subpart shall be used for reimbursement of expenditures relating to education essay a completed activity or investment; and. (3) Advances shall be in accordance with RUS procedures. (d) Loan amounts. (1) Cumulative loan amounts outstanding under this subpart will be determined by the Assistant Administrator of the Electric Program and based an applicant's business plan; and. (2) Financing for administrative costs may not exceed 5 percent of the total loan amount. (3) The Rural Utilities Service reserves the right to place a cap on both the total amount of funds an eligible entity can apply for, as well as a cap on the total amount of funds the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program can utilize in the appropriations. The required application documentation listed in metathesis this section is not all inclusive but is pregnancy interview essay specific to Eligible borrowers requesting a loan under this subpart and in most cases is supplemental to the general requirements for loan applications provided for in this part 1710: (a) A letter from the Borrower's General Manager requesting a loan under this subpart. (b) A copy of the board resolution establishing the EE Program that reflects an metathesis, undertaking that funds collected in excess of then current amortization requirements for the related RUS loan will be redeployed for EE Program purposes or used to prepay the RUS loan. (c) Current RUS-approved EE Program documentation that includes: (1) A Business Plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.407; (2) A Quality Assurance Plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.408; (3) Analytical support documentation that meets the requirements of essay on founding brothers § 1710.411; (4) A copy of RUS' written approval of the EE Program. (d) An EE program work plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.255; (e) A statement of whether an initial working capital advance pursuant to § 1710.409(c)(1) is english included in the loan budget together with a schedule of how these funds will be used. (f) A proposed draft Schedule C pursuant to 7 CFR part 1718 that lists assets to be financed under this subpart as excepted property under the picture RUS mortgage, as applicable.

Applications for metathesis middle english loans under this subpart may only picture letter, be made for eligible activities and investments included in an RUS-approved EE Program. In addition to a business plan and operations plan, a request for EE program approval must include analytical support documentation that demonstrates the english program meets the interview requirements of § 1710.303 and metathesis, assures RUS of the college operational and financial integrity of the EE Program. This documentation must include, but is not necessarily limited to, the following: (a) A comparison of the utility's projected annual growth in demand after incorporating the EE Program together with an updated baseline forecast on file with RUS, where each includes an estimate of energy consuming devices used by customers in the service territory and a specific time horizon as determined by the utility for meeting the performance objectives established by them for the EE Program; (b) Demonstration that the required periods of performance under § 1710.405(c) can reasonably be expected to be met; (c) A report of discussions and coordination conducted with the power supplier, where applicable, issues identified as a result, and metathesis english, the outcome of this effort. (d) An estimate of the amount of direct investment in utility-owned generation that will be deferred as a result of the picture of a letter EE Program; (e) A description of efforts to identify state and middle, local sources of funding and, if available, how they are to be integrated in the financing of the EE Program; and. (f) Copies of of a cover letter sample documentation used by the utility in english administering its EE Program. (g) Such other documents and reports as the Administrator may require. Nothing in this subpart changes a Borrower's obligation to comply with RUS's accounting, monitoring and reporting requirements. In addition thereto, the Administrator may also require additional management reports that provide the agency with a means of evaluating the in india extent to which the goals and objectives identified in the EE Plan are being accomplished. Nothing in this subpart changes a Borrower's obligation to comply with all laws and regulations to which it is subject.

PART 1717POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS. 18. The authority citation for metathesis english part 1717 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. Subpart RLien Accommodations and Subordinations for 100 Percent Private Financing. 19. Amend § 1717.852 by revising paragraph (b)(2)(ii) to read as follows: End Amendment Part.

(ii) Renewable energy systems and RUS-approved programs of Demand side management, energy efficiency and application essay, energy conservation; and. PART 1721POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS. 20. The authority citation for part 1721 continues to middle english read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. 21. Amend § 1721.1 by revising paragraph (a) to read as follows:

End Amendment Part. (a) Purpose and amount. With the exception of minor projects, loan funds will be advanced only for projects which are included in application an RUS approved construction work plan (CWP), EE Program work plan (EEWP), or approved amendment, and in an approved loan as amended. Metathesis Middle English! Loan fund advances can be requested in an amount representing actual costs incurred. PART 1724ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES.

22. The authority citation for part 1724 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. 23. Amend § 1724.30 by revising paragraph (a) to read as follows: End Amendment Part.

(a) Each borrower shall select one or more qualified persons to perform the engineering services involved in the planning (including the picture of a development of an EE Program eligible for financing pursuant to subpart H of metathesis middle english part 1710 of this chapter, design, and construction management of the essay system. PART 1730ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE. 24. The authority citation for middle part 1730 continues to about sports day pmr read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. Subpart BOperations and Maintenance Requirements.

25. Amend Appendix A to subpart B of Part 1730 by adding paragraph 13.f. to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Appendix. Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1730Review Rating Summary, RUS Form 300. f. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program quality assurance compliance John Charles Padalino, Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.

1.  Senator Patrick Leahy as the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry explained this provision in a letter dated June 18, 1993 to Senator Jim Sasser the english Chairman of the Senate Committee on interview essay the Budget as follows: “These amendments also permit REA [now RUS] to make loans for demand side management and energy conservation program[s] which are required by some state agencies. Metathesis Middle English! They are also often the most cost effective methods of meeting the about sports day pmr energy needs of rural areas.” 2.  This Bulletin was rescinded in 2002 when RUS updated and codified the ERC Loan Program as 7 CFR Part 1721, subpart B. Middle! (See 67 FR 484, January 4, 2002).