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Dec 19, 2017 Essay 200 words,
How to Option a Book for Film Adaptation. Essay. The following is tester, a guest post by veteran entertainment attorney Robert Zipser. Essay. It originally appeared on his official website. #8220;In the motion picture business, nothing is more important than rights.#8221; Prominent Business Affairs Executive. Writing. Hollywood has loved books ever since the essay days of silent films. It always will. Sometimes you will hear grumblings from short on my classroom studio executives and producers that acquiring motion picture and television rights to books costs too much.
They vow to cut back on it. Pay no attention to essay 200 words, this babbling. Hollywood#8217;s love for books will endure for resources, two simple reasons: First, books offer built-in wonderfully developed stories with fascinating plots and essay, compelling characters; second, popular books (think the writing assignment Harry Potter series as the essay 200 words ultimate example) have throngs of saterical essays rabid fans (often teenagers and essay, nerdy adults) who will be rushing to water resources be nationalised essay, the box office to see the motion picture based on their beloved book. Essay 200 Words. Five of the of mice and men lennie nine films nominated for essay 200 words, this year#8217;s Best Picture Oscar were based on books, including the winner, Argo . Tester. For these reasons, it is 200 words, inevitable that you, the independent film producer, shall at some point want to acquire the thesis motion picture and 200 words, television rights to a book. This article will set forth the classroom basic deal points of 200 words a book option agreement and music research paper, hopefully provide some guidelines. I do not discuss every term. 200 Words. I will focus, for the most part, on act 1 scene essay, the major business points.
Other legal terms such as assignment, governing law, modification, etc. can be important, but can be readily learned from a good entertainment contract form book. If you are an experienced producer, you may find some of this information fairly basic. But hopefully there will be some points that will be helpful to you as well as to 200 words, the novice producer. Should Be Nationalised. In the United States, motion picture and essay, television rights to a book are almost always reserved to nitin madnani thesis, the author and not granted to essay, the publisher. This means that you will be negotiating with either the water resources be nationalised author or, if the author is at essay, all successful, the for an assignment author#8217;s agent. But let#8217;s get real. Unless you are super-rich or super-connected, you will not be looking for essay, best-sellers which are very expensive and nitin madnani thesis, snatched by essay the studios. More likely, you will be targeting a book which is at least a few years old by an author who may be known in his or her genre, but is music education research paper, not famous. For this article, we will pretend that you are seeking to acquire the 200 words motion picture and television rights to music paper, the mystery novel Looking for essay 200 words, Luigi by Joe Scribbler.
Scribbler is fairly well-known in music in schools paper the mystery field but is not a famous author. He did have one television motion picture produced based on another of his books 10 years ago. Looking for Luigi is five years old. Scribbler is represented by 200 words Slick Larry at act 1 2 soliloquy essay, William Morris Endeavor (I threw in a real agency for laughs. Slick Larry is of course fictional). Before doing anything, you must do your homework! It is essential that you search the registrations and essay, recorded rights transfers for the book listed in water be nationalised essay the database of the 200 words U.S. Copyright Office to make sure that a) there is a copyright registration for the book in essay the author#8217;s name; and essay 200 words, b) there are no conflicting options, assignments, or liens, or registrations for essays, productions based on essay, the book. This is music in schools research paper, your #8220;chain-of-title#8221; research.
The best way to do this is to purchase a copyright report from 200 words a copyright search firm. But this is expensive. Education In Schools. If, like most indie producers, you are living off spaghetti every night, you can accomplish basically the same goal by searching the 200 words online records of the of mice and men essay U.S. Copyright Office for essay 200 words, free as long as the saterical essays records were entered on or after January 1, 1978. 200 Words. This is hamlet, not foolproof.
Only recorded options and essay 200 words, transfers of rights are listed. Music In Schools Research Paper. But the studios and essay 200 words, most experienced producers will have recorded such options and nitin, other transfers. Essay. You will hopefully not find any current or conflicting options, or other transfers of the rights that you want to should essay, acquire, or liens, or productions. If you do find current or conflicting options, or other transfers of the rights that you want to acquire, or liens, or productions, don#8217;t move forward. In the case of essay a book that has been out for at least a few years, it is possible you might find a prior option recorded. In this case, you must of course verify with the statement tester agent that that option has expired and was never exercised and you should ask for redacted (money terms deleted) copies of the essay 200 words prior agreements showing the essay on my classroom option periods and dates. In addition, you must confirm that there are no assignments of essay rights to that prior production company or productions by it (or its assignees) based on short essay on my, the book. Although you will be requiring the essay author to warrant that the water should be nationalised essay rights are clear, mistakes can be made and you do not want to essay 200 words, purchase a lawsuit! Assuming the chain-of-title is of mice and men essay, clear, you will also need to 200 words, acquire a Publisher#8217;s Release from Scribbler#8217;s publishers.
This is a short form that simply confirms that the publishers do not own or control any of the music education rights that you are seeking to essay, acquire. You should make your receipt of this form a condition precedent to your obligations under the option agreement. But it is water essay, almost never a problem. Essay 200 Words. Continued: Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4. Saterical. I#8217;ve got two novels that I think would be wonderful projects for film adaptation. One is essay, a romantic thriller/stalker with a strong female lead. Another is a paranormal novel, where the of mice essay ghosts are the main characters. Essay. If anyone is interested, just comment here and and men essay george killing lennie, we can do the email swap then.
Hi, I#8217;m an essay, upcoming screenwriter that#8217;s looking for essay killing, some opportunities. I would be happy to discuss some possible projects with you. What#8217;s your email? Hey I have 2 books for u to mention to essay, directors the first one is writing for an, Stung by Bethany Wiggins on her website she has a discussin for characters. And also for the second book to essay, is Cured by the same author they are the best sincerely. Education. This is 200 words, related to the question below about a deceased author. The book I#8217;m interested in resources is being managed by essay 200 words a literary agency. Any suggestions as to what a reasonable purchase price i.e. Be Nationalised. what percent of the essay total production budget would be appropriate for of mice and men essay george killing lennie, an agency managing the essay rights? I#8217;ve gathered that between 1.5-4% is george killing lennie, a common percentage payment based on the total production budget. I#8217;m unsure if this should be less than what would be offered a live author, or in the similar range.
Thanks for any suggestions. I understand that any advice would solely be a suggestion based on essay, this limited information. Cheers, Sorry it took me a while to of mice and men, respond but I have been very busy. The percentage used for a deceased author should be the essay same as for saterical essays, a live author. I typically use between 2-2.5% of the #8220;final approved production budget#8221; (see my article for what that means). However, in respect to essay 200 words, the #8220;ceiling#8221; and #8220;floor#8221;, I advise starting a little lower than where you want to essays, wind up in essay 200 words order to a conclusion for an, give yourself some negotiating room.
The amount of the ceiling and essay, floor will depend upon thesis, the relative fame of the author and/or the book, and upon essay, whether the act 1 scene 2 soliloquy essay author or the author#8217;s estate granted options on other books. If you have further questions, feel free to e-mail me directly at [email protected] Hello how and who is the best person to get to essay, look at my books. They are YA fantasy with Vikings, Wizards, magical world and madnani, most of essay 200 words all Dragons. Two are done and book three is started. Good to nitin, know ! Get ready then for essay 200 words, some serious True Crime Horror ! Manhattans 2cnd to none Mafia Underground /Prison /Heist / Safe Cracker / Alarm Specialist / is what we love to writing for an assignment, write about ! Exciting for 2016-2026*****Punch**** Hey It took me some time to find this Information sadly I do not live in the US and I realy don#8217;t have the time to go through this process. I read a lot and essay, came across a book series which would be perfect for thesis, a movie.
Maybe somebody has an essay, interesst in recomending it as a movie somehow#128517;if it hasn#8217;t been already. partial series by essays dan wells. This is very interesting as I was looking into 200 words, this subject . Book to Film Movie , how about Series? If information such as the content is available for thesis statement tester, structure . Who is the go-to expert on that ? Hottest new script writers I can not find fast enough so I am forced to 200 words, go back to thesis statement tester, Sript /Film School , Education is essay 200 words, everything , the key to statement tester, the world . Great article. A question from an author: My autobiographical novel, set in India, that my (Indian) agent compares to essay, Shantaram is in the process of hamlet scene 2 soliloquy receiving numerous offers from essay 200 words top Indian publishers. Two of thesis these are local branches of essay 200 words globally recognized publishing houses. Would it increase the act 1 scene book#8217;s chances of essay being optioned if I publish under them? I#8217;m asking since a couple of music education in schools research paper smaller publishers are offering quite sweet deals and sales might end up being just as good (one of essay these is resources should, owned by the biggest book distributor in India). Essay 200 Words. I would go with the saterical global publisher.
That way, you have a chance of it also being published in the U.S. which definitely would increase your chances of the 200 words book being optioned. Hi, my name is Gabriella Dennany and writing a conclusion for an, I am a self-published author. My novel Alice: The Leader, has been said to essay 200 words, have a very good plot that can look great on the big screen. Are there any screenwriters out there that might be interested in scene looking into this? HI! I have a new book out called Tales by the Campfire. It is 200 words, a trilogy of horror stories that are told during the on my classroom main story. Essay 200 Words. How would I go about getting this out there. It#8217;s a book that I am extremely proud off. HI! I have a new book out called Tales by short on my classroom the Campfire.
It is a trilogy of horror stories that are told during the main story. 200 Words. How would I go about getting this out hamlet 2 soliloquy essay, there? It#8217;s a book that I am extremely proud off. Essay. Informative and a conclusion assignment, helpful. Two film companies want film/tv exclusive rights to my novel.
But I have no idea about this industry. Essay. How much is music education in schools research, reasonable for essay 200 words, them to nitin madnani thesis, offer according to the industry market? I would have to know more about the essay book and you. Tester. I would need to. know such factors as whether this is your first book, how it is essay, selling, if it is classroom, self-published or published by a publishing house, etc. Essay 200 Words. You can e-mail me directly at saterical, [email protected] if you#8217;d like to essay 200 words, further discuss this. Act 1 2 Soliloquy Essay. Hello Robert. Essay 200 Words. Thank you so much for this article and for essays, the helpful responses you#8217;ve given. I have been working on a screenplay for essay, about a year in earnest, though I did another year of research before that. It#8217;s about a #8220;scandal#8221; concerning an killing, individual, from about 60 years ago.
The woman involved is deceased; her daughter is essay, still living and was tangentially involved at short essay, the time. 200 Words. I was going to music in schools, contact the essay daughter once I had something to a conclusion assignment, show her, but have just found out essay, that a man (unknown writer, no credits) had worked with the family on a book that is now going to madnani, be published later this year #8220;with full cooperation of the family,#8221; by a small but reputable publisher. Based on a blog he keeps, he seems like a bit of an egomaniac, I#8217;m afraid. I don#8217;t need his book, per se, as I#8217;ve done enough research. Essay. My question then is whether I would contact him to thesis, get the 200 words rights to the book, or the family, for saterical essays, rights to the story and life rights. Thank you so much for your help! P.s. Almost all of what I planned to use was/is available in 200 words the news and in an old autobiography that the family has the thesis statement tester rights to, but which this writer also uses in 200 words his book. Any help would be greatly appreciated!
You definitely want to check the law of the madnani state that the subject was domiciled in at essay, her death but in most states, you don#8217;t need any rights from the hamlet scene family to essay 200 words, tell the of mice essay george killing story of a deceased person in essay a motion picture because it generally does not violate the right of short essay publicity and because actions for defamation and invasion of 200 words privacy generally do not survive death. Essay. If that is the case in the state at issue, you would be okay if you just base your screenplay ONLY on 200 words, materials in the public domain except that if you plan to essays, portray any family members (or other living persons) as characters, you will need life rights or releases from essay 200 words them. You must be careful not to use any original material from either book which can include an education paper, original arrangement of essay 200 words events. It gives you an short on my classroom, advantage to have the essay 200 words exclusive right. to a conclusion assignment, depict family members because it gives you a package with your script that other screenwriters won#8217;t have. Essay 200 Words. But it sounds like optioning the book would be an unnecessary expense unless you want to music in schools, use original elements from it.
You may e-mail me at essay 200 words, [email protected] if you have further questions. Thank you, Robert, for this thoughtful reply. I will contact you directly #8212; hopefully I can put something together with the madnani thesis daughter who has the essay rights to the autobiography. Thanks again! What if I know a book that would make a great movie? My name is of mice and men lennie, V. E. Campudoni. I written a Romantica novel series that I would like to 200 words, see if it could be adaptable for a cable series or a possible Netflix series. I know it#8217;s a long shot, but I would like to know how to make this possible or if there is scene essay, anyone interested. Essay 200 Words. Thank you ahead of time. Hamlet Act 1. Hi. Essay 200 Words. I#8217;m not an author or anything it#8217;s just that I fell inlove with this book trilogy #8220;Thoughtless#8221; by S.C.
Stephens and I really want a film adaptation of and men george killing it. I know that the people will get hooked with the story of Kellan and essay, Kiera just like I did. Education. so I would just like to essay 200 words, get the attention of any movie producer or director to short classroom, please consider reading the essay trilogy. I#8217;m already thinking of the scene essay actors that could play Kellan Kyle. Essay. Also, another trilogy that I can recommend is #8220;Slammed#8221; by on my Colleen Hoover. Please. Thank you. Hi, I am Polish author living in Canada. Essay. I wrote five books and essays, published them in Poland and in Canada. Essay. All of my books are about of mice george killing lennie different life situations such as love, betrayal , adoption, immigration and 200 words, unusual circumstances that are not found in any other books or movies. I believe they would make an interesting and water be nationalised essay, thought provoking film or mini-series. If someone is interested please contact me on essay, private and short essay classroom, I can send a plot summary for essay 200 words, further discussion.
Hi there, I wrote my first book and essay, it was a romantic novel titled (Polycardia) that could make a nice emotional movie, if anyone is interested in adapting my novel in film please contact me on 200 words, my email ([email protected]) Hi All: I just wanted to saterical, let everybody know that my new e-book #8220;The Indie Producer#8217;s Guide to Optioning Motion Picture Rights to Books#8221; is available for sale on Amazon for Kindle for only $9.99. 200 Words. It features a more in-depth examination of the book option deal and it includes material from short classroom this article and essay 200 words, much more additional important information regarding these deals. Thesis Statement. It also includes a sample option agreement! If you buy it and like it, please write a short review on Amazon. Essay 200 Words. Thanks! Hi Robert, thank you for this article, it is essay on my classroom, indeed very informative and essay 200 words, helpful. You are welcome! I#8217;m glad that you liked it. Hi first off, thank you for water be nationalised, the article!
I#8217;m an 200 words, author with two ya books (series) from music in schools a self-publisher. 200 Words. They both have been reviewed by a screenwriter for water resources should be nationalised, potential and they recommend them to 200 words, be turned into a movie. If anyone is resources should, interested or knows a producer looking for essay 200 words, a new young adult mystery/romance can email me at education in schools paper, [email protected] Essay 200 Words. Hi Robert. And Men George Killing. Incredibly informative article.
I#8217;ve got a question for you. Essay. The book I#8217;d like to option was originally published in saterical the #8217;80s, and the author is now deceased. I#8217;ve been in 200 words touch with the Lampack agency about the rights, but do I necessarily have to own a production company or make a corporation in order to option the book? Or can I option it without being an incorporation? And if I need to become a corporation, what are the steps you#8217;d recommend I take in hamlet scene essay order to essay 200 words, make that happen?
Thank you and I#8217;m glad you liked the water resources should essay article. Essay 200 Words. First, be sure to in schools paper, do a copyright search of essay 200 words registrations and saterical, recorded transfers on 200 words, the book to see if there have been any recorded transfers of act 1 scene rights on essay 200 words, the death of the author. Nitin Thesis. Remember that copyright can be transferred by will or to essay 200 words, the heirs by music education research intestate succession. If possible, try to get a copy of whatever document transferred the rights to the current owner, if any, including the 200 words author#8217;s will if applicable or court order or assignment. Second, you do not need to be a corporation to option the rights. You can do it yourself but you will be personally liable for hamlet scene, any breach of contract. If you form a corporation or limited liability company (I generally prefer LLCs because of 200 words tax reasons) then you are #8220;generally#8221; not personally liable for breach of contract. Madnani. And you can use it as your production company later.
I would need to know what state you are in essay 200 words in order to give you more info. on of mice and men essay george lennie, this issue. Essay. You can contact me at short essay classroom, [email protected] if you want to discuss this further. Hi, thanks for 200 words, a very informative article. However, there is a lot of #8220;legal talk#8221; that I am still confused about, so would you, or anyone, be able to writing assignment, put this in #8220;laymans#8221; term as to what I need to to as a filmmaker when I am adapting a book to 200 words, a film? For my final film in music uni, I decided to adapt a novel, but seeing the finished product and essay 200 words, all the work put in a conclusion for an assignment it, I would like to consider to enter it in essay festivals, so what steps should I take in order to not face any legal problems down the road? Do I contact the author, get copyright report, etc?
Thank you! I#8217;m glad you liked the water resources article. Your question is a very broad one and essay 200 words, I would need to know more facts about this book. You would find my book (see below) helpful. But I can tell you that unless the book is in the public domain, you will definitely need to saterical essays, acquire the essay 200 words motion picture, television, and of mice killing, other customary allied and essay 200 words, ancillary rights to the book in music education in schools order to essay 200 words, exploit your film and get distribution. Otherwise, you have infringed the author#8217;s copyright. Of Mice And Men George Killing. It will also be necessary in essay 200 words order to get errors and saterical essays, omissions insurance for the film.
I would start with purchasing a copyright report to make sure the author is the current registered owner of the copyright and 200 words, has not transferred the necessary rights to any other parties. Then you will need to. negotiate with the author or his agent. For more info., you can contact me at. Mon nom est Nathalie Je suis de Frace #8230; Ma vie est de retour . Apres 2 ans de mariage brise, mon mari m#8217;a laisse avec deux enfants. Je. Statement. me sentais comme si ma vie etait sur le point de finir, je me suis. presque suicide, j#8217;ai ete emotionnellement bas pendant tres longtemps.
Merci a un lanceur de sorts appele Dr. EGBOR, qui m#8217;aide a ramener mon ex-mari. Essay 200 Words. Je n#8217;ai jamais croire un lanceur de sorts dans ma vie jusqu#8217;a ce que je decide de lui donner un essai hopfully il fonctionne. I nous publions toujours votre nom DR EGBOR. Tout cela grace a vous.
Veuillez adresser vos demandes a l#8217;adresse suivante: ([email protected]om) OU le numero de telephone VIA (+2349056460699) N#8217;oubliez pas de partager pour aider vos proches qui sont dans le besoin. Saterical Essays. PERSONNE PAS SERIEUSE A ABSTAIN. I#8217;m curious as to how an option agreement between an aspiring screenwriter and the author/copyright holder of an essay, unpublished autobiography would work. My plan is to adapt this autobiography into music education in schools, a screenplay. 200 Words. What are some things that I should look for in an on my classroom, option agreement? I don#8217;t recall if I responded to your comment earlier but, in essay 200 words any event, here#8217;s my response: For the water should essay most part, an essay, option agreement for an unpublished autobiography is the same as for other books. But there are 2 very important additional elements: If the author is still alive, and water should be nationalised essay, I assume he is, then in addition to 200 words, optioning the motion picture and of mice and men essay, television rights to 200 words, the book you will need to of mice and men essay george lennie, option the same package of rights in essay and to his life story which includes, but is not limited to, the thesis statement tester right to essay, depict him as a character in the film and to nitin madnani, use his name, likeness, and biography.
He also needs to 200 words, release you from any claims, liabilities, actions, and writing a conclusion, damages arising from your portrayal of him. Essay. The language for essay killing, these terms can be found in a good motion picture contract form book. Essay 200 Words. This can be combined in one overall contract and I suggest you try to have the music education paper Purchase Price for the film/TV, etc. rights in 200 words the life story deemed included in music education the Purchase Price for those rights in the book. Essay. Remember that since this is a true story, you will also need separate releases from any other living persons that will be depicted in the film. If you would like to discuss this further you may contact me at thesis statement tester, [email protected] 200 Words. HOPE IS A FUCKING LIE. I know this is an old article, but what the a conclusion assignment heck#8230; I#8217;ll post a question anyway. I have written two books. One is about a very bad neighbor and the other is more of 200 words a thriller type of thesis statement tester story that is 200 words, a little #8220;out there#8221;. Both are a tad on the dark side.
They#8217;re both self-published, I have all the rights, etc. Madnani. I would love to essay 200 words, work with someone who thinks they could do something with either of them. On the off chance someone sees my post and wants to contact me, please feel free. [email protected] THANKS! I have a book name #8220;Entryway Into Yesteryears#8221; about God and his brother Lord Christ. God#8217;s son is Adam, but Jesus is the saterical son of essay 200 words Lord Christ. Thesis Statement Tester. God sent his brother Lord to earth from Heaven for Lord sin toward God. Heaven is essay 200 words, a planet. Garden of Eden is a spaceship from Heaven. Act 1 2 Soliloquy Essay. Garden of Eden was not a garden on earth and that why no has location the 200 words Garden of music in schools research paper Eden. Adam and essay 200 words, Eve had 33 children, but 33 mean 3 male and 3 female in the time.
Tree of Knowledge was a computer that Eve touch. Scene 2 Soliloquy. God speak to me and told me to write a book for him. For all of you who like this article: remember that I am available to assist you in. negotiating, reviewing, and/or drafting your option agreements. I am pleased and essay, grateful to say that I already represent several producers, authors, and publishers who found me through this article. You may contact me at hamlet act 1 scene essay, [email protected],com or [email protected] The initial phone consultation is essay, free. Thanks for reading the act 1 scene 2 soliloquy article! Sorry for essay, misspelling. The first e-mail address is thesis, [email protected]
My brother is a writer who has written a screenplay based off of 200 words one of Joseph Heller#8217;s books. He#8217;s dead, but I#8217;m under the understanding that either Tim or Erica Heller or both owns the copyright. The company that originally published the essay on my classroom book went under and Simon and essay 200 words, Schuster acquired it. Essay. Erica#8217;s books are also published by essay 200 words SS. Now I guess my question would be, what would be the music research paper best way for essay 200 words, him to saterical, reach out to essay, her (or them) to see if they#8217;d be interested in thesis statement optioning his screenplay (already written)? Perhaps I should be asking other questions, but I imagine this is a good starting point, beyond what he#8217;s already done. Thanks. Essay 200 Words. He should check with Simon and Schuster to should, see who handles the essay 200 words motion picture rights for nitin, the Heller catalog. It#8217;s often an attorney or agent, but sometimes it#8217;s the 200 words rights management division of the publisher itself. They can confirm the copyright owner but he should also check the USCO records and registrations.
He must be careful to assure them that, since he does not own any motion picture rights in the book, he will not exploit or distribute the music education research paper screenplay without a signed agreement with the 200 words copyright owners and classroom, he has done this totally #8220;on spec#8221; for their exclusive review. 200 Words. I wrote a novel it was fairly popular but a movie producer read it and contacted me about making it into thesis, a movie. They wanted to know if I had a screenplay yet or a agent and it was no on 200 words, both. Is their a resource guide for contacting individuals in both areas?
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Dec 19, 2017 Essay 200 words,
How to Write a Cover Letter for Internships. Written by Laura Riley. Updated April 10, 2017. Laura Riley is a writer who specializes in career advice and 200 words, professional development. She has a Master’s degree in Student Affairs and Higher Education from Miami University. You’ve heard it before: “No one actually reads a cover letter.” “Cover letters are pointless.” There’s actually proof that writing an a conclusion for an, outstanding cover letter can get you an internship.
If you’re thinking, “Hmm I’m really not sold on this whole perfect cover letter thing.” Or maybe you’ve heard that college students don’t really need them. Hang tight. I’m going to explain exactly what a professional cover letter is, why you need one, and most importantly, I’ll outline a step-by-step process to help you write an outstanding cover letter. And the best part? This article includes multiple, full-length cover letter samples. These samples will help you write a solid cover letter from 200 words beginning to tester end. One that’s good enough to secure your dream internship.
Before we jump in, let’s take a look at essay 200 words, exactly what’s included in thesis statement tester this article : I’m sure this comes as no surprise: As a college student, you will likely apply for internships (if you haven’t already!) As you may know, students who have internship experience increase their chance of securing a full-time job offer upon graduation. 200 Words! Many interns actually accept offers before they even graduate. According to a study conducted by Vault, 73% of student interns said they received or expected to short essay receive a full-time offer from their internship employer . Internships and cooperative education programs (co-ops) give you an opportunity to essay gain experience in your desired career field prior to graduation. By gaining hands-on, specialized experience, you become more competitive in the job market. Internship experience is important.
To secure an internship, you need to submit a quality resumé, cover letter, and at times, additional application requirements. If you submit an 2 soliloquy, outstanding application, you’ll receive an invitation to interview. And if you hit your interview out of the park, you’ll receive an internship or job offer. This means that believing the myth that cover letters are irrelevant can be detrimental to your professional success. Your resumé and cover letter are the foundation of your success as a job applicant. Your cover letter basically exists to tell a company, “Hey, I really, really, really want this internship.” In a more professional way, of 200 words course. A professional cover letter is an important document to send in with your résumé when applying to a job. It provides additional information about nitin, why you are the best candidate for essay, the job. After the employer reads your cover letter, you want them to read your resumé, check out your LinkedIn profile, visit your online portfolio, or better yet, do all three.
On nearly every social media site, the first thing you do is create a profile, or at minimum, a username. Let’s take Instagram for example. When you land on hamlet essay, an Instagram profile for the very first time, you quickly scan the user’s bio and the photos at 200 words, the top of their feed. If you aren’t immediately engaged by hamlet act 1 scene what you see, you probably won’t come back. Follow for a follow? No thanks. The same thing happens in the job search.
Your cover letter acts as your Instagram bio. Your cover letter offers a first impression of who you are as a professional and what you’re all about. It’s your chance to grab a recruiter’s attention. This means your cover letter has to be good! While you unfortunately can’t use emojis to 200 words amplify your cover letter, you can still make your cover letter interesting to read. It’s your job to engage the hiring manager, recruiter, or search committee. In a sense, you want them to follow you.
You want them to double-tap your activity and leave comments like, “We would love to hire you!” If you’re thinking, “ But that’s not always the case. People don’t always read cover letters .” You’re right. There are definitely recruiters who don’t read cover letters. But for every recruiter who doesn’t read your cover letter, there’s a recruiter who bases their entire hiring decision on how good your cover letter is. I recently talked to a hiring manager who was shocked at the number of applicants who didn’t submit a cover letter along with their resumé.
She said, “I will NEVER hire an applicant who doesn’t submit a cover letter. Short Essay On My Classroom! It’s not that they’re unqualified, but I can’t put the experience on essay, their resumé into context.” Don’t make that mistake. Particularly if your previous work experience doesn’t say a lot about of mice george lennie, how you’ll be a great fit for the company that you’re applying to. If you truly want an internship, you need a cover letter.
Not spending time on your cover letterbecause you assume it’s not going to be readcan be incredibly costly. And not hearing back from a company after you submit your application gets old really quickly. So, what’s the essay, purpose of george killing lennie a cover letter anyway? The purpose of a cover letter is 3-fold: Introduce yourself to a prospective employer. Essay 200 Words! Communicate your interest in a specific position and company. Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate for the internship position. If done right, your cover letter will serve an short, actual purpose (beyond checking off an application requirement or turning in a class assignment). Essay! Your cover letter can get you an interview.
If you’re familiar with how to write a resumé, you know the purpose of resources a resumé is to communicate your achievements to a potential employer. Unlike a cover letter, a resumé never uses personal pronouns like “I” or “Me”. Instead of saying, “I created a social media campaign,” a resumé states, “Created social media campaign”. Because of this traditional formatting, it can be difficult for 200 words, internship applicants to express their personality. “I feel like my resumé makes me sound super boring.” Guess who’s here to save the day? The misunderstood cover letter. For some reason, cover letters don’t get the love they deserve.
But cover letters are actually pretty cool. They can help you tell your professional story. Let’s look at an example. Say your resumé includes the following entry: Volunteer, Community Food Pantry. Inspect and sort 100 pounds of food donations per week to ensure they meet quality and safety standards. While that’s a solid resumé bullet point, it doesn’t tell the entire story of why you chose to should be nationalised volunteer and what your experience with the food pantry taught you. Essay 200 Words! The bullet point doesn’t discuss how volunteering changed you as a person, or influenced your professional goals, and most importantly, it doesn’t discuss how volunteering will help you excel at your internship position. If we assume this volunteer experience is relevant to the internship you’re applying for, your cover letter provides a great opportunity to tester tell this story in more detail. Here’s a good example of what you could write in essay 200 words your cover letter: “Through my volunteer work with the Community Food Pantry, I discovered my passion for statement, nonprofit business.
Each week, I collaborate with ten other volunteers to sort food donations. I am dedicated to ending poverty and essay 200 words, hunger and a conclusion for an assignment, would be thrilled to intern with the Hunger Relief Organization.” Being able to tell your story is what makes a cover letter incredibly valuable. This can set you apart as an applicant and most importantly, help you secure your dream internship or job! Before I explain how to format your cover letter , let’s review the three primary goals : Introduce yourself to 200 words a prospective employer. Communicate your interest in a position and company. Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate for thesis tester, the position.
Let’s look at 200 words, each goal in more detail. Goal 1: Introduce yourself to a prospective employer. The first goal is george lennie pretty straightforward. In your cover letter, you need to formally introduce yourself to the hiring team. You can accomplish this in a single, well-crafted sentence.
Below are two good examples: Example 1: “As a sophomore majoring in social work at University of Southern California, I am passionate about supporting vulnerable individuals and essay 200 words, groups.” At a minimum, you should include your year in school (or when you plan to graduate), along with your degree, major, minor, or area of study. Goal 2: Communicate your interest in a position and company. A second requirement is to communicate your interest in the position and company. Short Essay! Always tailor your cover letter with the exact position title and the name of the 200 words, company you’re applying to. Here are two great examples: Example 1: “When I discovered the psychology internship with the hamlet act 1, Counseling Center on Internships.com, I was excited by the opportunity to gain exposure to the field of psychology alongside experienced psychologists and counselors.” After you introduce yourself and communicate your interest in the position and 200 words, company, there is one additional piece of information you must include.
Don’t miss this step: Goal 3: Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate. This is the most common mistake students make. You need to connect the dots for short essay on my classroom, an employer of essay 200 words how your journey and experiences make you the best candidate for the position. Don’t just say, “I’m the best candidate”. Prove it. Explain what makes you well-qualified.
Share the be nationalised essay, experiences and courses that have prepared you to be an effective, productive, outstanding professional with their company. Let’s look at an example. Say a company is seeking a graphic design intern. In the job description, the company outlines their minimum requirements: an intern who understands how to use Adobe Creative Suite, can effectively collaborate with a dynamic team, and understands basic design and essay 200 words, marketing principles. Here’s one way to demonstrate how you’re the nitin, right pick for the job:
My coursework, campus involvement, and professional experience make me a well-qualified applicant for this position. Coursework . I have completed courses in Graphic Design and Photoimaging. 200 Words! As a result, I am proficient in Adobe Creative Suite. Campus involvement. Act 1 Scene 2 Soliloquy Essay! For the past two years, I have been a member of the essay 200 words, Graphic Design Club. We collaborate to short essay on my classroom create websites and marketing materials for nonprofit organizations. Professional experience.
As an employee with the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Affairs, I design marketing materials for on-campus events including Greek Week, along with various philanthropic events. There you have it! Introduce yourself to a prospective employer, communicate your interest in 200 words a position and madnani, company, and most importantly, explain why you’re a well-qualified applicant. Now that you understand the core components to any cover letter, let’s explore what makes each type of cover letter unique. What types of cover letters are there? As a college student, you should know about three different types of cover letters: Internship Cover Letters Entry-Level Cover Letters Cover Letters for essay, jobs where you do not have any relevant experience. I’ll outline what makes each of these cover letters unique and explain exactly how to write a cover letter tailored to an internship and an entry-level position. Madnani! I’ll also show you how to solve the problem of not having “relevant” experience. What makes an internship cover letter unique? By definition, an internship is a position in an organization where a student or trainee can gain work experience.
While the organization does not expect you to come in essay 200 words with years of experience, they expect you to come ready to writing for an assignment learn. 200 Words! Though you’re undoubtedly contributing to short on my the organization as an 200 words, intern, internships provide an opportunity for you to act 1 scene learn while gaining hands-on experience in your desired field. So what’s the bottom line? An internship cover letter must explain what you want to learn and why you want to learn it. Tell the organization how their specific internship complements your academics.
Outline why you’re interested in joining the organization. Explain how the internship will help you develop as a professional and set you up for success upon essay 200 words graduation. But don’t forget, you also need to communicate mutual benefit. While you want to grow as a professional, you need to add value to their team too. So it’s important that you tell the company exactly what you can bring to their organization (in addition to what you want to water resources be nationalised essay learn).
Let’s look at a couple of examples: Example 1: “I am excited by the chance to essay 200 words contribute to ABC Company and am prepared to engage in continuous learning. I intentionally pursue professional development and value non-stop growth as described by the internship description.” Example 2: “Shadowing case managers and attending mental health meetings seems like an incredibly beneficial experience. I am excited by the chance to contribute to your organization and am prepared to engage in act 1 scene continuous learning.” Both examples not only essay, explain what the applicant is excited to learn, but also each applicant mentions how they’re excited to contribute to the organization. Explaining what you want to learn is an essential component to writing a cover letter for an internship or co-op experience. What makes an entry-level cover letter unique? If you’re in tester your last year of college, then this section is for you. You’re preparing to 200 words start a full-time job upon graduation. Congrats!
An entry-level cover letter differs slightly from an internship cover letter. While it’s still important to short essay on my communicate how the position aligns with your professional goals, you need to emphasize why you’re well-qualified for the position. At the beginning of 200 words this article, I outlined how to demonstrate your qualifications. Essay Classroom! You need to explain what experiences and courses have prepared you to be an effective, productive, outstanding professional with their company. Your cover letter should answer the 200 words, following questions: Why are you well-prepared for the position? What specific experiences prepared you for the position?
How has your academic coursework provided the knowledge to excel in this entry level role? Entry-level positions are undoubtedly competitive. You need to market yourself effectively and communicate your value to an employer. Convince them to water resources should hire you! How do I write a cover letter if I don’t have relevant experience? If you don’t have “relevant” experience, come on down off that ledge. I’ve heard it before: “I can’t get a job without experience, but I can’t get experience without a job.” Yes, you can.
Here’s how: Let’s say you want to apply for essay, a marketing internship. Below are the requirements of the internship as outlined by the job description: Sophomore or junior standing Pursuing a Bachelor’s degree in business, communications, advertising, or related field Strong teamwork, communication, and critical thinking skills. Familiarity with Adobe Creative Suite Experience with SPSS. Pretend you’re currently a sophomore at a large, public university. Nitin Madnani! Because classes fill up quickly, you haven’t taken any major-specific courses. This year you completed Business 101 and Management 105, but you have zero marketing experience. Beyond classes, you’re an active member of an on-campus organization called Women in Business, but in essay 200 words terms of work experience, you only have a part-time waitressing job on the weekends. You’re still qualified.
This is nitin madnani where transferrable skills come in. A transferable skill is a skill that is relevant regardless of the position you are applying for. You take these skills from essay job to job. Common examples of transferable skills include teamwork, organization, communication, time management, and leadership. Think back to the example above.
As a waitress, you collaborate with wait staff, provide customer service to restaurant patrons, and communicate effectively to ensure orders are submitted correctly. Are you thinking: “Okay, but how is that relevant to marketing?” The internship outlined above requires strong teamwork skills. You have those. Tester! It’s your job to demonstrate your ability to work in a team. Here’s an example of 200 words what you could write in your cover letter: “As a member of Women in Business, a 60-person student-run organization, I collaborate with my peers to plan leadership events and bring speakers to campus. In addition, as a waitress at Good Food Restaurant, I work with a 6-person team to ensure high-quality service and satisfied guests. Hamlet Act 1 2 Soliloquy! I enjoy collaborating with colleagues and would appreciate the opportunity to learn alongside your team of 200 words experienced marketing professionals.”
You have the assignment, skills. You just have to prove it. Even if you don’t have hours of specialized work experience in your field of study, you have more transferable skills than you realize. Give yourself some credit. At this point, we’ve already covered quite a bit. Essay 200 Words! You understand what a cover letter is, what purpose it serves, and why you need one as a college student. Madnani! You know three types of 200 words cover letters and what makes each type unique.
You also understand how to leverage transferable skills when you don’t have “relevant” experience. Let’s get to the actual writing. How should you format your cover letter? Whichever type of cover letter is tester most appropriate for youinternship, entry level, or no relevant experiencethe fundamentals remain the same. While you want to stand out and be creative, there are a few specifications you need to abide by. Essay! In this section I’ll discuss the thesis statement tester, following: length, margins, font size, font style, color, quantity of essay 200 words paragraphs, and bullet point usage. (We've gone into even more detail about the and men george killing lennie, different cover letter formats in essay 200 words our Cover Letter Format Guide for Internships article)
Length: As I’ve mentioned, a cover letter gives you a chance to tell your story. But slow down. You aren’t writing a novel. A cover letter should never be longer than one, single-spaced page. In terms of word count, your letter will typically be only 200-400 words. Margins : It’s best to use standard 1-inch margins, but you may use margins as small as .5 inches.
Whatever you choose, be sure the margin size is consistent on madnani thesis, all sides. Font : When choosing a font, make sure it’s easy to 200 words read. Some appropriate fonts include Arial, Calibri, Garamond, Georgia, Tahoma, or Times New Roman. Stay away from fancy curls and fonts that only belong on horror movie posters. As a way to brand yourself, you may choose a different font for your name in the header of your cover letter.
Other than this exception, be sure to use the same font throughout for water resources should be nationalised, consistency’s sake. Font Size: Use size 10- to essay 200 words 12-point font. This will ensure the font is thesis large enough to read, but small enough to 200 words create a professional and polished look. Color : Unless you’re a graphic design major or a creative professional, you’ll typically use black font. If you’re applying to a creative industry, a tasteful splash of a conclusion for an assignment color may be appropriate (recommendations are covered at the end of this article in more detail). Essay 200 Words! If you’re printing your cover letter to mail or use at a career fair, use black ink on white, cream, or ivory paper.
Left align each paragraph. There is no need to indent the first sentence of each paragraph. Instead “Return/Enter” between each paragraph. This will create a balance of text and whitespace, making your cover letter easier to read. Bullet Points: Some resumés use a lot of bullet points to outline someone’s accomplishments, but can bullet points be used on a cover letter? Sparingly.
Use bullet points to scene 2 soliloquy briefly summarize information where appropriate. For example, you may write something like this: My academic background, communication skills, and essay 200 words, leadership experience have prepared me well for this computer science internship. Academic background. I have completed courses in computer science, statistics, and systems programming resulting in a 3.9 Major GPA.
Communication skills. As the professional development chair of University of water should be nationalised essay Southern California’s Computer Science student organization, I develop and facilitate computer science presentations. Leadership experience. This year, my classmates elected me as the 200 words, sophomore representative for the college student government assembly. Bullet points can be an effective way to communicate multiple qualifications, while abiding by the one-page length requirement. Those are the basic style guidelines when it comes to creating a cover letter. Essay Lennie! Now let’s check out the key sections of a letter.
What are the essay 200 words, key sections of your cover letter? The following are essential cover letter sections: header, date, greeting, company address, and salutation. I’ll define each section and discuss exactly what to include. I’ll also share detailed examples of of mice essay killing what to write. Header : A cover letter header is the information at the top of your cover letter. It includes your name and contact information, the date you’re applying, and the company’s mailing address. In the header, it’s important to include your full name. If you’re in the process of changing your name, plan to change your name during the recruitment process, or recently changed your name, it may be appropriate to include your new name with your former name in parentheses. Essay! If your name is “Elizabeth” and you go by “Beth,” then it’s entirely acceptable to use Beth on your documents. If your legal name is “Wayne” and you prefer to short go by essay 200 words “Thomas,” then you may write it as “Thomas (Wayne) Johnson” to avoid any confusion. When it comes to contact information, you should include your email address and a phone number where the company can reach you with follow-up questions, or to schedule an interview.
You may also choose to include a URL link to of mice and men george killing lennie your LinkedIn profile or an online portfolio showcasing your work. Here’s the most important part: You must use a professional email address. Your school email address is a good option. If you prefer to use a personal email, make sure it’s professional. While you want to stand out, a creative email address like [email protected] or [email protected] isn’t the way to do it. Create a generic [email protected] account, or use the .edu email address provided by your university. Unprofessional email addresses get resumés rejected more than 75% of the time.
Date : After you include your name and contact information, you need to include the date you’re applying for the position. Right-align the date in the space below below your name and contact information. Company Address: While you probably won’t snail mail your cover letter, as a professional document, tradition tells us to include the company mailing address. Although you’re not typically submitting a hard copy of your resumé, after sending off your application, it’s in the possession of 200 words human resources. You don’t know if it will be printed, mailed, sent to another department for review, or any combination of these scenarios. Determine the hamlet act 1 essay, company name, mailing address, and department (if applicable). Left-align this information after the date. Greeting : The most appropriate option for 200 words, a greeting is ‘Dear’. Thesis Statement! It’s also advantageous to essay 200 words refer to the hiring manager by water be nationalised essay their name in your salutation. For example, “Dear Ms. Mary Johnson,”.
When writing the salutation, ensure the 200 words, name and title are correct. For example, a person with the thesis statement tester, name ‘Taylor’, may prefer the title Mr., Ms., Mrs., or none of the 200 words, above. Make sure you use the correct title before their surname. If you don’t know what to use, opt for their first and last name only. Salutation: Don’t use “To Whom It May Concern”, or “Dear Sir/Madam”.
Do your homework and figure out the “Whom” actually entails. If you’re lucky, a company will list a contact person near the bottom of the job description. Use this contact name in your cover letter. If the company does not specify who the hiring manager or recruiter is, still do not resort to, “To Whom It May Concern”. In this case, here’s what you should do: After thoroughly reviewing the 2 soliloquy, job description, work up the essay, courage to call human resources. HR is your friend, so there’s no need to be anxious. Here’s what you could say: “Hi, I’m preparing an application for short classroom, your open internship position #12345.
I’m wondering who the hiring manager is for this position.” Oftentimes, human resources will provide you with the information. Other times, they may say, “Just address it to HR.” In this case, I recommend using “Dear Hiring Manager and Search Committee” as your salutation. Now that we’ve covered the basic formatting rules and essay 200 words, the core sections of water resources should be nationalised a cover letter, let’s talk about an incredibly important rule for 200 words, every cover letter you write. Don’t forget this: You must tailor your cover letter to every single position and unique company you apply to. What does it mean to tailor a cover letter? Tailoring a cover letter is exactly what it sounds like. A tailor, or a person who alters clothing, adjusts clothing to fit unique, individual people. A shirt tailored for Person A will not fit Person B as well as it fits Person A. You should take the same approach when writing a cover letter. It’s kind of like giving a birthday gift.
While you could safely give any person a gift of cash, it can come off as impersonal (like you forgot it was even their birthday). A Conclusion For An Assignment! Why? Because it’s a generic gift. Just as you would avoid giving a generic gift to your best friend. You should avoid giving a generic cover letter to your dream employer. In short, you should never submit the exact same cover letter to more than one position or company.
Tailoring a cover letter requires additional effort on your behalf. 200 Words! You need to hamlet act 1 2 soliloquy essay conduct company research and understand the position inside and out. You’ll use this information to create a unique cover letter that is appropriate for a specific job and a unique company. If you’re thinking, “How would one company know if I send them the same exact cover letter I sent another company?” Truth be told, they probably won’t find out. But that’s not the point. If your cover letter is so generic that you can submit it to multiple positions at different companies, it’s not unique enough. The recruiter will immediately recognize your cover letter as a generic template, and 200 words, it will end up in the trash can.
Let’s go back to classroom the birthday gift analogy. When you purchase a birthday gift for your best friend, you most likely base your decision on a few things: What are they interested in? What do they enjoy? What do they need?
What do they want? You then use what you know about your friend to inform your decision of what to buy. It’s the essay 200 words, same when it comes to writing a cover letter. You must conduct company research to answer similar questions: What type of candidate is the company interested in? What does the company value and enjoy? What needs and pain points does the company need to solve?
What does the company want from you as an applicant? To be successful, you must integrate the thesis, answers to these questions into your cover letter. Essay! While some of the content in thesis statement each letter will undoubtedly overlap, do your best to create unique content for each position. While the essay 200 words, term ‘research’ can be intimidating, I have good news: You don’t have to writing be a scientist to do good research. To conduct company research, there are a few key resources:
Explore the essay, company website. Google the company to discover current events. Visit websites such as Glassdoor.com, where candidates, current employees, and former employees rate companies. Some examples of what you may research are the company mission, vision, or recent news. You’re looking for information that is relevant to the position and details that make you excited about the company. At this point, you understand what a cover letter is and what it means to tailor your cover letter. This cover letter template is essay not tailored to any specific company or position.
This is a bad, scratch that, TERRIBLE cover letter: To Whom It May Concern, I am writing to apply for an internship I recently found on your website. Essay! I believe I am the best candidate for this position based on my academic coursework and for an assignment, my relevant experience. I match exactly what you are looking for essay, in a candidate. As a college student, I understand how to use Microsoft Word and Excel. Resources Should! I am passionate, detail oriented, and essay 200 words, hard-working. I am really excited about the opportunity to join your company. Attached you will find my resumé which explains my experience in further detail.
Thank you for your time. I look forward to the possibility of interviewing. It may be more appropriate to short essay end that letter with, “I am sincerely boring,” but you get the point. In brief, this is what is wrong with the above example: X No header (i.e. applicant name, contact information, date, company address) X Generic and 200 words, outdated salutation (i.e. “To Whom It May Concern”) X Cliché and boring introduction. X No mention of the internship title. X No mention of the company name.
X No proof as to hamlet 2 soliloquy essay why the applicant is the “best candidate” X Applicant includes generic skills (i.e. Microsoft Office and 200 words, Excel) Don’t write a cover letter like this. You will put the recruiter to sleep.
Minneapolis, MN 12345. Fashion and Design. New York City, NY 56789. Dear Ms. Debra Glod, When I discovered the fashion internship with XYZ Company on nitin madnani thesis, Internships.com, I was excited by the opportunity to complement my coursework with experience in a fast-paced environment. As a junior majoring in Fashion Merchandising at University of Southern California, I am passionate about creating original concepts and executing designs. My leadership experience, design coursework, and essay, creative portfolio make me a well-qualified applicant for this position. Leadership experience. As the President of the thesis statement, on-campus student organization, Fashion and essay, Business, I produce an a conclusion for an assignment, annual fashion show with over 30 models and 250 attendees.
Design coursework. Essay! I have a 3.9 Major GPA after taking introduction to textiles, fashion sketching, computer-aided fashion design, and advanced apparel development. Creative portfolio. My portfolio includes original sketches and drawings created in Adobe Illustrator. It can be viewed by visiting [email protected] As described by the internship description, I am eager to grow into a bold and interactive designer. Writing Assignment! I believe your organization provides a rewarding opportunity to engage in continuous learning.
My enclosed resumé expands on my leadership experience and academic coursework. As I prepare for 200 words, a career in fashion, I am dedicated to understanding the field by collaborating with an experienced design and essay classroom, production team. Thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to essay hearing from you soon. In brief, this is nitin a great example because it includes the following: ? Name, contact information, date, and company address.
? Tailored salutation including the hiring manager’s first and last name. ? Unique introduction that communicates the applicant’s interest and passion in the position, company, and industry. ? Specific internship title “Fashion Internship” ? Company name, “XYZ Company” ? Use of the term “well-qualified applicant” vs. Essay 200 Words! “best candidate” ? Unique skills that are relevant to the position (i.e. leadership, design, and water resources be nationalised essay, creative work) ? Description of the applicant’s desire to grow as a professional. Use this as a model when crafting your letter. What to essay include in your actual cover letter? Now I’m going to walk you through a 4-step process for writing a cover letter. This process helps you narrow down your experience and determine what is most relevant to the position and company. You only have one page to communicate how you match exactly what the hamlet 2 soliloquy essay, employer is looking for in a candidate. Let’s use a 4-step process to 200 words accomplish this task.
Step 1: Highlight the thesis, job description. Step 2: Select three job responsibilities you want to focus on in your cover letter. Step 3: Identify three of essay 200 words your accomplishments that are relevant to those responsibilities. Step 4: Connect your accomplishments to the qualifications the employer seeks. I’ll take you through each step and describe exactly what to short essay do. This is an effective way to write a cover letter. Let’s jump in! Step 1: Highlight the essay 200 words, job description. You may be asking, “What’s the point of this?”. As you already know, the purpose of water should essay a cover letter is to essay 200 words get a potential employer to read your resumé.
You do this by demonstrating how you match exactly what they’re looking for. Well, what are they looking for? The answer to this question is in the job description. The purpose of this step is to water resources should determine the most important requirements. To highlight the job description, either print a hard copy and grab an actual highlighter, or copy and paste the contents of the 200 words, job description into your favorite word processing program. You should make note of the resources essay, following: Core responsibilities Required qualifications Preferred qualifications Keywords Patterns and themes. A job description will typically label the core responsibilities, required qualifications, and essay 200 words, preferred qualifications. Those should be easy to thesis tester determine.
That being said, there won’t be a section labeled “Keywords” or “Themes.” This is where you have to do a little work. It’s your job to read through the job description and determine what is essay most important to the employer. Short Essay Classroom! Ask yourself the following questions: What words are repeated throughout the 200 words, job description? What responsibilities are emphasized in the job description?
Let’s look at the following example of a job description for a marketing internship. Writing A Conclusion For An Assignment! The example outlines responsibilities, minimum qualifications, and essay 200 words, preferred characteristics. Carefully read through each section. Marketing Internship Job Description. Conduct social media marketing campaigns Collect quantitative and qualitative data Perform market analysis and of mice killing lennie, research on competitors Collaborate with co-interns and marketing team to 200 words analyze data Support marketing team in daily administrative tasks Present findings to resources should marketing team.
Sophomore or junior standing Pursuing a bachelor’s degree Interested in essay 200 words marketing and/or business-related career Effective writing and verbal communication skills. Pursuing a degree in marketing, business, graphic design, communications, or a related area of nitin madnani thesis study. When you review this job description, a few things should be obvious. You know the essay 200 words, employer is looking for a conclusion assignment, an intern who is essay interested in social media marketing and data analysis. Hamlet Act 1 Essay! After further review, you can also make an additional conclusion: Conclusion : The company seeks an intern who is an effective communicator.
Clues : The job description not only 200 words, requires someone with “effective writing and verbal communication skills”, but the intern must also be able to collaborate with colleagues and present findings to the marketing team. Both of these responsibilities require a heightened level of communication. That’s a pattern or theme. After reviewing the job description in detail, you observe a common thread, pattern, or theme regarding one skill across multiple bullet points. Nitin Madnani Thesis! Use this knowledge to your advantage. 200 Words! Dedicate several sentences in your cover letter to proving how you’re an effective communicator. For example, you may write: “After reviewing the short essay on my classroom, job description, it is clear that XYZ Company values effective communication. If hired as the essay 200 words, Marketing Intern, I would leverage my experience in Toastmasters International, a non-profit organization dedicated to helping members develop public speaking and leadership skills.
I have a proven ability to writing a conclusion for an assignment communicate messages effectively and would apply this ability as a Marketing Intern.” Let’s say you highlight the job description and 200 words, determine there are ten core responsibilities and qualifications the employer wants. Do you write about all ten? Probably not. If you remember correctly, a cover letter can only be one page long.
You cannot adequately cover ten different requirements in resources should a single page. So how do you determine which skills to focus on? This is 200 words where step two comes in. Step 2: Select which job responsibilities you want to resources focus on. After you review the essay 200 words, job description in detail and highlight the most important parts, you need to choose which of the many responsibilities you want to focus on in your cover letter. A Conclusion For An Assignment! Unless the job description is very shortand the company only essay 200 words, highlights three requirementsit’s unlikely you will be able to 2 soliloquy essay discuss every single requirement in your cover letter. Here’s what you do: Determine what the company values the most . What does the company emphasize in the job description? Take into consideration your own experience and qualifications.
If the essay 200 words, job requires communication, teamwork, accounting, and customer service, and you’re not confident in your accounting skills, then you don’t need to focus on madnani thesis, that requirement in your cover letter. At the same time, if accounting skills are listed as a minimum required qualification, then you’re not qualified for the internship. Take time to narrow down not only 200 words, what is thesis tester most important from the company’s perspective, but also what you are most qualified for. To simplify the writing process, I recommend choosing three job responsibilities to focus on. Once you do this, you’re ready for step three. Step 3: Identify specific accomplishments that are relevant to those responsibilities. After you’ve identified three job responsibilitiesas outlined in essay 200 words the job descriptionyou now need to identify specific accomplishments that are relevant to those responsibilities. You should only highlight the most relevant accomplishments.
Not necessarily the most exciting achievement, but instead, the accomplishments and activities that are closely related to what you would actually be doing with the 2 soliloquy essay, company. After choosing three requirements and three accomplishments, you’re ready for step four. Step 4: Connect your accomplishments to 200 words the qualifications they seek. In a sense, you need to put together the pieces of the puzzle. You need to short on my demonstrate how your skills and accomplishments match what the company is looking for.
You have three responsibilities and three accomplishments. Connect the dots. We’ll look at additional examples of how to do this in the next section. How do I write the introduction, body, and closing? As with any good story, the cover letter has a beginning, middle, and end. I will refer to these as the 200 words, introduction, body, and closing. Nitin Madnani Thesis! Let’s look at essay 200 words, each section in and men killing further detail. I’ll describe how to write each section and show you real samples of what you could write. Th intrduction two a covr leter is essay 200 words crushal.
If you want your cover letter to end up in the trash in record-breaking time, make an ugly spelling error in your first sentence. Hiring managers quickly disqualify candidates from consideration because of spelling errors. The core components of your introduction include the following: 1) Briefly introduce why you’re writing. 2) Give a short overview of who you are. 3) Tailor the introduction to the company and position. If you want to immediately bore a recruiter, open your letter with, “I am writing to apply for”. As one of the most common introductions, that’s not an be nationalised essay, effective way to 200 words stand out from the other applicants. Even if you spend significant time tailoring the rest of your cover letter, a recruiter may assume you submitted a template because the phrase is short on my classroom so overused. It’s cookie cutter and unfortunately, we’re not making cookies.
Avoid this phrase and replace it with something more creative. Begin your cover letter with a sentence that communicates your personality, while still remaining professional. You can accomplish this by starting with a personal anecdote. For example, you could write: “When I was a teaching assistant at my local middle school, I discovered my passion for working with kids. I am committed to” Don’t feel confined by what is 200 words considered standard or traditional. As long as your content is 2 soliloquy essay professional, you can be a little creative. This is your opportunity to infuse your personality.
Think of essay 200 words it this way: If you were reading a cover letter, what would engage you? As you explore samples, make note of the tester, cover letters that seem boring and those that inspire you to keep reading. After you engage the reader, it is important to demonstrate two things: You did your research. You tailored the letter to the specific company and essay, position. Here are a few great examples: “When I discovered the short, environmental science internship on 200 words, Internships.com, I was immediately excited by assignment the opportunity to 200 words join a sustainable organization like XYZ Company.”
This opening sentence indicates your interest, why you’re writing, and demonstrates that you researched the thesis statement, company. By including the single word “sustainable,” the company will know that you did your research, provided they’re truly a sustainable company. It may be tempting to say, “I believe I am the best candidate for the position.” This is an empty claim. Instead, use the remainder of the letter to essay 200 words prove that you are well-qualified for the position.
Those are the thesis tester, building blocks of a quality introduction. One succinct, yet engaging paragraph where you do the following: State why you are writing. Provide a brief overview of who you are. Essay 200 Words! Tailor to company and position. Give a brief overview of what you’re about to discuss in of mice and men lennie the body. If done well, the essay 200 words, introduction will invite the recruiter to continue reading. Let’s talk about statement, what you include in the body. How do I write the body of essay 200 words a cover letter? After you grab the recruiter’s attention with an water resources should be nationalised essay, engaging introduction, it’s time to craft a compelling body. The purpose of the essay 200 words, body is to prove your qualifications to the reader.
It’s important to be specific about your qualifications and clearly describe how they relate to the position. This is a conclusion where you need to match the requirements outlined in the job description with your most relevant skills and qualifications. Let’s look at two different examples. Here’s an example using bullet points: My academic coursework, communication skills, and leadership experience have prepared me well for this position. Academic coursework. I have completed courses in essay business communications, marketing, and of mice and men essay george lennie, strategic human resource management, resulting in a 3.8 GPA. Communication skills.
As the professional development chair of essay 200 words University of Southern California’s SHRM Chapter, I develop and of mice and men essay george killing lennie, facilitate presentations on behalf of the organization. Leadership experience. This year, my classmates elected me as the junior representative for the college student government assembly. I am excited by the chance to essay 200 words contribute to your organization and am prepared to engage in essay killing lennie continuous learning. I intentionally pursue professional development and value non-stop growth as described by the internship description. Here’s a traditional example (without bullet points): As outlined in the job description, it is clear you seek an intern who is 200 words familiar with human resources.
Over the past two years, I have completed courses in writing for an business communications, marketing, and strategic human resource management, resulting in a 3.8 Major GPA. I would leverage this understanding to advance the Human Resources division with your company. Additionally, as the professional development chair of University of Southern California’s SHRM Chapter, I develop and facilitate presentations on essay, behalf of the organization. On My! I have a proven ability to communicate effectively in writing and in person. I am well prepared to present information on behalf of human resources and would enjoy learning alongside your skilled team of essay representatives. I am excited by the chance to contribute to your organization and am prepared to engage in continuous learning. The most important part of the body is demonstrating how you match the requirements outlined in the job description . If you can do that, you will set yourself up for success. How do I write the conclusion of a cover letter? Finally, like any good letter or story, you need a well-crafted conclusion. Hamlet Scene! In the closing section, you should do a few things: Summarize why you are qualified for the position.
Express your appreciation for their time and consideration. Here’s a solid example of how to wrap up a cover letter: My enclosed resumé expands on my academic coursework, communication skills, and leadership experience. As I prepare for essay, a career in human resources, I am eager to gain a more detailed understanding of the field. Thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to hearing from you soon. That’s it. An introduction, body, and conclusion tailored to the company and position. Prove that you can do the job and resources should be nationalised essay, you’re incredibly excited by the opportunity.
We’ve covered a lot so far. By this point, you understand what a cover letter is, the purpose, why you need one, and essay 200 words, a step-by-step process for writing an outstanding letter tailored to a unique position and company. Now let’s check out the top 10 tips for crafting your cover letter. Top 10 cover letter tips and classroom, hacks. Be a person.
If you think back to earlier in this article, you’ll remember a common resumé concern is: “I feel like my resumé makes me super boring.” The same can happen with your cover letter. I highly recommend infusing your personality. In addition to highlighting your skills and campus involvement, your cover letter should express your individual personality. Essay 200 Words! You’re a human after all. Make sure your cover letter expresses who you are.
Address the right person. I shared tips for finding the correct person to address your cover letter to. Make sure you not only find the essay george, correct person, but adjust the salutation for each letter you write. Essay! It can be an awful mistake to tailor your entire cover letter and forget to short essay look up the essay 200 words, correct contact person. Worse yet, you leave the contact person from the last company you applied to on your letter to essay a new company.
Make sure you address the 200 words, correct person and resources be nationalised essay, spell their name correctly. Engage the reader at essay 200 words, the beginning. Just like a good book, the first sentence of your cover letter needs to draw the reader in. Essay! Avoid cliché phrases like, “I am writing to essay apply for your internship.” Or, “I’m writing in response to your recently advertised position.” Instead, write something unique, yet professional. Share your passion.
If you have a connection with the thesis statement, company, don’t be afraid to essay name drop. Name dropping is when you include the hamlet act 1 scene 2 soliloquy, name of a friend, family member, or acquaintance who is connected to the company. If done correctly, this may improve your credibility and essay 200 words, your chances of securing the internship or full-time position. For example, you may write: “After speaking with the current principal, Kathy Johnson, at madnani thesis, your meet-and-greet event, I am incredibly excited to 200 words apply for the summer school teaching position with Unicorn Unified School District.” Name dropping can showcase your professional network, while signifying an extra level of effort. Focus on the most relevant examples. Do not include a comprehensive list of your college involvement.
Your cover letter should not look like you turned the contents of your resumé into complete sentences and paragraphs. Instead, choose a few relevant examples and tell a story. Be specific. Don’t write, “I conducted in-depth marketing research”. Instead write, “I used SPSS to analyze survey data.” Using generic claims and buzzwords does not add value to madnani your cover letter. Essay 200 Words! Tell the hiring manager exactly what you did and should be nationalised essay, why it matters to their company. Showcase the results of essay 200 words your work. Let’s extend the previous example, “I used SPSS to analyze survey data.” Why did you do that?
What was the result of your work? And most importantly, why does it matter to the employer? To strengthen that sentence, you could write, “I used SPSS to analyze survey data and better understand the target audience. Classroom! This experience will be incredibly beneficial as a Marketing Intern with ABC Company. Include key ideas as outlined in essay the job description.
Earlier in the article, I told you how to hamlet scene essay determine keywords and patterns by essay reviewing the job description. Here’s a trick for finding keywords. Use the nitin thesis, ‘Find’ function. The ‘Findrsquo function is a keyboard function where you press and hold Control+F (Windows), or Command+F (Mac). After you release the buttons, a search box will appear on your screen. Type in likely keywords such as “communication” or ldquo;communicate”. Your computer will highlight every appearance of this word. Determining where the word is essay used will help you tailor your cover letter.
Keep it brief. No cover letter should be longer than one page. By focusing on the most relevant skills and not reiterating your entire resumé, you’ll be well on your way to for an assignment writing a succinct cover letter. At the same time, you need to find a happy medium. Your letter should not be several sentences. Create 3-5 well-written, concise, yet detailed paragraphs.
Follow the essay, employer’s instructions. The employer’s instructions outweigh any recommendation you find online (or in should be nationalised this article). Essay! If the nitin, employer asks you to essay answer a specific question, or share your availability in the cover letter, follow their instructions. There are a few exceptions to this rule. It is against the law for an employer to ask you for short on my, the following information: What country are you from? Is English your first language?
Do you drink socially? Are you married? Have you ever been arrested? What religious holidays do you observe? Do you have children? If an essay, employer requests this information (or any other information you feel uncomfortable sharing), you do not need to include that information in act 1 essay your application. Essay 200 Words! It may be a red flag and you probably do not want to work for writing a conclusion, that company. Those are the top 10 cover letter tips and tricks! Be sure to 200 words check out our seperate article regarding cover letter tips and tricks. Next let’s check out some common cover letter pitfalls and how to avoid them.
Top 10 cover letter mistakes to avoid. Typos. I can’t say this too many times. Ensure that your cover letter is free of typos. Review the letter yourself, read the letter out short essay on my loud, and have a friend check it over. You will kill your chances of 200 words being interviewed if you make one too many mistakes. Focusing too much on yourself. A cover letter is your chance to explain why you’re qualified and passionate about the job opportunity, but it is not ALL about resources be nationalised essay, you. The key to a great cover letter is explaining how you can solve a problem for the employer.
You need to explain why you’re interested in essay 200 words the company. For An! Be careful not to focus on yourself too much. Not tailoring your letter to essay 200 words the company or position. Generic phrases such as “Dear employer” or “I would love to should essay work for your company” can create an altogether weak cover letter. Take my advice and tailor your cover letter to the specific position and company.
Dissect the 200 words, job description and conduct company research. You will quickly stand out as a quality applicant if you can prove your interest in the position and organization. Including taboo topics. Sometimes it can be difficult to know what’s allowable and what is taboo. While you want to add personality to and men essay your cover letter, you must avoid writing about essay, things that are uncomfortable or irrelevant to assignment the position. Do not include information that is considered protected class such as your religion or race. Unless these are integral to the positionfor example, you’re applying to essay 200 words be a choir director at a churchthese are unnecessary additions. Being cliché. I get it. It can be tempting to Google, “cover letter sample” and use a ready-made template found on essay lennie, the internet.
While this may seem like the easy option, it will hurt your chances of securing an essay, internship or full-time job. Recruiters review resumés every day. They can immediately spot a template cover letter. If you found the cover letter example online, so can they. Take time to write a unique cover letter that expresses your personality and communicates your qualifications. Rewriting your resumé. A cover letter is not a resumé. It serves an entirely different purpose. Don’t waste cover letter space by a conclusion for an assignment simply reiterating what is on your resumé. Include a story, integrate your personality, talk about the company, and discuss your passion. Over-explaining.
Don’t be a rambler. 200 Words! Take time to cut out unnecessary words and phrases. Resources Essay! Refrain from repeating the same skill multiple times with different examples. If you want to discuss how you’re an excellent public speaker, share one example. Remember, you submit a cover letter and resumé in hopes of securing an interview.
If you receive an invitation to interview, you’ll have the opportunity to describe your experiences in further detail. Being too pushy. If you search the web for 200 words, cover letter samples, you’ll inevitably come across samples that say something like, I will call your office in a week to schedule an interview. While you want to present yourself as an assertive and confident professional, that approach is typically too pushy and can hurt your chances of getting an statement tester, interview. An alternative is to say, I welcome the opportunity to speak with you about how I can contribute.
Or “I look forward to hearing from 200 words you soon.” You can communicate your sincere interest without being pushy. Starting with your name. While your name is an madnani thesis, important piece of information to include on your cover letter, opening a letter with “My name is Casey Smith” takes away prime real estate. 200 Words! Instead, start with a relevant skill or qualification to thesis grab their attention. Essay! Unless you’re a celebrity and water resources should be nationalised essay, everybody knows your name, it’s not the essay 200 words, best option. Sharing irrelevant information. I get it!
You care about ALL the experiences you have gained. This attachment can make it incredibly difficult to let things go. But letting go of irrelevant information is key to water resources should essay writing an outstanding cover letter. Yes, it’s awesome that you volunteer with ten different organizations, but not all ten volunteer experiences are relevant to every internship or job you apply for. Essay 200 Words! You need to narrow down your accomplishments and delete what is irrelevant. This will not only cut down on the fluff, it will highlight what’s truly important. There you have it. Essential tips and mistakes to avoid.
Before we wrap up, I want to discuss two nontraditional cover letters and share a helpful sample. What do nontraditional cover letters look like? By now, you understand how to make your cover letter unique and why it’s important to infuse your personality. There are a few industries and positions that call for an extra level of essay killing creativity and design. If you’re pursuing a creative degree, this is for you. Graphic Design Cover Letter . If you’re a graphic design major, or another creative type, it’s advantageous to 200 words reflect this in your cover letter.
But don’t forget the basics. Before you attack the design, ensure the spelling, grammar, and sentence structure is writing a conclusion for an assignment solid. Then, take a few liberties with your design. Adjust the layout, choose the perfect typography, and add a splash of color. 200 Words! While you don’t want to go overboard, you should use your letter as an opportunity to demonstrate your skills. As a creative major, you should also include a link to writing assignment your online portfolio. 200 Words! The hiring team will review your portfolio for design basicsfrom color choice to typography, white space usage to contrast. Essay Killing! While this is an awesome opportunity to showcase your work, it requires a heightened attention to detail. Check for essay 200 words, spelling and grammar throughout.
Video Cover Letter. A video cover letter can be a unique way to of mice and men killing showcase your skills. Some IT companies and tech-based startups are opting for video cover letters in place of traditional letters. Just like a traditional letter, you want the content to engage the viewer and encourage them to check out 200 words your resumé and portfolio. You’re essentially creating a movie trailer. Where a traditional cover letter is nitin bound to one page, a video cover letter rarely exceeds 60 seconds in length. Brevity is still important. Keep in mind the purpose of a cover letter and craft your content around these three primary goals: Introduce yourself to a prospective employer. Communicate your interest in a position and essay, company.
Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate for thesis statement, the position. What’s key here is that your personality and energy come through. Unless you’re camera-shy, there’s no need to write an essay, entire script. Choose a few bullet points to focus on and discuss your qualifications. Short Essay On My Classroom! You want to come across as genuine as you can, without trying too hard! 456 Business Road.
Phoenix, AZ 85001. Ms. Nichole Favret. 123 Business Street. Phoenix, AZ 85001. Dear Ms. Nichole Favret, When I discovered the accounting internship with XYZ Company on Internships.com, I was excited by essay 200 words the opportunity to short essay on my classroom complement my coursework with practical experience. 200 Words! As a junior majoring in Accounting at University of Southern California, I am enjoy compiling reports and completing audits. My academic background, communication skills, and 2 soliloquy essay, leadership experience have prepared me well for 200 words, this position. Academic coursework . I have completed courses in intermediate accounting, cost accounting, business law, and individual income tax, resulting in act 1 2 soliloquy a 3.9 Major GPA.
Communication skills . As the professional development chair of University of Southern California’s Accounting Club, I develop and facilitate presentations on behalf of the organization. Leadership experience . Essay 200 Words! As a chapter leader of of mice and men george killing Delta Sigma Pi, a business fraternity on campus, I recruit new members and essay, discuss the value of the organization. I am excited by the chance to contribute to your organization and am prepared to engage in continuous learning. Nitin Thesis! I intentionally pursue professional development and value non-stop growth as described by the internship description. My enclosed resumé expands on my academic coursework, communication skills, and essay 200 words, leadership experience. As I prepare for an accounting career, I am eager to of mice and men essay gain a more detailed understanding of the field. Thank you for your time and consideration.
I look forward to hearing from essay 200 words you soon. That’s what a solid cover letter looks like from beginning to tester end. Check out more professional cover letter examples here. People read cover letters. As you now know, an outstanding cover letter can get you an internship.
You have every tool, example, and piece of advice necessary to write a superior cover letter. You understand exactly what a cover letter is, why you need one, and 200 words, most importantly, you have a step-by-step process to help you write an outstanding cover letter. Whether you’re applying for a summer internship, or submitting your first application to a full-time position, you’re well prepared. Congratulations on getting this far. Set aside time to write an tester, outstanding letter.
It will be easier than you think and more rewarding than you imagine.
Write my essay for me with Professional Academic Writers - How to write a 200-word short essay |… - University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
Dec 19, 2017 Essay 200 words,
Essays on 200 words, Management: Self-management. “Dreams come true if you want them to, and if you want them to it is up to you.” The lightning tree. Self-management can underpin a high degree of self-realisation and writing a conclusion assignment self-determination in a job. 200 Words. It requires the ability to manage oneself in relation to short, others and the wider organisational context, and when this is mastered one has high autonomy. The combination of autonomy, competence and relatedness delivers a high degree of self-determination.
This in turn enables you to move from survival to higher forms of self-realisation. Income and its net worth concomitant is therefore a priority threshold which, once achieved, allows you to focus on working for daily meaning not just daily bread. Self-management in essay, a job involves skills and behaviours contributing to both individual and organisational objectives. Self-management is not asocial autonomy and a license to do what you like. Rather it involves autonomy grounded in competence, in contribution to a conclusion for an assignment, others, and in professionalism. Professionalism involves relatedness to others. It is behaviour that cannot be captured in essay 200 words, formal rules but which contributes to organisational purposes. It is unprofessional for example to make someone look foolish in front of an external audience, even though there may be no formal rules against it. Professionalism depends on hamlet 2 soliloquy, the tacit mandates people give each other.
The most important self-management ability is good manners, and more broadly the ability to work with others. Work is an essay 200 words, inherently social phenomenon. Writing A Conclusion. Almost no-one works alone effectively. If you can’t collaborate and 200 words work with people and get the best from them then you will fail – and no amount of mathematical qualifications, rote learning or computer skills will help you. You will meet lots of thesis, rude and obnoxious people in essay 200 words, your life – always treat them better than they treat you. Always recognise you are part of a team and this should be reflected in “we” language not “I” Ianguage. It is possible to play a team game in a conclusion assignment, ways psychologically equivalent to essay, working for yourself. Important elements in self-management are self-analysis, and deciding what you want to do in your life.
Self-analysis is hard to do but repays the effort. It involves systematic questions that answered create value through behavioural change. What are my strengths? What are my values? What am I interested in? What am I good at? Am I an orchid who thrives best in a specialised hothouse environment, or a dandelion that survives in many different environments? What is my contribution, and what part of it is unique or at water resources essay least unusual?
Self-awareness means knowing when you are stressed or exposed to health risks, knowing when to bend rather than break. It can also mean turning stress to your advantage. Moments of depression can force you to reflect on things, and to change. Sometimes it helps to essay, write down all the good things you have done and all the things you do well. You might also ask yourself what your weaknesses are. There are some minimum threshold competencies needed in the workplace, such as literacy, numeracy and foundational computer skills. If you lack these, you must develop them. However you should not try to be good at everything or spend too much time addressing your minor weaknesses. Instead you should primarily focus on your strengths and abilities and therefore nullify your weaknesses.
Ability is a duty as well as a property right. It is developed rather than gifted. If you are making your talents and abilities productive you are doing your duty to society and yourself, and a side effect of this is you will be successful in your chosen field, including creating property rights in it. You should decide what kind of life you want and then choose a job that will support this. What life you want to hamlet act 1 essay, lead is 200 words more important than what job you want to do, for the latter is a subset of the former. You should cast around for and men essay killing lennie a job as if all you’d done previously was prepare for that job. Go for what you want to 200 words, do rather than keep lots of and men george killing, options open. It is best to be a master of one trade than a jack of all, however you need to have the cross-cutting skills to 200 words, adapt to change.
You need to decide what kind of work environment will best develop you. Writing A Conclusion Assignment. The mysteries of the trade you have chosen are in essay, the air so you need to breathe the right air. Having decided on the work environment in which you are likely to flourish, for any specific job it is important to madnani, ask, is it socially useful, will I be interested, and can I succeed in this job? It is important to check out who your manager will be before accepting a job. That person needs to be on the interviewing panel, and it is risky to take a job without having pinned down who you will report to. Organisations should provide to 200 words, candidates detailed resumes of resources should essay, managers when recruiting new staff so people can know who they are reporting to. This would avoid unpleasant surprises when people end up badly matched. You should report to essay, only one manager as multiple reporting lines often lead to ambiguity, conflict, and your work being misinterpreted or undervalued. Once you are in a new job, how should you approach it?
You must firstly direct your efforts to the organisational purpose. Statement Tester. Ask what the job requires, don’t just keep doing what got you the job in the first place. Essay. You must then focus on this and not be distracted. Any worthwhile job requires your utmost attention. A mental discipline is to short essay, focus entirely on your current job as if it is the only one you will ever do. Treating a job as a stepping stone elsewhere means concentration will waver and essay much learning will be ephemeral rather than deeply embedded. Self-regulation is central to hamlet 2 soliloquy essay, work performance and it requires sustained focus. Focus means concentrating on some things and dropping others. Essay 200 Words. It can mean delegation. John D. Rockerfeller’s delegation philosophy was “…nobody does anything if he can get anybody else to do it.”
You must be self-aware in your new job and continuously learning. It is important to search for the enduring learning from an event or a job. Resources Should. In a new job you must share your learning selflessly, rather than treat it as a competitive advantage. If you know you can succeed in a job you will be filled with well-grounded self-confidence. A combination of essay, fear, self-awareness and seeing things from a fresh perspective can underpin self-belief and confidence. You should welcome moments of of mice and men lennie, fear or inadequacy because this can be motivating and helps you focus. Essay. When you then start to perform well in the job you can forget about fear because it has done its job in focusing your mind and making you productive. In the early stages of a job it is important to essay on my, define the essay 200 words, desired external results and writing for an assignment the outputs to deliver, and also to recognise that management focus may depart from that.
It can mean keeping two narratives in your head at the same time. One is the 200 words, ideal of what you think you are working for thesis and should try to essay 200 words, achieve. The other is the one you may need to follow to survive. In the short term the two should influence each other, in the medium term they should be brought into harmony, and over the longer haul the first should prevail. Working in any job requires conformance to what others expect. If you own your own business you must still conform to what your customers want. This does not mean you cannot be yourself, however it does means you have to fit within the rules and build up credibility to earn the right to suggest how rules might change. Over time, and as you carve out a unique contribution within an organisation, it is writing a conclusion possible to play the team game in ways as satisfying as working for yourself. Once established in a job you can start to observe whether it is a good place to work in the longer term. This can involve a series of 200 words, questions you can ask yourself. Are you respected as a person?
Are you given the tools to do the job? Do people notice what you are achieving? Is the organisation interested in the wider skills and knowledge you may have? Have you been asked what you have done in the past, what hobbies you have, what languages you speak, and has the organisation attempted to harness these in the job where it can? An important part of self-management is management upwards. This is challenging when managers, politicians, board members and top academics lack self-awareness or any sense of humility. Of Mice Killing. “Great man syndrome” occurs when someone achieves pre-eminently in one field and then decides he is an expert in other (and sometimes in all) fields. Essay. Knut Hamsun won a Nobel prize in literature before deciding he was a great philosopher and political scientist, leading to him writing an obituary for Adolf Hitler described him as a “warrior for mankind”. People of true excellence in george lennie, any field seldom find a need to talk about it. Essay 200 Words. When faced with self-puffery in essay, others an important skill is to essay 200 words, feign subservience or awe (while still enjoying a private laugh to yourself).
Managing your manager is critical to his or her own as well as your performance. The key priority must be to make the boss effective. This means ensuring managers look good in the eyes of their own manager. It is important to establish how managers learn and what troubles them. Never underrate your manager and short classroom never tell her what she may want to hear. Essay 200 Words. It is important to and men essay killing lennie, tell the essay 200 words, truth, even though it may be uncomfortable. Writing A Conclusion For An. Be prepared to ask lots of questions, be a sounding board, challenge any complacent thinking, and once a decision is made it needs to be supported. You will very likely have differences with your manager, however never bad mouth your manager, team or organisation. Your manager will feel as vulnerable as you and will sometimes get things wrong. Always support your organisation and essay the purposes it is working for. If you feel your organisation is dysfunctional or working for the wrong purposes, try and reform it within.
If that’s not possible, leave rather than get bitter and cynical. Nitin Thesis. This calls for essay a balancing act where you should both give yourself to hamlet scene essay, your job and also be prepared to leave, in the sense of having the essay, capabilities to move elsewhere if need be. It is important to remain visible. Sometimes the least effective people have high busyness and visibility yet their contribution to external results may be negligible. Some key workers perceived as plodders may be most effective, however their invisibility is risky for them. No matter how important your work is, what is invisible will not be valued. You are only as good as your last game, and this must have be seen. Once you have made some progress in a new job it is important to seek feedback on of mice and men george killing lennie, performance. In the old Mafioso expression, “keep your friends close to you and your enemies even closer.” If you need to nominate people for 360 degree feed-back choose those you consider actual or potential enemies. This means you discover where your vulnerabilities might be, as perceived by others.
You will commonly find your “enemies” may not be so hostile after all, and may teach you some positive things about yourself. You might even describe them as “friendenemies” – friends and enemies. Once you are well established in a job you must think carefully about how it relates to your identity. Never conflate your work and your personal identity. People have multiple identities and essay 200 words shift between them, adopting the identity that is most relevant to short on my, a specific context. People’s multiple identities mean they have overlapping interests with others, who in turn have different identities in other dimensions. Specific salient identities may be irrelevant in markets.
Hindus and Muslims have a different world view, yet they still buy the 200 words, same smartphones. Water. It is essay 200 words important to writing assignment, choose which identity should dominate your self-management and others’ perception of you in different contexts. In the workplace it is your work identity that must be salient and other identities need to be in essay, the background. Don’t treat your job as an extension of your family or your social life. You should not try and be the life of the party when at work, nor should you be work-obsessed when partying or on holiday. A private organisation may often be a product of the hamlet 2 soliloquy essay, conflation of an essay 200 words, individual or family’s identity with the writing for an, organisation. Angus Tait created Tait Communications as an act of existential purpose and it outlives him. If you are an entrepreneur or run your own business you may choose to conflate your identity or self-esteem with a job. Essay. Your performance commitment might be enhanced by this. For An Assignment. However your ability to deliver on those commitments may be reduced since you will not be able to see from 200 words, outside your business, nor will you have much ability to radically change how you perceive and therefore manage your business. Some who conflate their job or business with their identity can stifle new people and they often dread retirement or redundancy because their world would be empty.
People need meaningful outside interests and essay george killing outside self-identity. Your worth should depend on who you are in the wider sense, rather than what you do. 200 Words. Many Maori understand this full well. It is statement possible to be an iwi leader and also work in a humble job that is essay 200 words routinised and thesis statement tester does not permit much discretion, let alone leadership. It is damaging to society when individuals win positional authority confuse their jobs with their self-identity. In modern times, most people from the Prime Minister down have to accept that at some stage they will be sacked or removed from a job by voters, employers or customers. Even if they survive these events, father time will catch up because ageing is the one thing no one can escape.
When a chief executive acts as if he is bigger than his organisation it is time for essay 200 words him to leave. Nitin Thesis. If a chief executive is essay “not replaceable” it means he has done critical damage to “his” organisation’s future sustainability. When anyone conflates identity fully with the writing for an, job his life can be gone when that job disappears for reasons beyond his control. For any employee, especially more vulnerable ones, a parallel or alternative career, or multiple identities in 200 words, which they have standing is critical for psychic buffering. If things go wrong you still have standing outside work, and perhaps even an alternative career. It is nitin possible to essay, create the option of turning a hobby into short essay, a career. Self-management requires time management. Time devoted to one task cannot be devoted to another and so focus is needed to essay 200 words, get the best out of water resources, time.
While it is possible to ramp up energy levels to essay 200 words, meet a challenge, time cannot be created out of of mice and men essay killing lennie, nothing. It cannot be stored up like gold coins or reciprocated favours. 200 Words. It cannot be replaced with other resources. The arrow of time moves only in one direction and once lost it can never be regained. Nitin Thesis. Time therefore must be managed and 200 words time management is a discipline that can be imposed externally but is best self-generated.
Killers of productive time include frivolous email, internet or social media use, unnecessary or lengthy meetings, and discursive, unfocused discussions. Multi-tasking works for foxes but not for hedgehogs. If you prefer to do one thing at a time, when you finish writing something at the end of the day leave a sentence half-finished so you can get back into it next day without wasting time in “cognitive switching”. By far the worse destroyer of time and of value is poor project inception, weak task assignment and unsystematic project execution, leading to poorly directed work, waste and rework. For some people, working from for an assignment, home is 200 words effective, and writing a conclusion for an thinking at home or outside work is often valuable. However working from home is a poor substitute for effective time management during the working day. Managing time means setting bounds around it in ways recognising its scarcity and essay 200 words its inelasticity.
Time management requires integration of otherwise fragmented time, and effective structure around it. It requires external disciplines whether factory whistles, deadlines, and challenging oneself to get as much done as possible within constraints. Tester. If you are sitting an exam, don’t think you started with 100% and will lose marks with every mistake. Think of yourself starting with nothing and earning marks with everything you do. Once disciplines are in place, time management can involve an easy pace, structure, system and method, and work can be steady not feverish. Being frugal with time can mean micro-improvements allowing tiny time-saving to accumulate into valuable chunks of time. An example is through better writing that communicates crisply and succinctly, saving people small amounts of essay, time that cumulatively matter.
Work will involve conflict. Whenever it occurs de-escalate as quickly as possible. You should also reflect on whether your position is the right one. If you are pointing the finger at someone else you may be pointing at yourself. People’s behaviour should be separated from their individual identity. You must always protect the statement, inviolable dignity of the other person, and if you have to defeat them you must give them “a golden bridge home”. This does not mean actively helping those behaving badly, or saving the essay 200 words, bacon of those whose bacon ought not be saved. Withdrawal of your support from those undeserving is nitin madnani thesis a meaningful sanction without maliciousness.
It is like Ajax in essay, the underworld turning his back on Odysseus who cheated him out of his armour. It is important to be realistic about for an your job without being cynical. Essay 200 Words. People who give too much to a job are often hiding problems in their lives and are not especially productive. A Conclusion For An Assignment. The most difficult people at work often have unhappy home lives. You have nothing to prove at 200 words work if you are happy at home. Work is social but not a shallow form of socialising. Homo sapiens are a highly invasive, weedy species, however they are also a social species. Thesis. When brilliant people fail to fulfil their potential it is 200 words typically because of poor manners or low emotional or social intelligence, and scene essay sometimes all these. However, social intelligence can be used for malicious purposes. Hitler, Stalin and any number of paedophiles and conmen had extraordinary social intelligence, while many “nerds” are quite gentle creatures who would be kind to 200 words, others, were they to notice their existence.
Metaphorically, work is flatting together and cooperating for five days a week – it is not a marriage. It is also a relationship that will end in dissolution at some stage, and is not till death us do part.
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42 Resume Dos and Don#39;ts Every Job Seeker Should Know. If things are supposed to get easier over time, why hasn’t the task of resume-writing gotten simpler? Actually, it feels like we’re heading in the opposite essay, direction—every month, we learn about a fresh resume commandment, like “Thou shalt not use a resume objective statement” or “Thou shalt not send a traditional resume to a creative company.” It’s enough to make any professional a little frustrated. Fortunately, we’ve rounded up the ultimate list of resume dos and don’ts, from the statement tester traditional rules to the brand-spanking-new ones. Take a look, then pull up your resume and make sure it’s recruiter-ready.
1. Do Highlight Your Most Relevant Experiences. Rule #1 of resume writing is that you should be turning in a different version for each role you apply to, tailored and targeted to the position. Essay? After all, your resume should demonstrate you have the specific set of skills, experience, and accomplishments necessary to do the job—not just a set. Make it easy for the hiring manager to hamlet act 1 scene 2 soliloquy see why you’re the right fit. 200 Words? 2. Don’t Freak Out if You Have No Relevant Experience. Whether you’re fresh out of college or switching to a brand-new industry, you can help bolster your lack of writing relevant work experience by listing your transferable skills, related side projects, and relevant coursework.
Read more about 200 words how to do this here. 3. Do Optimize for Applicant Tracking Systems. Many large organizations (and even some smaller ones) use applicant tracking systems to weed out unqualified applicants. The systems scan your resume for contextual keywords and hamlet act 1, phrases, mathematically scoring them for essay 200 words relevance and sending only the most qualified ones through for nitin madnani thesis human review. Essay 200 Words? As you can guess, this strategy isn’t perfect. To ensure your resume makes it past the ATS and into the hands of a human, keep your formatting simple, include the right keywords (but don’t go overboard), and quadruple check for spelling mistakes. (More on how to do it right, here.) 4. Don’t Steal the Job Description’s Exact Wording.
That said, you shouldn’t take exact phrases straight from the job description. If a company says it’s looking for candidates who “learn rapidly” and “have a diverse knowledge of 2 soliloquy programming languages,” your skills section shouldn’t read “learns rapidly” and essay, “has a diverse knowledge of programming languages.” Instead, find a different way of saying the same thing—maybe devote a resume bullet to george a software you learned in two weeks, or list the essay seven different programming languages you’re familiar with. Tester? You’ve probably heard that recruiters love reading resume bullets with numbers, like “Increased sales in Northern region by 300%.” And they do! So use them whenever possible. Oh, and don’t worry if your job doesn’t really involve numbers—with our guide, you can quantify any accomplishment. 6. Don’t Include Anything Confidential. Seems like a no-brainer—but Google’s Head of HR says he sees confidential info on resumes all the time. When deciding whether to leave something on your resume, use the essay New York Times test. In other words, if you wouldn’t want it published next to short essay your name on the front page of a major national newspaper, take it out.
The “quantifiable accomplishments” technique also works for soft skills. Make sure each bullet point describes a skill the essay hiring manager is statement tester, looking for, then use facts and figures to show—not tell—just what a “skilled manager” or “effective communicator” you are. Check it out: “Developed and independently initiated new mentorship program to alleviate high turnover of essay new staff members, resulting in the matching of 23 mentor-mentee pairs and a significant reduction in staff turnover.” Sounds like a “skilled manager” to us! Because everyone assumes you know how to use Microsoft Word. For An Assignment? And the internet. Use your valuable resume space to highlight skills that actually make you stand out.
9. Do Consider Volunteer or Other Non-Work Experience. Essay? Although it’s nontraditional, if volunteer work has taken up a significant chunk of your time or taught you skills applicable to the job you’re applying for, think about resources should essay putting it on your resume. Side projects, pro bono work, or temp gigs can also be a unique way to bolster your resume and show off other skills. 10. Don’t Include Work With Controversial Organizations. Maybe that volunteer work was fundraising for a politician, or answering the phone at a LGBT-resource organization. Some experiences are pretty divisive, so read our tips on whether or not you should put them on your resume. Essay 200 Words? 11. Do Include Personal Accomplishments.
If you’ve done something cool in your personal life that either shows off your soft skills or engages your technical skills in a new way, you should definitely include it. Water Resources Should Essay? Maybe you’ve run a couple marathons, demonstrating your adventurous spirit, strong work ethic, and desire to essay challenge yourself. Madnani Thesis? Or you’ve won some poker tournaments, which shows you’re a quick thinker and good with numbers. Learn more here on essay how to include these in the right way. 12.
Don’t Include Random, Unrelated, or Off-Putting Hobbies. That said, remember that hiring managers probably don’t care if you love basketball, are active in your book club, or are a member of a Dungeons and Dragons group. Eliminate anything that’s not totally transferable to work-related skills (or a really, really epic conversation starter). 13. And Men Killing? Do Think of New Ways to 200 words Frame Your Accomplishments. Don’t have the exact experience for hamlet act 1 scene 2 soliloquy the job you’re applying to? You can actually tweak how you frame your accomplishments to show off vastly different things.
Career expert Lily Zhang explains with examples here. Meaning: Don’t oversell your high school babysitting experience. 200 Words? In fact, anything from high school should probably go. 15. Do Show How You Moved Up (or Around) at Past Companies. It can be tempting (and more simple) to combine multiple roles at one company, but you should actually be highlighting your different job titles. After all, it says a lot about you if you were promoted within an organization or were able to resources transition your role. Learn how to show this off without making your resume look disorganized here. 16. Don’t Use an 200 words, Objective Statement. There’s only one situation in water resources should, which you need an objective statement: when you’re making a huge career change.
Making the leap from, say, business development to marketing means your resume could definitely use a clear explanation that you’re transitioning roles and essay, have the necessary transferable skills. But if you’re a PR rep applying to a PR firm, an objective statement will just waste valuable space. 17. Do Consider a Summary Statement. A summary statement, which consists of short a couple lines at essay 200 words, the beginning of your resume that give potential employers a broad outline of your skills and a conclusion assignment, experience, is the most ideal if you have years of experience you need to tie together with a common theme. They’re also good if you have a bunch of disparate skills and want to make it clear how they fit together. Here’s more on essay 200 words when you need one and how to put it together. Thesis Statement? While it’s okay to glaze over gaps a little (for example, by 200 words, just using years to show dates of employments instead of be nationalised essay months and 200 words, years), you should never outright lie about thesis tester them. Instead, be honest and confident when explaining unemployment periods. Essay 200 Words? Whatever you did while you weren’t working—traveling, running a household, helping your community—it’s almost certain you picked up some skills that would help you in the job for which you’re applying. So mention them!
For obvious reasons, anything that’s not 100% true doesn’t belong on your resume. Because hiring managers are really, really tired of seeing descriptions like hard worker, team player, or detail-oriented on resumes. You should also be careful about of mice george lennie any industry or role-specific jargon you use. In many companies, if you want to your resume to land on the hiring manager’s desk, you’ve got to get it past HR first—which means putting everything in terms a layperson can understand. Using unnecessarily big words doesn’t make you sound more intelligent or capable. Not only 200 words are hiring managers totally aware of what you’re trying (and failing) to do, but “resume speak” can obscure your real experience.
So, instead of “utilized innovative social media technique to boost readership and engagement among core demographic” say, “posted on Twitter three times a day and brought follower count from 1,000 to 3,000.” You should also be careful of using words with negative connotations—even if you’re using them in act 1 2 soliloquy, a positive light. Saying “met aggressive sales goals” or “fixed widespread communication problem ” will subconsciously make recruiters think less of you. Instead, write “delivered on ambitious number of sales” or “proposed and implemented solution to make company communication easier and more efficient.” Skip the tired and all-too-frequently used “led,” “handled,” and “managed,” and go for verbs like “charted,” “administered,” “consolidated,” or “maximized,” which make you look both confident and competent. We’ve compiled 181 options of unique verbs to essay use, so no matter what you do, you can find the right word. 24. And Men George Killing Lennie? Don’t Include “References Upon Request” It takes up room you could otherwise use for essay 200 words experience and skills. For An? And, um, it looks presumptuous. 200 Words? Pretty basic, but you’d be surprised how many job seekers put together an amazing resume—and then don’t include enough “here’s where to on my find me” info. This section should have your name, email address, phone number, address (or just city), LinkedIn URL, and personal website, if you have one.
Also, make sure you’re using your personal contact info, rather than your work. Because that’s a recipe for disaster. 26. Don’t Include Anything That Could Be Discriminated Against. While it’s illegal to discriminate against a job candidate because of his or her age, marital status, gender, religion, race, color, or national origin, it doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen subconsciously. Don’t give recruiters the chance, and just leave these details off. Recruiters read a lot of resumes, so they don’t want to have to spend a ton of time looking over yours. Cut it down to the most relevant information and keep it short and succinct. Laszlo Bock, Google’s senior vice president of people operations, recommends one page of resume for every 10 years of work experience as a good rule of 200 words thumb. That being said, don’t try to squeeze as much information as possible into that one page.
If you manage to pack in more information—but in and men george killing, a size 8 font and with no white space on the page—you might as well have not added that information at essay, all. Thesis? Cut it down to an amount of essay information you can comfortably fit on the page, in a readable font and with enough white space to thesis statement make it easy on the eyes. 29. Do Consider a Creative or Digital Resume. Resumes that look like infographics, data visualizations, or even videos or multimedia presentations can be a great way to stand out from the crowd. If you think this might be the right route for essay you, check out some great options here. (Note: This is generally a better option when you’re applying to hamlet scene essay smaller, more creative shops—traditional companies will still likely want traditional resumes.) 30. Essay 200 Words? Don’t Spend All Your Time on the Design. While making your resume look nice is important, recruiters say job seekers spend far too much time worrying about hamlet 2 soliloquy essay it (that is, unless you’re working in a design field).
Focus on 200 words the content, make sure the right information is highlighted, and just make sure it looks nice enough to make the information easy to digest. Want your resume to look well designed—without the resources should be nationalised essay extra time? We’ve found 41 of the best resume templates ever. They’ll make formatting a breeze. And really, it’s best to stick to essay 200 words one basic font.
Unless you’re a designer and know a lot about typography, it’s easy to hamlet act 1 essay choose fonts that clash or are distracting. 33. Do Make Sure Your Job Titles or Companies Stand Out. Of course, you want to make sure the most important information stands out and is easy to skim. Instead of using a different font to do this, use bold or italic text, a slightly larger font, or your layout to help make sure this information is findable. 34. Essay? Don’t Go Overboard With Text Effects. Writing Assignment? If every other word is essay, bolded , italicized , or in ALL CAPS, at best, your resume will be distracting—at worst, annoying.
Use emphasis sparingly, for your most important info. 35. Do Align Your Dates and Locations to the Right. Water Essay? This small change will make your resume way easier on the eyes. You should be able to make a “column” of essay 200 words dates and locations for each job by killing, creating a right tab. 36. Don’t Use More Than Two Lines Per Bullet. This strategy will make your resume easier to skim (which is good, because most hiring managers will spend less than 20 seconds reading it). Again, cut it down to essay the most important information. Act 1 Scene 2 Soliloquy Essay? Because 4 and essay, 22% take less time to essay on my classroom read than “four” and essay 200 words, “twenty-two percent.” Plus, using digits saves you space. Writing For An Assignment? 38.
Don’t Send it as a Word Document. Sending your resume off as a .doc file will most likely result in all of this careful formatting getting messed up when the recruiter opens the file. Essay? Save your final version as a PDF to writing a conclusion assignment make sure everything stays just as is. 39. Do Swap Resumes With Colleagues. Essay? Look at of mice and men killing lennie, how they describe their duties and the company. Chances are, you’ll get some inspiration for your own descriptions. Plus, having some fresh eyes look at your resume is always beneficial. Essay 200 Words? Ask a few friends what about writing a conclusion assignment your resume makes an essay, impact and what is boring, confusing, or too vague. On My Classroom? If the same things keep popping up, it’s probably time to edit.
And proofread. Multiple times. For help, check out this editor’s guide to perfecting your resume. Remember rule number one on tailoring your resume? Well, creating a master resume that includes every position you’ve ever held will make that task much quicker. You’ll never send your master resume to anyone, so it doesn’t matter how long it is. Just write out each and every job experience you’ve ever had.
With all of the possible corresponding bullet points. 200 Words? Then, when it comes time to apply to a job, you can copy and paste the relevant sections of your master resume into a new document. Want to make sure you’re spending enough time on the right things in your resume? Run your resume through a word cloud generator like TagCrowd. This will create an essay, image representing the essay 200 words most frequent words, with the most common ones showing up larger and darker.
With a quick glance, you’ll be able to nitin see what terms employers will most associate with you—and whether you need to do some adjusting to have the essay 200 words right message shine through. Madnani? Photo of typewriter courtesy of Shutterstock. Essay? Aja Frost is a freelance writer specializing in business, tech, career advice, and should essay, productivity. Essay? Check out her website or say hi on nitin madnani thesis Twitter. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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essay on actors On Actors and Acting 1. PLAYERS are the essay 200 words, abstracts and brief chronicles of the time; the motley representatives of tester human nature. They are the only honest hypocrites. Their life is essay 200 words, a voluntary dream; a studied madness.
The height of their ambition is to be beside themselves. To-day kings, to-morrow beggars, it is only when they are themselves, that they are nothing. Made up of mimic laughter and tears, passing from the extremes of joy or woe at the prompter's call, they wear the livery of other men's fortunes; their very thoughts are not their own. They are, as it were, train-bearers in the pageant of life, and hold a glass up to humanity, frailer than itself. We see ourselves at second-hand in them: they show us all that we are, all that we wish to be, and all that we dread to be.
The stage is an hamlet, epitome, a bettered likeness of the world, with the dull part left out: and, indeed, with this omission, it is 200 words, nearly big enough to hold all the rest. What brings the resemblance nearer is, that, as they imitate us, we, in our turn, imitate them. How many fine gentlemen do we owe to the stage? How many romantic lovers are mere Romeos in masquerade? How many soft bosoms have heaved with Juliet's sighs? They teach us when to hamlet 2 soliloquy essay, laugh and when to 200 words, weep, when to love and when to hate, upon principle and with a good grace!
Wherever there is a play-house, the world will go on not amiss. The stage not only refines the manners, but it is the best teacher of morals, for it is the truest and most intelligible picture of life. It stamps the image of virtue on the mind by first softening the rude materials of act 1 which it is composed, by a sense of 200 words pleasure. It regulates the resources, passions by giving a loose to the imagination. It points out the selfish and depraved to our detestation; the amiable and generous to our admiration; and if it clothes the more seductive vices with the borrowed graces of wit and fancy, even those graces operate as a diversion to the coarser poison of experience and bad example, and often prevent or carry off the infection by inoculating the essay 200 words, mind with a certain taste and elegance. To shew how little we agree with the common declamations against the immoral tendency of the stage on this score, we will hazard a conjecture, that the act 1 essay, acting of the Beggar's Opera a certain number of nights every year since it was first brought out, has done more towards putting down the practice of highway robbery, than all the gibbets that ever were erected. A person, after seeing this piece, is too deeply imbued with a sense of humanity, is in too good humour with himself and the rest of the 200 words, world, to set about cutting throats or rifling pockets. Whatever makes a jest of vice, leaves it too much a matter of indifference for any one in his senses to rush desperately on his ruin for its sake.
We suspect that just the contrary effect must be produced by the representation of George Barnwell, which is too much in the style of the Ordinary's sermon to meet with any better success. The mind, in such cases, instead of being deterred by the alarming consequences held out to it, revolts against the denunciation of them as an insult offered to its free-will, and, in a spirit of defiance, returns a practical answer to them, by daring the worst that can happen. The most striking lesson ever read to levity and licentiousness, is in the last act of the Inconstant, where young Mirabel is preserved by the fidelity of his mistress, Orinda, in the disguise of a page, from the hands of assassins, into whose power he has been allured by the temptations of vice and beauty. There never was a rake who did not become in imagination a reformed man, during the representation of the last trying scenes of this admirable comedy. If the nitin thesis, stage is useful as a school of instruction, it is no less so as a source of amusement. It is the source of the greatest enjoyment at the time, and a never-failing fund of agreeable reflection afterwards. The merits of a new play, or of a new actor, are always among the 200 words, first topics of polite conversation. One way in which public exhibitions contribute to refine and humanize mankind, is by supplying them with ideas and subjects of conversation and interest in common. The progress of civilization is in proportion to the number of common-places current in society. For instance, if we meet with a stranger at an inn or in a stage-coach, who knows nothing but his own affairs, his shop, his customers, his farm, his pigs, his poultry, we can carry on no conversation with him on these local and personal matters: the resources should be nationalised, only way is to let him have all the talk to essay 200 words, himself. But if he has fortunately ever seen Mr.
Liston act, this is an immediate topic of for an mutual conversation, and we agree together the rest of the 200 words, evening in discussing the assignment, merits of 200 words that inimitable actor, with the same satisfaction as in talking over the affairs of the most intimate friend. If the stage thus introduces us familiarly to our contemporaries, it also brings us acquainted with former times. It is an statement, interesting revival of past ages, manners, opinions, dresses, persons, and actions,-whether it carries us back to the wars of York and Lancaster, or half-way back to the heroic times of 200 words Greece and Rome, in some translation from the French, or quite back to the age of Charles II. in the scenes of Congreve and of Etherege, (the gay Sir George!) -- happy age, when kings and nobles led purely ornamental lives, when the utmost stretch of a morning's study went no farther than the choice of a sword-knot, or the adjustment of a side-curl; when the soul spoke out in all the statement, pleasing eloquence of dress; and essay 200 words beaux and of mice lennie belles, enamoured of themselves in one another's follies, fluttered like gilded butterflies in giddy mazes through the walks of St. James's Park! A good company of comedians, a Theatre-Royal judiciously managed, is your true Herald's College; the only Antiquarian Society that is worth a rush. Essay! It is for this reason that there is essay classroom, such an 200 words, air of romance about short, players, and that it is pleasanter to see them, even in essay 200 words, their own persons, than any of the three learned professions. We feel more respect for John Kemble in a plain coat, than for the Lord Chancellor on short essay classroom the woolsack. He is surrounded, to our eyes, with a greater number of imposing recollections: he is a more reverend piece of formality; a more complicated tissue of costume. We do not know whether to look upon essay, this accomplished actor as Pierre or King John or Coriolanus or Cato or Leontes or the Stranger. But we see in him a stately hieroglyphic of water humanity; a living monument of departed greatness; a sombre comment on the rise and fall of kings.
We look after him till he is essay 200 words, out of short essay on my sight, as we listen to a story of one of Ossian's heroes, to a tale of other times! One of the most affecting things we know is to see a favourite actor take leave of the essay 200 words, stage. We were present not long ago when Mr. Bannister quitted it. We do not wonder that his feelings were overpowered on the occasion: ours were nearly so too. We remembered him in the first heyday of our youthful spirits, in the Prize in essay on my, which he played so delightfully with that fine old croaker Suett, and Madame Storace, -- in the farce of 200 words My Grandmother, in hamlet act 1, the Son-in-Law, in Autolycus, and in Scrub, in which our satisfaction was at its height.
At that time, King and Parsons, and Dodd, and Quick, and essay Edwin were in the full vigour of their reputation, who are now all gone. We still feel the vivid delight with which we used to see their names in the play-bills as we went along to the theatre. Tester! Bannister was one of the last of essay 200 words these that remained; and we parted with him as we should with one of our oldest and best friends. The most pleasant feature in scene 2 soliloquy essay, the profession of a player, and which, indeed; is peculiar to it, is that we not only admire the talents of those who adorn it, but we contract a personal intimacy with them. There is no class of society whom so many persons regard with affection as actors. We greet them on the stage; we like to meet them in the streets; they almost always recall to us pleasant associations; and we feel our gratitude excited, without the uneasiness of a sense of 200 words obligation.
The very gaiety and popularity, however, which surround the life of a favourite performer, make the retiring from it a very serious business. It glances a mortifying reflection on the shortness of human life, and the vanity of human pleasures. Something reminds us, that all the writing for an, world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players. It has been considered as the misfortune of first-rate talents for the stage, that they leave no record behind them except that of vague rumour, and that the genius of a great actor perishes with him, leaving the world no copy. This is a misfortune, or at least an unpleasant circumstance, to essay 200 words, actors; but it is, perhaps, an advantage to the stage. It leaves an opening to originality. The stage is water should essay, always beginning anew; -- the essay, candidates for theatrical reputation are always setting out afresh, unencumbered by the affectation of the faults or excellences of their predecessors. In this respect, we should imagine that the resources essay, average quantity of dramatic talent remains more nearly the same than that in any other walk of essay art. In no other instance do the complaints of the degeneracy of the of mice and men essay george killing lennie, moderns seem so unfounded as in this; and Colley Cibber's account of the regular decline of the stage, from the time of Shakespeare to that of Charles II. and from the time of Charles II. to the beginning of George II. appears quite ridiculous. Essay 200 Words! The stage is a place where genius is sure to short on my classroom, come upon its legs, in a generation or two at farthest.
In the other arts (as painting and poetry), it has been contended that what has been well done already, by giving rise to endless vapid imitations, is an 200 words, obstacle to what might be done well hereafter: that the models or chef d'oeuvres of art, where they are accumulated, choke up the path to excellence; and that the works of genius, where they can be rendered permanent and handed down from essay, age to age, not only prevent, but render superfluous, future productions of the same kind. We have not, neither do we want, two Shakespeares, two Miltons, two Raphaels, any more than we require two suns in the same sphere. Even Miss O'Neill stands a little in the way of our recollections of Mrs. Siddons. But Mr. Kean is an excellent substitute for the memory of Garrick, whom we never saw.
When an 200 words, author dies, it is no matter, for his works remain. When a great actor dies, there is a void produced in society, a gap which requires to be filled up. Who does not go to see Kean? Who, if Garrick were alive, would go to see him? At least, one or the other must have quitted the stage.We have seen what a ferment has been excited among our living artists by the exhibition of the works of the old masters at the British Gallery. What would the actors say to it, if, by any spell or power of writing assignment necromancy, all the celebrated actors, for the last hundred years, could be made to essay 200 words, appear again on the boards of Covent Garden and writing a conclusion for an assignment Drury Lane, for the last time, in all their most brilliant parts? What a rich treat to the town, what a feast for the critics, to go and see Betterton, and Booth, and Wilks, and Sandford, and essay 200 words Nokes, and Leigh, and thesis statement Penkethman, and Bullock, and Esteourt, and Dogget, and Mrs. Barry, and Mrs.
Montfort, and Mrs. Oldfield, and Mrs. Bracegirdle, and Mrs. Cibber, and Cibber himself, the prince of coxcombs, and essay 200 words Macklin, and Quin, and Rich, and Mrs. Clive, and Mrs. Pritchard, and of mice essay george lennie Mrs. Abington, and essay 200 words Weston, and Shuter, and Garrick, and scene 2 soliloquy essay all the rest of those, who gladdened life, and whose deaths eclipsed the gaiety of nations! We should certainly be there.
We should buy a ticket for the season. We should enjoy our hundred days again. We should not miss a single night. We would not, for a great deal, be absent from Betterton's Hamlet or his Brutus, or from 200 words, Booth's Cato, as it was first acted to the contending applause of Whigs and Tories. We should be in the first row when Mrs. Water Resources Should! Barry (who was kept by Lord Rochester, and with whom Otway was in 200 words, love) played Monimia or Belvidera; and we suppose we should go to see Mrs. Hamlet 2 Soliloquy Essay! Bracegirdle (with whom all the world was in 200 words, love) in all her parts.
We should then know exactly whether Penkethman's manner of picking a chicken, and Bullock's mode of devouring asparagus, answered to the ingenious account of them in the Tatler; and whether Dogget was equal to Dowton -- Whether Mrs. Montfort2 or Mrs. Madnani Thesis! Abington was the finest lady -- Whether Wilks or Cibber was the 200 words, best Sir Harry Wildair-Whether Macklin was really the Jew that Shakespeare drew, and whether Garrick was, upon the whole, so great an actor as the world have made him out! Many people have a strong desire to pry into the secrets of essay futurity: for our own parts, we should be satisfied if we bad the power to recall the dead, and live the past over again, as often as we pleased! -- Players, after all, have little reason to complain of their hard-earned, short-lived popularity. One thunder of applause from pit, boxes, and gallery, is equal to a whole immortality of posthumous fame: and when we hear an actor, whose modesty is essay 200 words, equal to his merit, declare that he would like to see a dog wag his tail in approbation, what must he feel when he sets the whole house in a roar! Besides, Fame, as if their reputation had been entrusted to her alone, has been particularly careful of the nitin, renown of her theatrical favourites she forgets one by one, and year by year, those who have been great lawyers, great statesmen, and great warriors in their day; but the name of Garrick still survives with the 200 words, works of Reynolds and of Johnson. Actors have been accused, as a profession, of being extravagant and dissipated. While they are said to be so as a piece of common cant, they are likely to continue so.
But there is a sentence in Shakespeare which should be stuck as a label in the mouths of our beadles and whippers-in of morality. The web of our life is of a mingled yarn, good and ill together: our virtues would be proud if our faults whipped them not: and our vices would despair if they were not cherished by our virtues. With respect to the extravagance of actors, as a traditional character, it is statement tester, not to be wondered at. They live from essay 200 words, hand to mouth: they plunge from george lennie, want into luxury; they have no means of making money breed, and all professions that do not live by turning money into essay 200 words money, or have not a certainty of accumulating it in water should essay, the end by parsimony, spend it. Uncertain of the future, they make sure of the present moment. This is 200 words, not unwise. Chilled with poverty, steeped in resources should essay, contempt, they sometimes pass into the sunshine of fortune, and 200 words are lifted to the very pinnacle of public favour; yet even there cannot calculate on hamlet essay the continuance of success; but are, like the giddy sailor on the mast, ready with every blast to essay, topple down into the fatal bowels of the deep! Besides, if the young enthusiast, who is smitten with the stage, and with the public as a mistress, were naturally a close hunks, he would become or remain a city clerk, instead of turning player. Again, with respect to the habit of assignment convivial indulgence, an actor, to be a good one, must have a great spirit of essay enjoyment in himself, strong impulses, strong passions, and a strong sense of pleasure: for writing a conclusion it is his business to essay, imitate the passions, and to communicate pleasure to others. Short Essay Classroom! A man of genius is not a machine.
The neglected actor may be excused if he drinks oblivion of his disappointments; the successful one if he quaffs the applause of the world, and enjoys the friendship of those who are the friends of the favourites of fortune, in draughts of nectar. There is no path so steep as that of fame: no labour so hard as the 200 words, pursuit of excellence. The intellectual excitement, inseparable from those professions which call forth all our sensibility to pleasure and pain, requires some corresponding physical excitement to support our failure, and thesis not a little to allay the ferment of the 200 words, spirits attendant on success. If there is any tendency to dissipation beyond this in the profession of a player, it is owing to thesis, the prejudices entertained against them, to that spirit of 200 words bigotry which in a neighbouring country would deny actors Christian burial after their death, and to that cant of resources should be nationalised criticism, which, in our own, slurs over their characters, while living, with a half-witted jest. A London engagement is generally considered by actors as the essay, ne plus ultra of their ambition, as a consummation devoutly to of mice and men essay killing lennie, be wished; as the great prize in the lottery of their professional life. Essay! But this appears to us, who are not in the secret, to be rather the prose termination of their adventurous career: it is the provincial commencement that is the poetical and truly enviable part of it.
After that, they have comparatively little to hope or fear. The wine of life is drunk, and of mice essay killing but the lees remain. In London, they become gentle men, and essay the King's servants: but it is the romantic mixture of the short on my, hero and the vagabond that constitutes the essence of the player's life. It is the transition from their real to their assumed characters, from the contempt of the world to the applause of the multitude, that gives its zest to essay 200 words, the latter, and raises them as much above common humanity at night, as in the day-time they are depressed below it. Hurried from fierce extremes, by contrast made more fierce, -- it is rags and a flock-bed which give their splendour to a plume of feathers and a throne. We should suppose, that if the most admired actor on nitin the London stage were brought to confession on this point, he would acknowledge that all the applause he had received from brilliant and overflowing audiences, was nothing to the light-headed intoxication of unlooked-for success in a barn. In town, actors are criticised: in 200 words, country-places, they are wondered at, or hooted at: it is of little consequence which, so that the interval is not too long between. For ourselves, we own that the description of the strolling player in Gil Blas , soaking his dry crusts in the well by the road-side, presents to us a perfect picture of human felicity.
1 Hazlitt's On Actors and Acting was first published in resources should be nationalised, the The Examiner , January 5, 1817 and was one of the essays picked to go into his first book, The Round Table (1815-17). 2 The following lively description of this actress is given by essay 200 words, Cibber in his Apology: What found most employment for her whole various excellence at once, was the part of Melantha, in Marriage-a-laMode. Melantha is as finished an impertinent as ever fluttered in a drawing-room, and seems to contain the most complete system of female foppery that could possibly be crowded into the tortured form of a fine lady. Tester! Her language, dress, motion, manners, soul, and body, are in a continual hurry to be something more than is necessary or commendable. Essay 200 Words! And, though I doubt it will be a vain labour to a conclusion for an, offer you a just likeness of Mrs. Montfort's action, yet the fantastic impression is still so strong in my memory, that I cannot help saying something, though fantastically, about it. The first ridiculous airs that break from her are upon a gallant never seen before, who delivers her a letter from her father, recommending him to her good graces, as an honourable lover.
Here now, one would think she might naturally show a little of the sex's decent reserve, though never so slightly covered! No, sir; not a tittle of it; modesty is the virtue of a poor-soul'd country gentlewoman: she is essay 200 words, too much a court-lady to be under so vulgar a confusion: she reads the letter, therefore, with a careless, dropping lip, and an erected brow, humming it hastily over, as if she were impatient to of mice and men george lennie, outgo her father's commands, by making a complete conquest of him at once: and 200 words that the letter might riot embarrass her attack, crack! she crumbles it at once into her palm, and pours upon him her whole artillery of airs, eyes, and motion; down goes her dainty, diving body to the ground, as if she were sinking under the conscious load of her own attractions; then launches into a flood of fine language and compliment, still playing her chest forward in fifty falls and risings, like a swan upon waving water; and, to short essay on my, complete her impertinence, she is so rapidly fond of her own wit, that she will not give her lover leave to praise it. Essay! Silent assenting bows, and statement vain endeavours to speak, are all the share of the conversation he is admitted to, which at last he is relieved from, by her engagement to 200 words, half a score visits, which she swims from him to make, with a promise to return in a twinkling. -- The Life of Colley Cibber , p. 138.
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Framing Effects in Younger and Older Adults. A growing literature on essay 200 words decision making in short essay on my, older adults suggests that they are more likely to essay use heuristic processing than are younger adults. Hamlet Scene. We assessed this tendency in the context of 200 words a framing effect, a decision-making phenomenon whereby the language used to describe options greatly influences the decision maker#x02019;s choice. Of Mice. We compared decision making under a standard (#x0201c;heuristic#x0201d;) condition and also under a #x0201c;justification#x0201d; condition known to reduce reliance on heuristics. In the standard condition, older adults were more susceptible than younger adults to framing but the two groups did not differ when participants were asked to provide a justification. Essay 200 Words. Thus, although older adults may spontaneously rely more on heuristic processing than younger adults, they can be induced to take a more systematic approach to decision making.
THE term framing effect refers to writing a conclusion a phenomenon whereby the choices people make are systematically altered by the language used in essay 200 words, the formulation of short essay classroom options. For example, in 200 words, the well-known Asian disease task (Tversky #x00026; Kahneman, 1981), participants in the so-called positive frame condition make a treatment choice based on a description of short essay on my lives saved (e.g., 200 out of a total of 600 people will be saved); by 200 words, contrast, in the so-called negative frame condition, participants make a treatment choice based on a description of lives lost (e.g., 400 out of a total of a conclusion 600 people will die). Essay. Despite the hamlet act 1 scene identical underlying basis of the two versions of the essay problem, people make different choices: They are more likely to killing be risk averse (i.e., to move away from a risky option) when questions are framed as gains (i.e., positively) and more risk seeking (i.e., to 200 words move toward a risky option) when questions are framed as losses (i.e., negatively). The literature on these and other framing-effect problems is nitin madnani, extensive (for reviews, see Levin, Schneider, #x00026; Gaeth, 1998; also see K#x000fc;hberger, 1998). However, the research has mainly used college students as participants and the performance of older adults has rarely been the central focus of the research.
Although older adults were included in some studies with professionals, experts, and patients (e.g., Loke #x00026; Tan, 1992; McNeil, Pauker, Sox, #x00026; Tversky, 1982; Roszkowski #x00026; Snelbecker, 1990), the age of the samples in these studies was also confounded with other characteristics such as expertise and some medical conditions. Previously, we (Kim #x00026; Hasher, 2005) demonstrated superior performance by older adults in decision making using attraction-effect tasks, suggesting that older adults can, under some circumstances, show performance better than that of essay 200 words younger adults, perhaps because they have greater life experience in decision making (e.g., Hertwig, Barron, Weber, #x00026; Erev, 2004). In the current study, we were also interested in examining whether older adults can perform better than younger adults in decision making in hamlet scene essay, the context of 200 words a framing effect. Short Essay. As in 200 words, our previous study, it is conceivable that older adults are less likely to show framing effects than younger adults because they have greater life experience in water, decision making. However, an alternative hypothesis is also possible. In the framing-effect literature, there is essay, some evidence that even people with experience or expertise are not immune to framing effects (e.g., Loke #x00026; Tan, 1992; Roszkowski #x00026; Snelbecker, 1990). Water Resources. Further, a number of explanations have been proposed for framing effects (e.g., see K#x000fc;hberger, 1997, for a review); there has been some agreement that, in many instances, #x0201c;framing#x0201d; is the product of heuristic information processing (e.g., McElroy #x00026; Seta, 2003). This proposal is strengthened by 200 words, demonstrations that framing effects can be reduced when circumstances press for act 1 scene detailed processing, for example, when participants must provide a rationale for their selections (e.g., Sieck #x00026; Yates, 1997; Takemura, 1993).
Thus, because there is evidence that older adults tend to rely on heuristic processing more than younger adults (e.g., Johnson, 1990), it is conceivable that older adults are more likely to show framing effects. Essay. Verbal framing could be a case in which greater life experience at thesis tester making decisions does not benefit older adults. 200 Words. If it is such a case, then our question becomes whether asking for thesis a rationale for essay 200 words a decision can increase reliance on detailed processing and thus make it possible for older adults to make decisions that are similar to those of younger adults. One hundred and eighty-six undergraduate students (aged 17 to a conclusion for an 28 years) from the University of Toronto and 186 senior citizens (aged 58 to 78 years) from the Toronto area participated in this study. Older adults had significantly higher vocabulary scores ( M = 29.43, SD = 9.27), as assessed by the Extended Range Vocabulary Test (ERVT), version 3 (Educational Testing Service, 1976), than younger adults ( M = 19.39, SD = 7.04), t (368) = 11.75. Younger adults received credit for 200 words an introductory psychology course and george, older adults received $10 for their participation. We used two problems, each with a positive and essay 200 words, negative frame. Short Essay On My Classroom. We adopted one problem, the essay #x0201c;fatal disease#x0201d; problem, from Wang, Simons, and Br#x000e9;dart (2001). We did not use the well-known Asian disease problem in this study because of the demographic characteristics in the Greater Toronto area, in which a considerable portion of the population is thesis statement, Asian. We adopted the other problem, the #x0201c;cancer treatment#x0201d; problem, from McNeil and colleagues (1982; see Appendix).
Note that, for both problems, the 200 words option labeled as B is the one that previous work shows is chosen reliably more in the negative frame than in the positive frame. The experiment was a 2 (Age: young and old) #x000d7; 2 (Frame: positive and negative) #x000d7; 2 (Justification: with and without justification) between-subjects design. There were 53 participants in each without-justification group and 40 in each with-justification group. Thesis. Participants in the with-justification condition were asked to essay provide a rationale in nitin, writing for their choice prior to 200 words actually indicating their choice (Sieck #x00026; Yates, 1997). Participants who were in and men essay killing, the without-justification condition were not asked to provide a rational for their choice. Each participant received both problems in a counterbalanced order in either their positive or negative frame.
Because research has shown that a reliance on 200 words analytic strategies is thesis, more likely at essay optimal times of day whereas a reliance on heuristic strategies is more likely at nonoptimal times (e.g., Bodenhausen, 1990), and because optimal times are different for younger and older adults (e.g., Yoon, May, #x00026; Hasher, 1999), we tested at normatively optimal times for nitin madnani thesis each group, that is, in the morning for older adults and in the afternoon for younger adults. Our goal was to increase the likelihood that analytic strategies would be used by essay, both groups in the standard condition. For Each Problem: Problem-by-Problem Analysis. The dependent variable was the proportion of younger and older adults selecting Option B in water resources be nationalised, each problem (see Table 1 ). We used a chi-square test to essay 200 words assess whether the choice proportions were significantly different across the two frames (especially, whether the choice proportion is resources should essay, significantly higher in the negative frame than in the positive frame), indicating the presence of a framing effect. 200 Words. In the without-justification condition, younger adults did not show a reliable framing effect in essay on my, the fatal disease problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 106) = 0.99, and essay 200 words, they showed a marginal effect in the cancer treatment problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 106) = 3.13, p = .08. (The effect size of the original Asian disease problem is assignment, actually exceptionally large; its effect size was categorized as an outlier in the meta-analysis of essay K#x000fc;hberger, 1998. According to of mice essay lennie him, an average effect size of Asian disease types of problems, i.e., problems with risk manipulation by essay, a reference point, is around medium. Thesis Statement. To give room for essay an effect to go up or down with younger and older participants, we selected problems with effect sizes slightly lower than medium in the current study. Perhaps this is the reason why we did not find framing effects in younger adults in each problem.) Older adults, by contrast, showed a significant framing effect for both the fatal disease problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 106) 2 (1, N = 9.95, p #x0003c; .01, and the cancer treatment problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 106) = 16.06, p #x0003c; .01. In the with-justification condition, younger adults did not show a framing effect for either the problem of fatal disease, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 80) = 0.25, or of cancer treatment, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 80) = 1.26.
Similarly, older adults did not show a framing effect = for either the fatal disease problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 80) = 1.32, or the cancer treatment problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 80) = 1.35. Across Problems: Pooled Data Analysis. We combined the choice data from the two problems to short on my classroom enable a powerful test of our hypotheses. (In order to essay examine the independence of participants#x02019; responses across two problems, we used McNemar#x02019;s test. McNemar#x02019;s test is a test used to examine whether repeated categorical responses in resources, two different conditions are independent of essay each other. The test results showed that responses or choices are independent, i.e., significantly different, from thesis statement tester each other across the two problems for younger and essay, older adults, respectively, in nitin thesis, each justification condition. Thus, these results should ensure that our collapsing of data across problems does not violate the responseindependence assumption of logistic regression.) We analyzed these pooled data by using logistic regression to examine main effects and interactions among three independent variables: frame (positive and negative), age (young and old) and justification (with and essay 200 words, without justification). First, we carried out model selection by statement tester, using stepwise and backward selection methods to find a logistic regression model that best fits the data (e.g., SAS Institute, 1989). The final model we selected (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit #x003c7; 2 = 1.58, p = .95, df = 6) excluded the essay three-way interaction (Age #x000d7; Justification #x000d7; Frame) and the one two-way interaction (Age #x000d7; Justification), and it included only three main effects (frame, age, and justification) and two two-way interactions (Age #x000d7; Frame and madnani thesis, Justification #x000d7; Frame). Of these five parameters in the final model, three (one main effect and two interactions) were statistically significant. Specifically, the main effect of frame was significant, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 744) = 6.84, p #x0003c; .01, indicating an essay overall framing effect. This effect, however, was qualified by two hypothesized interactions#x02014;Age #x000d7; Frame, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 744) = 4.66, p #x0003c; .05, and Justification #x000d7; Frame, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 744) = 4.53, p #x0003c; .05.
The Age #x000d7; Frame interaction indicates that participants#x02019; age had an effect on the magnitude of the nitin framing effect. To probe this further, we performed a separate logistic regression analysis for each age group. The main effect of frame was significant only for older adults, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 372) = 22.29, p #x0003c; .01, but not for younger adults, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 372) = 3.13, p = .08, suggesting that older adults were more = vulnerable = to= this framing effect than younger adults. The Justification #x000d7; Frame interaction indicates that the justification manipulation had an effect on the magnitude of the framing effect. 200 Words. Separate analyses that we performed for each justification condition revealed a significant main effect of frame only for the without-justification condition, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 424) = 23.14, p #x0003c; .01, but not for the with-justification condition, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 320) = 2.12. These results suggest that the justification manipulation significantly reduced the framing effect for both younger and on my, older adults. In the essay current study we examined whether there are age differences in vulnerability to a framing effect. Faced with a problem couched in terms of the number of people who will die as a result of two treatments#x02014;the classic negative frame#x02014; older adults were more risk seeking than younger adults and, by contrast, when given the statement identical problem couched in essay, terms of the number of thesis statement tester people who will live#x02014;the positive frame#x02014;older adults were more risk averse than younger adults. We observed a very similar pattern in the second problem, with older adults in this instance proving more likely to focus on short-term survival in 200 words, the negative frame and on long-term survival in the positive frame.
In other words, older adults#x02019; decisions were more influenced by the language frame, at least for problems such as those used here, both of which may well have an emotional context. Furthermore, as we expected on the basis of earlier studies asking younger participants to water should be nationalised essay provide a rationale for their decisions (e.g., Sieck #x00026; Yates, 1997; Takemura, 1993), the justification manipulation significantly reduced the present framing effect for 200 words both younger and older adults. Clearly, older adults can use analytic processes that enable them to base their decisions on a problem#x02019;s deeper structure, rather than on essay george its superficial language. The current data are consistent with the resource allocation hypothesis proposed by Hess, Rosenberg, and Waters (2001). According to this hypothesis, because older adults have limited cognitive resources, they tend to rely on heuristic information processing in order to conserve their mental energy for important tasks. As a result, Hess and colleagues argued that older adults can perform as well as younger adults in a relatively low resource-demanding task when they are highly motivated to process information systematically. Our data fit with this explanation, if this decision situation can be thought of as one making a low demand, in that older adults were more likely to 200 words show framing effects than younger adults because they tended to rely on heuristic information processing more than younger adults, but their performance improved up to a conclusion the level of younger adults when they were encouraged to process information systematically. Our current findings have important practical implications for older adults#x02019; decision making, especially in medical decision domains.
This is essay, a domain full of nitin thesis risky decisions that have to 200 words be made. Thus, knowing that older adults are more vulnerable than younger adults to how decision alternatives are verbally presented (framed), medical practitioners may need to pay greater attention to how they present medical information and treatment options when they communicate with elderly patients. However, our current finding that older adults#x02019; heightened susceptibility to short on my verbal framing can be ameliorated by a simple justification manipulation suggests that a relatively easy, everyday solution may be available to essay older adults#x02014;along with others#x02014;to reduce some biases in short, choice. This research was supported by essay, Grant R37 AGO4306 from the National Institute on Aging. We thank all the people who helped us in the data collection and entry processes of this project, including Rachelle Ta-Min, Ursula Wiprzycka, Ji-A Min, and many others.