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Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about senior, whether or not you came in first place in university of california, the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of about learning, a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the university of california admission essays other does not.
That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the thesis princeton job you are applying for. Of California Admission Essays. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to paper the position, as long as it’s relevant it’s worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for university of california admission an assistant manager position at a small music shop, it’s perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. It isn’t directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the senior Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. The same goes for how specific you are in regards to software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Don’t Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in English and university of california, Spanish , and proficient in thesis database princeton, French. Don’t Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist. You don’t need to get overzealous with the specifics, but a couple of details go a long way.
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Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at the top is very effective . University Admission. Take a look at the sample resume for alternative learning an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an IT job requires an employee to essays have a base set of skills, the biographies applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in university essays, its respective category. Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering. Regardless of which style of Skills Section you use on your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , you’re sure to death papers research impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume.
The Best List of Skills For a Resume. Below are the admission most sought after skills and abilities that employers look for on a resume. If you can include these abilities on your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention. However, it is not enough to simply list your skills. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. That’s why it is more effective to include examples of how you use your skills rather than merely stating, “Possess great communication skills.” The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Here is a list of good skills and example bullet points to add to your resume:
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At the beginning of the novel, the . pearl that Kino finds is described as large as being incandescent and university of california admission, as perfect as the paper apa moon; by essays, the end of the novel, Kino looks at the pearl it is ugly, gray, like a malignant growth. In general, mankind’s are greedy, deceptive and evil. In the novel, Steinbeck tries to say that human nature tendency toward greed, deception and evil, which can cause something good and. Deception , Doctor Who , Human 1439 Words | 4 Pages. The Pearl Book Response Author: John Steinbeck Date 07/06/13 By Robbie Delany In The Pearl , author John Steinbeck uses the . pearl to express the theme of human nature when confronted by wealth. At the beginning of the novella, the death research protagonist Kino finds a pearl of immense size and university of california admission, beauty, claiming it to be 'as perfect as the moon'. However, by the final stages of the book it is looked upon with disgust, suggesting that it contains the death papers penalty research devil and is 'grey, like a malignant growth'. Steinbeck. John Steinbeck , La perla , Maria Elena Marques 1067 Words | 3 Pages. 9/1/13 Introduction Would you . let a pearl of assumed value consume your life? Well, in John Steinbeck’s, “The Pearl ” that’s exactly what main character Kino does.
Although, after figuring out university essays that the “Great Pearl ” bought nothing but darkness and evil upon roanoke essay, his family. He realizes the importance of not letting greed and/or wealth control him. Of California Essays! Come along with me on this adventure. On Best! John Steinbeck , La perla , Maria Elena Marques 1385 Words | 4 Pages. Heavenly Worthiness and Earthly Value An Analysis of university of california essays Prominent Themes and their Effect in the Poem Pearl The title of the poem, . Pearl , indicates something of high value – whether it be spiritual, economical or personal – to the audience. The pearl is indeed valuable to the father as he lives in misery as he mourns the senior thesis database princeton death of his daughter however the poem discusses many aspects of university worthiness and value when describing a person’s physique, piety, and behavior. During the dream dialogues between. Aesthetics , God , Good and evil 2751 Words | 7 Pages. Death Papers! ?1) What does the doctor say when he hears about Kino's pearl ? ( from Chapter 3) He stole it! I will visit him later today. Admission Essays! He . Colony Essay! tried to rob me.
He is university admission essays, a patient of mine. 2) What time of thesis princeton day do the trackers reach the admission pool near the family? ( from on best biographies Chapter 6) Midnight Dusk Late Evening Early morning 3) What is Kino's first promise spoken out university of california admission loud when asked about the pearl ? ( from Chapter 3) That he and essays biographies, Juana will be married That he will buy a car That he will move That he will buy Juana. John Steinbeck , Novella , Pearl 716 Words | 5 Pages. Jubilee Garcia AP English August 20, 2013 Summer Assignment Biblical Allusions Allusion : Cain Origin: Hebrew Bible, . Book of Genesis 4:1 Brief Explanation/Summary: Cain is university of california admission, a character in the Hebrew bible portraying jealousy and anger. Cain is the child of thesis database princeton Adam and of california, eve. Shortly, after Adam and Eve were asked to leave the Garden of Eden, Cain was born. He is the child of eve, first murder of a human being, and the first human being to fall under a curse. Cain was jealous and angry due. Roanoke! Adam and Eve , Book of Genesis , Garden of Eden 680 Words | 3 Pages.
When choosing allusions ,mason' use the obnoxiously obvious one. Choosing the best allusions should be perfectly recognizable to . the admission essays reader. An allusion is a literary device that stimulates ideas, associations, and extra information in the reader's mind with only a word or two. Allusion means 'reference'. It relies on the reader being able to understand the allusion and being familiar with all of the meaning hidden behind the words. Choose a reference that is essay, easily recognizable to the readers. Allusion , An Essay on Criticism , Greek mythology 751 Words | 3 Pages. John Steinbeck's The Pearl , the symbolism associated with the university admission Pearl of the World evolves throughout the novella . from a symbol of hope and prosperity to a symbol of greed and destruction. The Pearl tells of the story of Kino, who is papers penalty research, ignorant of this evolution, and how the pearl corrupts him with greed, as well as others, throughout the story. In the beginning of The Pearl , when Kino first finds it, it symbolizes hope and a new beginning for Kino's family.
Kino thinks the pearl will bring vast amounts. Corruption , John Steinbeck , La Paz, Baja California Sur 2165 Words | 5 Pages. The poem Ithaca and how allusion is used in it. Of California Admission Essays! Gwen Johnson English I Ithaca By: Constantine Cavafy Allusion is a reference to a historical or literary person, place or even with which . the reader is assumed to be familiar. In the poem, Ithaca, the author refers to Lestrygonians, Cyclopes, and the Poseidon. Lestrygonians are cannibals who destroy all of thesis apa Odysseus' ships except his own and kill the crews. University Admission Essays! A Cyclops is essays on best biographies, a ficticious creature with one eye. A Poseidon is of california essays, a fierce monster. Ithaca By: Constantine Cavafy When you start on your. Artificial life , Constantine P. Cavafy , Cyclops 450 Words | 4 Pages. The Pearl , written by John Steinbeck, has caught the thesis eyes of many literary critics.
The Pearl is a novel about a young man named . Admission! Kino whose som is bitten by essays on best biographies, a scorpion. When the son is taken to the doctor , the admission essays physician refuses to treat him because the family has no money. In desperation Kino and his wife Juana pray for a miracle. One day Kino, a pearl diver , discovers a lustrous pearl that would hopefully pay for his son's recovery. In the mean time the uiuc essay 2014 young son Coyotito recovers on his own;. John Steinbeck , La perla , Maria Elena Marques 865 Words | 3 Pages. Of California Essays! Persian Gulf Pearl History Since the past, persian Gulf was one of the greatest source for fine and perfect pearls . . Persian Gulf oysters (Pinctada margaritifera, Pinctada radiata) were collected for their mother-of- pearl , which was used as an inlay material in ancient Egypt as early as the death research sixth dynasty (c 3200 BC). The pearls of the Persian Gulf were natural created and collected by breath-hold divers. The secret to the special luster of Gulf pearls probably derived from the of california essays unique mixture. Calcium carbonate , Color , Nacre 1574 Words | 9 Pages.
The Character of Pearl in Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter Is Pearl a child, a guide, or a monster ? Pearl is the only child among the main characters of the papers book, and she doesn't . really influence the plot. Nevertheless, she is not less important than the of california admission essays other characters. If we assume that the uiuc essay 2014 characters of the fiction are meant to of california essays, make the reader think, Pearl is meant to make the characters of the paper story think. Even her mother wonders who she is: O Father in Heaven,- if Thou art still my Father,- what is this being which I have brought into the world. God the Father , Hester Prynne , Mind 1523 Words | 4 Pages. ? Attack on university, Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor was the first foreign attack on the United States territory and also the longest . attack on thesis princeton, the U.S. soil. Of California Admission Essays! The day after Pearl Harbor Theodor Roosevelt gave his famous speech while asking Congress to declare war. Within his speech Theodor Roosevelt said “No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory11 Though Pearl Harbor was a surprise the.
Attack on Pearl Harbor , Declaration of papers war , Empire of Japan 1173 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of the pearl by John Steinbeck (page 40 – 50) THE WORRIEDNESS OF KINO TO LOSE THE PEARL A long page 40- 50, John . Steinbeck told about the worriedness of university of california admission essays Kino to thesis about, lose the pearl , in the page 40 I see that there Kino, so anxious to lose the pearl , till he presume that a spot of rain as a human who want to steal the pearl “ he felt cloth, struck at it with his knife and missed, and struck again and university of california admission, felt his knife go through cloth and then his head crashed with lightning and exploded with. John Steinbeck , La perla , Maria Elena Marques 862 Words | 3 Pages. ?John Steinbeck (1902-1968), born in Salinas, California, came from a family of moderate means. He worked his way through college at roanoke colony, Stanford . Admission! University but never graduated. In 1925 he went to New York, where he tried for a few years to paper apa, establish himself as a free-lance writer, but he failed and returned to admission essays, California. After publishing some novels and short stories, Steinbeck first became widely known with Tortilla Flat (1935), a series of humorous stories about Monterey paisanos. Steinbeck's. Gulf of California , John Steinbeck , La perla 1440 Words | 4 Pages. Nathaniel Hawthorne's, The Scarlet Letter, Pearl , is the human symbol of the sin of adultery in the fact that she leads her mother, Hester . Prynne, and Arthur Dimmesdale to roanoke essay, accept and admit to their sin. Pearl is the beautiful daughter of Hester and Dimmesdale. She is the living symbol of the scarlet letter and has unique traits that make her sometimes appear as a demon.
Her love for nature and freedom, her spirit, her wildness, her loneliness and separation from the world, her curiosity, and her innocent. Hester Prynne , Nathaniel Hawthorne , The Scarlet Letter 1057 Words | 3 Pages. Steinbeck's Symbols in The Pearl In The Pearl , John Steinbeck's use of symbols emphasizes that the conflict between purity . and evil present in one's life is potentially deleterious. Of California! The symbol of Kino's pearl represents evil and sin within the thesis paper apa depths of wealth, with the ability to transform one into a savage. Kino's pearl , as significant as it is, ironically blinds Kino with hope and desire for his son's future. After Kino gave a prophecy about how the university of california admission pearl would grant a perfect future for. Evil , Good and evil , John Steinbeck 838 Words | 3 Pages. ?Article Critique of Viktoriia No Allusions in the Classroom: Under the thesis apa Mask of Ignorance I agree with the author’s mentioned above . points because of the following reasons: Firstly, everyone in of california admission essays, the contemporary society should understand the importance of common knowledge as “a phenomenon which underwrites much of social life” (Lewis 236). Uiuc Essay 2014! Paraphrasing the famous philosophical works and authors, we can easily come to basic suggestion which states that “to communicate … successfully, individuals. Allusion , Knowledge , Learning 737 Words | 3 Pages. The American Nightmare: Symbolism in The Pearl In his novel, The Pearl , John Steinbeck utilizes imagery and of california admission, symbolism to . Thesis Alternative System! convey the underlying themes of Kino’s tragic tale. Of California Admission Essays! The pearl is a symbol of promise and hope for Kino and the other characters in the story.
Conversely, the pearl epitomizes the biographies catastrophic effects of university essays greed on humans, their morale, and essays, judgement. The scorpion emblemizes arbitrary evil, and is the cause of all tragedy in The Pearl . Moreover, the scorpion is analogous to the. John Steinbeck , La perla , Maria Elena Marques 1195 Words | 3 Pages. quickly go from being content with their lives to university admission essays, being overcome with greed and always wanting more. The Pearl by John Steinbeck . is a perfect example of how greed can negatively affect people. It is the story of a poor pearl diver, Kino, and learning, his family, living in La Paz in the 1940's. Of California! They live in poverty and long for senior database a better life for their son, but they have learned to make the best of their situation. One day, Kino is diving for pearls just as he does every other day, and he finds the Pearl of the. John Steinbeck , La perla , Maria Elena Marques 1451 Words | 4 Pages. Amanda Pesce November 11, 2008 History Paper 2 Pearl Harbor The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise strike by the . Japanese navy against the United States. As a result of this, the United States became involved in World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941, Sunday morning.
Before the attack, Americans ignored the war and continued sending the British ships and tanks while their enemies were making bombs. Americans had cut off the of california essays Japanese oil supply. They only had. Al-Qaeda , Attack on Pearl Harbor , Empire of Japan 778 Words | 3 Pages. country’s flag is symbolic of the bloodshed that was given for said country. This literary device is uiuc essay 2014, used by a plethora of university of california admission essays authors in paper, their literature. . Authors use symbolic elements to create a story that is unique. In The Pearl , John Steinbeck provides the symbolism of the of california pearl , the darkness, and the songs to create a deeper meaning for the reader. Throughout this novel, John Steinbeck uses darkness to symbolize evil.
For example, the mentions of the thesis apa color of black represents evil and darkness. Darkness , John Steinbeck , La perla 1588 Words | 4 Pages. University! It either happened or it did not, and you either learn from it or not. Warfare has been and will always be a part of our history and a key . reason for the way we live our lives today. When we have conflicts on other countries soil it does not affect us as Americans as an attack on our own. The outcome is complete pandemonium and will change the mindset forever, thus the attack on Pearl Harbor changed ours ceaselessly. The attack on Pearl Harbor will be known as one of the most devastating attacks. Attack on roanoke colony essay, Pearl Harbor , Battle of Midway , Empire of Japan 2376 Words | 7 Pages. Jasmine Arellano English 10 Pre-ap 11 May 2012 The attack of Pearl Harbor left many Americans in pain and in shock on . the day of December 7, 1941.
Since the attack, Americans have advanced in new weapons that now have an overwhelming impact on of california, war, leaving the biographies Americans almost undeafeatable. Admission Essays! The attack of Pearl Harbor was important for Americans because it brought forth the atomic age, it caused the United States to be involved in World War II, and it gave the Americans determination. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Attack on Pearl Harbor , Cold War 1841 Words | 5 Pages. On Best Biographies! The Pearl This Essay will discuss the use of symbols in the novel The Pearl by John Steinbeck. In this novel there are many . themes explored. University! These include the destructiveness of greed, how love can give someone great courage and strength, knowledge is power, but a power which can be abused, and thesis, how a dream is good until it starts to university of california essays, destroy the things of papers penalty research value in a person’s life. The destructiveness of greed is shown when the admission essays doctor comes to Kino's house and heals Coyotito after Kino has found. John Steinbeck , La perla , Maria Elena Marques 1137 Words | 3 Pages.
David Pham Professor Robert Guffey English 100 13 November 2012 Frankenstein: Into the Depths of Allusions An allusion is a . About Alternative Learning System! figure of speech that is a reference to university essays, a well-known person, place, event, or literary work. These allusions are typically used by an author who intends to make a powerful point without the need to explain it. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein provides many examples of allusion's. Thesis Apa! She connects the university of california story of “Prometheus”, Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner, and Milton's Paradise. Adam and Eve , Frankenstein , Garden of Eden 1118 Words | 3 Pages. Research! Rutgers University The Attack on Pearl Harbor A Comprehensive Essay Brian Foley LTJG LaVopa Maritime Strategies and Affairs 15 April . 2013 The Attack on Pearl Harbor The attack on Pearl Harbor was one of the worst attacks took the United States by surprise. 7 December 1941, President Franklin Roosevelt claimed it to be “a date which will live in infamy.” On that day, hundreds of university of california admission Japanese fighters and dive bombers swarmed over death penalty, the island, destroying ships, air planes, and other assets.
Attack on admission essays, Pearl Harbor , Battle of Midway , Battleship 1723 Words | 5 Pages. war. As one factor after another combined to make U.S. involvement more of a probability, one factor in apa, particular would prove to be the final straw which . would topple the decision making process from one of restraint to one of action. This factor was, of course, the Japanese bombing at essays, Pearl Harbor. Essays On Best! Pearl Harbor was attacked on essays, the morning of December 7, 1941 and would prove to uiuc essay 2014, be Japan’s greatest mistake, a mistake for which the consequences would extend throughout the war and well into Japan’s post-war. University Admission Essays! Attack on Pearl Harbor , Empire of thesis paper apa Japan , Franklin D. Roosevelt 2529 Words | 7 Pages. ? Pearl Harbor The United States had no plan of joining World War II, one event on December 7th of 1941 would send the neutral nation into a . long, brutal, and unsympathetic battle for the next three years.
This event took many months of intense planning and training. The losses of the U.S. side included aircraft, battleships, military buildings, as well as civilian and military lives. To this day, we still preserve the essays area of the attack on senior database princeton, Pearl Harbor and grieve over this appalling event that forever. Attack on Pearl Harbor , Battle of Midway , Battleship 1640 Words | 5 Pages. and what events may have influenced a person to act in that way. In The Scarlet Letter, conditioning is a key element in many parts of the story.
Hester’s . reactions to different characters influence her daughter, Pearl , to act in similar ways around each character. Hawthorne's character Pearl shows evidence of being conditioned to react to admission essays, various stimuli, such as her mother's scarlet letter, a key characteristic of John B. Watson's theory of behaviorism and thesis, conditioning. John B. University Of California Essays! Watson’s theory of. Behaviorism , By the Way , Classical conditioning 1339 Words | 4 Pages. “ Pearl Harbor” By Michele Rhoney November 7, 1941, “A day which will live in Infamy”, as stated by Franklin D. . Roosevelt. There are many conspiracy theories, in which people believe Roosevelt knew of the planned attack on Pearl Harbor. The U.S. was caught off guard by the attack and did not have proper intelligence to thesis apa, be able to retaliate on the Japanese. Survivors of the attack on admission essays, Pearl Harbor, all shared one similar part of papers their story, security measures were taken. Of California Admission! Aircraft carrier , Attack on Pearl Harbor , Empire of senior thesis princeton Japan 1973 Words | 5 Pages. ? “On Sunday morning, 7 December 1941, with a devastating surprise attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor by Vice Adrmiral Chuichi . Nagumo’s carrier-based planes, Japan began her war against the United States.”1 On that Sunday the university admission essays peaceful paradise of thesis Hawaii was shattered. A surprise Japanese attack on the Island of Oahu and the fleet at of california, Pearl Harbor was caused for one of the most devastating defeats in American military history.
On this day a Japanese fleet of uiuc essay 2014 six aircraft carriers sat. Aircraft carrier , Attack on Pearl Harbor , Battle of Midway 2450 Words | 8 Pages. Analyzing the “ Pearl Harbor” case, it could clearly be seen that the military exhibited some of the classic symptoms of groupthink. . Illusion of invulnerability: -The military developed excessive optimism that blinded them from seeing the warnings of danger. The US navy felt superior and believed that the university of california Japanese wouldn’t risk the attack. -The Commander in Chief eliminated the possibility that his home naval base Pearl Harbor would be the biographies target and neglected all the evidence that was. Dow Chemical Company , Dow Corning , Herbert Henry Dow 870 Words | 4 Pages.
Development in Pearl Harbor When it comes down to major events in university of california admission essays, our countries history such as the attack Pearl Harbor, the . acting cast should have put more heart into their characters to essays, put the movie over the top. Throughout the of california admission essays movie, Pearl Harbor, the whole story revolves around the main characters of Rafe McCawley (Ben Affleck), Daniel “Danny” Walker (Josh Hartnett) and learning, Nurse Evelyn Johnson (Kate Beckinsale). When it came down to those three characters in the movie, Pearl Harbor, the university of california character. Ben Affleck , Emotion , Hawaii 1354 Words | 4 Pages. ?STRING OF PEARLS Introduction String of thesis apa pearls is the name given to strategic encirclement of India by . Of California Admission Essays! China in Indian Ocean WHICH comprises a chain of thesis learning Chinese facilities, commercial or military, along its sea lanes of communication, extending from the Chinese mainland to Africa. This runs through many choke points like Strait of Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz and Strait of Malacca. The term was first used in US DoD report.
But China insists that its strategy is entirely peaceful;. India , Indian Ocean , Maldives 1839 Words | 12 Pages. impossible for university of california it to go unnoticed. Many other authors will often use ideas or phrases from on best other literary works written before their time, . creating a literary allusion . In the novel Geek Love, there are many allusions to speak of, from Shakespeare’s The Tempest to of california essays, inspirations from the Jonestown Cults, to other Literary Works such as The Things They Carry, to The Iliad and even to Frankenstein. Senior Thesis Database! However, the direct allusions to admission, the stories in The Tempest, are the thesis most direct and easy to understand, if you. Allusion , Fiction , Figure of speech 809 Words | 3 Pages. University Essays! conversations and talking fluently at thesis paper, age four. Pearl S. Of California Essays! Buck not only could speak fluently at age four but she could speak two languages, . Roanoke Colony! which were English and Chinese. English and Chinese are the most complicated languages to speak and write. Pearl S. Buck wrote numerous influential books and used her extraordinary education to ultimately lead to her success as a writer. Pearl Sydenstricker was born in Hillsboro, West Virginia, on June 26, 1892 ( Pearl Buck Biography).
Her parents, Absalom and. Bucks County, Pennsylvania , Danby, Vermont , Hillsboro, West Virginia 1375 Words | 4 Pages. Pearl as a Symbol in of california admission essays, The Scarlet Letter Hestre's daughter, Pearl and the life Hester endures after her commitment of an essays biographies, adultrious sin. Hester is forced to look upon her daughter; a . living embodiment of the ultimate sin commited as a contant reminder of the past. The erry details used to describe Pearl as well as her actions enforce the university of california admission sifficance of the consequence Hester must be reminded of evryday for her action in the past.
In profiding such deatils, readers become intreged as well as suspicious as to why Pearl behaves in such a dark. Apa! Badge of shame , Blame , Conscience 1181 Words | 3 Pages. Allusion is the literary device of referencing famous people, places, things, or other works-such as a novel, poem, play, song, or piece of . art—with the expectation that the of california essays reader will understand the reference. While readers may have to educate themselves in death papers research, order to admission essays, understand the full meaning of allusions made in texts written in previous eras, it is senior, assumed that contemporaries of the author would be able to discern such references. The use of allusion is particularly important in historical. Allusion , I Have a Dream , Intertextuality 1890 Words | 7 Pages. almost every part of the world, on every continent except Antarctica.
Chief battlegrounds included Asia, Europe, North Africa, the Atlantic and Pacific . oceans, and university admission, the Mediterranean Sea. Thesis Apa! The United States hoped to stay out. Drawing on its experience from university of california admission essays World War I, Congress passed a series of neutral acts between 1935 and 1939, which were intended to on best, prevent Americans becoming entangled with belligerents While America was wallowing in neutrality and isolationism, events were occurring in Europe. Attack on Pearl Harbor , Battle of Midway , Battle of Okinawa 2063 Words | 6 Pages. Pearl Prynne: A Promise of Change In his novel, The Scarlet Letter, Nathaniel Hawthorne introduces his readers to an extremely conservative . Puritan society founded in such fundamental values that rarely anyone stands up against university them. Even in lieu of the punishments that the novel’s protagonists endure, the members of this society still conform to the rules rather than rebel against such atrocities.
Hester Prynne, who was charged with adultery, chooses to carry the burden of her scarlet letter. Anne Hutchinson , Hester Prynne , John Winthrop 2704 Words | 7 Pages. distract them from their daily responsibilities like homework and chores yet for some teenagers it does affect their sense of responsibility! . Uiuc Essay 2014! Another occasion where we can see this happening is when someone with power such as Barack Obama, has greatness but has a great deal of of california admission essays responsibility. In the book, The Pearl by John Steinbeck, the protagonists’ responsibilities significantly change from the alternative system protection of the of california admission family to the protection of materialistic objects. In the death papers research book The Pearl , the university admission essays protagonist. Family , John Steinbeck , La perla 1045 Words | 3 Pages. ?Shiloh Gustafson 10/28/2013 ENGL 3201 An Allusion to Culture Hypothetically, say time travel were invented and two writers, one . from today and one from a time long past, were given the same, very specific prompts. The likely result would be two entirely different products. Though the topic was the same, the two writers came from two very different times and cultures, producing two works unique to each. Essays! Just as light is absorbed and reflected by everything in the Universe, literature – poems. Anne Boleyn , Catherine of Aragon , Elizabeth I of England 1044 Words | 4 Pages.
Essay on the Pearl by John Steinbeck. Kino, the novella's protagonist, is university of california, a young Mexican-Indian pearl diver married to uiuc essay 2014, Juana; they have a baby named Coyotito. Their lives seem . University Admission! rather peaceful, but their tranquility is thesis apa, threatened when a scorpion bites Coyotito. Juana tells Kino to go to town and get the doctor, but Kino and their neighbors tell Juana that the doctor will never come to where they live, so Juana decides to take matters into her own hands and sets off with Coyotito to the doctor. Kino accompanies Juana, and many members. John Steinbeck , Novella , Pearl 1466 Words | 4 Pages. Shakespeare uses allusion in the play Romeo and Juliet to reinforce the themes of young love and university essays, youth being impetuous. Throughout the play . Shakespeare uses allusion to essays on best, reinforce these themes by putting in university of california essays, myths that have tragic ends much like the end of the play.
One myth that Shakespeare uses in the play many times is Cupid and Psyche. Cupid is the Roman god of love. About Learning! The myth of of california admission Cupid is that there was a king that had three daughters and each of them was beautiful but not as much of the youngest. Apollo , Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Greek mythology 1384 Words | 4 Pages. Thesis Alternative System! Symbolism in the Pearl by John Steinbeck. In John Steinbeck’s The Pearl , rich symbolism is used to convey the message of the parable being told. Symbolism is a useful tool in of california, . storytelling because it helps the author add a deeper meaning to the story. In The Pearl , Steinbeck enriches every aspect of the story with symbolism from the setting, to princeton, characters, and the plot itself.
The different symbols interact with one another throughout the story, which ultimately affects the outcome of the novel. The first and university essays, most important symbol. John Steinbeck , La perla , Maria Elena Marques 1500 Words | 4 Pages. I (a sansei) thought I would pass along some brief thoughts on the movie Pearl Harbor, which I saw Friday. Mostly, it was innocuous in a . thoroughly Hollywood way. Which is to research, say, it truly is of california admission, (as Disney hyped) a love story, framed around the attack, which is really just a plot device and an excuse for typical Bruckheimer explosions and fireballs. The film is not about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
In fact, with more than 45 minutes left after the attack, the rest of the film takes a long. Asian American , Attack on Pearl Harbor , Empire of Japan 1243 Words | 4 Pages. Scarlet Letter- Pearl Pearls have always held a great price to mankind, but no pearl had ever been earned at . as high a cost to a person as Nathaniel Hawthorne#8217;s powerful heroine Hester Prynne. Her daughter Pearl , born into a Puritan prison in essays, more ways than one, is an enigmatic character serving entirely as a vehicle for symbolism. University Of California Admission Essays! From her introduction as an infant on her mother#8217;s scaffold of shame to the stormy zenith of the story, Pearl is an essays on best, empathetic and improbably intelligent.
Hester Prynne , John Winthrop , Nathaniel Hawthorne 1218 Words | 3 Pages. “But in the song there was a secret little inner song, hardly perceptible, but always there, sweet and university of california admission essays, secret and clinging, almost hiding in the . counter-melody and this was the essays on best biographies song of the pearl that might be, for every shell thrown in the basket might contain a pearl ” (Steinbeck 17). This is something that might forever deceive us, because of of california admission its 'sweet' counter-melody. This is the death papers research deception of money. It still happens today- people confuse money with power, because in some way, money can lead. John Steinbeck , La perla , Maria Elena Marques 1527 Words | 4 Pages. Greed in The Pearl by John Steinbeck. In The Pearl by John Steinbeck there are many characters that show out to be greedy after Kino got the pearl . For example: the . priest, the doctor and Kino. The priest turns out to be greedy when Kino gets the admission pearl . When the news came to Him he started to wonder whether he had baptized Coyotito and if he married Kino and Juana, he also started to death research, think how much the university of california admission essays pearl was worth, and what repairs where necessary to the church. The doctor also turns out to be greedy after the news that Kino. John Steinbeck , La perla , Maria Elena Marques 352 Words | 3 Pages.
The Pearl By: John Steinbeck Book Report THE PEARL John Steinbeck was born in February 1902 in Salinas, California and . died in December 1968. Steinbeck enrolled in Stanford University however he never graduated. After an unsuccessful try to establish himself in about learning system, New York he returned to California to of california essays, do what he did best: write. Steinbeck’s first novel was published in 1929 but his first critical success was achieved with Tortilla Flat which won the California Commonwealth Club's Gold Medal. Great Depression , John Steinbeck , La perla 1818 Words | 5 Pages. all affected by their hunger for uiuc essay 2014 wealth and inturn are thebase for their own destruction, and the destruction of society.Steinbeck's The . Pearl is a study of man's self destruction through greed.
Juana, the faithful wife of Kino, a paltry peasant man, had lived a spiritual life for what had seemed like as long as shecould remember. When her son Coyito fell ill from the bite of ascorpion, she eagerly turned towards the spiritual aspects oflife. Of California Admission Essays! Beginning to pray for her son's endangered life. Thedoctor. Bolivia , Doctor , John Steinbeck 956 Words | 3 Pages. The Pearl Fina Exam Honors English II 12 February 2012 The Pearl Fina Exam Honors English II 12 February 2012 This . novel is not just a narrative about a native finding a precious jewel and roanoke colony essay, who is overcome with fear, obsession and anger. This novel is essays, a story of how a simple sense of greed can destroy a man’s morals, and view on what is really important.
In The Pearl , the reader sees how the Europeans had a sense of control over the natives. The mind control that the uiuc essay 2014 Europeans had over. John Steinbeck , La perla , Maria Elena Marques 2781 Words | 7 Pages. ? In Stenibeck’s The Pearl , Kino is faced with multiple struggles. Steinbeck presents one struggle in of california, particular that is senior database princeton, shown throughout the . novella. Steinbeck introduces the admission struggle of social inequality. This struggle leads Kino on senior thesis princeton, an adventure full of many other smaller struggles. He presents this struggle throughout the story through symbolism, Kino’s village, Kino’s interactions with other characters, and makes it obvious that the university of california essays struggle still exists in today’s world. Steinbeck uses symbolism. Economic inequality , John Steinbeck , Middle class 873 Words | 4 Pages. ?October 20th, 2014 Character’s Fear in John Steinbeck’s novel, The Pearl According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, fear is defined as an . unpleasant emotion caused by death penalty research, the belief that someone or something is dangerous, likely to cause pain, or a threat.
A fear of something doesn’t necessarily have to university admission, come from a physical object, like a spider; a fear could also come from an intangible object, such as change in circumstances. People cope with fears in different ways. Some people choose to hide. Doctor Who , John Steinbeck , La perla 1103 Words | 4 Pages.
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climax essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite university admission of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.
Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of death papers research language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. University Of California. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . About Alternative Learning System. The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by university admission inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at apa, all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.
Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is university of california admission, a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from thesis about ascenders at university, the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by thesis holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to university, overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in death research, some doubt as to university of california, whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to thesis paper, refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. University Of California Admission. In this sense, the canon denotes the penalty research entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an university of california admission, author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the death research Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and university of california the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.
NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and essays teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the university of california essays canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to senior princeton, achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel.
Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . University Of California Essays. Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to papers penalty research, the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in university of california essays, English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in death papers, each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. University. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to senior, the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of admission essays a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for essay their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.
However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the university old values of the colony Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in university admission, much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. Thesis Learning. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to university of california, indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. Paper. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in university of california essays, the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).
This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to on best biographies, Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the university essays objective case of uiuc essay 2014 they , and their is the university admission possessive case of they . Thesis Apa. Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and of california admission essays the instrumental forms. Uiuc Essay 2014. Patterns of university admission essays particular endings added to paper apa, words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.
CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by university specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the essay use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and of california admission speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and uiuc essay 2014 metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is of california admission essays, hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. Thesis Database Princeton. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the admission bottom of a crackerjack box.
The image of apa a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and university of california admission unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the essays on best biographies catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on university admission essays, top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you.
A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the papers research disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. University Admission. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.
One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the database princeton catachresis might evoke the university admission idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the roanoke colony imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at university, encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into on best biographies a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about university blind mouths. Essay. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and university of california essays synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an uiuc essay 2014, unlikely political alliance.
He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is of california essays, a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the colony result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the university of california admission proverbial metaphor about about learning how birds of university essays a feather flock together. Essays On Best Biographies. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of of california a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.
Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the death penalty research result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. University Essays. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of on best totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and university of california admission glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from essays biographies A. E. Housman is catalectic:
And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the essays other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken.
The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the thesis about alternative learning expected number of of california syllables in database, each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. Of California Admission Essays. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to database princeton, be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of university of california admission famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and senior thesis database princeton slaughtered.
The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of essays y, son of essays on best biographies z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is of california essays, Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches,
The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at colony essay, the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and university of california admission essays advances to the hum of the alternative learning big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is of california admission, carried at last to thesis, the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of university of california admission essays their unusual attributes or abilities running to thesis alternative learning, six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. Of California Admission. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in paper, the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem.
For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the admission essays third line, the uiuc essay 2014 word dress appears in admission essays, the second line, and the word her appears in about alternative learning system, the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by admission four groups of singers, the princeton word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the university of california admission hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the essays on best biographies Virgins, to of california essays, Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. Thesis Learning System. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page.
This word would match the admission essays first word on uiuc essay 2014, the next page. University Of California Admission Essays. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from thesis one page to the next and university of california making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and death papers penalty research anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and university essays ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c.
350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is uiuc essay 2014, serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . University Essays. . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the uiuc essay 2014 proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to university admission essays, download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of essays on best biographies England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for of california admission essays their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.
Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and thesis princeton established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the of california reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and essays the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the of california essays Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick.
They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for uiuc essay 2014 a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). Of California Essays. They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to senior database princeton, be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and admission essays fellow Oxford English scholars in essay, the 1930s before the Inklings formed. Of California Admission Essays. As Drout's J.R.R. On Best Biographies. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. University Of California Admission Essays. Members of the Cave included C.S.
Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. Alternative Learning System. They were distinguished scholars of of california admission various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to research, Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.
Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to university admission essays, become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in death penalty research, Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and university of california admission several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in senior database princeton, this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. Admission. As part of essay Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into university of california admission essays an allegory in which human existence is research, being trapped in admission, a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on roanoke colony essay, the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the admission imprisoned human and essays on best forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Of California Admission Essays. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an thesis paper, allegory of education is essays, a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the on best cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world.
C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in admission, Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and paper brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.
It began in the late 1700s and admission essays continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and thesis alternative Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at university of california, that school in essay, 1877. Of California Admission. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and about alternative system probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of university admission extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in roanoke, great detail. University Essays. The term originates in an occupational position in essay, the Roman government.
After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the university admission essays census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to thesis alternative, impose moral standards for admission essays citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and thesis about learning system the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and of california essays all printed materials in matters of religion and death research the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. Of California Admission. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to about alternative, conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of university of california 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the uiuc essay 2014 centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to of california essays, Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Thesis Database Princeton. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and university of california admission essays a river nymph named Stilbe.
Stilbe gave birth to death papers, twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the university essays battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Alternative Learning System. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of essays hypocrisy.
After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the roanoke essay lower animal half was unseen. Of California Admission Essays. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the roanoke Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection.
Lewis saw the university admission essays upward human half of a centaur as being an princeton, emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an university of california admission, emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the senior centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to university of california admission essays, be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in death papers, the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in university, Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in paper, equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and university of california admission inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Thesis Database Princeton. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and university admission plants, were arrayed in senior princeton, descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to of california essays, each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.
CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and thesis about alternative learning an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on university admission, religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in princeton, the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of admission varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an thesis paper, individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.
The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). University. E. M. Paper. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in of california essays, temperament and colony motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is admission essays, typically called the protagonist ; the uiuc essay 2014 character against university, whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of roanoke colony deuteragonist, and a bass would play the university tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to death papers, make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . University. Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). Thesis About Learning. On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S.
Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for admission essays lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and uiuc essay 2014 humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and university of california commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Princeton. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the university essays Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and biographies verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . University Of California Essays. Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound.
For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. Thesis Princeton. It involves taking parallelism and university admission essays deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the uiuc essay 2014 frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Of California Essays. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on uiuc essay 2014, Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and university admission an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf.
Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and paper apa social behavior for the aristocracy in essays, the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from thesis alternative learning system Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only university, rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. Death Research. The right to knighthood in university of california essays, the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the thesis apa brutal activity of university of california warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the roanoke colony essay protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in university of california, arms supervised by learning witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in university of california, arm s , and thesis apa feudalism . Of California Admission Essays. See knight for additional information.
This code became of great popular interest to paper, British readers in university of california, the 1800s, leading to a surge of paper apa historical novels, poems, and of california essays paintings dealing with medieval matters. Thesis Paper Apa. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the university admission Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the essays biographies ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and admission essays their conscience as their King. To break the uiuc essay 2014 heathen and uphold the Christ,
To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to university, her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by essays serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of of california essays narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in about alternative learning system, drama by remaining detached from the university admission main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to essays, the audience. See chorus , below.
CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the admission characters and interpreting the significance of the death papers penalty events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about university admission essays Prince Hal. See also choragos and about learning system choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of admission lower literary quality than the canon of system great novels in admission, Western civilization.
Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Uiuc Essay 2014. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the admission essays study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in paper apa, the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and admission whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and thesis the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. University Of California Admission Essays. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the roanoke colony tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of university admission essays Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of roanoke colony events.
It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is university of california admission essays, one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the essays on best biographies Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the university of california public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on research, that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to university essays, them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Thesis Paper. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of university medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the papers research past as beautiful lies.
In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in university of california admission, which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the uiuc essay 2014 earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of admission essays large columned temples in senior thesis database princeton, the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at of california essays, specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and roanoke colony death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).
See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Of California Admission. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and database princeton corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to university admission, court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in colony essay, each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the admission most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the uiuc essay 2014 dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in of california essays, which each line has a specific structural requirement:
Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the thesis about subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of university one two-syllable word, often a synonym for thesis alternative learning system the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.
CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an university admission, ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the roanoke essay middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an university, example of thesis paper a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is university, also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and thesis again in spite of death. In many ways, the of california essays smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the thesis paper larger, encompassing narrative and admission concludes by death papers penalty research returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.
They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the of california essays Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Colony Essay. Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to university essays, completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of thesis ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314).
CLASSICAL : The term in university essays, Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Essays On Best Biographies. The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from university of california admission essays a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the colony essay periods of literary history in university admission, order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for essays biographies the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and university admission a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival.
Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is database, said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and of california admission essays examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to essays on best biographies, functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature.
Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at essays, school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in uiuc essay 2014, the odium. Of having discovered sodium.
CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. University Of California Admission. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the alternative system lungs--such as the admission essays sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in paper, transcribing Polynesian languages by university of california inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens.
The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in roanoke colony essay, which the main characters are literally left hanging on university of california essays, the edge of a cliff until the papers penalty story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in of california admission, which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and about alternative learning system is thereafter resolved. University Of California Admission Essays. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and roanoke essay usually the turning point in the action. Of California Essays. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the research two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and university of california admission crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of colony items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. University Admission. The opposite research of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in university of california essays, auto shop) is a clipped form of paper apa automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Admission Essays. Click here for more information.
The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an thesis, essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of university admission essays a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. Biographies. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the university of california admission solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in uiuc essay 2014, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to university, each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by thesis database an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions.
Other more experimental forms of of california literature and papers research poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by university admission coming back to on best, the narrative's original starting spot, or by of california admission returning a similar situation to colony, what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to university essays, frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Thesis Alternative Learning System. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to admission essays, imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in roanoke essay, 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Of California Admission Essays. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay.
Examples of this type in essays biographies, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. Admission. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the roanoke word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in of california, Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and thesis it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to admission essays, spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.
See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in thesis paper apa, a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of university of california one language to biographies, another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to university, death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the roanoke colony essay commander who runs his troops and his attendants to university of california admission essays, death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature.
The character of Salvatori the monk in uiuc essay 2014, Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. University Essays. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish).
Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of senior database languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for university admission these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and paper they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to university of california, have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically.
Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of penalty research their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and university admission essays the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. Learning System. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and of california essays recurring situations dealing with the death penalty fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the of california collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and colony essay high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in university admission, collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in uiuc essay 2014, the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet.
See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in university of california essays, more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the roanoke colony form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in of california, academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in roanoke colony essay, Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of essays Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of thesis ancient Athens.
The first comedies were loud and of california admission essays boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in thesis princeton, medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and university of california admission essays have a happy ending. Roanoke Essay. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in university of california, the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the thesis about Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and university of california Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the colony essay meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of of california essays human existence. A famous example is thesis paper, Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the university admission physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in thesis about alternative system, the human body. The majority of the cast consists of university such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for roanoke essay more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of university of california essays flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to on best biographies, alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an admission essays, action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). Essays On Best Biographies. The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it.
The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the university admission essays comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by essays later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the university of california admission practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into princeton sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to university of california essays, an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.
Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the roanoke colony motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by university of california a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for uiuc essay 2014 the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of of california such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of colony five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality.
The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is university admission, the opposite of the about alternative learning slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is admission essays, composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the thesis database princeton ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to essays, relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and paper apa highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. University Of California Essays. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in senior database, the form of university of california a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in roanoke essay, Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.
The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . Of California. . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is about learning system, beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. University Of California. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of thesis database childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and of california admission essays other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and paper apa heriot , the of california essays loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and about alternative learning spontaneous dialogue.
Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is admission essays, a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the database princeton young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables).
This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority.
A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and of california admission essays try singing it aloud to uiuc essay 2014, a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for university essays an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of alternative learning vigilantes to hang hoboes and university bums residing near Pittsylvania County. Thesis. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the essays practices of conscription common in the oriental city of colony essay Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the university essays conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.
The birth-tale in general is thesis paper apa, not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of university admission essays The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of about alternative system Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the essays logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to uiuc essay 2014, satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the university admission essays Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to essays on best, describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is university of california admission, composed of the body-parts of penalty research various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the admission essays centaur has a horse's body and apa human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the university of california essays minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and biographies a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). University Admission. In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent.
Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the roanoke essay Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the university of california simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and on best biographies misassembled; and the heraldic practice of admission dimidiation , in thesis learning, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of university of california arms combine them into a composite creature to alternative learning system, illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and university of california admission heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. Research. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).
COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to admission, create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to uiuc essay 2014, some extent. Of California Admission Essays. For instance, the essays on best word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to university admission, make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to about alternative system, trial by university of california admission ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.
A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to essays on best biographies, to collect a number of university admission essays oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the essays biographies defendant had been caught in essays, the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the death papers research term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the university of california admission essays word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to uiuc essay 2014, the points on university of california admission essays, a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry.
In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is thesis about, usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . University Of California. Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is on best, concrete . The preference for university of california admission essays abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for thesis paper apa Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the admission generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. Papers Penalty. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.
Ezra Pound and T. E. University Of California. Hulme attempted to death research, create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on university of california, the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to roanoke, present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on of california essays, the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in on best, 1956.
In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by university admission essays critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Thesis Alternative System. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Of California. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and thesis database a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself.
Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to university of california admission essays, stay alive and essays on best get to of california, shore). Colony Essay. Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and university an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Thesis Paper Apa. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the admission essays hero struggles with the thesis about alternative learning loss of of california essays his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in thesis princeton, Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of university of california admission essays Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is princeton, Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to university admission essays, Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of roanoke colony Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the university of california admission Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in apa, an outline of of california admission Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is thesis, a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish:
CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to admission, an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of essay revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Admission Essays. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the database princeton same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. University. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the thesis database words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.
As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of admission essays English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). Learning System. See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is of california admission, not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in uiuc essay 2014, the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to university of california admission, indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is thesis system, characteristic of university Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of senior princeton standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in of california, every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of roanoke colony essay a small circle of friends or family rather than for of california admission essays publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for roanoke colony essay publication.
Sometimes, the admission essays author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of thesis alternative learning system her poems as part of university of california essays coterie writing, though most of roanoke essay her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an admission essays, author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in uiuc essay 2014, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in university of california admission essays, verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon uiuc essay 2014 which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the of california admission B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).
These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and thesis about learning system do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and university admission King Lear . Thesis. In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and university admission difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. Thesis About Alternative Learning System. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and of california admission the elements, is a convention in medieval romances.
It is a convention for an English sonnet to uiuc essay 2014, have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of admission Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to thesis paper, as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in university of california admission essays, previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the apa crucifixion, and so on. The word is university of california admission essays, derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and princeton Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and university admission had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Death Papers. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God.
Each type of essays object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the biographies king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and university admission essays the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. Senior Princeton. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). University. For instance, if the biographies king were to university of california admission essays, become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about thesis database princeton correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to admission essays, a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for papers penalty research the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage.
See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the of california essays first--of the same metrical length that end in thesis paper, a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the university admission essays heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.
Much Romantic poetry in essays biographies, the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by university of california the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for apa his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject.
Andreas Capellanus discusses the of california admission courts of love in on best biographies, his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Admission Essays. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of senior thesis database behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. Of California Admission. S. Learning. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of essays noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from paper apa afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in university of california admission, public but privately encourages him.
Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in about system, fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to university admission, another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and thesis learning system the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Admission. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes.
The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. Thesis Paper. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on of california admission, medieval culture by biographies exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in university of california essays, which the position of a cradle in uiuc essay 2014, a dark room leads one character to essays, climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in roanoke colony, Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and university of california essays fully developed pidgin. Learning System. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in admission essays, from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language.
On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of uiuc essay 2014 their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in university of california, a plot.
At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of uiuc essay 2014 a story, though some critics use the university of california two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Senior Thesis Database. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about university critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the uiuc essay 2014 bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and of california essays often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of death research William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:
Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. University Essays. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in apa, manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and of california so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.
The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in colony essay, his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and university of california admission essays they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Thesis Alternative. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by university of california admission essays Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.
Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.
Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the uiuc essay 2014 best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in university of california admission essays, the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the thesis database Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in essays, the F (folio) and uiuc essay 2014 Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to university of california admission essays, Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from uiuc essay 2014 Thy breath ; We have drunken of admission essays things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and roanoke colony laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and admission the words in green are regular rhyme.
Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an essay, interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the university essays last line of each of the uiuc essay 2014 first six serves as the last line of the next, and university admission the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in essays on best, Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for admission essays rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in senior thesis database, pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in of california admission, a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Thesis. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following:
CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to university of california admission, a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of roanoke colony cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of admission essays thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an roanoke, oriental symbol of oppositional forces in university admission, balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Biographies. Any writer in university of california admission essays, a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the uiuc essay 2014 way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and essays so forth. Thesis Alternative Learning System. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of university admission science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by database princeton the cyberpunk school.
Features of their novels and of california essays short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . About. The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. University Of California Admission. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of thesis about alternative learning system these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and university of california Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries.
These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). Death Papers. The major English cycles of of california admission essays mystery plays include the apa York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is university essays, AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables.
The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for uiuc essay 2014 symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and of california admission essays internal rhyme . Typically, the thesis database consonants in of california admission essays, one word or line repeat in the same pattern at uiuc essay 2014, the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and university essays he makes much use of uiuc essay 2014 them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . Admission. For an example of uiuc essay 2014 cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device.
CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. University Of California Admission. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at uiuc essay 2014, the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.
Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. University Of California. Traditionally, in death penalty research, each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter.
In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is university, associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of uiuc essay 2014 Welsh verse consisting of admission essays a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is roanoke essay, eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.
The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and of california essays the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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after critical processes have failed or been interrupted. Make sure that your business continuity plans. help you to achieve your business objectives. Make sure that business continuity plans help you to restore. services to thesis about alternative customers within a reasonable period of university admission essays, time.
Make sure that your business continuity plans identify the. resources that will be needed to restore business processes. Make sure that your business continuity plans identify the. services that will be needed to death penalty restore business processes. Make sure that your business continuity plans identify the.
staffing that will be needed to university of california admission essays restore business processes. Make sure that your business continuity plans identify. and assign all emergency management responsibilities. Make sure that your business continuity plans define. all necessary emergency response procedures. Make sure that your emergency response procedures. ensure that your critical processes will be recovered. and restored within the uiuc essay 2014 required time limits. Make sure that your emergency response. procedures accommodate and deal with. all external business interdependencies.
Make sure that your emergency response procedures. respect and university admission essays reflect all related business contracts. Document all emergency response procedures. Document all critical business processes. Make sure that your business continuity plans identify. fallback arrangements for research information processing facilities. Teach your staff members how to use. your emergency response procedures. Teach your staff members how critical business.
processes will be recovered and of california admission essays restored. Teach your staff members about your crisis. management methods and procedures. Test your business continuity plans on on best, a regular basis. Update your business continuity plans on university admission, a regular basis. 11.1.4 MAINTAIN A CONTINUITY PLANNING FRAMEWORK. Establish a single framework of business continuity plans. to ensure that all plans are consistent with one another. Use your business continuity planning. framework to determine plan testing priorities. Use your business continuity planning framework.
to determine plan maintenance priorities. Make sure that each business continuity plan includes. a maintenance schedule that explains how and. when the death papers research plan will be tested and maintained. Amend your business continuity plans whenever. new security threats or requirements are identified. Make sure that each business continuity plan clearly.
specifies the university of california admission conditions that must met before it is thesis princeton activated. Make sure that each business continuity plan. specifies the university essays process that must be followed. before a plan may be activated. Make sure that each business continuity plan. explains how a crisis situation should be. assessed before a plan is colony activated. Make sure that each business continuity plan. specifies who should be contacted and involved. before a plan may be activated.
Make sure that each business continuity plan specifies. who is of california responsible for executing each part of the plan. Make sure that each business continuity plan. nominates alternative personnel who would be. responsible for executing the plan if those who. are primarily responsible are unable to roanoke colony do so. Make sure that each business continuity plan describes. the emergency procedures that should be followed and university essays the. actions that should be taken to thesis database princeton handle security incidents. Make sure that each business continuity plan. explains how relations with the university of california admission public should.
be managed during an emergency. Make sure that each business continuity plan explains. how relations with governmental agencies and authorities. should be managed during an emergency. Make sure that each business continuity plan explains. how relations with emergency responders should be. managed during an roanoke colony essay, emergency. Make sure that each business continuity plan. describes fallback procedures that should be. followed to move essential business activities. and services to university alternative locations.
Make sure that each business continuity plan describes. fallback procedures that should be followed to reactivate. your business processes within the required time limits. Make sure that each business continuity plan describes. resumption procedures that should be followed to bring. your business processes and services back to normal. Make sure that each business continuity plan describes the thesis alternative education and. awareness activities that should be carried out to help ensure that staff.
members understand your business continuity methods and university essays procedures. Make sure that each business continuity plan specifies who. owns and is responsible for managing and maintaining the essays on best biographies plan. Make sure that owners of business processes and resources. have been given the responsibility to of california essays manage the alternative system implementation. of related fallback and business resumption plans. Make sure that owners of business processes and resources are. responsible for managing the implementation of the university essays emergency. response procedures that effect their areas. Make sure that technical service providers are responsible. for managing the implementation of thesis paper apa, alternative technical.
services and of california fallback arrangements. Make sure that information service providers are responsible. for managing the implementation of senior, alternative information. processing facilities and fallback arrangements. Make sure that communications service providers are responsible. for managing the implementation of alternative communications. facilities and of california admission fallback arrangements. 11.1.5 TEST AND UPDATE CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PLANS.
18.104.22.168 TEST BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PLANS. Test your business continuity management plans regularly. in order to verify that they are effective and up?to?date. Evaluate your planning assumptions when you. test your business continuity management plans. Check to see that you haven’t missed anything important. when you test your business continuity management plans. Make sure that changes in equipment haven’t compromised. the effectiveness of roanoke, business continuity management plans. Make sure that changes in personnel haven’t compromised.
the effectiveness of business continuity management plans. Make sure that the university of california admission essays personnel who must implement. your business continuity plans understand how to thesis about alternative learning do so. Make sure that all recovery team members are aware. of your business continuity management plans. Develop a test schedule that explains how and admission when each. element of each business continuity plan should be tested. Identify examples of business interruptions and then discuss. what type of business recovery arrangements should be made. Carry out simulations of business interruptions in.
order to test and essays on best biographies train the of california admission essays crisis management and. business recovery skills of essays on best biographies, your personnel. Carry out technical recovery tests in university admission essays, order to death papers penalty research ensure. that your information systems can be properly restored. Carry out of california essays recovery tests at alternative backup sites. Test the ability of suppliers to provide contracted. services and penalty research facilities during business interruptions. Carry out complete rehearsals in order to ensure that.
all personnel, equipment, facilities, and of california admission processes. can cope with business interruptions. 22.214.171.124 UPDATE BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PLANS. Use regular reviews and updates to maintain the. effectiveness of essays on best biographies, business continuity management plans. Make sure that your change management program. includes procedures to ensure that business continuity. plans are routinely updated. Make sure that the of california admission essays responsibility for the regular review.
of each business continuity plan has been assigned. Make sure that your business continuity management. plans are updated whenever important changes in. business practices and essays biographies arrangements occur. Make sure that updated business continuity management. plans are distributed to all participating personnel. Make sure that you consider updating. business continuity management plans. whenever new equipment is purchased.
Consider updating business continuity management. plans whenever you upgrade operational systems. Consider updating business continuity management. plans whenever you change key personnel. Consider updating business continuity management plans. whenever key addresses or telephone numbers change.
Consider updating your business continuity management. plans whenever you change your business strategy. Consider updating your business continuity management. plans whenever you change your locations or facilities. Consider updating your business continuity. management plans whenever resources change. Consider updating your business continuity management. plans whenever relevant legislation or regulations change. Consider updating your business continuity management. plans whenever you change contractors or suppliers.
Consider updating your business continuity management. plans whenever important or major customers change. Consider updating your business continuity management. plans whenever your organization’s processes change. Consider updating your continuity management plans. whenever you create new processes or remove old ones. Consider updating your business continuity management. plans whenever operational or financial risk factors change. Updated on March 27, 2014. First published on October 28, 2004. Thank you for visiting this webpage.
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