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business plan rubric Rubric for Marketing Plan. Music Essay! The executive summary clearly communicates the critical elements of the marketing plan so that it reads as a stand-alone document. The length of the executive summary is sufficient to my big fat greek essay cover the critical information, but no more than two pages long. The executive summary includes most, but not all of the critical elements of the marketing plan. Some of the music in my daily life essay, information provided in the summary is unnecessary or trivial to understanding the plan. The summary is breast, no more than two pages long. In My Essay! The executive summary is either too short (less than one page) or too long (more than two pages).

The summary contains mostly unnecessary or trivial information, therefore, it is topics, inadequate as a stand-alone document. The introduction clearly and concisely introduces the purpose of the marketing plan. The introduction is somewhat unclear and/or not concise in stating the purpose of the marketing plan. There is music essay, no introduction that states the purpose of the marketing plan. Information about the millennium scholarship, company or organization is thoroughly and clearly reported, including such things as the type of music daily life, product or service, employees, company history, previous and current marketing efforts, current knowledge about gates scholarship customers and competitors, etc. Information about music in my daily life company or organization is, for the most part, thoroughly and my big wedding essay topics clearly reported. But some information that may be critical to the marketing plan is missing. Company or organization information is life essay, provided, but there is a great deal of potentially important information missing.

Market Definition, Potential, Demand. A visual depiction and verbal description of the market definition is provided that is fat greek wedding, reasonable and based on the company or organization. Reasonable estimates or calculations of market potential, market demand, and company demand are provided and music daily life clearly stated. Speech In The Virginia Convention! Any necessary assumptions used in calculations are clearly explained. Either the music essay, visual depiction or verbal description of the market definition is missing; both may be provided but not clear or reasonable. Critical Lens Essay! One of the in my daily, estimates/calculations for market potential, market demand, and company demand are missing or clearly miscalculated. Assumptions are stated, but not explained. There is no visual depiction of the market definition. Essay! More than one estimate/calculation of market potential, market demand, and company demand are missing or clearly miscalculated. Necessary assumptions are not provided.

Information about music in my daily life essay all major competitors or strategic groups is tone poem essay, thoroughly and music life clearly reported. Source(s) of the paragraph, information is provided. Any information that is considered to be important to know, but that has not been obtained with reasonable effort is music daily life essay, identified. Information about most of the major competitors or strategic groups is provided. Essay On Christmas Festival Language! Not all of the information is as clearly reported as possible.

The report does not explain missing data. Music In My Daily Essay! Some information about competitors is wanda landowska bio essay, provided, but the analysis lacks thoroughness and life essay clarity. There appears to festival language have been little effort given to obtaining competitor information and there is music in my daily, no explanation for missing information. On Christmas Festival In Marathi Language! Information about customers is thoroughly and clearly reported. The source of data is clearly reported (i.e., secondary or primary data, company information or new data collected for music the development of this plan. If new data has been collected, the method of collection, including sample size, description of sample, and data collection instrument is provided. Scholarship Essays! Any information that is considered to be important to music in my essay know, but that has not been obtained with reasonable effort is in the convention thesis, identified. Most of the important information about customers is music in my daily, reported, although not as thoroughly and clearly as possible. For example, data collection information may not be fully reported, data collection instrument may be missing. The report does not explain missing data. On The Odyssey! Although some customer information is reported, it is clear that only minimal efforts toward attaining this data have been made.

The information that is reported lacks clarity. In My Life Essay! The report does not recognize that data are missing. Images! A thorough SWOT analysis is provided, based on daily life the preceding analyses. Reasoning for each item in the SWOT is provided and logical. Strengths and weaknesses are clearly internal factors, and opportunities and threats are clearly external factors. SWOT analysis is provided, but there are some missing points from millennium preceding analyses. Music Daily Life! Reasoning for each item is not always thoroughly provided and/or logical. One or two strengths/weaknesses are external, or one-two opportunities/threats are internal.

SWOT analysis is provided, but there are at more than six missing points from preceding analyses. Landowska! There is no reasoning provided for the items. More than two strengths/weaknesses or opportunities/threats are inappropriate. Marketing Objectives Goals. The marketing objectives and goals are clearly related to the company/organization mission. Objectives and music in my daily life goals are clearly stated and breast tomosynthesis appropriately quantified. Linkage of music in my daily life essay, marketing objectives and breast tomosynthesis images goals to company/organization mission is music in my life, not clearly stated. Some of the objectives and goals are unclear and/or not appropriately quantified. Marketing goals and objectives are missing or those that are identified are not quantified or are inappropriate. The marketing direction that will frame marketing tactics of the marketing plan is virginia thesis, clearly and specifically stated in 3-5 sentences.

The marketing strategy is logically linked to the marketing objectives and goals. Marketing strategy is identified but is in my daily, unclear or unspecific in some aspects. The marketing strategy is gates millennium scholarship, logically linked to daily essay the marketing objectives and tone poem essay goals. The marketing strategy is music in my, missing or is illogical given the gates essays, marketing objectives and goals. Target Market Positioning. Based on the marketing strategy and SWOT analysis, the in my daily life essay, target market(s) is appropriately identified and speech in the convention thesis described. A positioning statement for each target market is music in my life, identified and explained, and reasonable. Based on the marketing strategy and breast SWOT analysis, the target market(s) is identified but not described in enough detail.

Positioning statement(s) is in my daily life, provided but not explained. Fat Greek Wedding Essay! Target market and positioning is missing, or, if identified, does not seem appropriate given the marketing strategy and SWOT analysis. Positioning statement(s) is missing. Product and Brand Management. The objectives of product/brand management are clearly stated and music daily life appropriate. Tactics for tone poem essay managing the music in my daily, product/service/brand are thoroughly and in the clearly identified and reasoned. When necessary, sufficient detail about tactics is music life essay, provided, making it easier to understand the scope of the essay paragraph outline, tactic. The objectives of product/brand management are stated, but somewhat unclear. Most of the tactics are thoroughly and clearly identified, but one obvious tactic is missing.

Some detail on tactics is music daily life, missing, hindering understanding. Objectives for tone poem essay product/brand management are missing. More than one obvious tactic is daily, missing. Very little detail on specific tactics is provided. Tactics are unclear and breast images hard to understand. The objectives of pricing management are clearly stated and appropriate. Tactics for managing price are thoroughly and clearly identified and reasoned. When necessary, sufficient detail about tactics is provided, making it easier to in my essay understand the on christmas in marathi language, scope of the tactic. The objectives of pricing management are stated, but somewhat unclear.

Most of the in my, tactics are thoroughly and clearly identified, but one obvious tactic is missing. Some detail on tactics is tone poem essay, missing, hindering understanding. Music In My Daily! Objectives for bio essay pricing management are missing. More than one obvious tactic is missing. Very little detail on daily life essay specific tactics is in marathi language, provided.

Tactics are unclear and hard to understand. The objectives of distribution management are clearly stated and appropriate. Daily! Tactics for bio essay managing distribution are thoroughly and music in my essay clearly identified and reasoned. Outline! When necessary, sufficient detail about in my tactics is provided, making it easier to convention understand the scope of the tactic. The objectives of distribution management are stated, but somewhat unclear. In My! Most of the my big, tactics are thoroughly and life essay clearly identified, but one obvious tactic is missing. Critical Lens On The! Some detail on tactics is missing, hindering understanding. Objectives for in my daily distribution management are missing.

More than one obvious tactic is missing. Very little detail on specific tactics is provided. Tactics are unclear and hard to critical lens understand. The objectives of communication management are clearly stated and appropriate. Tactics for in my essay managing communications are thoroughly and clearly identified and reasoned. When necessary, sufficient detail about tactics is provided, making it easier to my big topics understand the music essay, scope of the tactic. The objectives of essay on christmas in marathi, communication management are stated, but somewhat unclear. Most of the music in my essay, tactics are thoroughly and clearly identified, but one obvious tactic is missing. Critical Lens Essay Odyssey! Some detail on in my life tactics is gates millennium scholarship essays, missing, hindering understanding.

Objectives for communication management are missing. In My Essay! More than one obvious tactic is missing. Very little detail on thesis specific tactics is provided. Tactics are unclear and hard to understand. A thorough and in my life essay specific implementation plan is essay festival language, clearly identified for every tactic; the essay, plan identifies who is responsible for implementing the tactic, when it should be implemented, the landowska, cost, measurement of effectiveness, and music daily essay any other relevant information. The implementation plan is specific enough so that the company/organization has a blueprint for using the speech virginia thesis, plan.

In addition to music life specific effectiveness measures for landowska each tactic, overall control measures for the marketing plan, and contingency actions, are identified. Music Essay! An implementation plan is identified, but one to two tactics are not addressed. Specificity of fat greek topics, some of the plan could be improved. The company/organization will be able to use the plan to implement the music in my daily essay, marketing plan, but may be confused about some aspects because of essay on the odyssey, missing information. Overall control measures are included and contingency actions are identified, but they lack thoroughness. An implementation plan is identified, but more than two tactics are not addressed, and the plan generally lacks specificity.

Because of in my daily essay, missing information, the plan will not help the company/organization implement the marketing plan. Overall control measures and contingency plans are not identified. Essay Festival In Marathi! A brief summary that identifies the music daily life, expected outcomes with successful implementation of the breast tomosynthesis, marketing plan is music daily, clearly presented in a short paragraph. A summary of critical lens essay on the odyssey, expected outcomes is provided but lacks clarity. In My Essay! There is no conclusion. Written work is well organized and easy to understand. Topics! Sections of the music life, plan are marked with appropriate headings.

Tables and essay outline charts are appropriately used and easy to understand, and music daily life contribute to the ease of reading the plan. The organization is breast tomosynthesis images, generally good, but some sections seem out of place. Some headings may be missing. Tables and charts are included, but are difficult to understand (e.g., poorly labeled). The plan is disorganized to music in my daily the extent that it prevents understanding the content. There are no headings. Inappropriate use of convention, charts or tables; or, use of music daily life essay, tables and charts is indicated, but not included. The plan has a writing style that is uniform throughout the breast images, paper and music in my appropriate for millennium this type of music daily, written project.

There is no indication that the paper involved multiple authors. The writing style lacks uniformity at times and wanda landowska is not always appropriate for a marketing plan. There is music essay, some indication of wanda landowska bio essay, multiple authors (e.g., different fonts, different paper, etc.). Music In My Daily Essay! Plan is clearly the work of multiple authors with different writing styles, margins, printer fonts, paper types, etc. Grammar, Spelling, and images Formatting. The plan has been thoroughly spell-checked and proofread.

There are no to almost none grammatical or spelling errors. There are no formatting errors. There are a few spelling and/or grammatical errors. There are one to three formatting errors. In My Life! There are frequent misspelled words, serious grammatical errors, and formatting errors, indicating that time was not taken to spell-check and proofread. Use of Appendices. Essay Paragraph Outline! Information is appropriately placed in either the music essay, main text or an appendix.

Appendices are documented and referenced in the text. Information is sometimes misplaced. Gates Millennium Scholarship! Documenting and referencing in text are somewhat incomplete. Appendices are poorly documented and referenced in text. Considerable amount of essay, material is essay paragraph, misplaced.

Appendices are not documented or referenced in text. Material used in the writing of the plan taken from external sources is appropriately referenced both within the document and on music daily a reference page. Some material taken from external sources is not referenced, either in the text or on a reference page. Wanda Landowska Bio Essay! No references in the text or on daily life essay a reference page are provided, although it is obvious that material from external sources has been used. Overall, the written communication of the marketing plan conveys a sense of essay on christmas festival in marathi language, professionalism, a written document that appears and reads like it was developed by music in my daily life essay, professionals, not students. Many aspects of the marketing plan convey a sense of professionalism, but there are some written communication problems that are not congruent with a professionally prepared marketing plan.

The marketing plan lacks any sense of landowska, professionalism and is clearly prepared by students.

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Shakespeare en devenir - Les Cahiers de La Licorne. fr Publie en ligne le 28 janvier 2010. “Exploring the relation of Kurosawa’s Ran to in my daily life essay, Shakespeare’s King Lear ” This essay sets out to explore the tone poem essay relationship between Shakespeare’s King Lear and Akira Kurosawa’s Ran . Music Essay. Central to wanda landowska bio essay, the growth of Kurosawa’s interest in the narrative and dramatic structures of Shakespeare is the conflict between authority and challenge within the family. Music In My Life. Kurosawa sets his films Kumonosu-Djo and Ran in 16th Century Japan, a more rigidly ritualised social context than is the tomosynthesis images social frame of King Lear. Dialogue is reduced to a bare minimum in Ran , but the images with which Kurosawa projects the inner world of the characters as well as the outer world of natural space carry their own searing poignancy. Where Shakespeare’s play presents a situation which moves forward into the future, Kurosawa was convinced that the characters’ actions gain credibility if they emerge from a specifically sketched past, a difference which shifts the moral stature of the central character. There are no exact equivalents for the subsidiary King Lear characters in Ran.

Rather there is frequently a distribution of in my life character qualities among supporting, sometimes peripheral, characters. Like Shakespeare’s play, Ran is gates millennium scholarship essays, concerned with the relationship between humankind and animal. The hunt, a central motif in King Lear , is graphically established in Ran , raising questions about the place of man in the natural order. In both Shakespeare’s play and Kurosawa’s film there emerges a view of humankind in which the likelihood of in my daily descent into landowska catastrophic darkness is counterpoised against only a glimmer of potential insight. 1 To place Kurosawa's films in life the context of his own life and upbringing is revealing because that is where he so emphatically places them himself. On the one hand there was the rigid ritualisation, the rigorous order of Japanese society, in which he grew as a child; on in the virginia the other, there were scenes of chaos in the aftermath of the great earthquake of 1 September, 1923, scenes which he saw at first hand as a boy of thirteen. “Through the great earthquake,” wrote Kurosawa later, “I learnt not only of the extra-ordinary powers of nature, but of the extra-ordinary things that lie in human hearts1.” Like Shakespeare's view of the world, then, Kurosawa's vision would seem to in my daily life essay, relate the conflicts within the individual's mind and emotions to an eruption of conflict on a vast, cosmic scale. 2 Akira Kurosawa made some 30 films during his life time. Three of these are generally regarded as belonging in that loose category, “Shakespeare films”. In each of the source plays traditional authority is initially vested in festival language a king who is also a father. Kumonosu-Djo (1957) takes Shakespeare’s Macbeth as its source; The Bad Sleep Well (1960) has clear thematic resonances with Hamlet ; and music in my essay Ran (1985) relates the story of the old Head of the Ichimonji clan, Hidetora, and his three sons to tone poem essay, Shakespeare’s play about King Lear and his three daughters.

3 “A case could be made,” maintains Kenneth Rothwell, that even if Akira Kurosawa had never heard of Hamlet , Macbeth or King Lear , he would still have made movies that seem to echo them in their indeterminacy, their tantalising interplay between illusion and reality, their focus on usurped authority2 . 4 The conflict between authority and challenge certainly interested deeply both Shakespeare and in my daily Kurosawa. Authority figures and the unexpected questioning of the assumed power of that authority become central issues, as do conflicts that arise within that most elemental of speech social units, the family. Daily Life Essay. Kings or feudal lords and fathers represent the authority figures who are inevitably confronted by defiance or subversion on the part of their subjects or children. 5 The Bad Sleep Well , which Kurosawa made in order to expose the corrupt business practices in post-war Japan, stands apart from the virginia thesis other two films. It is a modern story film in which a young businessman sets out to avenge the death of his father whose murder was arranged to seem like suicide. The film’s plot is daily life essay, tortuous, and while there are thematic parallels with Hamlet, and there are characters in the film who reflect aspects of critical lens essay Ophelia, Laertes, Claudius, Horatio and Polonius, Kurosawa denied that the film was especially influenced by music life Shakespeare. 6 Kumonosu-Djo and virginia convention thesis Ran both engage with Kurosawa’s profound interest in daily essay the samurai culture of 16th century Japan, and it was Kumonosu-Djo ( The Castle of the Spider’s Web – or Throne of Blood as it is commonly titled in English) which attracted the critical engagement of landowska Shakespeare scholars. With minimal dialogue the film dramatises in music in my essay visual terms the deep psychological complexity within Washizu (the Macbeth character). As Macbeth’s inner strife between ambition and loyalty emerges in poetic soliloquy in essay Shakespeare’s play, Washizu’s conflict between ambition for power on the one hand and his obligations of in my life allegiance to his lord on the other is represented in the film by a dense and disorienting forest through which he and his friend Miki (the Banquo figure) make repeated, increasingly frantic attempts to on christmas festival, find a clear path. 7 The enthusiasm with which the film generated critical comment from academic – as opposed to journalistic – critics threw up debate on the nature of the film’s relation to Shakespeare’s play. Those who regarded the daily essence of a Shakespeare play as residing in the poetic language of the dialogue have maintained that the film did not belong in breast images the same category as films which incorporated the Shakespearean dialogue in music life essay English or in direct translation.

Frank Kermode maintained that the film was “an allusion” not an adaptation, nor even a “Shakespeare film” since the dialogue was not Shakespeare’s3. Peter Brook regarded it as lying outside “the Shakespeare question4”. Tone Poem Essay. J. In My Life Essay. Blumenthal in a celebrated essay championed it as “a masterpiece” in its own right and applauded its liberation from “the dreaded literary media5”. 8 Arguing that if play and film are regarded as occupying “entirely different spaces and cannot even be compared, much less evaluated, against one another. ”, Graham Holdernesssaw Throne of Blood as “offering the possibility of meaning only in relation to Kurosawa’s other work and to Japanese culture, ideology and society6”. 9 While Western traditional academic views of Shakespeare’s plays essentially as literature held their ground through the 1960s and 1970s, the defence of that position has since been overtaken by a recognition of the film’s artistic potential and its capacity for millennium scholarship essays presenting to daily life essay, new audiences and viewers dramatic material from many sources, popular as well as classic. 10 If the breast legitimacy of Shakespearean descent is no longer a relevant subject of debate, the question of just how and where the films might be placed in relation to Shakespeare’s plays continues to provoke rewarding discussion, most particularly of Kurosawa's two Samurai Shakespeare films.

Kumonosu-Djo is structurally closer to Shakespeare's Macbeth than Ran is to King Lear , because it reflects more clearly the daily life dramatic peaks in on christmas festival Macbeth . Macbeth's meeting with the witches, Duncan's arrival at Dunsinane, Macbeth's ultimate commitment to murder Duncan, Lady Macbeth's attempt to wash the blood from her hands, the movement of the wood to Dunsinane (heralded by the flying of birds into music daily life the castle) – all these turning points are clearly paralleled in the film. All propel the dramatic action of the film as they advance it in Shakespeare's play. 11 As he did in Kumonosu-Djo, Kurosawa dramatises his Ran universe historically. The early influences upon him – his education in tone poem essay the martial arts – directed his interests in the sixteenth-century samurai tradition. In both films, the ethics and the social setting are distinctly those of a warrior culture. Life Essay. Shakespeare's Macbeth is a warrior and is established as such early in the play. Shakespeare's Lear, however, is not, and bio essay that is an daily life essay important respect in which the character interactions and the universe of Ran are distanced from tone poem essay, those of its Shakespearean source. 12 The high points in the first half of Shakespeare's play are those terrible moments in which Lear and in my life his daughters break their natural family ties, those harrowing confrontations between Lear and Cordelia, Lear and Goneril, Lear and Regan, inflicting wounds from which there is no thorough recovery. Lear’s language, both an indication of the violence within him, and a pointer to breast images, the displacement of human codes of behaviour by ruthless animal passions, do not all find an immediately accessible equivalent in visual terms.

13 The highly ritualised society in which Kurosawa sets his drama means that the energies which surface in the individual conflicts in in my essay Shakespeare's play find their outlets in Ran with a more formal mode of dominance and submission. Lear’s parting from Goneril is dramatised through Lear’s devastating language, carrying with it a prayer for the reversal of nature’s primary urge, reproduction: Into her womb convey sterility, Dry up in her the organs of increase, And from her derogate body never spring. A babe to honour her. (1.4.257- 260) 14 When Lady Kaede and her husband, Taro, send for Hidetora Lady Kaede politely invites him to sit below his position of wanda landowska bio essay seniority.

Displaying no emotion, she and her husband coldly rebuke him for the behaviour of his Fool and retinue, and make him sign a pledge conferring all power on Taro. The minimal dialogue and music in my life essay their reposed, dispassionate stillness in scholarship essays the frame contrast with Hidetora’s repressed anger at his humiliation and his sudden decision to leave the castle and move to his second son. 15 Like Shakespeare's King Lear , Ran is the story of an old man of acknowledged estate, who wishes to retire and shed his responsibilities while holding on to his privileges. Early in the play, Lear invites his daughters, one by one, to in my daily essay, declare how much they love him. The two elder daughters play his “game” and make their exaggerated claims: Sir, I do love you more than words can wield the matter; Dearer than eyesight, space , or liberty […], Myself an enemy to all other joys. And find I am alone felicitate in critical lens essay your dear highness’ love. Music In My Life. (1.1.

55-56 and 72-76) 16 Cordelia’s “I love your majesty/ According to my bond, nor more nor less” is not merely a refusal to wanda bio essay, play Lear’s “game” on the formal level, but it is received by Lear as a penetrating – in some ways, perhaps, a fatal – thrust into that area of the heart which he cannot defend: a father’s special love for a favourite daughter. 17 Kurosawa presents Hidetora’s attempt to convince his three sons that unswerving family loyalty results in invincible strength in dramatic action rather than language. Hidetora hands each son an arrow and in my daily life makes each break it. Then he makes each son try to break, in the same way, a tightly held bundle of arrows. The elder two play the “game” in the expected fashion, but the millennium essays youngest, Saburo, reveals both the silliness of the music daily life game and the fallacy of speech convention confusing rigidity with strength by breaking the whole sheaf against his knee. As a result, like Cordelia, he forfeits his inheritance and in my daily life essay is banished from the family realm.

18 Christopher Hoile argues that the test of the three arrows. replaces the love test in King Lear , but it is not equivalent to it. It emphasizes the breaking of a bond not between the father and his sons but the gates scholarship bond among the sons themselves. Since primogeniture had already been established by the period Kurosawa has chosen, his Lear’s folly seems to be in dividing his kingdom and expecting harmony rather than in expecting the continued love of his children for him7. 19 While these parallels demonstrate how Kurosawa sets up a visual dramatisation of what Shakespeare dramatises theatrically and verbally, there are significant character differences between the two fathers. Having been a warrior lord rather than a king, and having held his power through havoc wrought upon the victims of his lust for supremacy, Hidetora is governed by a distinctly masculine sense of what is proper ritualised behaviour on the part of music life his sons. Pauline Kael, coming from a different angle, sees Shakespeare's King Lear as being “about primary emotions.

Lear […] stands for every abused parent figure who believed in his children's show of love for breast tomosynthesis him8”. 20 If she reduces the complexity of the question which Lear himself poses by daily life essay implication in breast images asserting that he is “more sinned against than sinning” (3.2.59) her view does locate the in my life essay essence of the dramatic action within the perceptions — and the self-perceptions — of Lear and as being more profoundly rooted within the underlying psycho-dynamics of the family. 21 The complexity of any comparison of Ran with Shakespeare’s play is advanced by two narrative shifts. One is the fusion of two sources: the story of the tone poem essay 16th century Japanese father, Mori Motonari, and in my life essay his three sons and essay on christmas in marathi language Shakespeare’s play. Then there is Kurosawa’s sense that the characters in life essay the King Lear narrative have to have a past to lens on the odyssey, explain their relationships within the dramatic development of the film. In an in my daily life essay interview before the New York premiere, Kurosawa insisted that his own dissatisfaction with Shakespeare’s King Lear arose from what he saw as a character deficiency in Lear, the absence of. any reflection on his past. If he begins in a position of such great power, and then he goes mad because his daughters turn against him, there has to lens odyssey, be a reason […] and the only reason must lie in his past behaviour. He must have been a terrible tyrant to music in my, get to where he is at the beginning of the play. And his daughters must have learned from him9.

22 But there are convincing arguments on the other side. James Goodwin maintains that “A principal consequence of the film’s creation of a detailed past of misdeeds by in marathi the character is to make Hidetora not only less tragic but also less heroic than Lear10”. Janet Adelman has found much of the dramatic power of music Shakespeare’s King Lear characters in speech in the thesis their being. unlocalized in time and unencumbered by music in my daily life essay those details of scholarship essays personal history that might serve to alienate their concerns from our own, they seem to emerge from some unknown part of ourselves, as if in a dream11. 23 Kurosawa’s insistence on music in my daily life essay giving his characters and their motivations a past does shift substantially the dramatic focus of on christmas Ran . In My Life Essay. The action as it develops is consistently rooted in the past. In King Lear , the concentration of dramatic development, commencing with the king’s urge for his daughters to endorse formally their love for him, thrusts forward into the future. 24 Kurosawa has distributed attributes of Shakespeare’s King Lear characters among Hidetora’s sons and daughters-in-law as well as his servants and retainers.

There is a character figure for Shakespeare's Kent and gates millennium scholarship also for Lear's Fool. But there is music in my life essay, no secondary Gloucester plot in Kurosawa's film, so the vicious vindictiveness which is brought to the Lear world by the illegitimate Edmund emerges at a less intense level in images Hidetora’s second son, Jiro’s resentment of his elder brother’s priority inheritance. While Saburo (Hidetora’s youngest son) stands in for Lear’s youngest daughter, Cordelia, some of her quality emerges also in Sue, Jiro’s wife. Most of the destructive force unleashed against Hidetora comes not directly from his sons, but from music daily essay, his daughter-in-law, the speech in the virginia Lady Kaede (wife to Taro, the eldest son). Her implacable motivation arises from Hidetora’s earlier conquest of her family castle. Her devouring and manipulative attraction to Jiro in Ran parallels Regan’s passionate sexual appetite for Edmund in music in my daily life King Lear . 25 Kurosawa has layered the conflicts on two levels so that the masculine consanguineous level of strife involves the sons – more evidently in war among themselves rather than with their father, “the realm of strife on a physical plane, of tone poem essay battle for earthly dominion12”. 26 The feminine, non-consanguineous relations – of life essay whom the Lady Kaede is the essential dynamic source of hostility to Hidetora as surviving senior representative of the Ichimonji – operate on a spiritual level. In The. On the one hand, Lady Sue and music in my daily essay her brother Tsurumaru bring an infusion of Buddhism into the drama while on the other, Lady Kaede has pledged to the ancestral spirits her undertaking to bring about the fall of the Ichimonji clan. 27 In an enthusiastic and thought-provoking essay which ranges over several aspects of the film, Sam Crowl has dealt in critical lens essay on the odyssey detail with the characterisations in Ran and the extent of their derivation from in my daily life, King Lear , but his over-riding concern is with what Kurosawa’s narrative achieves through “the gender reversal” of Lear’s progeny. He concludes that. In creating sisters-in-law rather than brothers-in-law and by millennium merging Cornwall with Edmund in his creation of music Kaede [Kurosawa] managed to raise issues of female power and legitimacy that extend and transcend Shakespeare’s text13.

28 It is not clear why the merging of gates essays Cornwall and music daily life essay Edmund in Kaede leads to an extension and transcending of Shakespeare’s text when it amounts essentially to a redirection away from Shakespeare’s dramatic focus. If “issues of female power” have been raised, important dimensions in the dramatic function within Shakespeare’s play are lost in the Kaede amalgam. The cruelties of Cornwall and Edmund emerge from different psychological roots, each interesting in tone poem essay its own right. Cornwall emerges as pathologically sadistic while Edmund’s viciousness arises from deep resentments, his exclusion from family inheritance and from legal and social position. Edmund’s particular significance in Shakespeare’s play is related to the central questions about in my, nature, society and the family, and the powerful destructive forces that are unleashed from within it. Kaede’s destructive motivation is generated by a desire for revenge on Hidetora. Neither Cornwall nor Edmund have suffered at the hands of the characters they aim to destroy. 29 Blindness, a major theme in Shakespeare’s play, emerges as a physical manifestation in Sue’s brother, Tsurumaru, who inhabits a small hut in which Hidetora and the Fool seek shelter. Tone Poem Essay. In Tsurumaru then there is a hint of the life blinded Gloucester, but there are more dimensions to him. On the one hand, he more resonantly embodies aspects of Edgar, Gloucester’s legitimate son; on the other he seems, like Kyoami, Hidetora’s fool, to occupy an ambivalent zone between the masculine and feminine divisions in the film. 30 Both Shakespeare's Macbeth and King Lear depend upon an interaction between the world of gates scholarship nature and the world of in my man.

In Kumonosu-Djo the world of speech convention man is symbolised by the castle and its geometrical assertion, while the in my life world of millennium scholarship nature is represented by life essay the forest and on christmas language the mist. Life. The interaction between these elements of man’s architecture and the organic structures of the natural world provides the unifying tension in the film. Speech In The Virginia Thesis. Kurosawa does not establish so distinct a polarity between the two worlds in Ran . Here, the in my life essay world of nature becomes a more complex dramatic presence, sometimes seeming to run parallel with – but indifferent to – the human drama, sometimes becoming a commentator on the action, sometimes an ominous reminder of the scale of human affairs in on the odyssey the greater universe within which the conflicts, alliances and calculating schemes of men and women are played out. There are constant assertions of its presence: vistas of grass-covered hillsides, the music boar hunt at the start of the film, the sounds of tone poem essay birds and insects accompanying – sometimes with a ringing insistence – certain moments in the action, the music in my life essay recurring shots of darkening storm clouds which punctuate and give cosmic dimensions to landowska, the gathering human drama. 31 Ran opens with four horsemen standing amid a splendid landscape of distant mountains, lush green hillsides under a wide sky. In My Essay. They stand the only visible intruders on the hillside, only the occasional switch of a horse’s tail giving life to wanda landowska, the group as they continue to stand behind the credits on daily life the screen, small against images, the wide backdrop of the natural world that Kurosawa’s camera holds before us with such an enduring impact. The stillness of this opening sequence is abruptly broken by the pursuit of music daily several wild boars. A ceremonial hunt is in progress, the intercut camera shots capturing both the desperate attempts of the tone poem essay beasts to escape and music in my life essay the leading huntsman, Hidetora riding at tone poem essay speed, his bow drawn and the arrow held level. Hidetora’s concentration, his steady eye and sustained aim as he sits astride his galloping mount combine stillness and movement as a contrapuntal climax to the opening sequence of the film. Music In My Daily Life. There is no doubt that he will successfully shoot the boar.

32 It is not a lengthy sequence, but the dramatic contrasts between undisturbed natural grandeur and tone poem essay the disruptive pace of pursuit, and the seeming assumption that a running animal is legitimate quarry pose weighty questions not only life about the natural world and odyssey the place of human beings within it, but also about the legitimacy of man’s behaviour to others of his own species. 33 In Shakespeare’s King Lear there is a passing reference to hunting. Music In My. (Goneril: “When he returns from hunting/ I will not speak with him”, 1.3.7), enough to remind us that it is a king’s sport and to essay festival language, hint at some complexity to the question of the in my life essay place of man in the natural world, and the impulses governed by animal nature in breast tomosynthesis the behaviour of man. But it is a small detail in the text and is often bypassed in the attention that other issues in the play demand. Why then does Kurosawa present the hunt with such a forceful impact at the the start of Ran ? 34 Grigori Kozintsev pondering on the textual threads in daily essay Shakespeare’s play has written of Lear’s new-found leisure activity, despite the brevity of its mention, as the raising of a major theme in the play: Lear begins his stay with Goneril by going hunting […]. The poetic space [of King Lear ] is populated with. enormous wild beasts, fierce predators. Language. There are two main spheres in Lear, the in my life essay images of suffering human flesh and the figure of the wild beast. Millennium Essays. The hunt carries through the whole tragedy with ever-increasing pace […].“Come not between the dragon and in my life his wrath” is gates scholarship, one of the first threats. In My Essay. “The bow is bent and drawn” – and landowska Kent is banished (and if he is caught “The moment is thy death”).

Kent tracked down Oswald; Edmund hunted Edgar; Cornwall snared Kent (in the stocks); they picked up Gloucester’s scent; encircled Lear; the footsteps looped like a hare’s – Lear’s footsteps from locked gates to barred doors; […]. It is a hunt where beasts are not caught, but men themselves turn into beasts. They do not destroy predators but become predators themselves – the whole race of man14. 35 Kozintsev has revealed the hunting motif as an essential indicator of interaction in Shakespeare’s King Lear . Music In My Daily Life. Kurosawa by opening Ran with it clearly also places it in lens on the a position of dramatic primacy. 36 Attempts have been made to find common ground in the way nature is treated by music daily life essay Shakespeare and Kurosawa, namely by C. Festival Language. J. Bannon and Julie Kane15. But the placing of nature and animal imagery in the film do not readily reflect that of Shakespeare.

David Jortner points out that what we may perceive to be the relationship between man and the animal world from a Western standpoint has limitations in music essay the context of the film’s Buddhist philosophical universe. It is, he suggests, an over-simplification to see the boar as a metaphor for Hidetora’s progress from hunter to wanda landowska, hunted: […] an alternative Buddhist reading of the same moment acknowledges the possibility that after his death Hidetora may truly become reincarnated in the form of a boar, the cycle of death and reincarnation is linked from the opening moments of the film to the final ones16. 37 While the Western Christian tradition views death as a removal to another sphere of existence separate from nature as manifested to earthly life, the belief systems of Shinto and Buddhism place the music in my essay whole of man’s existence more firmly within the natural world. Breast Tomosynthesis Images. Kurosawa dramatises the boar hunt at the start of the film as a powerfully memorable sequence which “lets [his] audience know that one of the underlying themes in Ran will be the role and place of humanity within the natural world”. 38 The storm – that great chaos of nature which is at the centre of Shakespeare's play and which links the confusion of the individual psyche with the disorder of the universe – is not (in Ran ) a thunder storm, but a blistering gale-force wind which flattens the grass on the hillside under a bright sky. It is not Shakespeare's massive convulsion of universal turmoil, nor is it the central chaos of the film – which is unleashed in life the battle scenes – but it is a wind from which man has to take shelter. It effectively reminds us that humankind asserts its mark on the world by creating domains within which there is some protection from exposure to nature, whether they be the barest, least substantial shelters like Tsurumaru’s small hut, or massive castles protected like military fortresses. 39 All the castles have immense gates which effectively dwarf the soldiers who struggle to open them. The opening and closing of the gates make powerful visual statements about the relationships governing human interaction, and they give emphatic punctuation to fear, trust, protection, rejection and defiance – as the implications in Shakespeare's play make clear.

When Hidetora arrives at Jiro’s castle he imposes his authority on the soldiers who guard the castle to pull back the bars and heave open the massive creaking wooden gates. Finding that Jiro is allied with Taro against him, Hidetora exercises his authority for the last time in commanding that the speech in the convention gates be opened for his departure. With their powerful weight of final rejection, the gates close behind Hidetora excluding him from the domain of music in my daily life essay man and leaving him to live as he can in wanda the indifferent world of essay nature. 40 Yet despite the heaviness of the gates and breast tomosynthesis images the apparent finality of their closing, there begins to emerge in the film’s progression a flimsiness, an impermanence in music daily essay these man-built fortresses. Against the background of the massive world of nature as it is reflected in tone poem essay the film, man’s efforts to proclaim himself through this architecture are revealed as ephemeral. In My Life. An eco-critical reading of the critical essay film focuses attention on the contrast between fortresses with their “tribute to hubris and music in my essay false hopes”17on the one hand, and, on the other, the power and seeming vastness of the physical landscape which give the film its dimensions of nobility. 41 Film is inevitably multi-layered, a document of millennium scholarship essays synchronous historical periods. Music In My Daily. In the critical essay on the case of Ran , there is the historical period in which the drama of the film is set and simultaneously as we view the film, we are observing the time in which the film was made. It is therefore relevant to consider the issues that were current in the Japan of the music life 1980s and to see those as surfacing in Kurosawa’s later work. 42 Kurosawa’s landscape cinematography in Ran seems not merely to be a dramatic element in the film, but to assert itself with a wider elegiac relevance.

There emerges in the film’s treatment of landscape with all its grandeur a sense of its fragility: a drift from the initial placing of man in lens essay odyssey the natural world to a Japan being mobilised (as it was in the 1980s) as a modern prosperous economy. An observer of modern Japan, Alex Kerr, has noted: Sometimes when driving through the countryside I come across another mountain being bulldozed or a river being concreted over, and I feel a sense of fear. Japan has become a huge and terrifying machine, a Moloch tearing apart its own land with teeth of steel, and there is absolutely nothing anyone can do to stop it18. 43 The long-repressed jealousies and resentments in the warring factions in Ran spill over into furious battle sequences filmed with fluency and music in my daily life essay with a sense of uncontrollable descent into breast chaos (which is what Ran means) immersed in music a smokey darkness lit only by roaring flames that engulf the castles. Against the smoke-dimmed colours of this destruction Kurosawa has colour-coded his armies in bright yellow, red and blue, colours which correspond with the costumes initially worn by the respective sons of wanda landowska bio essay Hidetora.

44 Hidetora is daily essay, not Shakespeare's Lear. He is an landowska bio essay aged warrior who has justified the devastation he has wrought as all warriors do – it is in music life the nature of war: and so what befalls him is in the nature of revenge. Yet just as there arises in Shakespeare’s play a sombre sense that the values and stability of an ordered feudal world have given way to a modern set of rapacious priorities, so in Ran , the millennium scholarship essays individual courage and fighting skill of the music in my essay samurai have been overtaken by technological advance. The bow and arrows and the sword of the samurai have been superseded by muskets, weapons capable of more general and indiscriminate destruction. The muskets are but one step forward in the technology of weaponry which will lead, with an ineluctable logic to modern weapons of random, wholesale destruction, to. a world where every man-made structure is either burned or crumbles to dust, a world where fire and breast images dust run through the life areas that are marked as “civilized” evok[ing] images of the great devastation wrought by the unleashing of nuclear weapons in Japan19.

45 The closing sequences of the film complete a journey from ceremony and imposed order to chaos and destruction. The authority of the father over the sons, the insistence of old age to expect deference and of the obstinate mind to defy the physical indications of exhaustion, all these are established in the opening sequences of the film. The lush green hills of the landscape, the repose of the horsemen immediately before the entrance of the running boar, and the bright colours of the festival language clothing worn by Hidetora’s sons ultimately give way to a general opacity through which is glimpsed in colourless interiors, the hectic search, discovery and killing of life essay Lady Kaede. 46 Yet counterpoised against the flames and essay festival smoke of the burning castle and in my daily life essay the headlong stampede of masses to their slaughter is the concentration of the tragedy in individuals, the reconciliation on rock-strewn ground of Hidetora and his son Saburo. The subtitled dialogue is not poetic, but the emotions are powerfully projected in gesture and movement. Kurosawa knows intimately the medium in which he is millennium scholarship, working and he visualises the power of emotions in action, in the relation of flesh and blood to earth. Where Shakespeare’s Lear says, “You do me wrong to take me out of the grave” (5.1.38.), letting the depth of the feeling rest in the iambic rhythm and flow of the line, Hidetora’s lines are questions: “Why are you so cruel? Why pull me from my grave?”, and then he turns from them and tries frantically to bury himself under the rocks. 47 Hidetora’s “fool” is with his master to the end and his weeping at the reconciliation of Saburo with his father is a poignant commentary on the feelings which underlie the silences punctuated with subtitled dialogue.

A single musket shot kills Saburo and on open ground devoid of any growth Hidetora’s final agony in being deprived of in my life essay his son closes with “It grows dark”. Hidetora’s words are a commentary on scholarship the draining away of colour from the closing sequence of the film. Behind a war-weary procession of soldiers is silhouetted the precipitous edge towards which the blind Tsurumaru will totter and in my life from which he, as a representative of virginia nuclear-age humankind, will stumble back, fearful but unaware of his closeness to disaster. Music Essay. In letting fall his illuminated scroll depiction of the Buddha, Tsurumaru is stripped finally of all but the precariousness of essay on christmas festival in marathi language chance survival. 1 Akira Kurosawa, Something Like an Autobiography , New York, Knopf, 1982, p. 23. 2 Kenneth Rothwell, A History of Shakespeare on Screen , Cambridge, CUP, 2001, p. 192. 3 Frank Kermode, “Shakespeare in the Movies”, inGerald Mast and Marshall Cohen (eds.), Film Theory and Criticism , Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1974, p. 322-332. 4 Peter Brook, public lecture, London, 20 Jan.

1982. 5 John Blumenthal, “Macbeth into Throne of Blood”, in Gerald Mast and Marshall Cohen (eds.), Film Theory and Criticism , New York, 1974. 6 Graham Holderness, “Radical potentiality and daily life institutional closure: Shakespeare in film and television”, in Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield(eds.), Political Shakespeare: New Essays in tone poem essay Cultural Materialism , Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1985, p. 182-192, 199-200. 7 Christopher Hoile, “ King Lear and Kurosawa’s Ran : Splitting, Doubling and music daily life essay Distancing”, Pacific Coast Philology ,Vol. 22, (Nov. 1987), p.29-34. 8 Pauline Kael, Deeper into Movies , Boston, Little, Brown, 1973, p. 354. 9 Kurosawa quoted in Christopher Hoile, op.cit ., p. 30. 10 James Goodwin, Akira Kurosawa and Intertextual Cinema , Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994, p. 212. 11 Janet Adelman (ed.), Twentieth Century Interpretations of King Lear, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1978, p. 6.

12 Christopher Hoile, op. Breast Images. cit. , p. Music. 32. 13 Samuel Crowl, “The Bow is Bent and Drawn: Kurosawa’s Ran and the Shakespearean Arrow of Desire”, Literature Film Quarterly 22.2 (1994), p. 115. 14 Grigori Kozintsev, King Lear, the essay on christmas festival language Space of Tragedy , London, Heinemann, London, 1977, p. 165-67. 15 Christopher J. Bannon, “Man and Nature in daily life essay Ran and King Lear ” , New Orleans Review , 18.4 (Winter 1991), p. 5-11; Julie Kane, “From the Baroque to the Wabi: Translating animal imagery from Shakespeare’s King Lear to Kurosawa’s Ran ”, Literature Film Quarterly , 25.2 (1997), p. 146-51. 16 David Jortner, “The Stability of the Heart Amidst Fields of breast tomosynthesis Green: An Ecocritical Reading of Akira Kurosawa’s Ran ”, Essays in Film and the Humanities , 20:1 (Fall 2000), p. 82-91. 18 Alex Kerr, Lost Japan , Melbourne, Lonely Planet Publications, 1996, p. 52. 19 David Jortner, op. cit. , p. 90. Anthony Davies (2010).

Exploring the relation of Kurosawa’s Ran to Shakespeare’s King Lear . Shakespeare en devenir - Les Cahiers de La Licorne - Adaptations cinematographiques | N°1 - 2007 | Shakespeare en devenir . [En ligne] Publie en ligne le 28 janvier 2010. Consulte le 3/10/2017. Anthony Davies was born in Johannesburg. After attending schools in South Africa he read for a BA degree at Rhodes University, studying English Literature and History as major subjects. He later read for an Honours degree in English Literature and completed a MA in the Teaching of English Literature at the University of Exeter.

It was there that he first developed his interest in Shakespeare and Film. He later read for a doctorate in music life essay this field at the Shakespeare Institute (University of Birmingham) and then returned to South Africa where he lectured in the English departments of two universities before being appointed Professor and head of the Department of English at the University of Fort Hare. Among his publications are his book, Filming Shakespeare’s Plays (CUP 1988) and Shakespeare and tone poem essay the Moving Image , a collection of essays co-edited with Professor Stanley Wells (CUP 1994). He has also published widely in daily life journals and has contributed essays to volumes compiled by other editors, on tone poem essay Shakespeare in both film and theatre. For the last eighteen years he has lived and worked in England. Since his retirement he has become a much sought-after speaker on a range of subjects which include film, Shakespeare in performance, music, angling and growing up in music in my daily life essay South Africa. N°1 - 2007 - Reecritures de King Lear. Pourquoi l’une des plus sombres tragedies de Shakespeare a-t-elle ete regulierement revisitee (reecritures, adaptations, transpositions) au fil des siecles et continue-t-elle a l’etre de nos jours ? Illustration : Detail de la couverture du numero 1 des Cahiers Shakespeare en devenir (credit: Edouard Lekston) (credits : Edouard Lekston).

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A Few General Facts about music life essay, How To Write 5 Paragraph Essay ? In general, the essay festival, 5-paragraph essay is regarded as the typical essay writing task. This type of essay is daily life utilized in the majority of well-established examinations, like TOEFL, IELTS or SAT. Seeing as in the majority of essay festival in marathi, such examinations you need to stick to a time limit when it comes to finishing the “Writing” part, it’s advisable to learn the structure of the 5-paragraph essay by heart. This way, you’ll be able to complete the exam swiftly and efficiently. The best feature of this format is the music in my, fact that it can be used for a large variety of essays, such as Expository, Narrative, Persuasive, Cause and Effect or Persuasive essays. 5-Paragraph Essay Subject Examples.

Here are a few of the most recurrent subjects on which students write 5-paragraph essays: Is an individual able to memorize a life lesson from an event they weren’t part of? Is one able to speech convention thesis, learn from the errors of other individuals? Is it moral to conduct experiments on animals? Should homosexual matrimony be legalized? Should the legislation on firearms become harsher? Should the capital punishment be fully eliminated? Should cannabis become legal?

Should all students benefit from free-of-charge education? No doubt, you can write 5-paragraph essays on many other topics in addition to these examples. The Structure of a 5-Paragraph Essay. The introduction is the section which lays down the outline of the music, entire essay. Essay On Christmas. The initial phase represents the HOOK sentence. The Hook Sentence has the purpose of catching the reader’s interest.

In general, the Hook Sentence is music in my daily essay a rhetorical one. Additionally, it could also constitute a life example or an outstanding piece of essay on the, information. For instance: Let’s say that your 5-paragraph essay approaches the topic of environment protection. In that case, you can come up with a sentence like: “Is it normal to live in daily a world of gates essays, barren lands and waste?” The question above is a rhetorical one. This means that no one expects a response, as the answer is music in my daily life essay evident.

Short Introduction of Substantiated Arguments (1 to 3) In this section, you should concisely present your substantiated arguments. The key is to avoid disclosing an excessive amount of information. As a piece of advice, picture this short introduction as the trailer of a film, meaning that it ought to be captivating, but it must not reveal the “STORY.” For instance: Environmental protection is essential to preserving the well-being of our planet. This is the critical essay, most essential part of the whole essay; it represents your argument. The argument will serve as the premise of the entire paper. Seeing as your essay deals with environmental conservation, your thesis could be something like: “Environmental protection is essential to averting huge natural calamities.” A small piece of advice: if you believe that the body paragraphs are not related to the thesis you’ve chosen, the best solution would be to modify the music in my life essay, thesis. The Three Body Paragraphs: 5 to 7 Phrases. This represents the “bulk” of your paper. In this part, you need to justify the essay festival language, perspective you’re supporting (Thesis Assertion). In general, the three body paragraphs have the following outline: Introductory Phrase (1), Substantiated Argument/Justification (3-5), Conclusion Phrase (1).

The Introductory Phrase must concisely present your argument. It shouldn’t disclose too much. For instance, you could say something like: “Disforestation and atmosphere contamination affect the music in my life, characteristics of the atmosphere and intensify the probability of illness in addition to gates scholarship, damaging our planet!” Substantiated Argument and Justification: This section involves particularizing the subject, while still, most significantly, SUPPORTING THE THESIS! For instance: Materialism and egoism represent important factors which harm our surroundings, as they are responsible for music in my daily, destroying our forests and polluting our air. While initially a couple of on christmas in marathi, people may benefit from this, in the long run, these factors are dangerous to the entire population.

For instance, in Beijing, the atmosphere quality is so low that people are obliged to daily life essay, use masks to be allowed to move around the city. The Conclusion Phrase ought to represent the contrary of the introductory one. Rather than presenting your argument, you should concisely conclude it, moving on tomosynthesis images, to the subsequent one. For instance: To sum up, the deterioration of our natural assets, as well as the in my daily, quality of our atmosphere, does not only gates scholarship essays affect the Earth’s health but the entire humankind. KEEP IN MIND THAT ALL 3 BODY PARAGRAPHS MUST HAVE THE SAME STRUCTURE! The arguments you offer ought to be presented in music in my essay the following order: The first body paragraph ought to include your second most powerful argument The second body paragraph ought to landowska, describe your poorest argument The third body paragraph ought to in my essay, present your most powerful argument. To have a better idea of the structure of bio essay, a 5-paragraph essay, take a look at the following table: Conclusion (3 to 5 Phrases): This must reflect your introduction. Reiterate Your Thesis (Phrase 1): You must reiterate your primary argument (thesis) in a straightforward manner. To demonstrate that your perspective is valid, you should show confidence when you rephrase the thesis. For instance: The security and endurance of our planet are highly reliant on the manner in which we choose to behave towards it, and music daily essay, the more attentively we stimulate the procedure, the more we will profit from it.

Providing conclusions for essay festival language, your substantiated arguments (1 to 3 Phrases): This part involves paraphrasing the central ideas of your arguments in a single phrase per paragraph. In case part of your substantiated arguments are alike, you can simply merge them into in my daily essay a single phrase. This way, you’ll preserve an in the convention, adequate organization. For instance, let’s say that one of the arguments you provided deals with restricting the utilization of resources. In that case, you can write something like “Restricting the utilization of our natural assets and enhancing their performance represent essential methods of strengthening the health of the Earth.” Drafting a Conclusion for the Hook Phrase (Facultative) A great manner of finalizing a paper is by offering something unpredicted, which may amaze the reader. Music Daily Essay. A great idea would be to devise a second hook, one which summarizes your essay in only a couple of words. Ideally, create a rhetorical question. For instance: “The soundness of the gates millennium scholarship, Earth is highly significant, and in the end, we don't want to in my life essay, turn our planet into essay on christmas festival language a desert, don’t we?” This way, your essay will present a certain level of excitement towards the end, and in my life, the reader will ponder over your assertion. Different educational establishments from all over the globe utilize different rules.

Nevertheless, one of the most well-established criteria types is the 5 point type. This involves five different sections, namely Focus, Organization, Conventions, Style and Content. Focus: Did the student take enough time to demonstrate their hypothesis? Did they meet this target? Organization: Did the breast tomosynthesis, essay have a fluent style?

Did the student move from one paragraph to the other in a steady manner? Did they stick to the adequate structure without deviating from it? Conventions: Was the paper written using good grammar? Were the music essay, phrases too long? Style: Did the student utilize high-quality lexicon? Did they repeat words too often? Were the phrase structures original enough? Content: Did the critical, student succeed in demonstrating their argument? Did they include coherent and accurate assertions? Did they come up with powerful arguments? How Do I Proceed If I Have No Idea How to Write the Paper?

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coder resume A MIDI Pedalboard Encoder. by Colin Pykett. Posted: January 2004. Last revised: 23 December 2011. Copyright © C E Pykett 2004-2011. Abstract. Almost any commercial electronic keyboard today will provide a MIDI output, which is useful for in my life, connecting it to essays other instruments including some pipe organs. However MIDI pedalboards are much rarer, which among other things makes it difficult to music life put together a simple home practice facility. Essay On The! Therefore this article shows how the appropriate MIDI signals can be generated from the closure or opening of a simple key contact. In My Daily! Full details are included for a MIDI encoder suitable for a standard 30 or 32 note pedalboard; the encoder uses only a handful of standard integrated circuits, thus removing the need to on christmas program microprocessors or read-only memories for which few have the knowledge or facilities.

A pedalboard fitted with a set of ordinary contacts and this encoder can then be used to operate any other MIDI-compatible instrument. Some suggestions are given showing how the pedalboard can be used in several configurations, perhaps to provide simple and inexpensive organ practice facilities in conjunction with commercial MIDI keyboards. The material may prove useful to schools and colleges either in its own right or as reference material, as well as to individuals who possess basic electronic skills. (click on the headings below to access the daily essay, desired section) I decided to write a detailed article about a MIDI encoder for a pedal keyboard because the availability of such units seems to essay fluctuate – sometimes there are several alternatives on the market yet at others none.

Another reason was that although much has been written about MIDI, complete design details for in my, such a system are seldom included or the designs require specialised experience and knowledge on the part of the constructor. This article also includes technical information about MIDI which makes it a companion to another on millennium essays this website, which was written at a non-technical level for organists [7]. Without doubt, the most economical and flexible way to proceed is to daily use a microprocessor controlled system, and PIC microcontrollers [6] are particularly attractive on essay on christmas festival in marathi language account of their low cost and ready availability. However the use of PICs or similar devices requires some level of experience in their hardware and software aspects which, although not beyond the wit of man, is decidedly non-trivial. Moreover, their use also requires some financial investment in music in my essay, software development and chip programming facilities. Therefor e for those who are unable to proceed down this path for tone poem essay, one reason or another an alternative approach is desirable. It is a matter with practical implications, because without a MIDI encoder it is impossible to add pedals to a simple and inexpensive home practice facility of the sort to be described later. This design uses nothing more exotic than industry standard 4000-series CMOS chips together with an SRAM (Static Random Access Memory), as it was designed in music life essay, pre-PIC days. Therefore, no special expertise is necessary to build it although it is probably not a project which should be undertaken if you have no previous experience at all of electronics.

However before proceeding further, a review of some MIDI essentials follows which will be useful particularly if you are new to MIDI. This section canters through some aspects of MIDI to enable readers who may be unfamiliar with it to better comprehend the material later on. However MIDI is a vast subject and it is only possible here to summarise the rudiments of it. Fortunately there is a considerable range of literature, of which references [1], [2] and [3] are particularly commended to the beginner. Breast Tomosynthesis! These are listed in music daily essay, an approximate order of technicality, the latter including details of gates millennium scholarship, how to build various MIDI systems using PIC microcontrollers, thereby taking the technology described here a step further. MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface and it came into being in the early 1980’s when the major electronic musical instrument manufacturers got together to agree a common control standard for their products. This enabled a product from one source to be interconnected without much difficulty with one from any other. Music Life Essay! It must be made clear at the outset that MIDI is a digital control system, so it does not transmit the actual sounds of the instruments it is controlling. Tomosynthesis! This is a matter which causes confusion in view of the existence of music in my essay, a set of 128 instruments and effects inappropriately called General MIDI (GM) [4] which appear on virtually all electronic keyboards, synthesisers and computer sound cards.

These sounds are generated internally in the equipment mentioned and they differ in detail from in the virginia convention thesis one manufacturer to another, but MIDI itself only selects which of the instruments is heard when notes are keyed. Another important aspect of MIDI can also cause confusion to a newcomer, and unfortunately it is mentioned infrequently. Music In My Daily! It is that no MIDI signals are sent unless something changes [8]. Thus while no notes are being played, no signals are sent. This might seem obvious, but it is not true of many other non-MIDI multiplex transmission systems. Also, as long as notes continue to speech in the virginia thesis be held down, no signals will be transmitted either. Although this makes for economy in the amount of MIDI traffic on the link, it can be responsible for some annoying effects. One of the most common is when, for some reason, the system either does not transmit a Note Off message or the receiver misses it. This note will then continue to sound indefinitely until you do something about it explicitly. It explains why much MIDI equipment boasts an “All Notes Off” button which you might have to hit from time to time! There are also other annoying features of MIDI which most users discover and come to in my daily life essay terms with in due course.

They are simply aspects of the way the system was designed and tone poem essay, they cannot be surmounted easily. Some Basic Definitions. Definitions of in my life, a few MIDI terms follow which will be useful later. It is by wanda landowska no means an exhaustive list. Music In My Daily Life! The terms are explained in more detail later on: Preset (also called instruments, voices, patches or programs). MIDI Presets are a set of up to 128 pre-defined sounds of which General MIDI is one example.

A Bank is tone poem essay a set of 128 Presets. There can be up to 16384 different Banks. There are 16 transmit channels available in MIDI and a commercial keyboard can be set to transmit on music daily any of them. Breast Images! The receiver must be set correspondingly or nothing will happen, unless it is not channel-sensitive. Basic Hardware Issues. MIDI uses a serial digital current loop controlled from the daily, transmitting end of the link to breast tomosynthesis operate an in my opto-isolator at the receiving end. On Christmas In Marathi! Thus there is complete electrical isolation maintained from one piece of equipment to the next in the interests of avoiding hum loops. This isolation must never be compromised, and it is always prudent to check with an music in my daily ohmmeter that there is no continuity between the screens of MIDI cables and any other equipment (including chassis, earth lines, audio inputs and outputs etc) in the system. There is a rigid interface specification for MIDI equipment which among other matters stipulates that 5 pin 180 degree DIN plugs and sockets must be used for essay language, interconnection purposes.

Sometimes minor changes are made to this, and miniature DIN plugs instead of standard ones may be found. In these cases an interface lead is often provided so that the music essay, equipment will connect properly to ordinary MIDI cables. Normally only critical lens essay three pins of the DIN connector need to be used, and these must be wired correctly because polarity is important for several reasons. One is that some MIDI equipment is line-powered from the output of another . For this reason the connections from one DIN connector to the other must be wired “straight” rather than in a mirror image sense (as is done in some audio cables). Therefore proper MIDI leads should always be used, or care exercised if making up your own. Figure 1. Standard MIDI Output Circuit. Figure 1 shows the standard output circuit which one expects to music life essay find in all MIDI equipment. The electronic switch opens and tone poem essay, closes to transmit MIDI codes and in so doing it interrupts the current loop to the receiver. A straightforward twin screened cable is sufficient to interconnect the music essay, two pieces of equipment, and the screen is connected to pin 2 of the DIN socket. It should be connected at gates millennium, both ends because of the need to use it sometimes as the return path for line powered equipment which draws its power from daily pin 4.

There are two main types of MIDI message, system messages and channel messages. The former exist in a vast variety of forms, many of which are specific to particular manufacturers, and it is partly for breast, this reason we shall not discuss them further here. Channel messages are those which we use for the purposes in this article. These also exist in music in my daily life essay, several varieties but we shall describe the one most commonly used. It consists of 3 data bytes (a byte is essay language 8 bits) sent one after the other. Each byte is preceded by a start bit and it ends with a stop bit.

Thus there are 30 bits in in my daily, the message. The system uses a variant of the RS232 serial interface protocol in which it sends bits at tone poem essay, a rate of music daily essay, 31.25 kbaud (31.25 thousand bits per second). Millennium Scholarship! Thus each bit occupies 32 m sec and the total message length is almost exactly one millisecond. As with all RS232 systems, negative logic is used in which zero current flow means a logic 1, and non-zero current flow a logic 0. Figure 2. In My Life Essay! MIDI 3-byte Message Structure.

Figure 2 illustrates the bit stream for landowska bio essay, a 3-byte channel message. Those transitions indicated by music essay bold lines are always present but the remainder depend on the content of the message. Time runs from left to right in this diagram, so the first event is that current rises from zero to a value denoting a logic 0. This signals the start bit of the first byte to the receiving equipment. Following this are the 8 data bits making up the first byte, known as the Status Byte. Note that the data bits are transmitted starting with the least significant, which is the reverse of the way we conventionally represent them on paper. For example, a byte with a value of 1 would be written in binary notation as 00000001, whereas this pattern would have to wanda landowska bio essay be reversed to fit into the bit positions of the diagram above. Although this might seem a trivial point it can cause much confusion if you do not keep it uppermost in your mind. Status Byte: Channel Number. The least significant nybble (the first 4 bits) of the status byte indicates the MIDI channel in use. Thus MIDI can accommodate 16 channels, the channel number of a given message being defined at the transmitting end of the music daily life essay, link.

If the receiving end is set to a different channel the tone poem essay, message will be ignored and nothing will happen. Channelisation is a complex matter because it is essay connected with the subject of MIDI Modes which are mentioned later. Whereas the channel is defined at the transmitting end of the gates millennium essays, link, t he mode is defined by the receiver, and as just mentioned the transmitter and receiver have to be set appropriately to music in my make things work. Status Byte: Message Type. The next nybble of byte 1 defines the message type, but note that the most significant bit (bit 7 ) is tone poem essay always a logic 1. This differs from the MSB’s of the following bytes which are always 0. This convention is said to facilitate the receiver distinguishing a status byte from any other sort, but from all other points of view it must be one of the in my life essay, daftest design decisions ever taken in electronics. Tone Poem Essay! At a stroke it limited the amount of data which can be encoded to half of what it would otherwise be. The important message types for our purposes are in the table below.

There are other types but we make no use of them here. Note again that the bit representations here are in the reverse order to how they would appear in in my daily essay, Figure 2! The “Note On” and lens odyssey, “Note Off” messages are self-explanatory, but the system needs to know which note has been switched on or off. This information is carried in the later data bytes as described in a moment. “Program Change” is an important message for our purposes as it crops up repeatedly.

It is used sometimes to select which stop or combination of stops is heard when we play a digital organ or a synthesiser. In the latter case it selects an instrument to music in my daily be played from the General MIDI set, for example. Yet again, remember these bits only define the message type – the data defining the bio essay, stop to music life be used follows in successive bytes. “Control Change” is also important as it selects one of many “MIDI Controllers”. For our purposes we are only interested in one of tone poem essay, these, the life, “Bank Select” controller. MIDI Banks will also be described later.

Data Bytes 1 and 2. The information carried by the two data bytes depends on which type of message is landowska bio essay being transmitted, as follows: Note On or Note Off. For either of these messages bits 0 – 6 of data byte 1 hold the number of the note in question, from 0 to 127 (bit 7 is always 0). Thus the essay, MIDI system can accommodate 128 notes or about 10 ½ octaves. 0 represents the bottom note of this range; 127 the top note. Essay On Christmas In Marathi Language! Conventionally, middle C is note number 60. Data byte 2 holds the velocity of the music daily essay, note when there is a Note On message, and it is ignored by the receiver for a Note Off. Velocity is the speed with which the key descends in the range 0 (zero loudness) to 127 (maximum loudness).

For organ work this is of no account as we do not require a keyboard with touch sensitivity, so the value here will always be a constant. Conventionally a velocity value of 63 or 64 is used when touch sensitivity is festival in marathi disabled. Quite frequently a commercial MIDI keyboard will send no Note Off messages at in my daily life, all, even when keys are released. The reasons for this apparent curiosity have some contorted logic but they will not be discussed here. When this convention is scholarship essays used, key release is signalled by using a Note On message but with zero velocity [9]. When this message is sent there is usually only one following data byte rather than two, and music in my life, it holds the number of the desired “program”. Some explanation of critical on the odyssey, this term is required as it can have a number of alternative names. In virtually all MIDI implementations the program number determines which of many preset sounds are selected. Daily Life! Again the number range is from 0 to scholarship 127, enabling up to 128 sounds to be called up (in fact the life essay, actual number is vastly more than this if we invoke the concept of MIDI Banks as described shortly). In the commercial music world some alternative names for “program” are “presets”, “instruments”, “patches” or “voices”.

There is in the virginia a variety of Control Change messages covering everything from piano sustain pedals to tremolo effects. However we are only music in my daily life essay concerned here with how to change MIDI Banks, and these will now be explained. We saw above that up to 128 “programs” can be defined within a Program Change message. Speech In The Virginia Thesis! In the MIDI system these all occupy what is called a Bank (i.e. Music! a bank of 128 different presettable sounds). The 128 ubiquitous sounds of General MIDI usually occupy Bank 0 in critical lens on the odyssey, a commercial system. However up to 16384 Banks can be defined, each holding its own group of 128 presets.

For organ purposes it is useful to consider each program or preset as denoting stops or combinations of stops. In the latter case we can go further and think of a combination of stops as equivalent to a general piston or a sequencer setting. In this way we have a capability of up to 16384 x 128 generals, a total of 2,097,152 ! By transmitting Bank Select (i.e. a particular form of Control Change) followed by Program Change messages, any of these can be instantly selected by the player. In order to cater for the large number of Banks, a Bank is changed by two Control Change messages having message types 0 and 32. These transmit one data byte each, respectively containing the most significant and daily, the least significant bytes of the new Bank number.

It is not recommended that you worry too much about the details of the tone poem essay, Bank Select message structure in daily life essay, a MIDI system at this stage. MIDI Modes bring us to an unsatisfactory, complicated and confusing subject, so it is fortunate we need to know little more beyond that it exists. The naming convention of the various modes goes back to landowska the days of monophonic synthesisers, as some of the modes switch between monophonic and polyphonic operation. Moreover, half way through the history of daily life, MIDI the scholarship, mode names were all changed. Even more confusing, the original mode structure has been found inadequate to cater for today’s needs, so some modes used now by most manufacturers do not form part of the official MIDI specification. A good account of modes appears in [2] , and the bare minimum of music daily life, basic facts appears below:

Modes are defined by the receiver, not the on christmas festival, transmitter . They specify how the receiver will handle channel messages from the transmitter. A very important aspect concerns channelisation – a unit in mode 1 will respond to messages on any channel whereas in mode 3 it will respond only to those of in my essay, a specific channel. The MIDI Pedalboard Encoder - Principle of Operation. The general principles of operation of the encoder are as follows. The 32 pedal key contacts are scanned and their states (on or off) entered into a 32 bit memory. On successive scans the current state of each contact is compared with the corresponding memory location, and if there is a difference this means that a note previously off has now been keyed, or vice versa. When such a difference is detected a MIDI code is transmitted containing the address of the critical lens essay on the odyssey, note in life essay, question and whether it has been switched on or off. Tone Poem Essay! When the transmission is complete the music daily life essay, memory location for this note is updated to reflect the new status of the gates millennium, note, and then the key scan continues. Figure 3. Block diagram of the MIDI encoder. A block diagram of the system is shown in Figure 3. Before addressing the detail it is important to point out that the system must work at music in my daily, 5 volts.

This is wanda landowska because of the need to use a MIDI standard output interface as shown in Figure 1. So if you decide to use other voltages for the logic inside the system you must ensure that only in my life 5 volts appears at the output, otherwise MIDI receiving equipment could be damaged. My system used a 12 volts DC input from a conventional power supply, and this was regulated down to 5 volts using a 7805 voltage regulator. First let us assume that no keys are pressed. Under these conditions the clock generator supplies pulses at 3.9 kHz through the clk inhibit box to the keyboard scanner address generator (thus the clock is not in wanda landowska bio essay, fact inhibited at this stage – this occurs later). Music In My Life Essay! This repeatedly generates a cycle of addresses from essay on christmas festival in marathi language 0 to 31 on a 5 bit bus, and these are supplied to music in my daily life essay the key contact scanner. This distributes pulses in sequence to the 32 pedal contacts.

A scan frequency of 3.9 kHz means that the speech in the virginia convention thesis, 32 keys are scanned about music in my daily 122 times per second, which is fast enough for the pedals. The same address lines are also connected to an SRAM memory chip. This can be almost any SRAM, as only 32 bits of storage are in fact required! I used a 6116 2K by 8 chip as it happened to be to hand, though it is now (2009) obsolete. However it can still be obtained from various sources, and in the virginia thesis, several equivalents are obtainable [11]. Under the idling conditions we are assuming for the present, all 32 locations of the memory will be at logic 0 because there are no notes keyed (the manner in which this came about will become clear later). For each address, the status comparator compares the input from the music daily life, key contact array on line B and the output from the memory on tone poem essay line A. As long as these are the same (which they are while no note is keyed), the output line X (normally high) does not change state. This is true whether A and B are both high or both low. Only when a difference exists does the output line change state. Now consider what happens when a note is keyed. When the scan address reaches that note, a logic 1 will appear at line B whereas line A from the memory will still be a 0. This galvanises the status comparator into music in my daily life essay, action, and on christmas in marathi, it causes X to change state from music life high to low.

Simultaneously Z goes high, indicating a new Note On has been detected. The hi-lo transition on X inhibits the scan address generator clock line, thus the keyboard scan stops for the present, and simultaneously the MIDI Code Generator clock is enabled. The code generator is scholarship thus supplied with pulses at the standard MIDI rate of 31.25 kHz, and it transmits a standard 3 – byte channel message to the outside world. This message contains a bit stream indicating which note has just been keyed, together with a channel number defined by chan select . The note address on in my lines A0 – A4 is added to a base address supplied from wanda bio essay base addr select . Also a constant value of velocity (typically 63) can be defined by velocity select . These three values (base address, channel and velocity) are set on DIP switches. When the MIDI transmission is life complete a pulse appears on the Tx compl line. On Christmas Festival! This is music in my daily life supplied to breast the memory write circuit which is also aware (via the music essay, high on B) that a Note On state has just been detected. Thus it writes a 1 into the memory address for this note, replacing the previous value of 0. As soon as this happens line A goes high (because the memory output is in the thesis now high), and this means that the two lines A and B are both high. (Until the contents of the memory was refreshed, A was low and B was high). The status comparator therefore detects that both lines are in the same state, so X returns to its high level.

This re-starts the scan clock, and daily life, the keyboard scan commences again. Now consider what happens when the note is released. As before, the status comparator will detect this and X goes low. This time however, the tone poem essay, polarities of lines A and B are the opposite of the previous case: A is high because of the music daily life essay, earlier memory write operation, but B has gone low because the note has been released. This causes Z to remain low even though X changes state, a property of the logic in the comparator.

A MIDI transmission is landowska initiated exactly as before, but because of Z now being low a Note Off message is transmitted. Music Daily Essay! All other bits in the message remain the same as previously. At the completion of the message the memory write circuit is activated via Tx compl but this time a 0 is written, replacing the existing 1. This occurs because the circuit writes to the memory whatever level exists on line B. Speech! Following the write, lines A and B are now the same (low in both cases) so X goes high again and daily life essay, the keyboard scan re-commences. It should now be clear how the tomosynthesis, memory contents is first written when the circuit is daily life switched on. At this instant the wanda, memory will in general contain some random bit pattern.

The completion of the first key scan after power-up then results in the memory reflecting the state of the key contacts at that time (normally it would be all notes off, but the actual state is irrelevant). Music Daily Life! During this initial scan there will therefore be some meaningless MIDI codes transmitted as the correct memory contents is tone poem essay established, but a time delay circuit in series with the output prevents them reaching the outside world. The circuit of the encoder appears in Figures 4 and 5. Apologies are tendered for the confusing orientation of Figure 5, but it was the only way it could be incorporated here while retaining legibility. The circuit uses 16 standard CMOS circuits together with an SRAM chip. Figure 5 is a full topological diagram with connections to music essay all pins of speech in the virginia thesis, all chips shown. Daily! However in Figure 4 some pins have been omitted otherwise it would have been difficult to see the wood for the trees. This is particularly true for the memory chip, most of wanda, whose pins are grounded. However such details are completed later in this narrative.

Nor are the power rails shown in Figure 4 for similar reasons, but it is important to note that the 4049 hex inverter chip does not use the standard pin for its V dd connection! Figure 4. MIDI Encoder circuit (1) - above. Figure 5. MIDI Encoder circuit (2) - above. System Clock (Figure 5) The clock uses the in my essay, convenient 4060 chip which is a combined oscillator and divider. It is imperative that a crystal controlled clock is used to tone poem essay ensure that the MIDI receiver (which works asynchronously with respect to the transmitter) has a high probability of synchronising itself within one half of a clock period to in my daily life essay an incoming transmission.

RC oscillators would be useless, and even ceramic resonators would be of doubtful reliability. The 4 MHz crystal used in the prototype was obtained from Maplin Electronics (order code FY82). The component values in the circuit have to virginia thesis be chosen to suit the life, oscillator frequency, the make of chip and crystal and (most importantly) the supply voltage. Essay Odyssey! Choosing them is straightforward provided you have the manufacturer’s data sheet, although the values shown should usually be satisfactory for operation at 5 volts. The clock generates two frequencies: one at 3.9 kHz is used to drive the keyboard scanner.

The other at 31.25 kHz drives the MIDI code generator. Keyboard Scanner (Figure 4) The scanner is driven at 3.9 kHz by an address generator using a 4024 which counts continuously (until interrupted by a change of music life essay, key state) from 0 to 31 and then resets itself. This arrangement accommodates up to 32 pedal notes. There are two 4024’s in the complete encoder circuit (the other is in Figure 5) so this one is thesis denoted as 4024(b). The 5 bit address from the 4024 is used to scan the key contacts, to address the contents of the SRAM, and to provide an (inverted) note address to music in my daily life essay the MIDI code generator.

To scan the key contacts the address generator drives two 4514 chips acting as a 5 to scholarship 32 line decoder. Thus each key contact is directly addressed rather than via a matrix; this was used for simplicity though some economies could be obtained using conventional matrix addressing [5]. The scanner repetitively circulates around the music in my daily life, 32 contacts until it is landowska bio essay interrupted by the discovery of a change of key state as described earlier. Music In My Daily Life Essay! Each 5 bit address from the address generator identifies a particular contact, address 0 corresponding to bottom C on the pedal board and 31 to top G. Chip 4514(a) addresses notes 0 to 15 and 4514(b) notes 16 to 31. The connections to the two decoder chips are in the tables below: Keyboard Scanner – Connections for 4514(a)

MIDI Note Address. Keyboard Scanner – Connections for 4514(b) MIDI Note Address. The MIDI note address is inverted by on christmas festival in marathi language the 4049 hex inverter because MIDI requires negative logic data. The result is then supplied to the MIDI code generator in music daily essay, Figure 5. The actual note address output to external equipment can optionally have a base (offset) address added to it as described later. Status Comparator (Figure 4) For each note during the scan the status comparator compares the current state of the key contact (on or off) with that on the previous scan. The data for the previous scan are held in the 32 bit SRAM. The current state appears on input line B and the previous state on line A. Depending on the logic levels on speech convention thesis these lines the comparator generates two outputs X and Z. X is a negative-logic output denoting by going low that a change of status has been detected (it does not matter whether a note has just been switched on music daily life essay or switched off), and Z indicates by scholarship essays going high when the change of state is a Note On. Daily Life Essay! (Z is then inverted by a 4049 section to suit the negative logic convention of MIDI). Landowska Bio Essay! The 51k/330pF network in music daily life, series with the X output is to introduce a small timing delay (time constant = 15 m sec) to prevent races occurring when the tomosynthesis images, memory contents is updated subsequently – see later.

The circuit uses a number of logic gates to implement the truth table below; any other combinatorial logic network should suffice provided the same logic functions are implemented. Note that a diode OR gate at the input and a diode AND gate at the Z output were used to avoid having to include further CMOS packages. Status Comparator – Truth Table. No status change – note still Off. No status change – note still On. Status change – Note On detected. Status change – Note Off detected. Scan Clock Inhibit (Figure 4)

The X output from the status comparator feeds a clock inhibit circuit which interrupts the keyboard scan whenever a change of daily, state is detected. Landowska! It consists simply of the AND gate N3. MIDI Code Generator Clock Enable (Figure 5) The X output from the status comparator also feeds a 4098 monostable which generates a 5 m sec pulse when X goes lo. In turn this enables the in my life essay, MIDI clock at 31.25 kHz to commence incrementing the MIDI Address Generator.

MIDI Address Generator (Figure 5) This uses a second 4024 chip to generate 32 addresses from 0 to 31 at a rate of 31.25 kHz on receipt of the 5 m sec pulse from the monostable. These are used to access in sequence the various bits making up the wanda bio essay, MIDI message which is music life thereby transmitted as a serial bit stream. The message itself only requires 30 bits whereas 32 are transmitted, thus two are dummy bits at the start and the end of the message. MIDI Code Generator (Figure 5) At first sight the obvious choice for the code generator would have been a UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) chip such as the 6402, but in this application it was inappropriate. This was mainly because of the need to transmit three successive bytes, whereas the 6402 can only be set up to transmit one byte at a time. Although this would not have been much of a problem with a microprocessor controlled system it would have caused some headaches with this purely hard wired implementation.

Consequently the code is generated using a series of four 4051 chips arranged as a 32 bit multiplexer (i.e. a 32 bit parallel to serial converter). These are cheap and versatile devices which can be used to critical lens on the multiplex or demultiplex both digital and analogue signals. In Figure 5 the four chips are designated 4051(1) – 4051(4). A fifth 4051 is also used in conjunction with the 4024(a) as part of the addressing arrangement. Music In My Daily Life! The fifth 4051 is called the essay odyssey, chip selector because it selects which of the other 4051’s is used for music in my life essay, a given bit address, and it is at odyssey, the top right of the diagram. Each 4051 can handle 8 bits, therefore the in my daily, use of gates millennium scholarship, four means that there will be 32 bits in the transmitted message whereas only 30 are in fact required. Thus two of the bits are dummies, but their presence is in my beneficial because a short gap between successive transmissions can be helpful to a MIDI receiver. In effect the 32 clock pulses from the MIDI Address Generator sequentially transmit the successive bits in the message at gates millennium scholarship, the MIDI bit rate of 31.25 kHz.

Each bit is defined by a high or low level at a specific pin on one of the 4051’s, so that by supplying the correct pattern of highs and lows to these pins the desired message will be sent. The serial bit stream appears at the common output of each chip (pin 3), and these are wired to the BC109 output transistor which switches the current for each bit on or off as required. In the diagram the lines for each data byte have been brought together in the correct order for ease of comprehension. For example, the bar surrounding the 8 wires for “byte 1” (the Status Byte) shows the 8 bits for that byte, with the daily life essay, least significant bit to the left. This is the order in which they are transmitted and festival, it corresponds to the bit ordering in Figure 2 . The start and stop bits for each byte are not included in the corresponding groups. The chip number and pin number for each data bit in music in my essay, the message are shown in the table below: Relation of Data Bytes to essay on the odyssey 4051 Pins. The chip number and pin number for each start, stop and in my daily life, dummy bit in the message are shown in the table below:

Relation of tone poem essay, Start, Stop and music, Dummy bits to 4051 pins. Start Bits (Note 1) 1. The start bits are set to tone poem essay the high current state (MIDI logic 0), i.e. the potential applied to these pins is 5 volts. 2. Music In My Daily Life Essay! The stop and dummy bits are set to the low current state (MIDI logic 1), i.e. the potential applied to these pins is zero. 3. The idling condition (start of in the convention, message and end of message) of the circuit is in the low current state, both of which correspond to a dummy bit. Switch-selectable Options (Figure 5) As shown in Figure 3 there are three selectable options, which determine the base address of the note range, the channel on in my daily life which the message is transmitted, and the notional velocity of a transmitted note. In the prototype all these were selected using a total of essay on christmas festival in marathi, 6 DIP switches and music life, these are shown in Figure 5. Further details are as follows: · Transmit Channel (1-16) is set by the four switches controlling the state of bits 0-3 of byte 1. The switches close to send a logic 1, therefore all switches closed will transmit on channel 16 and all open will transmit on channel1. Note the speech in the convention thesis, naming convention for MIDI channels : they are usually referred to as channels 1 - 16 whereas they are actually transmitted as the music daily essay, binary numbers 0 - 15.

· Base Address is set by a single switch controlling bits 5 and 6 of byte 2. Images! If the switch is open the in my essay, base address is zero (then the on christmas language, note range of the pedals is 0–31); with the switch closed it is 96 (then the note range becomes 96-127). The latter setting is sometimes useful if the pedals need to occupy the daily life, top of the MIDI note range rather than the bottom. · Velocity is selected by a further switch which assigns a velocity value to the note of speech virginia convention thesis, either 63 or 127. If the music in my, switch is open the value is 63; if closed it is 127. The 63 setting is essay on christmas festival language recommended, partly because this is often used by other MIDI equipment in which touch sensitivity has been disabled, and partly because too high a setting of velocity can cause distortion in other equipment. This because the number contained in the velocity byte determines the volume of the note which emanates from the loudspeaker. MIDI Output Circuit (Figure 5) The output circuit conforms to standard MIDI conventions as described earlier. Music Daily! It is particularly important to gates essays ensure that the music in my life, polarities of the voltages applied to tone poem essay the pins of the DIN socket are correct so that the daily life essay, receiving equipment will work properly. A time delay circuit consisting of gate N2 and its associated components ensures that spurious MIDI codes are not transmitted for a short time following switch-on while the contents of the SRAM is set to the note status existing at that time.

The static random access memory can be virtually any SRAM chip [11]. Only 32 bits of storage are required so any chip obtainable today will be wildly under-used. Because most memory addresses are not used there are many unused pins not shown in Figure 4, and critical, the actual pin connections for the 6116 chip used in the prototype were as follows: 6116 SRAM Connections. The 30k resistors are not critical and any reasonable value can be used. Memory Write Circuit (Figure 4)

Whenever a MIDI transmission is initiated it means that a change of note status was detected. Therefore it follows that the memory contents at that address must be updated to reflect the daily life, new note status. This is done after each transmission. On completion of the transmission pin 4 of 4024(a) goes high, and this triggers the monostable in on christmas in marathi, the Memory Write Circuit which outputs a 5 m sec pulse. This is gated with the current note status on in my line B, which is then written into memory because the pulse also activates the write enable (WE) pin of the SRAM. Thus if the note is now on, a high is written to replace the previous low, and vice versa. Once this has been done, line X at the output of the status comparator reverts to a high state, enabling the key contact scan sequence to resume. However this cannot happen too quickly following the gates scholarship essays, memory update otherwise a race situation occurs within the system.

The RC delay network in series with the X output prevents this happening. The encoder was built on a single strip board about 300 mm long by 100 mm wide (e.g. Maplin Electronics order code JP51F), which was a convenient size as it fitted directly behind the contact assembly on music in my daily life essay the pedalboard. Some of the wiring was done by tone poem essay hand in order to fit all the chips onto the one board. Connections to the key contacts used a pair of 16 pin DIL sockets with mating IDC headers (e.g. Maplin Electronics code JH36P).

These enabled two 16 way ribbon cables from the essay, contacts to essay be connected rapidly to music daily essay the unit. Some care has to be exercised in the choice of key contact materials in view of the low voltage (5 volts) at which they operate. Critical Essay On The! Silver wire is unsatisfactory at this voltage and gold clad wire is virtually mandatory. Reed switches are reliable once they have been set up properly, although this can be a tedious operation. A simple way to fit ordinary wire contact blocks and wipers to a pedalboard is to in my daily attach the contacts to a curved rail underneath the pedals, mounted at a point where the lens on the odyssey, movement of the music daily essay, keys is about the same as that of gates millennium, manual keys. In My Life! This avoids having to on christmas festival in marathi use expensive pedal jacks at the front of the keys.

A suitable contact block comprising a pair of gold wires is life essay available from Kimber Allen Ltd (order code GJ). With care it is quite feasible to make up one's own contacts using gold clad wire, which is also available by critical lens essay on the odyssey the metre from Kimber Allen (order code GS109/02). However, if this is in my attempted, care must be taken to prevent movement of the wires being transmitted to the soldered joints. If this occurs the joints will fail rapidly through fatigue. The commercial contact assemblies specified are constructed in such a manner as to obviate this problem. Usually, digital devices either work perfectly or not at all, so if the circuit has been assembled correctly it should function immediately.

However this is breast tomosynthesis images of little consolation to those who encounter problems, and in these cases an essential pre-requisite is some means of examining what (if anything) emerges from the output socket. Music Essay! An oscilloscope can be useful, though it will be impossible to display an individual fleeting MIDI signal without a storage facility. A logic analyser is more useful, as this will establish what is going on within the system at any desired points. Unfortunately these are luxuries not widely available outside development laboratories. The Philip Rees Little 2M merge unit (described below) can be extremely helpful in this situation, because it has an in marathi LED which occults when a signal is received. More than this, the LED only flashes when the signal is in my daily life a valid MIDI code. Scholarship Essays! When I had completed the prototype it did not work at first, and I restricted myself deliberately to fault-finding using only an oscilloscope and the merge unit.

I arranged for a simple external test circuit to open and close one of the key contacts repetitively at a rate of several hundred pulses per second, and monitored the in my daily life essay, output with the 'scope. With this repetitive signal it was then easy to trigger the 'scope and display a useable output trace. This revealed that although signals were being generated, they were not MIDI signals. Inspection of the board with a magnifying glass under a bright light revealed that there was a solitary dry joint which resulted in incorrect codes being transmitted, and essays, when this was rectified the unit worked perfectly. Yet another example, should one be needed, of the life essay, importance of careful soldering! If intermittent problems are encountered try increasing the value of the 330 pF capacitor in the Status Comparator.

It can be approximately doubled (to 680 pF) or trebled (to 1000 pF/1 nF), to tone poem essay correspondingly increase the minimum delay between successive MIDI signals. I encountered a case in music essay, which a computer sound card did not like MIDI signals tumbling in too rapidly, and implementing this change solved the problem. The problem only occurred when two adjacent pedal notes were keyed (usually accidentally of festival language, course!). It is interesting that this was not a problem of the music in my life, MIDI encoder itself but of the receiver to which it was connected. Such compatibility problems are all too common with MIDI equipment, unfortunately. Using the speech virginia convention, MIDI pedalboard. We now look at some ways in which the MIDI outputs from this pedalboard can be used. The emphasis is on music life essay facilitating the tone poem essay, assembly of a range of simple and inexpensive instruments for organ practice, perhaps at home, school or college. Once you have a MIDI-capable pedalboard, it is life quite possible to put together a two manual and tone poem essay, pedal practice console for no more than a few hundred pounds. Often it will be much less than this.

Obviously, we need one or more manual keyboards to complement the pedals, and here we are spoilt for choice. There is an in my daily essay enormous range of tomosynthesis images, electronic keyboards available commercially, and the biggest problem is to select with care from the bewildering array on offer. The first point to realise is that commercial keyboards fall into two main groups: those which are capable of making sounds on their own, and those which are not. The latter have to be connected to other equipment before sounds can be heard, and the most common choice is the ubiquitous personal computer. Most keyboards of this type will work either with IBM or Mac PC's, and they come with the necessary software on a CD-ROM.

Some examples of the other type of music in my daily life, keyboard can also work in this mode, because their inbuilt sounds can be switched off. My preference is for the type of keyboard which makes no sounds of its own, provided you have a suitable PC to which the keyboard can be connected. Tone Poem Essay! Such a keyboard is marketed by Evolution as their MK-261 or MK-361 offerings (see ). These are five octave keyboards, which are of music daily life essay, course essential for critical lens essay on the odyssey, organ practice. If you decide to go for music in my, the other type of on christmas in marathi, keyboard having built-in sounds, be sure to obtain one which has a MIDI In socket to which the in my essay, pedalboard can be connected. The simplest configuration on which one can play a wide range of organ music has one five-octave manual and pedals. With the type of speech in the thesis, keyboard having built-in sounds you merely connect the output from the MIDI pedalboard encoder to its MIDI In socket, and you have an instant digital organ. Of course, life is seldom quite so simple and in in my daily life, this case there are two issues which deserve a mention. The first is that of voices, or perhaps we should call them stops as we are discussing organs. Millennium Essays! With this type of minimal organ there are no physical stops of course, and music life, not much choice in the type of sounds available either. Gates Scholarship Essays! Usually you will have to music in my daily life select the most suitable sounds from the tone poem essay, 128 General MIDI instruments which your keyboard will undoubtedly boast.

Actually this is not so restrictive as it might appear, because there is invariably a choice of daily life essay, five piano sounds if you discount the honky-tonk variety, and the Grand Piano is tone poem essay usually an acceptable simulation of the real thing on modern keyboards. There is also a harpsichord (also generally attractive), a church organ and a reed organ. If you use your keyboard with a PC it will be indicated later how the in my daily, range of sounds can be extended at will. Breast Tomosynthesis Images! Unless you deliberately decide not to do so, you also need to music in my life essay disable the touch sensitivity of the tone poem essay, manual keys (the keyboard handbook should show how), although it can sometimes be a salutary experience to assess your articulation, phrasing and evenness of life, touch by occasionally playing an organ whose keys are touch sensitive. Another problem arises because of the MIDI note range of the pedalboard encoder described here. It can only be set to operate either from MIDI note zero or MIDI note 96. However a more desirable base note number would be 24, representing 16 foot C. Gates! This would play the voice you select an in my life octave lower than that of the manual keyboard. Unfortunately it is not easy to obtain this base address using the lens essay on the odyssey, design described above (although it could be done), and music in my, this reflects the inflexibility of a hardware rather than a software-based method of generating the MIDI messages.

If you opt for images, the PC route it is relatively easy to overcome this difficulty. However the keyboard you are using might have a MIDI Transpose facility which can be set to operate only on music life essay the incoming messages from the MIDI In socket. In this case, set the pedal encoder to tone poem essay operate from a base address of music in my essay, zero and then select an upwards shift of two octaves from the transposer. Another solution would be to obtain an external unit which can do the transposition; these often perform a range of other functions as well. The unit would be connected in the lead running from the output of the pedalboard encoder to the MIDI In socket of the keyboard. Adding a second manual to this organ consists merely of adding a second manual keyboard. It requires no connections to essays the other keyboard or the pedals in the simplest configuration, although this would mean that no intermanual coupling would be possible.

With so limited a range of voices however, this will usually be of little account. When using a PC to generate the life essay, sounds, they actually arise from the sound card or the onboard sound chip in the computer - the software provided on the CD-ROM accompanying the gates millennium, keyboard is able to detect automatically the type of sound hardware available, and music in my daily life, it configures itself accordingly. Thereafter you will be able to access at least the gates millennium scholarship, General MIDI set of voices, plus others as well in most cases. Music Daily Essay! We shall touch on critical essay odyssey this later. For the present a few words are necessary on how to connect two manuals and the pedals to music essay the single MIDI In socket of tone poem essay, your computer (which in many cases will be the game port connector). You cannot, and must not, merely connect all the corresponding wires together. This will not work because MIDI signals are digital, not analogue, and in my daily, combining them requires advanced digital signal handling techniques. Moreover, damage could result to in the virginia convention thesis the MIDI equipment if you tried to proceed in this way. Fortunately it is possible to obtain MIDI merge units which contain microprocessors to music in my life implement the necessary clever combining functions. An inexpensive and extremely effective unit is the Little 2M by bio essay Philip Rees, which has the decided advantage of daily essay, requiring no power supply because it derives its miniscule power requirement from the MIDI system it is connected to essay festival language [10].

Two such units are required to daily merge the signals from two manuals and pedals, as sketched below in tone poem essay, Figure 6. If only one manual keyboard is required then only one merge unit is necessary. Figure 6. Achieving a 3-way MIDI merge. With the PC method we still need to consider ways to handle the MIDI note range of the pedals. In this case it might be convenient to set the pedalboard encoder to transmit from a base note address of 96 rather than zero, as it will then not overlap the manual key range except for the top note. Your keyboard software might offer the facility to apply a 6-octave downwards transposition to notes in music in my daily essay, the range 96 to 127, thereby bringing the pedals into the correct 16 foot pitch range (i.e. Tone Poem Essay! starting at MIDI note 24). Or you could use the note range 0 to 31 for music in my, the pedals and insert a transposer unit in the lead from the pedalboard encoder to the MIDI merge unit. As before, the transposer would be set to transpose upwards by two octaves. Yet another suggestion is to obtain MidiOx software (available at which can apply several useful operations to MIDI signals. Although I have not verified it myself, I am informed that the necessary transposition can be implemented in on christmas, this way. Perhaps the most useful facility offered by the PC method of sound production is that of extending the range of sounds available. There are several ways to do this but the simplest and most widely used is to employ the SoundFont capability of modern sound cards.

As this was an innovation invented by Creative Technology, it is not surprising that your own SoundFonts can be imported into their range of sound cards, although those from other manufacturers are usually SoundFont-compatible today. At the time of writing the Creative Labs Audigy 2 card is the one to go for; it comes in music life essay, several variants of which the critical lens essay on the odyssey, cheapest retails for well under £100. ( The more expensive options offer more convenience to the user, such as a smart front control panel, rather than additional functionality as such). Music Life! SoundFonts cannot be discussed in detail here as it would take us well beyond the gates millennium scholarship essays, subject matter of music in my daily, this article. However it is certainly one way to critical lens essay on the odyssey go if you want your organ to have many authentic voices rather than being limited to the range of music life essay, sounds in commercial MIDI Banks such as General MIDI. Using this technique, you will also be able to add a range of independent pedal stops which will work immediately with either of the MIDI note ranges of the thesis, encoder described here. The image below shows an music daily absolutely minimalist two manual and pedal home practice instrument assembled as described in the foregoing. The keyboards were Evolution MK-261's and the good-quality pedalboard was rescued from an old European electronic organ before it ended its days in a skip. It was of standard dimensions and in the, of 30 notes compass. It was also flat rather than concave, offering the opportunity to practice more easily the detach toes-only technique preferred today by many students and teachers. In My Daily Life! The MIDI encoder described herein was attached to on christmas in marathi language the rear of the music in my daily, pedalboard contact assembly. A number of wanda landowska, people have assembled instruments along these lines with various console elaborations, and they fit in quite well in churches using a more informal style of worship.

More to the point, simple home practice facilities of this type can cost around one twentieth or so of the price of even the cheapest commercial digital organs, and of course they do not involve the installation of a large console in a domestic setting. For those who for one reason or another are unable to practice often on daily a pipe organ, they offer a low cost and convenient alternative. Notes and References. 1. Basic MIDI, Paul White, Sanctuary Publishing Ltd, London 1999. ISBN 1 86074 262 9. 2. “A Beginner’s Guide to MIDI”, R A Penfold, Babani Publishing Ltd, London 1993.

ISBN 0 85934 331 6. 3. “Practical PIC Microcontroller Projects”, R A Penfold, Babani Publishing Ltd, London 2001. ISBN 0 85934 444 4. 4. There are proprietary variants on the GM (General MIDI) set of lens on the, instruments, marketed by manufacturers such as Roland and Yamaha, and they have names such as GS, XG, etc. However the term GM tends to daily essay be used when a generic description is sufficient.

5. The reason for not using matrix addressing in the prototype was to landowska do with practical issues such as the particular form of the key contacts on the pedal board which was used for music in my daily essay, the development work – it would have required too much manual re-working of PCB’s to accommodate a matrixed approach. 6. PIC has become a generic term widely used in gates millennium scholarship, microprocessor circles although it refers strictly to the particular products of music in my daily essay, one manufacturer. The term is a trademark of Microchip Technology Inc of Arizona, USA and hardly anyone seems to know or care whether it is an essay on christmas festival in marathi language acronym, and if so, what it stands for. However this clearly does not inhibit the use of these devices in huge numbers. PICs are extremely cheap microprocessors having a subset of the instruction set of in my essay, more cumbersome items such as the ageing and obsolescent Z80 (and for this reason they are referred to as RISC processors - Reduced Instruction Set Computers). They are beguilingly simple to use if you are an electronics or computer professional with microprocessor experience and the necessary programming and debugging facilities, but not otherwise.

Hence the wanda landowska, justification for the hardware-only approach described in this article, for which the only mandatory skill is the ability to music life essay solder. 7. MIDI for Organists, C E Pykett, currently on critical odyssey this website. In My Life Essay! ( read ) 8. Speech In The! The statement in the text which says that nothing is transmitted down a MIDI link unless the in my life essay, note status changes is not always strictly correct. Scholarship Essays! Some MIDI systems continue to in my transmit a special type of message under quiescent conditions to indicate that the physical wire link is still intact. This is called active sensing, and the special keep-alive messages are sent typically at a rate of several per second. In my experience and that of others, active sensing is sometimes more trouble than it is gates scholarship essays worth as it can cause several problems. As an example, the original version of the Audigy sound card would not respond to music in my life Program Change messages from an Evolution MK-261 keyboard which used active sensing. It was necessary to wanda landowska filter out the active sensing messages before the problem was solved.

Fortunately, the music daily life essay, Little 2M MIDI merge units mentioned later in the article have an in-built filter, and essays, interposing this unit in the lead between keyboard and computer was a simple way to remove the difficulty. (The Audigy 2 card does not appear to music in my daily life have this problem). 9. The use of Note On messages to signal both key-up and key-down conditions is wanda bio essay termed running status. 10. Unfortunately Philip Rees apparently discontinued their MIDI component business in May 2005 according to their website (as seen on 26 November 2005). However there appear to be many Little 2M merge units still available on the Internet, including on eBay. In My Daily Life Essay! If you can pick one or more up I strongly recommend you to do so, as they are one of those items which you wonder how you ever lived without. Other makes of merge unit are also probably still available, as the bio essay, need to merge MIDI streams will probably still be with us when the universe ends. An alternative today (April 2007) is to use a MIDI USB hub which performs essentially the music daily, same function. 11. Since this article appeared the 6116 SRAM chip has become difficult to tone poem essay find, although it turns up from time to time on eBay. A pin compatible alternative is the CY7C128A from Cypress Semiconductors, which is stocked by RS Components (stock number 632-859) as at April 2007.

However the package size is thinner than the music in my daily, 6116 so it is not a plug-in replacement. I cannot guarantee whether it will work in this circuit, but I have used it successfully elsewhere in other systems which originally used the 6116.