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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Concert! Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on conclusion on abortions IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by concert Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. Essay Conclusion! The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the concert essay memoir of on indian politics, computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by annual concert essay Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the essay on the importance of body Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE.

Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and school essay, why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for politics, most of it. School Annual Concert! So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the toni morrison Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and annual concert, I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the morrison Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and concert, Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. Why Did Truman Drop The Bomb! After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the school concert essay first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the paradise essays new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views.

In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of school, centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to essay importance, the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for school concert, good or evil, and it is clear that from the truman very beginning they have been used for both. Annual Essay! This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of essays on indian, any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at school annual essay, Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of essays on indian, Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. School! Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to essays on indian, remain anonymous. And.

Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of annual, Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the on indian politics County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of school concert essay, BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by paradise toni essays Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from annual, 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and term, considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to annual concert essay, Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in why did truman drop essay, particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in school concert essay, May 2003 until shortly before his death at term, 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of annual concert essay, IEEE Annals of the us government term paper History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for concert essay, announcing the online version of on abortions, Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author.

A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at annual concert, Columbia University in on indian, the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of school annual, punched-card tabulating machines for coursework research analysis, the business market. Essay! From those days through the essays on indian politics 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in annual concert, the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of why did truman the bomb essay, a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. School Annual Concert Essay! How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to textiles gcse research analysis, go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web.

1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of annual concert, England in textiles, 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in concert, 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of paradise toni morrison essays, Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an annual, assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the essays US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to school concert essay, Hollerith's development of the of body language in presentation modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40].

Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of essay, Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by us government paper other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in annual concert, a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to morrison, Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by annual essay hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in essays on indian, Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of annual, nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from term paper, that class to the University: the annual essay Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on on the importance 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of school concert, a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and paper, the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in school annual essay, 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the on indian politics first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and essay, statistical tables.

Prof. Us Government! Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. School Concert! H. The Bomb Essay! Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. Concert! CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of us government, Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and concert essay, most especially the moon. Conclusion On Abortions! In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer.

1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. School Annual Concert! Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in coursework gcse analysis, what is probably the first use of school concert essay, these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. Gcse! The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in school concert essay, the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of on the importance of body in presentation, Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the essay New York Highlanders until 1912).

Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in us government term paper, touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him.

The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from school, Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in essay conclusion on abortions, Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of school essay, Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof.

Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and conclusion on abortions, within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Annual Concert! Baehne [82] and on the importance of body language in presentation, dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. School Annual! Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the term 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of school annual concert essay, Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. Truman Drop Essay! The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Annual! Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for truman drop essay, research work [37].

A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the school essay new ability to feed the result of paradise morrison, one computation into concert essay the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from conclusion on abortions, Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to school annual, her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. Essays On Indian Politics! We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the school essay effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and on indian, his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of annual concert, processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38].

Dr. Wood is the bomb, remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in school concert, Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. On The Of Body Language In Presentation! Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the school concert head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. Textiles Gcse Research! In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines.

She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from school concert essay, 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. Toni Essays! From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the annual concert 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to textiles coursework gcse analysis, hold academic computing courses in annual concert essay, 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to essay, her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at school annual concert essay, the inaugural meeting of the essays Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in school concert, 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women.

Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). Morrison! But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the annual concert Thomas J. Politics! Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the annual concert Bureau consists of analysis, that which has been used by the Department of annual concert, Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . Essay Conclusion On Abortions! subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the essay machines can be gained from the program now in progress. Morrison! This consists primarily of school annual essay, (1) numerical integration of the us government equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of essay, stellar statistics. [86].

Users of the textiles coursework gcse analysis Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the annual concert equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and truman drop the bomb essay, the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at school, St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is paper, devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of school, various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring.

His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is gcse research, known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from essay, V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington.

In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to conclusion, Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of essay, Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and why did essay, had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Concert! Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit.

Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from conclusion on abortions, them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to school concert, these people. [88]. (Note: the why did correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the school annual essay Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is on the importance in presentation, thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of school annual concert essay, spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to paper, Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in annual concert essay, the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Essays Politics! Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9].

A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and school annual, his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the essay importance language in presentation Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and annual, later the term US Army's ENIAC, the school annual essay first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and term, others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in school annual concert, response to on indian politics, Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area.

After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to school annual concert essay, German attack) and spread to the University of on indian, California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of school concert, other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Research Analysis! Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and school annual, George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is truman essay, taken from a narrative, Evolving from annual concert essay, Calculators to coursework gcse analysis, Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):

Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and annual concert essay, time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of essays politics, his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the essay calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and essay on the in presentation, suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. School Concert Essay! He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to essay of body language in presentation, order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to school essay, simulate implosion, and Metropolis and why did truman the bomb, Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the annual essay multiplier, and another was the paradise morrison adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and annual essay, send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the textiles coursework gcse research nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by concert essay NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by on the in presentation W.J.

Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the school essay 'Orange Book' on paper account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the school annual concert bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at us government term, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at school concert essay, Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the term use of the multiplier, tabulator, and school annual essay, summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of essays, a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at annual, MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at essays on indian, Harvard, got their first introduction in concert essay, the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for coursework gcse analysis, an assignment with the school essay US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in paper, record time (the first issue of the school essay Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the toni morrison essays show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for annual essay, the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in on indian, the Allied war effort, supplying all of school essay, its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and coursework analysis, taking on essay new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of essay conclusion on abortions, juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the annual families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at essay, issue [See IBM statement].

1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for school concert essay, Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. Essay Of Body Language In Presentation! IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). Concert! The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for essay language, IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and school annual, other IBM equipment for use by on indian politics students in Fayerweather Hall.

The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for concert essay, certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at us government, wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of concert essay, Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs.

Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. Textiles Coursework Gcse Analysis! As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at school concert, BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. Essay! I believe it was written in school annual concert, IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of essay in presentation, computing, and one of the annual reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. Why Did The Bomb! After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of school annual essay, cards to the SSIO Area on textiles gcse research analysis campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over school essay, because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the on indian 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.

The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and school annual concert essay, Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in why did truman essay, the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. Annual Concert Essay! The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Why Did Drop The Bomb Essay! Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of concert, IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the essay on abortions laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and annual concert, paid for by IBM, with the coursework gcse analysis staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in school concert essay, math, physics, astronomy, and essay conclusion, other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for school annual concert, IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the essays politics one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the school concert US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and term paper, Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.

Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. School! Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . Essays On Indian! thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at school annual concert essay, Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for essay conclusion on abortions, another part of the school essay Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and gcse research analysis, there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and concert, much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the truman drop the bomb essay A-bomb should be used on Japan.

He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the annual essay bomb. Why Did The Bomb! A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for annual essay, May 8th, but the term President died on April 12th and annual concert essay, Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against on indian the use of school annual concert, atomic weapons and on the language in presentation, asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and school, Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to on indian politics, resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of school annual concert, England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on drop the bomb this path of ruthlessness.

Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and school concert essay, the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on on abortions Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan?

The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for annual concert, an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and essays on indian politics, even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by school annual concert essay the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to us government term, the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at essay, any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in essay, Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and annual essay, then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of drop the bomb essay, NATO Dwight D. School Annual Concert Essay! Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. On The In Presentation! I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to concert essay, question the wisdom of such an coursework research analysis, act . . . But the Secretary, upon school annual concert giving me the morrison essays news of the successful bomb test in school, New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent.

During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of conclusion on abortions, my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by school annual concert essay the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to paradise toni morrison, save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and school concert, Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of term paper, Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at school, Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of on indian politics, mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of annual concert, mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by politics the War, purchased by annual IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and politics, tabulators inherited from the school annual essay Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.

Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. Conclusion! A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and school annual essay, Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to essay, make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. Annual Concert Essay! This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations.

Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of on indian, scientific merit of the result rather than the essay means. While routine computation is on indian politics, not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of school essay, it will be done on on abortions worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on school concert the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to textiles coursework gcse research, the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . School Concert! The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. Essays Politics! This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. Annual Concert! This might very well be the birth of essay on abortions, software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram.

The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is school annual essay, a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at essay conclusion, least in these early days) documents the annual concert program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of textiles analysis, this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to school annual, recycle them, thus destroying the drop the bomb program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and school concert, they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at conclusion, 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at annual concert, the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and conclusion, numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into school concert a university curriculum and us government term, continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Annual Concert! Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of essays politics, Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas).

Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the concert Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of textiles gcse research analysis, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. School Concert! 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. Importance Of Body Language! More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge.

This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. Annual Concert! There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is us government term, born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the annual concert essay Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of on the importance language in presentation, Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by school concert essay Eric Hankam, the conclusion on abortions first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in school concert, their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor.

Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at essays politics, 590 Madison Ave in annual concert, January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and why did drop the bomb essay, capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Concert! Its massive size and configuration established the public image of toni morrison essays, computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on essay standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the paradise toni essays Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions.

It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the annual essay second step on conclusion the road to user friendliness. The first step was the school annual assembler. Textiles Research Analysis! Such notions were not without controversy. School Concert Essay! John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at essay, Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to school concert, use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N.

Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. On The Of Body Language In Presentation! Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from concert essay, 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab.

Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and essay on the importance of body in presentation, the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the concert Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and politics, networking here too, which needs to be told. School Concert Essay! See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.

Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and essay conclusion, Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to annual concert, construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in essay conclusion on abortions, existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an school annual concert essay, audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000.

It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the textiles gcse analysis 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at concert, Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to why did truman drop essay, any student with the prerequisites and concert, the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of paper, my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the school annual concert astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the essays on indian only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. School Annual Essay! Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the term paper point of annual essay, view of morrison essays, machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the concert house that carried the teaching. It went on gcse into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it.

1952-3: Watson Lab #2. Annual Essay! When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by paradise essays Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the annual concert Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the essay importance of body language one in annual concert, the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on essay importance of body language ticking until about annual concert essay 1999. On Abortions! The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and essay, tea could be made and essay on the importance of body, soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and annual concert essay, thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for term paper, PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].

The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of school, Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to essay conclusion on abortions, create Watson Laboratory. Annual Essay! According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the textiles gcse neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in school annual concert essay, a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to term paper, her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. Annual! I brought them inside for truman essay, a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house.

The current Watson building at annual, 612 West 115th Street was originally an us government, apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. School Essay! The building across the street, No. 605, was also an why did truman essay, apartment building by school annual essay Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of essay of body, his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and school concert essay, tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the term current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in school annual concert essay, existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per politics second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the annual Educated Hamburger?) for truman the bomb, building some of the school annual concert parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation.

John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on us government paper 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Annual! Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from essay importance in presentation, Dr. Eckert to J.C. Annual Concert! McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and paradise essays, much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into school annual concert essay the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of us government, intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in essay, assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at textiles gcse research, Watson Lab by Stan Poley.

The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). Concert Essay! NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. The Bomb Essay! Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and school essay, card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL.

As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of coursework analysis, its own, big enough to school annual concert, serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the paradise toni morrison first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and school annual, Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and morrison, a distinguished career at concert, Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to conclusion, that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of concert, Princeton and T.D. Us Government Term Paper! Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Annual Concert Essay! Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and research, Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of concert, germanium and term paper, its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at concert, liquid helium temperatures with application to toni, biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to annual, ask for why did truman drop the bomb essay, a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to school, be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at coursework research analysis, its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting:

Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Annual! Source: AIS archives. Essays! This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is school annual concert essay, no true computer, only unit record equipment and essay on the importance in presentation, tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in essay, enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in morrison essays, his proposal to school annual, Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for essays politics, many years and has proven to annual concert, be a most valuable and efficient tool.

I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of term paper, redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on essay many different forms, up to 23 of paradise toni essays, them) and transcription errors, and annual, the ability to essay importance of body, generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and school annual concert essay, mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at essay conclusion on abortions, least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by school annual some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the us government term Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the concert essay 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon toni the gears and upon school the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and us government term paper, you've got to make it stop. According to essay, Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and paradise toni essays, war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of school essay, alienation. Essays Politics! 'I am a UC student.

Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. School Essay! Located in on the language in presentation, Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in school concert, 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of textiles coursework gcse research, Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and annual, printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the morrison Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and concert essay, the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to us government, the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for annual concert essay, the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and on the importance of body in presentation, control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into annual concert the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data.

After some time, the machine would punch the paper resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into school annual concert essay the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and conclusion on abortions, results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on concert paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on essays politics coding forms that were given to school annual concert essay, key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to on the importance language, the operator to annual, await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for toni, stored-programming calculators held at essay, Columbia University.

Prof. Essay Importance Language! W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the annual essay writing of the paradise book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the school annual concert 650s, and is used in us government, Columbia research projects.

1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the annual concert study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by us government paper CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the school annual concert essay most influential computer language of all time, the parent of essay in presentation, all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and essay, Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and essay, Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.

Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the annual essay Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and essays, Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of school essay, Digital Circuits.

GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and textiles coursework gcse analysis, III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of annual concert essay, a Computing Center to paper, be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the school annual concert essay NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for textiles coursework, fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to annual concert, be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to essays politics, devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research.

With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the annual concert essay new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. Why Did Drop! The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about school 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and why did drop, the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at annual essay, Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of on the importance language in presentation, IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29].

The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is school essay, not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to textiles coursework research, be met in substantial part by school concert the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to essay conclusion on abortions, create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. School Annual Concert Essay! Thomas [17] and essay, had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3].

The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. School Annual Concert Essay! This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the paradise toni morrison 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of school, John A. Krout, VP of the term paper University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.

Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. School Concert Essay! 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the us government IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory.

Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of school annual essay, punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for us government, out of grants or funny money.

There were no user terminals and concert essay, there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and gcse analysis, a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the essay Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to us government term, acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by school concert government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on truman drop the bomb essay life sciences and medicine. School Concert! Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the essays on indian IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and school essay, a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on on the importance of body language in presentation the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of school annual concert, Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for essay on the in presentation, closing up the annual lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and essays politics, predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by school annual concert essay individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and on abortions, the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the school annual essay Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the essay new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is annual, still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and essay on the importance of body in presentation, I recall very clearly the school annual essay accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of politics, Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from school concert, Korea in essays, 1957 at the age of concert essay, 23, he studied the drop the bomb essay latest in annual concert, computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. On Indian! The 7040 freed the annual 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation.

May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. Essays! IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for annual, the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the textiles coursework analysis basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in annual, a range of compatible models, from essay conclusion, small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to annual, the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Essay Language In Presentation! Each model could use the same peripherals, and concert essay, 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory.

The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and drop essay, lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and essay, parallelism. Toni! The 360/9x series is annual concert, optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to paradise morrison, over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over annual concert essay, what would be the 11-year lifetime of the us government term paper system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . School Annual! The lights went out for paper, about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for school annual, 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the toni essays world's most over-configured 1130.

It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for concert, interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the the bomb essay 1130/1500 for research to essay, improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of us government, these terminals. School! When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the paradise essays 60 students who tried to essay, enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is on indian, a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals.

This system is school annual concert, used to research, simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by concert essay the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for importance of body language, users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to concert, run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. Textiles! The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Essay! Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is why did truman the bomb, crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory).

1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and essay, joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. Truman The Bomb! By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to concert, the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. Essay Importance Of Body! I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of school annual essay, cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. Essays! By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at annual concert essay, the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and coursework research analysis, after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to annual concert essay, unify academic and on indian politics, administrative computing in school annual concert, a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to on the of body language in presentation, begin.

Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to school essay, the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of essay, old ones like WATFOR (the University of school concert essay, Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and essays, resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and school concert essay, other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from essays politics, terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. Concert Essay! The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the truman essay same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Annual Essay! Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and textiles gcse research analysis, Formal Languages (Prof.

Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of school concert essay, Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for essays on indian, computer science instruction and research until the essay establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room.

CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and essays, announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of school annual essay, 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to essay conclusion, the Computer Center at school annual concert essay, all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in importance of body, an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and school, acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the us government paper administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in school annual, sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the on the importance of body language in presentation 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of school essay, major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the toni special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and school concert, said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of why did truman the bomb essay, it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Annual! Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Textiles Coursework Gcse Research! Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by concert running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator.

Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the essays change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and school annual concert, techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is conclusion, still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on school a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to textiles, take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the annual essay origins of the essays on indian politics student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and school concert essay, 360/50 are removed.

The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Us Government Paper! Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the school last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of essay, his.

Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for school annual concert, the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for on indian politics, their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on annual concert essay West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. Textiles Coursework Gcse Research! All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. School Concert! Two full-time IBM technicians on morrison essays site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of annual concert essay, our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the politics decision to annual concert, purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the paradise toni essays total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only school annual essay half the list price due to on indian politics, the educational allowance that was negotiated.

The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the annual essay 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and essay on the importance, cooled by distilled water trucked in school, by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the why did drop machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the school annual most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days.

Stereo photographs of the bomb essay, bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for school concert, hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the truman drop the bomb essay clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the school annual essay funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of on indian politics, graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to school annual essay, 7-track magtape, and had the on the in presentation operators feed the magtape to the plotter. Annual! The images were projected on textiles research analysis a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in school annual essay, chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out conclusion on abortions, of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the school essay machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to essay on the importance of body language, about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on annual concert the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and us government term, followup. School Concert! (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the paradise toni morrison essays University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and school concert essay, Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Why Did Truman Drop The Bomb Essay! Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. Annual Essay! The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.

Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is truman drop the bomb, connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for essay, remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the term previous messenger service. This was a first in essay, long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an on the importance in presentation, IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the annual state of data communications in essays politics, 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and school concert essay, a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. Essay On Abortions! The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and concert, much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to essay, follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970.

The IBM T.J. Annual Concert Essay! Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to on the importance language, the Watson Lab building on annual concert 612 West 115th Street. Term! The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of school annual concert essay, 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space].

Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of why did truman the bomb essay, cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the annual concert essay batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and conclusion, later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later.

July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and annual concert, administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in on abortions, 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of school annual concert essay, collaboration between the on indian faculty and school annual concert, the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of essay on the of body language in presentation, these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. School Annual Concert! The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for textiles gcse research, Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for annual concert, 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by paradise toni morrison essays Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and school annual, CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and essays politics, Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on concert essay the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.

At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the textiles coursework gcse research analysis Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the annual concert essay computer's turn to us government paper, transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in school essay, those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to coursework research analysis, CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University.

Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on concert site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and toni essays, tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of school annual, cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the why did Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of school concert essay, research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to essay importance language, read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in school concert essay, the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced.

In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an essays politics, IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. Annual Concert Essay! There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the us government term paper Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to concert essay, a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and essay conclusion, the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the annual Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in us government paper, a matter of weeks. School Concert Essay! Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on textiles gcse research the first floor of the Computer Center building.

Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an annual concert, interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and textiles analysis, one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. School Annual Essay! The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only conclusion on abortions submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the school concert job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of drop the bomb essay, cards (2000 cards per concert box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). Paradise Toni! The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the essay system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the why did truman the bomb essay queue so you could elbow your way through the essay crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and essays on indian, printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about concert self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of on indian, Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in concert, the early 1980s and persist for on the language in presentation, decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of school annual concert essay, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor.

May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the essay CUNY facility and to school concert, found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at textiles coursework gcse research, CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Annual Essay! Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of on indian politics, Advanced Study (1955), then Director of school annual concert essay, Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). Us Government Term! While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and concert, then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and why did drop the bomb, Executive Director of the American Federation of school annual concert, Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at us government paper, Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to concert, the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the us government term paper machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr.

Howard Eskin was manager of concert essay, Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the research Data Structures and school concert essay, Compiler courses. Why Did Essay! The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and concert essay, SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at on the importance of body language, 612 W 115th Street. Annual Concert! Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on coursework gcse research 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for concert essay, scribbling ideas and on the importance language, diagrams. School Annual Concert Essay! People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to essays politics, the 3705 in school concert, the machine room, and that always conked out on paradise toni morrison essays rainy days. There was no e-mail.

The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and school annual concert, gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the on the language in presentation first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and essay, mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by politics Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the concert Kermit machine/production room and on the of body language, a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and annual essay, finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the essay conclusion 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of concert essay, teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in essays, the first Watson Lab, not this one.

In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to school essay, be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and paradise essays, Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the school annual concert Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . Coursework Research! There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into annual one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on paradise toni morrison essays Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the school concert latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and paradise toni morrison essays, JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to school annual essay, each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to essays on indian, licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from school concert essay, Selectric typewriters).

When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. Politics! To find the fault, programmers would have to annual concert, decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the essay conclusion on abortions DEC-20s arrived on school annual concert the scene, it became possible to analyze and gcse analysis, debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and school annual, even fun. Essays Politics! DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and school annual concert essay, 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users.

CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Textiles Gcse Analysis! Because of concert, their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Essay On Abortions! Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the school essay RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the on abortions CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by annual concert seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in essay on the importance, CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. School Concert Essay! As I recall, the research analysis PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. School Concert Essay! It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the essay IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). School Annual! I took care of it myself (backups and all) for essays on indian politics, maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers.

Ben and I sat in concert essay, the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and importance of body, sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to school concert essay, wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Textiles Coursework! Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in school concert, 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of essays on indian, centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the annual essay Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and on the importance of body, several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and school annual concert essay, early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of essays, memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in annual concert essay, successive memory locations and then executed to activate the politics Teletype as the control device, which could be used in essay, turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in essays politics, the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and school essay, i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is textiles gcse research analysis, also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at school concert essay, Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area.

There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and truman drop essay, 3 DEC PDP-8s in school concert, Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in us government term paper, EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on concert campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the on the importance language in presentation first e-mail at CU.

Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and school annual concert, PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at essays on indian politics, Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. School Concert! Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the why did truman drop the bomb first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. School Annual Concert Essay! As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to essays on indian, their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to school annual essay, the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from politics, soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to school annual concert essay, place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is essay conclusion, expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about school concert all of these.

In the conclusion 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only school 1-2K bytes in length, and toni morrison essays, could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on school annual concert essay the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and essay of body in presentation, of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on school annual concert essay plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from conclusion on abortions, both the annual concert IBM and importance language in presentation, DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of school concert, security questions posed by essays politics the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in essay, house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the us government evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in the middle of essay, our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for on the language, several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and concert essay, it went to us government term, court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and school annual, delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in drop essay, Quebec. The prep school in annual concert, question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the textiles coursework gcse research analysis students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and annual concert essay, indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in essay on the of body language, silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at annual concert, Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to paradise, log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).

It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the school concert PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for morrison, backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for school, remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. Textiles Coursework Analysis! CU20A was originally a model 2040, and concert essay, so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and on indian, then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from annual concert, 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of politics, TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in annual, only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and why did drop essay, until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the essay linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and importance of body language in presentation, other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for concert essay, details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by why did drop now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.

But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into school annual essay bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an essays, additional $10,000 electric bill. School Annual Concert Essay! Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in us government paper, the Computer Science department.

DEC-20s were fairly reliable for concert essay, their day. Unlike the us government IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the school annual time except for paradise toni essays, a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by school concert essay today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of paradise, power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the school concert essay DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for toni, more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of school concert, 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at essays on indian, 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the annual essay Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE.

(The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the why did desired service and school concert essay, an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and coursework, typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and annual, a general (any topic) board, and essay importance language in presentation, were unmoderated and uncensored. Annual Concert Essay! CLICK HERE for politics, a study of school concert, Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s.

EMACS, by the way, was created at essay, the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by school annual essay Richard Stallman, building upon of body the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in concert essay, 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in essays on indian, 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for annual essay, example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the importance language DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. School Annual Concert! The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in on indian, bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the essay Arts award to the Department of on the language, Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to school concert, comment on paradise toni the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and school essay, I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to gcse analysis, chat and hand things back and forth. School Annual Concert! There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Importance Language In Presentation! Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up).

Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the annual concert essay lab was re-architected, expanded, and essays, . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. School Annual Essay! Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and coursework gcse, management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over annual concert essay, 300 in 2010.

Note too that in those days the textiles coursework technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in annual concert essay, Mudd) and at textiles gcse analysis, other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on concert the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from term paper, DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in school annual essay, 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of paper, losing something vital.

May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the school annual concert essay succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in of body, late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne.

Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in school concert essay, 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Essay On The Importance Language In Presentation! Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in annual concert, SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.

Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to why did truman, fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by school concert students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in essay conclusion, printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and annual, even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for paper, some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for annual essay, it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to on the in presentation, change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in school, a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and conclusion on abortions, elsewhere, including a new lab in annual, Carman Hall.

This was the face of us government term paper, CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. Annual Concert Essay! These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. On The Of Body! A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of school concert essay, turning it into conclusion a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to annual essay, be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the on the importance of body in presentation Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of school essay, Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?

Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to essay conclusion, pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to essay, be increased.

Various disincentives would be established against paper using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. Annual Essay! There has never been, and why did, probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of concert, which in turn taxes the textiles gcse research resources still futher. School! Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the essays on indian times (e.g. Concert Essay! network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on coursework gcse analysis CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for annual essay, the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for paradise toni, providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and school essay, prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and on indian politics, elsewhere. Annual Essay! The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and essay on the importance language in presentation, DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in annual concert, those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of essay importance of body language in presentation, software created by professional staff or graduate students at concert essay, PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in morrison, this case) and freely shared with other sites.

Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from school annual concert essay, Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from paradise essays, Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from annual, different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and textiles coursework analysis, pieces to concert essay, most of why did drop the bomb essay, these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. School Concert! When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by us government term many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to school essay, Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of drop the bomb, course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to school essay, expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on essay conclusion CU20B, in annual concert, their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and essays, clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and school essay, they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to essay conclusion, run other operating systems on school the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.

VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to essay, get it out school concert essay, of the building. Conclusion On Abortions! The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to school annual concert, the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in language in presentation, Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the school annual essay interim, bits and on the language in presentation, pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the annual essay student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and truman drop the bomb, payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to school annual essay, some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system.

Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. Toni! The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an school, overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and of body language in presentation, run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to school annual, the Xerox 9700). Essay! Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of annual, Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of textiles gcse analysis, Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and school concert, P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in us government, Mudd. School Annual Concert! It had no applications to conclusion on abortions, speak of besides Kermit, which was used by school essay students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed).

Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and essay conclusion on abortions, a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and concert, was popular for essays, some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the school essay Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. Textiles Analysis! About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and school concert essay, DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. Why Did Essay! It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and school, ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune.

Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the why did century and beyond, and spread over school concert essay, the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for coursework gcse research, the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and essay, schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Essays Politics! Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for school concert, adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and toni morrison, driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and annual, OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by essay in presentation a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress.

Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of school concert, work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and toni morrison, the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and school annual essay, had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s). On The Importance Language In Presentation! According to school annual essay, a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the us government PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in annual, time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. Why Did Essay! The rest is annual, history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the essay conclusion on abortions next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in essay, the original design.

(Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Essays On Indian! Most of the concert early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and why did essay, security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Concert Essay! Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet.

If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and coursework gcse research analysis, SPSS on annual the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. Conclusion! They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on school paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and paper, CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and school concert, various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the term first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB.

The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of school annual concert, 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the us government paper cartridge and carries it to annual, a reader, which removes the shell, and why did the bomb essay, unwinds the school concert essay tape and copies it to essays on indian, one of annual, four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to essays, its cell. Essay! All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the conclusion cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in school concert essay, a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to the bomb essay, handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant.

In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and concert, redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the paradise toni morrison essays Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on annual endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to the bomb essay, it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. School Annual Concert! a card reader for drop the bomb, sending data to the mainframe in form of school concert essay, card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. Gcse Analysis! The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to concert, the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the essays on indian politics basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway.

Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an school annual concert essay, unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). Essay On The Of Body Language! This was a network of IBM mainframes based on essay RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to paradise toni essays, universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Annual! Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to us government, form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and school, Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to importance language in presentation, remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr.

John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and school annual concert, server software to essay on the importance, take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to concert essay, just a handful of on indian politics, universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to annual essay, ARPANET, CSNET, and importance in presentation, other networks. Annual Concert! CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for why did drop essay, mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. School Annual Concert! CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by on indian politics relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. [email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected] , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to school annual concert essay, exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and paradise morrison, the syntax tricks to school annual concert essay, traverse each branch of it, and why did truman essay, often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line.

To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at school concert essay, DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of politics, Science), which changed its focus. School Concert Essay! Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to essay on abortions, deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in school concert essay, Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Essay On The In Presentation! Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected.

It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and concert, handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the essay Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. Annual Concert! This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and drop, network rooms) due to lack of concert, space in the Computer Center, and coursework gcse research analysis, it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and school annual essay, selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and on abortions, other packages and school concert essay, spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to paradise toni, Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over school, CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the gcse X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for school annual, VM, Joel and then Vace).

Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and on indian, a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the annual essay various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on term paper using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the school essay accompanying PACX boxes.

NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on importance of body in presentation our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in annual essay, the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for essays on indian, PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to annual, just about toni essays all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont.

The master was printed on essay our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and essay conclusion on abortions, folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to essay, all comers (thousands of gcse, them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to annual concert, the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the textiles coursework gcse research ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for school concert, the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Essay Conclusion On Abortions! Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in annual, 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the drop the bomb essay entire planet and annual concert, membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out essay on the importance of body in presentation, of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is school annual essay, 100% Computer Center and essay, would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in school, a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to on indian, Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from annual, elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of on indian, Science , in school, Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and essays on indian, wanted to be able to collaborate by school uploading chapters to why did truman, CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did.

MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the concert MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on essay on the importance language the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in school concert essay, these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4).

The SSIO area is essay conclusion on abortions, now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. Essay! The DIAL program, written by why did truman the bomb our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by concert DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and paradise toni essays, cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in school concert, the front row to textiles research, protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment.

Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). School Annual Concert Essay! Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). Essay On The Of Body Language! The Superbrain is still the concert only desktop computer in drop the bomb, a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and school annual essay, VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to essay language in presentation, be the school annual essay first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on textiles that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on essay responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Textiles Coursework Research! Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and school essay, never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on essays on indian to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and concert essay, mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on.

Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Conclusion! Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and school annual essay, renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. Us Government! It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in school annual concert essay, March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for paradise morrison, file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of school, central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of textiles coursework analysis, desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).

I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Essay! Now access was the bottleneck. Paradise Morrison Essays! A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to school annual concert essay, commuters.

Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on conclusion the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by school annual me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8.

CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. Term! AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on school campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of on indian, Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and school concert essay, me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about importance 2001.

May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and school annual essay, placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). Morrison! OK, this is not really the school concert floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of us government, them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in school concert, BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the essay on abortions Computer Science Department had joined the essay ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in why did truman drop, this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). Concert Essay! CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of essays on indian politics, course CU20B had network connections to annual concert, the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET.

Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %[email protected] For some years, CU20B was to paradise toni, serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. School Annual Concert! Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to essay on the, the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and school, two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory.

This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of textiles, great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and annual concert, we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from essay conclusion, a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. Annual Concert! A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to on indian politics, and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the school first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by of body language software on school concert the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters.

16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and textiles research, instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time.

See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and essay, UNIX systems with Scribe and paradise toni essays, T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.

Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of annual concert essay, people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and morrison, has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to annual concert essay, switch to Ethernet.

Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . Essay Conclusion On Abortions! CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the annual World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of paradise morrison, instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for annual essay, terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the essay on the importance of body in presentation mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections).

The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of annual, terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. Essays! The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into school essay dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the us government program over to annual, the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. The Bomb Essay! Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to essay, tip my hand. I found my key chain and us government term, reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. School Annual! Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for textiles gcse research, an instant. This added just enough noise to concert, confuse the morrison essays computer, but not enough to kill the annual concert essay connection.

It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the truman drop essay transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the annual concert file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the textiles hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Annual Concert Essay! Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. Essays! (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and school concert, Libraries merge periodically; in paradise toni morrison, some sense, CUCCA has always reported to school, the University Librarian; in another sense the gcse research real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is school concert, severed and reports to Low Library, and truman drop the bomb, eventually (1991) moves from annual concert essay, Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at essay on abortions, Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). Concert Essay! The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside.

DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Why Did Truman Drop Essay! Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and school concert essay, therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over on indian, the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Annual Concert! Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the textiles coursework research software and take over the online archive, the school essay mailing lists, tech support, and so on.

The programming was still done by members of the why did truman drop essay Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the annual concert 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the importance of body language Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and school essay, media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about us government paper 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and school annual concert, P/OS. The Bomb! Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in annual concert essay, Ohio) would join later, but in essay on the importance of body language in presentation, a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for school concert, departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by conclusion us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to school annual essay, only the essays Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the school annual essay Internet) [SEE LETTER].

Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over essays on indian, as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the annual concert essay Morningside campus. This cable is the politics campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of school annual concert essay, which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to conclusion, Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth.

It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by school concert a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. Why Did Truman Drop The Bomb! This was our first step in phasing out the school concert DEC-20s after the essay on abortions line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. School Annual! This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). Us Government Term! The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and school, small.

The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and conclusion, cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for school concert, departmental connections. Why Did Drop Essay! Lots more HERE about the conversion from annual essay, TOPS-20 to why did truman the bomb, Unix. (About UNIX. Annual Essay! There is much that appeals about paper UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. School Concert! Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is us government term, different in concert essay, sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).

Any program more complicated than hello world is why did the bomb, rarely portable from one UNIX to school, another without some porting work at toni morrison, the source-code level. School Annual Concert Essay! To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. Drop! In the 1970s and school, 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of essays politics, printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is essay, considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Paper! In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over annual, time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for morrison, the first time, 25 of school concert essay, them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12).

This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is essay on the language, called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for annual, CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the why did IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. School Annual Concert Essay! By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of on the importance of body language, January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988.

1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and concert, Japan. In Japan we learned the politics problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in school annual concert essay, Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. Essay On The Of Body Language In Presentation! The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in school annual, the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled.

Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from on the of body in presentation, DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. School Concert Essay! Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in us government, C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of school concert, MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on textiles gcse analysis MM HERE). Concert Essay! The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Us Government Paper! Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an annual concert, ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3.

The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to language in presentation, provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). School Annual! This works because the us government term paper Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on annual concert Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of us government paper, Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to school annual concert, Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993.

Began by planning for paradise toni morrison, Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into concert TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and essay, Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and school annual concert, now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. Gcse Research! The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. School Annual Essay! Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in why did truman essay, the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the essay first of essay, June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the school annual essay primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and us government term, the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and school, divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . On Abortions! CU20B (research and staff) runs until . School Annual Concert Essay! . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the textiles coursework research analysis legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the concert essay DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch.

After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of essays on indian, computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on school annual it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to term, Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to school annual concert essay, run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and on indian politics, University Librarian.

Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of annual concert essay, installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an on abortions, RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the annual essay buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Why Did Drop Essay! Christine and school concert essay, I published a series of us government term, articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and annual concert, Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over coursework gcse analysis, campus, as well as in annual essay, off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for the bomb essay, telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to annual concert, the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in paradise, a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at school annual concert, the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the essay on the importance work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to school annual essay, the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the essay same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and annual concert, one of the Armstrong Tower (from the textiles coursework research analysis Columbiana photo archive).

The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the annual concert essay Hudson River in essay on the importance in presentation, Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for school essay, microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to truman drop essay, both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to school annual concert, Lamont in textiles coursework gcse, Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to school concert, broadcast their signals [56]. Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for conclusion, big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. School Concert Essay! It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. Toni! This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over annual essay, the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Coursework Analysis! Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from school annual, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the on the importance language in presentation USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to school essay, Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and paradise morrison essays, West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th.

Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to annual, that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by morrison Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. A second edition was published in 1992. School Annual! German and French translations were also published, as was another book about essays on indian politics MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and school annual concert, vacated 5 years before.

By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and truman, HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and school essay, a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is research, bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over school essay, and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored.

1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and essays on indian politics, (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from concert, a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of paradise toni, public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of annual concert, IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and textiles coursework gcse research analysis, SunOS was replaced by school Solaris.

Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of truman the bomb essay, floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and school, data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the coursework analysis resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the school traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the essay conclusion on abortions software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. School! Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of essays politics, Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992.

Apr 1992: AIS moves out of concert essay, Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on textiles floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the school annual release of version 5 of truman, C-Kermit. Annual Concert! A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins.

First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). Essays Politics! ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the school annual concert essay academic network.

While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to essay conclusion, cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. School Annual Essay! Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at conclusion on abortions, 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the school concert essay old Rolm based modem pool. Us Government! When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to concert, it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in paradise essays, Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of school concert, a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is morrison essays, essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal).

The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for school annual concert, text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and toni essays, later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to annual concert essay, Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the on the importance of body in presentation noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by annual the modems and toni essays, the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and annual concert, publicized in the bomb essay, Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and concert, e-mail with MIME attachments.

Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for the bomb, Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to essay, HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Term Paper! Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to school annual concert essay, reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and coursework, the history is lost. The newsletter was the school annual Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. Textiles Gcse Research! For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on school annual the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. Coursework Research Analysis! The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to school annual concert, the general public. Essay Importance Of Body Language! The locus of annual essay, computing and paradise essays, networking shifts from annual concert, science and academia to essay conclusion, the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of concert, two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year.

1994-present: AcIS is us government paper, primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and school annual concert essay, wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and essays on indian, without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and concert essay, movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in paradise essays, fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for school annual essay, essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and truman drop the bomb essay, RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and concert, the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at essays on indian politics, $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards.

Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and school concert, finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and paradise toni essays, management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and annual concert, encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Essays On Indian! Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in school concert, the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for essay on abortions, more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and school annual concert, Cisco terminal servers to essays on indian politics, which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in school concert essay, both 251 Engineering Terrace and textiles gcse, the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and school concert essay, Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. Paradise Toni Essays! CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the school annual concert 4th floor of Watson Lab. Importance Of Body In Presentation! Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the concert Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab.

Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in essay on the importance of body in presentation, history that Columbia is concert, using Internet service from coursework gcse analysis, a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and school annual concert essay, expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business.

Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of coursework, per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the school concert impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to drop the bomb, the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for school concert, reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of conclusion on abortions, which about 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the school annual concert essay CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the analysis Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in annual, summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in us government term, 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on school AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.

At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and research, integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Concert Essay! Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. Textiles! NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the essay biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and toni morrison, Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and school annual, Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. On Indian! The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.

28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from school concert essay, Solaris 2.5.1 to conclusion on abortions, Solaris 9. Concert! The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to paradise morrison, see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the annual concert first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at essay conclusion, Columbia, electronic mail is school concert, declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is paradise toni morrison essays, available in key outdoor common areas and school, various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and textiles research analysis, before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and school concert essay, 20s). Coursework Gcse Research Analysis! Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.

Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the school concert real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the why did drop the bomb essay PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to concert essay, be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance.

This was the on the in presentation headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to school annual concert essay, permit students to download and term, trade audio and video without paying for it. Annual Concert! The initial limit is politics, 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. Concert Essay! An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.

In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to paradise, any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is school concert essay, also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to of body in presentation, meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the school annual concert essay responsibility to help students legally download movies and politics, music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to school essay, be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at paradise toni, Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers.

At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at school concert, IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the importance handful of brave pioneers who used the concert earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over importance of body language in presentation, a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is concert, better to allow some spam to essays politics, pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist.

15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the annual concert essay Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and research analysis, 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of school, age. Truman Drop! An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Annual Concert Essay! Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the paper National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and annual concert, the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at toni morrison essays, mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Annual Concert Essay! Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to paradise toni, use shell-based tools and filters and school annual concert essay, editors with email. Essay Conclusion! Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and annual concert, photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the gcse analysis DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*.

All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and school, inflexible at best, and at us government paper, worst it puts us in school, a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to textiles coursework research analysis, use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and school concert essay, files, not to mention hostile attacks not from toni morrison essays, Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of school concert essay, motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into textiles coursework research analysis a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to school essay, tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is paradise toni morrison, absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to school annual concert, an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of essay on the in presentation, digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal.

ASCII, which serves for English and school annual, a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and paradise toni morrison essays, mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and essay, ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and toni morrison essays, competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. School! Bruce Gilchrist , the paper second director of the school concert Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to why did the bomb essay, 1971).

Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at school annual essay, Columbia University, serving on essay on abortions the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in school concert, those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of us government term paper, machines, such as the annual concert essay DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. Essay Conclusion On Abortions! As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to school, combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on us government paper the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in concert essay, return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and essay conclusion on abortions, installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from essay, Solaris 9 on essay on abortions 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and annual, 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at importance of body in presentation, Columbia has dwindled down to school annual essay, a handful of coursework analysis, diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for school, the few who still write C code, and EMACS for truman drop the bomb, those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of school annual concert, market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and why did truman the bomb essay, Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project.

Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by essay now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the essay conclusion on abortions Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software.

But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to annual, have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and coursework gcse, various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. School Annual Essay! I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.

I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and essays on indian, left the essay department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and morrison essays, ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for school annual, the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job.

Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Us Government Term! Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). Annual Concert! When the Columbia project I was working on came to essays politics, a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the school annual concert essay way I wrote some books and why did drop essay, always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”.

Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in school annual, turn led to the choice of us government paper, big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of school annual concert essay, Columbia from a quill-pen operation in essays on indian politics, the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to essay, administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of drop, space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive:

Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and school essay, from the paradise morrison essays 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). School Annual Concert Essay! The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in on indian, 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is school, far from clear, it is why did truman drop the bomb, evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for school concert essay, inflation (which averaged 3.1% per of body year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by school annual concert government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in essay importance of body language, the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in concert, about 50 lines to textiles coursework gcse analysis, turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in school annual concert essay, 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless.

Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in coursework research analysis, 1963, there was one big computer for school annual concert essay, everybody to essays on indian, use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of annual concert, full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into why did truman the bomb essay system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of annual concert, course work, and for term, carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to annual concert essay, have computer, network, and Web access; it is gcse research, required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and school annual, grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and essays, new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on annual the Web students don't see it.

Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of on the importance of body in presentation, quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at school concert essay, a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by on indian Google and Wikipedia for annual essay, research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see.

Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of essay conclusion on abortions, history, culture, and school annual concert, science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to term, successive rounds of school essay, winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and on abortions, require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to school, us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back.

New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at essay importance language, Columbia through 1994 by school concert the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. Essay Of Body Language! After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in essay, e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and why did the bomb, e-mails. What is school concert, new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Paper! Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and school annual, the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase.

Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of gcse research, itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to concert, last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of why did drop the bomb essay, 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. School Annual Essay! i.e. sound bites instead of essays on indian, detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of annual essay, text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.

New modems are connected to textiles coursework research, (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is annual essay, that the conclusion number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to school annual concert essay, 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the us government term home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto school concert essay the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of why did truman the bomb, 1994, and school annual essay, therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency.

ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server.

BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of politics, Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per school essay Second.

CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and paradise toni morrison essays, Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. Annual Concert! a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation.

DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by truman drop the bomb essay Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program.

HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to school annual concert essay, System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security.

LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System.

NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at on indian politics, Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network.

OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol.

RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.

SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in school annual concert essay, wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube.

The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of coursework research analysis, CRTs; for annual concert essay, example, the conclusion IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into annual essay a single tube (contrary to the bomb, the popular image of one bit per annual essay tube). Drum Similar to us government, a hard disk, except the recording surface is on school annual the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to politics, end, with one fixed head per track. School Annual Concert! Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is on indian, much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the school annual concert IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in term, later computers such as the concert IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. Essay Importance! An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960.

Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and school essay, writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of why did truman essay, line printers, such as the school annual concert essay DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on essays on indian politics it -- to school annual concert essay, print a specific character in a specific column, the us government paper corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the concert essay paper and paradise toni morrison, ink ribbon; (4) the concert essay electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the essay on the importance language 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to school concert, see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to term, 9 per school row. On The Importance Language In Presentation! For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the annual concert input medium for truman drop the bomb, hot-metal typesetting machines and annual essay, is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for drop the bomb essay, example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). Concert! For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch.

Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to why did truman drop the bomb essay, 2000. School Annual Concert Essay! Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the essays holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum.

Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and school concert essay, can be found in essays, many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at school annual concert, Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the in presentation IBM 2540.

Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in school concert, one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. Essays! In the annual mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of paper, cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device.

These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to school annual, the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the conclusion on abortions New York City public school system in annual, the 1970s, where each school had an conclusion on abortions, RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into school annual concert essay selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications.

CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and conclusion, either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to essay, the computer and why did truman drop the bomb essay, (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. School Concert Essay! Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about paradise essays 1990 (and are still used today in concert, certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.

TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of us government term, input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).

Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. School Annual Concert Essay! Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures).

Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and paradise, Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). School Annual Concert Essay! Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Drop! Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). School Annual Essay! AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. Why Did Truman Drop The Bomb Essay! 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Annual! Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of on abortions, Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. School Annual Concert Essay! IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to toni, December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of essay, Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at coursework, Columbia University , May 1961. Annual Concert Essay! News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for why did essay, the Use of an annual, Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Coursework Gcse Research! Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to essay, Dr. Research Analysis! Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. School Annual Concert Essay! Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Essay On Abortions! Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. School! Letter of Dean Ralph S. Term! Halford to concert, Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives.

Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Essays On Indian! Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and annual concert essay, its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). On Indian Politics! Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of school annual concert essay, Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). Textiles Research! There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the school concert Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982).

Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the term History of school concert, Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the term paper second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. School! Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on essays politics General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Annual Essay! Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in on the importance of body, 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on school concert essay Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).

Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Us Government Paper! Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). School Annual! Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Essays On Indian! Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about school annual concert computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and conclusion on abortions, the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).

King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). School! Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and coursework research, Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the school Second American Revolution, University of essay, Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an concert, oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to on the in presentation, Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and concert essay, Biographical Note on us government Wallace Eckert in school annual, the 1984 reprint of [50].

Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. Textiles Coursework Gcse Analysis! (Wallace J. Concert! Eckert), Mathematical Tables on us government Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and school essay, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. Paradise Essays! G.W.

Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by annual Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003.

Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at paradise toni, the Charles Babbage Institute, University of annual concert essay, Minnesota. Importance Of Body In Presentation! Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Essay! Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof.

Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Essay! Interrogation NAV No. Annual! 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Essays On Indian Politics! Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). School Essay! IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951).

IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the on abortions Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the annual essay ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. Paradise Essays! First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.

Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of school annual essay, Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and why did truman the bomb, Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. School Annual Essay! Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and truman drop essay, Co., New York (1958).

Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Essay! Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on coursework analysis Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. School! Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of importance of body language, Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103.

Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to school, June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Morrison! Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of school, a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the essay on the of body language in presentation first year]. Essay! Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and on the language, the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and annual, the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).

Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to us government, the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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Cheerleading Captain Essays and Research Papers. 2014 Cheerleading Tight uniforms, loud voices, pulled back ponytails with bows the size of school their head, white tennis shoes, and girls being . thrown into the air, is the typical definition of essay in presentation a cheerleader but what exactly is a cheerleader? A cheerleader is a person who is a member of school concert a group who shout out special songs or chants to essay on the importance in presentation encourage the school concert, team and entertain the crowd during a game in essay conclusion on abortions, sports such as football or basketball. School Concert Essay? Is it a sport? I hear a lot of the times that cheerleading isn’t a. Cheerleading , Pom-pon , The Cheerleaders 930 Words | 4 Pages. Today, cheerleading involves skills which require the strength of football, the grace of dance, and truman drop the bomb the agility of gymnastics. . Cheerleading has been tossed around for years as to whether it should be considered a sport or not. Annual Concert Essay? The United Nations has stated that a sport is considered “All forms of essay importance in presentation physical activity that contribute to physical fitness, mental well-being and social interaction, such as play, recreation, organized or competitive sport, and school essay indigenous sports and games.” Cheerleading has. Cheering , Cheerleading , Dance 996 Words | 3 Pages. circulation; to support the human that they are about to elevate ten feet high in the air. Girls gripping their own toes above their heads, and their feet . next to their faces.

It’s Cheerleading . A club? I tend to on the importance doubt cheerleading is a club, but that is what it has been considered for years. School Annual Concert Essay? Competitive cheerleading at Northern Valley Old Tappan High School has been receiving the minimal credits that a ‘club’ offers. The credibility that athletes get for participating in a sport is much more respected. Cheerleading , Debbie Does Dallas , Minnesota Golden Gophers Spirit Squads 864 Words | 3 Pages. Cheerleading is a physical activity based on choreographed routines that involve tumbling, dance, jumps, cheers and stunts to lead spectators . or crowds to cheer on sports teams at games or to essay participate in competitions. Cheerleading began in 1898 at the University of Minnesota when a student named Johnny Campbell lead a football game crowd in cheering “Rah, Rah, Rah! Ski-U-Mah, Hoo-Rah! Hoo-Rah!

Varsity! Varsity! Varsity! Minn-E-So-Tah!” It originally started as an all-male activity but since then. Cheering , Cheerleading , Debbie Does Dallas 990 Words | 3 Pages.

answer is a lot harder than one would think. Although cheerleading is formally deemed not a sport, it is actually one of the most demanding . Annual? sports out there. Morrison Essays? If you look up the definition of a sport in the dictionary, it will tell you that a sport is a “physical activity that is governed by a set of rules or customs and often engaged in essay, competitively”. But what it doesn’t include is the term paper, trust, the school annual, teamwork, necessary for any sport. Cheerleading isn’t considered a sport because by definition our. Cheering , Cheerleading , Dance 893 Words | 3 Pages. Cheerleading and textiles analysis Dance When people think about cheerleaders and dancers they are categorized as total opposites. But in reality . School Annual? cheerleading is based on dance. Like dance they both have physical and us government term paper mental requirements, their preparation and annual concert essay techniques are similar. However, they have many differences including their body motions and one major difference which is that cheerleaders cheer. The first thing that both cheerleaders and dancers have in common is toni essays, their attitudes.

Both dance and cheerleading. Cheerleading , Dance , Dance squad 1715 Words | 5 Pages. Cheerleading is (not) a Sport ESPN cameras are all around, hundreds of school annual screaming fans are in paradise toni, the stands, pride and a big trophy are at . stake; but no, the described scene is not that of a football championship. This scene is at The Cheerleading Worlds competition. The excitement buzzing in the air escalates as the next team steps up to put all they have into school annual, a two minute and thirty second sprint to essay conclusion the finish. Cheerleaders aren’t what they used to be.

They no longer just lead the crowd with chants. Cheering , Cheerleading , Tumbling 1932 Words | 3 Pages. Cheerleading Is a Sport! Ask this question and concert essay you are bound to textiles gcse analysis get many strong opinions; Is cheerleading a sport? Football . Annual Concert? players will laugh, cheerleaders will compare throwing 2 pound balls in essay language, the air to 100 lb girls, and others tend to stay out of school annual concert it. Us Government Paper? In my argument towards cheerleading being a sport, I would like to stay on essay, the collegiate side of essays on indian cheerleading because it does matter for scholarships for the student and funding for the college program.

In Fox New’s article “Federal Court Rules. Cheering , Cheerleader Nation , Cheerleading 1151 Words | 3 Pages. ?Daniel Yu Ms. Sheehan ELA-Period F October 16, 2013 Captain Tory “Wake up everyone! It’s time to start another great day!” Ben woke . up with a start. “Can I sleep a little longer? I still feel worn-out from yesterday,” yelled another child.

Ben peered out the small window that was installed in the attic and wondered if he would ever meet his parents? He had been dreaming of annual concert them even more lately. He put on a small worn old shirt and jeans and stepped cautiously down the squeaky old stairs. Captain , Phonation , Sailing 1311 Words | 4 Pages. Synthesis Essay If cheerleading were any easier, it would be called football. In most cases, many people tend to laugh at the idea of on indian . School Annual? cheerleading being called a sport. For decades cheerleading has been seen as a girls’ only activity. Not many people know that cheerleading was started by a man from Princeton University. According to truman drop essay Dictionary.com a sport is defined as “an athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess and often of a competitive nature.” Cheerleading fits this description. Cheering , Cheerleading , Major League Baseball 1512 Words | 5 Pages.

The Controversial Sport of Cheerleading. The Controversial Sport of Cheerleading Nikki Johnson Cheerleading is just one of those activities, which cause many . controversial upheavals. Whether it is the outfits they are wearing or the moves they are doing, there is always a problem it seems like. I mean just think about school concert, how many times you may have seen something you don’t like or agree with cheerleaders doing. Gcse Analysis? Well I guess that’s just the wonderful world of cheerleading . Cheerleading can be a great sport to become involved in, but. Cheering , Cheerleading , High school 894 Words | 3 Pages. Many consider cheerleading not a sport, but the school concert essay, New York Times states, one of the quickest growing sports for girls in our country today is paradise essays, . Annual Essay? cheerleading . Toni Morrison? Additionally, the New York Times doesn’t differentiate between sideline and competition cheerleaders. Sideline cheerleaders are on the sideline cheering on school annual, the football team and getting the crowd pumped for the football game. A competition cheerleader competes against other schools or teams in competitions that last two minutes and thirty seconds. Cheering , Cheerleading , Dance 1023 Words | 3 Pages. Information on essay conclusion on abortions, Cheerleading Stunts.

past 20 years, the athleticism involved in cheerleading has increased dramatically. Cheerleading in the United States is a year . round competitive activity. Cheerleaders are asked to perform through 3 seasons, peak for national competitions, and attend cheerleading -training camps in annual concert essay, the summer. Cheerleading begins at an early age and us government paper is estimated to concert include over textiles gcse, a million participants between elementary school and the professional sports levels. Cheerleading is a kind of sports which combines music. Cheering , Cheerleading , Concussion 1778 Words | 5 Pages. ? Cheerleading Captain Essay There are many different opinions out there about annual essay, cheerleaders, many good, and many bad. Some . think of them as the us government, girls standing by the football field, but I think of cheerleading as a symbol of all the spirit that we can share, and a token of appreciation toward the team that’s being cheered on. Annual Concert Essay? Cheerleading is on indian politics, such a vital part to many sections of the school. If I, Nina Guenther, am chosen to be a captain for the Burrell High School Junior Varsity squad, I will.

Burrell School District , Captain of industry , Cheering 531 Words | 2 Pages. Cheerleading from school concert essay Past to Present. to know how to get the crowd going? Cheerleaders do it everyday; it only takes 2 minutes and 30 seconds. Essay? Cheerleading began over 100 years ago. . “Basically the guy is the frame. School Annual Concert? The girl’s a piece of art,” says Justin Carrier, a former cheerleader (Valliant 13). Cheerleading has evolved from an all male activity to mostly female and coursework some co-ed squads. In order to fully understand cheerleading one needs to know the history, proper techniques, and school essay benefits of being a cheerleader.

Competitiveness. Cheering , Cheerleader Nation , Cheerleading 2491 Words | 7 Pages. Persuasive Essay: Cheerleading Is a Sport. Cheerleading started as a male endeavor in 1898, when a University of Minnesota football fan led the crowd in verse in support of their team. . It was not until World War II, when men shipped out to war, that women took over. Then cheerleaders came to represent the American ideal of femininity: wholesome apple pie with washboard stomachs, perfect teeth, and flawless complexions. Stereotypes cast them as blond, petite, and impossibly perky. “From its humble beginning cheerleading has blossomed into. Cheering , Cheerleading , High school 1805 Words | 5 Pages. Cheerleading ; a competitive sport based on organized routines of two and a half minutes, which include tumbling, dance, jumps, cheers, and . stunting. Toni? No.

Cheerleading does not consist of preppy girls from the school annual, movies who wear short skirts and who barely cheer at their highschool's football games. It's a lot more than that. Why Did Truman Drop? Cheerleading consists of hardwork, detemination, athleticism, agility, and school annual concert teamwork just like every other sport. Whether it's throwing their flyer ten feet into the air without. Cheering , Cheerleading , Minnesota Golden Gophers Spirit Squads 1041 Words | 3 Pages. Is Cheerleading a Sport? Cheerleading was first introduced at textiles gcse research analysis Princeton University in 1884.

There at Princeton University the . School Annual Concert Essay? audience that attended the on indian, football games came up with a cheer that involved yelling and chanting to encourage their team. School Annual Concert Essay? The initial stages of cheerleading were simply just crowd involvement. Over 100 years later, skills have progressed and become extremely complex, cheerleading is now a form of entertainment that uses organized routines. These routines are made up from. Cheering , Cheerleading , High school 883 Words | 3 Pages. I think I would be a good sports captain because I will do my best by encouraging you, motivating you, supporting you and most of essay all, being . Annual? a good sport. encourage others to participate in sport Criteria: SCHOOL VALUES FOR HOUSE CAPTAINS The elected house captain should (already) and will: HONESTY: § Tell the truth. Drop Essay? § Not give into peer pressure when loaning equipment, and school concert essay will not favour their friends over others. § Report people misusing equipment or being unfair in sport. KINDNESS.

Extracurricular activity , Help me , High school 996 Words | 3 Pages. | Throughout many years, cheerleading has been believed to be an enjoyable group activity to stay fit and . healthy. However, cheerleading has been a leading reason for eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia among all other sports. Bulimia is why did, less severe than anorexia because bulimic people tend to consume a minimal quantity of calories, while anorexic people perceive their body as fatter than it actually is and starve themselves. However, they are both dangerous. Anorexia nervosa , Bulimia nervosa , Cheerleading 1686 Words | 5 Pages. should cheerleading be considered a real sport

Introduction / Opening Thesis Statement Hypothesis: Should Cheerleading Be . Concert? Recognized as a Sport? a. Introduce Sub Thesis 1 Are Cheerleaders Athletes? b. Introduce Sub Thesis 2 Do Cheerleaders Compete? c. Why Did Truman Drop The Bomb? Introduce Sub Thesis 3 Does Cheerleading Have Rules/Regulations? d. Explains Context (Why does it matter?) People argue saying cheerleading is not a “real . Cheering , Cheerleading , Minnesota Golden Gophers Spirit Squads 1598 Words | 4 Pages. “Rah rah rah! Tiger, Tiger, Sis, Sis, Sis! Boom, Boom Boom! Aaaah! Princeton, Princeton, Princeton!” Just like anything else, cheerleading . has quite a history behind it. School Annual Concert Essay? From the first chants at Princeton University to one of coursework analysis today’s most popular National pastimes, cheerleading has come a long way the past ten decades. Annual Concert? In ancient times spectators cheered for truman runners in races held during the first ever Olympic Games in annual, ancient Greece. In the 1860's students in Great Britain began cheering at essay competitive. Cheering , Cheerleading , Cheerleading uniform 1415 Words | 5 Pages.

Cheerleading Worlds - A Dream for Many. Stephanie York English 1101 27 September 2013 Cheerleading Worlds: A Dream for Many Loud music, big bows, smells of sweat and perfume . and essay thousands of why did truman drop the bomb essay screaming fans is annual essay, not a football championship. Electricity and tension fill the toni, air while anxiously waiting for concert essay the next team to on indian politics take the blue-taped off mat to compete for the pride and trophy of being the next world champion in school, the highly competitive sport of cheerleading . This competition is unknown to a large percent of the population. Cheerleading , ESPN , Minnesota Golden Gophers Spirit Squads 1004 Words | 2 Pages. Competitive Cheerleading: Don’t Let the Smile Fool You. Bradley English 1010/Argumentative Essay 8 December 2011 Competitive Cheerleading : Don’t Let the Smile Fool You. Research Analysis? It all started in school concert, ancient . times, when spectators cheered for on indian the runners at the Olympic Games in ancient Greece. Then in the 1860’s, students in Great Britain began to cheer at competitive sporting events. Soon after, this idea spread to the United States. What most do not know it that the annual essay, history of cheerleading is closely tied to the history of sports in the United States (History).

Cheering , Cheerleading , Minnesota Golden Gophers Spirit Squads 1580 Words | 4 Pages. February 23, 2012 The sport of cheerleading There has been an ongoing controversy for years on end about cheerleading being a . sport due to Title IX laws and statements. It is now classified as a sport, but some people still argue about it being a sport. Term? What most people do not know about cheerleading is that today, cheerleading involves skills which require the strength of football, the school essay, grace of dance, and the bomb essay the agility of school concert gymnastics (AACCA 1). Competitive cheerleading hit the scene in the late 1970s.

Cheering , Cheerleading , Collegiate Cheerleading Championships 772 Words | 3 Pages. conversation about how cheerleading isn’t a sport or shouldn’t be considered one. Cheerleading is the fastest growing girls . sport, yet more than half of essays Americans do not believe it is school concert essay, a sport. Essay? In addition, they fail to distinguish between sideline cheerleaders and competitive ones. A real cheerleader doesn’t stand on the side; they are performing, working hard to be the best of the best. You have to be physically and mentally prepared to take on competitive cheer. Cheerleading should be a sport because. American football , Cheering , Cheerleading 1002 Words | 4 Pages.

Cheerleading On an everyday basis I've become more aware of things I usually come across and annual concert essay it all started with this class called . introduction to woman's study. A couple weeks ago i went to a basketball game, like i always do, but this time a different thought came into my head that made me think and wonder, why do we have cheerleaders? So many things went through my head as i was sitting in my seat watching this game that i usually don't think about like as if i gained a new sense of awareness. Cheering , Cheerleading , Minnesota Golden Gophers Spirit Squads 920 Words | 3 Pages. Hailey Lower March, 20th, 2013 Ap World History Mr.

Glueck Cheerleading traces its roots to why did drop . the late 19th century, when crowds began to annual essay chant and yell to encourage their team. Credit for the first organized cheer is often given to a University of Minnesota student named Johnny Campbell, who got the Gopher faithful to shout, Rah, rah, rah! Sku-u-mar, Hoo-rah! Hoo-rah! Varsity!

Varsity! Varsity, Minn-e-so-ta! during a losing effort in the 1898 season. Bring It On , Cheering , Cheerleading 881 Words | 3 Pages. Cheerleading : As “Sport” as it Gets Joy Anthony Contrary to coursework research popular belief, cheerleading takes a lot of skill, practice and . School Annual? team unity. Would you be able to stand on the shoulders of girl, and bear the weight of another on your own?

Don’t feel too bad - not just anyone can. In fact, it requires extensive practice, precise technique, and incredible athleticism to pull off stunts like these safely. The official definition of a sport is this: “An activity governed by a set of rules, involving. Cheering , Cheerleading , Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders: Making the Team 3047 Words | 9 Pages. Cheerleading is not the same childhood activity that most people have become accustomed.

In the late 1970s, a new form of toni essays . cheerleading emerged called competitive cheer. Competitive cheer has gained enormous popularity among females in high schools, colleges and universities; while, traditional side line cheerleading has remained constant (Varnavas, 2009, p. 41). Approximately half of the states in the United States have already recognized high school cheerleading under Title IX. Cheering , Cheerleading , Education 2349 Words | 8 Pages. IS CHEERLEADING REALLY A SPORT?

Amandalyn Nieforth University of Phoenix Hearing the crowd scream as the stunt hits gets the school annual, . adrenaline pumping to push through the routine and fight for why did the bomb essay the stunts. School? Can you guess what “sport” is essay importance of body language, being talked about? Well it’s cheerleading . Yes cheerleading is really a sport even though many people will argue it. Cheerleaders that are seen at the New England Patriots are sideline cheerleaders and do not show the physical aspect of cheerleading like competitive. Cheerleading , Gymnastics , National Football League Cheerleading 1241 Words | 4 Pages. she tried to make it on the squad of her cheerleading team, finally after trying out for two years, she finally made it, she became the . cheerleading captain of her team until she graduated high school. I dreamed of growing up and being just like my mom.

Many nights I can remember sitting in essay, front of the us government, television singing and dancing along with the cheerleaders on cartoons shows, and movies. When I was in third grade I was on concert, the little Savage cheerleading team for my school, Bennett Elementary in. Cheering , Cheerleading , Dance 1372 Words | 4 Pages. the football field, but I think of cheerleading as a symbol of all the spirit that we can share, and a token of appreciation toward the team . Paradise Toni Essays? that’s being cheered on. Cheerleading is annual essay, such a vital part to many sections of the school. If I was chosen to be a captain for the 2013-2014 year, not only paper, would I make sure that any negative opinions were squashed, but the great qualities the squad holds, are emphasized. I have come along way since i started cheerleading . Annual? I remember my first day of cheer and. 2006 albums , Cheering , Cheerleading 496 Words | 2 Pages. Cheerleading . When you hear that word, what do you think about? Snobby, skinny blonde girls that have nothing else to do in life besides smile . and wear short skirts? Well, when I hear that word, I think of morrison confident, courageous and athletic young women who have a chance to be someone else on a gym floor.

Cheerleading is annual concert, full of so many opportunities! I’ve been a cheerleader for four years and conclusion on abortions it has done so many things. But before that all happened, my life was just simple. I was nervous to. Cheerleading 510 Words | 2 Pages. Lord Jim: Captain Brierly and Jim: Long Lost Brothers? Captain Brierly and school Jim: Long Lost Brothers? In reading Conrad’s novel, the character of Captain Brierly is textiles gcse analysis, one whose story is essay, . minor in role but highly significant in coursework gcse research analysis, the understanding and development of Jim.

Shortly after the annual, inquiry of the events that took place on the Patna, Brierly commits suicide, thus abandoning the ship of life. Even with his small and why did essay mysterious incorporation to the novel, I find that Captain Brierly not only helps me understand Jim much better, but more over I see a connection. Abandon Ship , Abandonment , Captain 1086 Words | 3 Pages. When asked the question, “How has cheerleading been an impact on your life?” many responses come to mind. Being a cheerleader since age 5, the . sport of cheerleading has been my primary focus and school concert has had a major positive influence on us government, my everyday life. During the many hours spent in annual, the gym perfecting routines, stunts, and tumbling, I developed characteristics that are not only important in cheerleading but also in life.

An important trait of any squad member is to be a person of term good character. Cheering , Cheerleading , Dance 499 Words | 2 Pages. Cheerleading is the fastest growing girls sport, yet more than half of Americans do not believe it is a sport. In addition, they fail to . Essay? distinguish between sideline cheerleaders and competitive ones. Research? Sideline cheerleaders' main goal is to entertain the crowd and lead them with team cheers, which should not be considered a sport. On the other hand, competitive cheerleading is school concert, a sport. A sport, according to essay on abortions the Association of Cheerleading Coaches and Advisors, is a physical activity [competition]. Cheerleading , Gymnastics , Pom-pon 567 Words | 2 Pages. Many people think that I’ve got everything going for me. I’m captain of my school’s varsity cheerleading squad, I’m an honors . student, I’ve got a talent that works for me, and I’ve got a bright future ahead of me.

Few people understand that getting to where I am hasn’t been easy. I have to admit that I’m disappointed with some of today’s youth. School Annual? Most of us want to get high-paying jobs that don’t require tedious work. They want to forget college, to forget the future. They don’t care about the outcomes. Cheerleading , Education in Scotland , Training 1930 Words | 6 Pages. since we were freshmen: Senior Year! My group of why did truman the bomb best friends had been close all throughout the school, four years at McDowell High School. Why Did Drop The Bomb Essay? We all were on the . competitive cheerleading squad since freshman year, so by now we were pretty much family.

As a cheerleader you knew how big of a deal it already was to be a senior on the competitive cheerleading squad. What made our senior year so special was that our sport that we loved doing was finally being announced a sport by everyone else! It was our year to finally. 2002 albums , Cheering , Cheerleading 1715 Words | 4 Pages. sport that is known as Cheerleading . Cheer does not just consist of waving pom poms, smiling and looking cute, there is a lot more to school annual essay it. . Cheer consists of a series of tumbling, jumping, dancing, cheering, and stunting. It requires a great deal of paradise toni morrison commitment, exercise and strength. Now you may be confused as to school concert what a lot of this is and how it is essays on indian politics, done.

Well not to fret it is not as confusing as it sounds, in fact it is quite easy. You will soon learn what goes into cheerleading beginning with tumbling. Cheerleading , Jump 2444 Words | 6 Pages. story, Conrad depicts the adventure and struggle that a young ship captain faces when confronted with the school, complexities of leadership, his duty . as a captain to follow the law, and his identification and compassion for essay importance of body language Leggatt who has confessed to killing a man. As a result the theme revolves around the essay, idea of initiation and self-definition, from the start the us government term paper, captain is confronted with the duties and responsibilities of concert a captain , he is not only overwhelmed but also impressed with all the responsibilities. Captain , Joseph Conrad 1624 Words | 5 Pages. have this soft spot in my heart for those who are mistreated because of conclusion on abortions my dad always teaching me to concert be kind by simply leading by example. My father has . chosen to put his life on the line everyday to protect others life and property.

He is a Fire Captain . This position not only on indian, takes someone who has integrity and but a person who also has patience and compassion. School Annual Concert? My dad holds all these attributes and more. I have never met someone with as much patience as my father. I appreciate his ability to conclusion on abortions put. Cheerleading , Dance , English-language films 1684 Words | 4 Pages. volleyball and replace it with cheerleading . I personally think this is totally wrong. School Concert? First of truman essay all I do not think that the court has any . business sticking there nose in this situation.

I believe it is the schools decision to choose what sports they choose to have as long as they are giving women equal opportunity. If you go to any high school around the country you will see many girls taking part in cheerleading . Annual? If gymnastics is a sport than how can cheerleading not be? Gymnastics is an Olympic. Cheerleading , College , Female 1462 Words | 6 Pages. English 1301 Mackenzie Grantham Thompson February 23, 2013 Is Competitive Cheerleading a Sport? For girls and on the importance of body in presentation boys who train hours a week, . push through physical injuries and mental struggles, and annual concert leave everything they have on the competition mat, the us government, answer is simple.

For parents who drive hours to the gym, travel across the country, and make sacrifices so their children can follow their dreams, the answer is simple. And also for coaches who pour their heart and soul into their programs and essay demand. Cheerleader Nation , Cheerleading , Dance 780 Words | 3 Pages. Speech Preparation Outline Competitive Cheerleading I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: “Wanna know what it feels like to compete . and have all eyes on you?, I am going to sum up what it means to have. B. Credibility Statement: Being a competitive varsity cheerleader for 4 years I know what it takes and what you have to gcse show to get that perfect score. C. Significance Statement: Nearly 2000 teams compete nationwide in school annual concert, cheerleading each year. D. Identification Statement. Bring It On , Cheering , Cheerleading 714 Words | 3 Pages. Cheerleaders are athletes too. They practice just as much as everyone else, sometimes even more. They get hurt just like everyone else, but only more . severely.

In “Sis! Boom! Bah! Humbug!” Rick Reilly attempts to importance in presentation get people of his side of cheerleading as a sport or in his mind not a sport. He does not want girls cheering on the other athletes at sporting events when they could be in the event instead. Rick Reilly conveys his message through a sandwich of concert logos, pathos, logos statements; this was. Cheering , Cheerleading , Minnesota Golden Gophers Spirit Squads 1450 Words | 4 Pages.

The Cheerleading Captain plays a very important role on the team. The captain’s experience, attitude, and ability to effectively . communicate information effects the team’s success. I believe that I would make a great captain because I possess all of these skills. I am an us government experienced cheerleader. I have been on annual concert essay, the Varsity team for two years. Essay On The Importance Language? You have taught me what it takes to be on a winning team. Annual Concert Essay? It takes hard work, perseverance, never quitting, and a lot of essays politics practice. This is invaluable. Cheerleading , Communication , Debut albums 597 Words | 2 Pages.

A. While some girls and guys are on school annual concert, the ground basing their friends, some are in on indian, the air showing their flexibility off. Concert? B. Essay Conclusion On Abortions? This sport takes more . muscle and mental thinking than you may think. C. Today we will be talking about why cheerleading should be a sport, the mental and physical strength it takes, how other sports relate to cheer, how much time it takes, and concert what injuries can be involved with it. 2. On The Importance Of Body? Why cheer should be a sport? A. Annual Concert? Cheer is one of my favorite sports because. 2008 albums , Basketball , Cheering 1002 Words | 3 Pages. as manly sports, while hobbies such as shopping, cheerleading , or gardening are seen as feminine. There has been a time where I have witnessed . an individual cross the boundary of gender norms, with negative consequences. In our society, there are certain characteristics and qualities that define masculinity and femininity, but there are occasionally those who display traits of the other gender.

A guy in my grade tried out for the cheerleading squad in our sophomore year of high school. This was. Cheerleading , Gender , Gender identity 1491 Words | 4 Pages. look back on my experiences. Although I loved dance and how I was able to of body language freely express myself, it did come with some negatives. Dancing can take you to annual an . incredible high, but can brutally crush your ego as well. Toni? As a child I took gymnastics, cheerleading , and annual concert essay ballet. Us Government? All three are very physical activities that definitely wore me out and all three were competitive. Any competitive sports (yeah I count them both as sports), are expensive, and putting yourself out annual concert, there is frightening.

You are vulnerable. Cheerleading , Dance , Social dance 1263 Words | 3 Pages. ?DAZZLE AND DANGER 1 Dazzle and term danger Mikayla English 102 Mr. Maxfield February 21, 2014 DAZZLE AND DANGER . 2 Abstract Cheerleading is school annual essay, a dangerous activity. The main objective is for young girls not go into truman drop the bomb, a competitive squad because they could get very hurt and school essay have no time to themselves. Cheerleaders from paper 1A universities and annual competition squads have done surveys and tests to see basic information such as how much time is used for practices. Cheering , Cheerleading , Minnesota Golden Gophers Spirit Squads 1431 Words | 4 Pages. and being happy.

However, there are other team environments that can also be considered as family. Cheerleading from on the of body language age 3 to 14(delete) . I participated in cheerleading for annual the Detroit Police Atletic League (PAL) from age 3 to 14 years old. Cheerleading is an activity performed by a team of individuals dedicated to working together to acheive excellence and a common goal. The cheerleading team can be considered as a form of family. Term? They act as family members in time of need. They listen. Cheering , Cheerleading , Dance 1104 Words | 3 Pages. is doing.

After about school, 3 weeks everything calmed down. Politics? Caitlin tries to find something to keep her mind off of things. So her and her best friend Rina tried . out for cheerleading and concert made the team. Her mom was more exited about it than she was. Her mom was at every practice and game cheering Caitlin on. On Indian? Although Caitlin didn’t cheerleading at all, she was just happy her mom was happy. With her being a cheerleader now she hung out with the school annual concert essay, other cheerleaders and the football players. She was expected. American films , Black-and-white films , Cheerleading 1080 Words | 3 Pages. ” .The most anticipated moment arrived and the referee called on the captains from both sides to come for textiles coursework gcse research analysis the toss. Concert Essay? ‘Heads’ was the call . from our captain and our run of luck starts with the defeat in the toss and the opponents choose their side of the ground and we were given the chance to why did the bomb start with the ball. School Annual Essay? “Guys, we have to drop play well and school essay win this match for essays on indian ourselves as well as the school,” Boster, the captain of our team announced. “Yes, this is for our school,” all of us shouted.

Association football , Attack , Attack! 1692 Words | 5 Pages. ready for school annual concert us. We found out what was wrong with the ship from a crew member. He said, the gcse, worst thing you could imagine, the engine of the annual concert essay, ship had broken. . The lights went off.

With the aid of the engine, the on indian, captain had steered the ship into the wind to keep it stable. Without the essay, engine, the captain had no control over the ship. We did not know where we were at that time. The more we got scared. It was very dark. On The Importance? All we could see was the light of the moon. More children were crying because of the darkness. Bed , Cagayan de Oro City , Captain 982 Words | 3 Pages. everything I was brought up around and learn to live in the desert. School Annual? I was in a new state, a new school, with new friends, and a new house that was not the . one I was born and raised in. In high school I joined the cheerleading team as a freshman and made the Varsity Squad.

Cheerleading has been a part of on the importance language my everyday life from when I was six years old up until I was nineteen. What is a Cheerleader? A cheerleader is a confident, positive, and a helpful individual when it comes to annual community service. Cheerleading , Culture , Family 1587 Words | 5 Pages. football to how she grew ecstatic about its very nature.

Both women have admiration for truman drop their respective sports and want to encourage others to annual share their . love of sports through their use of ethos and pathos, with pathos being more effective. Cheerleading is a physical activity that I think most are aware of. Paradise Toni Essays? Some qualify it as a sport which should receive the same notoriety as an even more familiar game such as basketball. School Annual Essay? Jennie Yabroff belongs to that community. There are also those who dismiss. Brett Favre , Canadian Football League , Cheerleading 1465 Words | 4 Pages. Author: Daniel Defoe III. Setting: Crusoe Island IV. Characters: Robinson Crusoe – The main character; adventurous and drop the bomb essay gets marooned on . an school island Man Friday – A young native rescued by Crusoe from the cannibals Captain Nathan – An Englishman; captain of Her Majesty’s ship named Norfolk V. On The Of Body In Presentation? Summary: Against his parents’ wishes, sixteen-year-old Robinson Crusoe sets sail from Hull on a sea voyage. School Concert? A storm wrecks their ship but this didn’t him from going out to sea again.

Captain , Daniel Defoe , Man Friday 1505 Words | 6 Pages. The Wreck of the Hesperus and paper The Highwayman: A Compare and Contrast Essay on Love, Triumph and Betrayal. eyed with a scornful laugh. The antagonist in this story is the hurricane, it killed our protagonists. Minor characters are the other people on the boat as . School Annual? well as the captain . We don’t hear about them throughout the poem. Term Paper? In Wreck of the Hesperus, we experience a Man v. Nature conflict described as the overconfidence of the school annual, captain by facing the paradise morrison essays, sea during the hurricane. The point of no return is when the father doesn’t answer the daughter.

There is a common bond between the skipper and annual his daughter. Alfred Noyes , Captain , Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 936 Words | 3 Pages. ?When did cheerleading officially become a sport? It became a high school sport in 1972. At that point, cheerleading became more . athletic and challenging as coaches at on indian cheerleading camps pushed the girls to try more acrobatic moves.

In 1999, ESPN (the cable sports network) officially declared it a sport and began showing the national cheerleading competitions that were taking place around the annual concert, country.As of the early 2000s, as many as 20 different high school organizations declare cheerleading as a sport. 2016 Summer Olympics , Aaron Boone , Cheerleading 421 Words | 2 Pages.