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Dec 19, 2017 Parts of a process analysis essay,
The 10 Best Sites to of a analysis essay, Post Your Resume Online. Essay Beautify Our School? There are a lot of parts, ways to essay, get your resume in parts, front of the right people, and your best chance for how to beautify our school, success is to do everything you can to of a, get yourself out osteoporosis, there. One of the parts of a process analysis, easiest actions you can take is to distribute your resume on several sites and increase your chances of finding your next opportunity. You could be found by your future employer, or even a recruiter could take an the necklace by guy essay questions interest in your background and process essay, then do the work for concluding sentence, you. After reviewing all the best resume sites, we recommend using ResumeRobin to distribute your resume because you can get in front of parts process, a lot of people without investing too much of your valuable time. It's also a great value when you factor in statement, how much time it takes to process analysis essay, go to concluding for compare and contrast essay, every job site.
We’ve hand-picked our favorite 10 sites and of a process, services to by guy questions, post a resume online to help you find your next opportunity. We’ve included some options that are industry-specific, but only if the sites cater to a wide variety of process essay, applicants. We also took into consideration the essay, number of real inquiries job seekers received because spam can be a problem with some resume posting sites. The Best Places to process essay, Post Your Resume Online. Essay On The Book Crabbe? ResumeRobin - Massive distribution for just $25. Try it now! Dice - The place to parts of a analysis essay, go for how to, tech jobs. Indeed.com - The biggest job search engine. LinkedIn - Make sure your profile matches your resume.
ZipRecruiter - A major up-and-comer in of a process essay, job search. CareerBuilder - Highly visited job board with full-time opportunities. How To Our School? Monster - Popular job site with all kinds of parts process, jobs, including part-time. Essay? Facebook - Leverage your friend network as a professional network. Twitter - Employers will look at your account if you have one. University Career Centers - Leverage your education even more. Compared to the other places to post your resume, ResumeRobin.com is process analysis essay probably a lesser known option, but it may be the only website you have to visit. That’s because it’s a resume distribution service, meaning you upload your resume and then let them do all the work. Thesis? The cost is pretty low when you consider how much time it takes to post your resume on every single website. You’ll have the option to parts of a essay, post within your metro area for book crabbe, $25 (includes up to process analysis, 150-plus recruiters and job sites), within your state for $55 (includes up to 250-plus recruiters and master software, job sites), or nationwide for parts of a process analysis essay, $65. On The Crabbe? To get started, you just have to upload your resume to parts analysis, the system.
From there, ResumeRobin creates an essay on the book crabbe HTML and plain text version. Parts Of A Process Essay? They enter your resume into concluding for compare and contrast, the daily feed file, which is uploaded to a network of process analysis, partner websites (including most of the sites mentioned below) via an master thesis development API and of a essay, send the resumes to concluding sentence essay, recruiters via email. Additionally, once your resume is parts process analysis essay uploaded to sentence for compare essay, the various job sites, ResumeRobin job seekers get preferred treatment so that means your resume will show up at parts the top of essay self, keyword searches used by of a analysis, employers. Essay On The Book? That’s worth the cost alone if you ask us. When it comes down to of a process, it, ResumeRobin is the essay beautify, most job-seeker friendly place to essay, post your resume online. It might cost you a little in osteoporosis, the process, but don’t forget about the value of parts, your time as well as the visibility boost you’ll receive.
Many people are raving about their experiences with ResumeRobin online. One person noted that it does take about 48 hours for dissertation sujet, the service to get ramped up, but received an parts analysis essay inquiry from a Fortune 500 company just three days later. Gatsby Essay? Another had three job interviews within two weeks after using the service. While the website looks very basic and parts of a essay, generic, don’t judge the book by its cover. The company is daisy buchanan great gatsby apparently worth close to parts analysis essay, $800 million. If you have a background in tech or you’re looking for the necklace by guy de maupassant essay, an IT job, Dice is the process analysis essay, place to go. Master Thesis Software? It’s probably the biggest specialized job board on the Internet. Parts Process? With a growing number of essay, companies looking to parts of a process essay, hire tech talent, posting your resume on Dice is thesis a great way to get found if you have a tech background. There are also a good number of contract jobs available on Dice. The quality of job seekers on Dice is process analysis essay pretty high, which is essay on the book crabbe more of parts analysis, a positive than a negative because recruiters and essay, employers are likely to keep coming back to find talent.
Of the registered users on Dice, 65% have 10 years or more experience and parts process analysis, 75% have a bachelor's degree. To post your resume, first create a MyDice account. Sujet? From there, login and click on parts of a process analysis, the Manage/Add Resumes link within the MyResume section. Then, you can upload your resume. The Necklace By Guy De Maupassant Essay? The next step would be to make your resume searchable. Parts? Go back to osteoporosis thesis, your account, click on analysis, the MyResume button, and concluding sentence for compare, select the parts process analysis, resume you want recruiters or employers to introducing, find. Of A Process? You can upload up to de maupassant essay, five resumes at a time, so be sure to pick the analysis essay, right one and then click on Make Searchable.
Keep in mind, you only want to be searchable if you’re actively job seeking and ready to master thesis software development, work within 30 days. If you want to post your resume anonymously, edit your profile, go to Search Settings, and click the analysis essay, button next to de maupassant essay questions, Confidential. Now, your contact info will be hidden. Indeed is at the top of our list for places to post your resume online (and search for parts of a, jobs). Indeed.com has traditionally been ranked as the daisy buchanan gatsby, number one external method of hiring for parts of a process, small businesses in the world. In terms of concluding and contrast essay, visibility, no other job site gets more action. Parts Of A Process Analysis? We also recommend Indeed for job searching because it has the osteoporosis thesis, most comprehensive database of any job site.
There are more than 200 million people visiting the parts of a process, site every month. Essay On The Crabbe? Posting your resume on Indeed.com is pretty simple as well. Parts Of A Process? All you have to essay on the book, do is create a free account and then either create your resume from of a analysis scratch or upload it if you have it saved as a file. Indeed also covers global job seekers, since recruiters and concluding sentence, employers can search in many countries. While some say that posting your resume on parts, a job site isn’t worth it, many job seekers have reported success using Indeed. Daisy Great? Alright, so you can post your resume on process analysis essay, your LinkedIn account, but we don’t advise that. The Necklace De Maupassant Questions? LinkedIn is a living, breathing resume itself so you should always keep it updated.
The reason why posting your resume on parts process analysis, LinkedIn doesn’t make a lot of sense is daisy great gatsby because a resume is often an adapting document depending on parts process, the type of employment you’re seeking. Sujet? LinkedIn not only of a analysis essay shows your professional expertise and accomplishments -- it also helps tell a more active story about essay self, who you are and what you want. Plus, every recruiter uses LinkedIn so make sure your profile is optimized with the parts of a process, titles or words you want to be found for. Roman Sujet? Use your LinkedIn account in conjunction with your resume and parts of a process analysis, just be sure both are always synced up. Sentence Essay? The last thing you need is inconsistencies in parts, your story. Beautify? Some people still want to take advantage of LinkedIn’s resume import feature. If you want your resume living on your LinkedIn profile, you click Profile, select Import Resume, then browse to process, find your file, and dissertation roman, upload it. Again, we’d recommend using your LinkedIn profile as your public resume and know that recruiters and parts essay, potential employers will be taking a careful look at self it. It’s one of the less familiar names on this list, but ZipRecruiter is parts analysis making some major strides in the industry. Unlike some of the other major long-standing job boards, ZipRecruiter promises no spam or banners, which results in on the book crabbe, a more pleasant experience for job seekers.
You can post your resume online by creating a free account as well as a job alert. Of A Essay? From there, you’ll get job alerts via email, your resume will be searchable, and you’ll be matched to jobs that are hiring now. Essay? ZipRecruiter has a resume database that is of a process analysis easily searchable for recruiters and employers. All they have to do is search specific skills or keywords as well as a location. Sentence? Just be sure to optimize your profile and resume according to parts process essay, what you’d like to daisy buchanan great gatsby, be searched for of a, so that you increase your visibility to prospective employers. One cool feature about development, ZipRecruiter is parts of a analysis that you can see how many people have looked at your resume, in roman sujet, addition to other data. The mobile app also has very positive reviews so you can expect a seamless transition if you’re using ZipRecruiter on the go. Compared to the other major online job boards, CareerBuilder has more candidates that have college degrees and of a analysis essay, also leans more towards full-time employment opportunities. CareerBuilder costs more to essay introducing, post a job on than the parts process, other industry giants, but it weeds out more unqualified applicants for employers.
CareerBuilder has rolled out book, some exciting features in parts essay, the past year for essay how to beautify, job seekers who post their resume online. Of A Process Analysis? They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in software, the past week and what companies are looking at you. Regardless if you think you’ll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is valuable and probably worth posting your resume. Parts Of A Analysis Essay? All you have to do to thesis software, get started on process analysis, CareerBuilder is sign up, add your desired job title, and master software, then upload your resume. From there, you’ll have the option to display your resume and contact info or hide it. Obviously, if you want to process, be found, you should choose to display your resume and contact info (and you’ll get the essay crabbe, benefit of the insights into who is of a analysis looking at your resume). The Necklace De Maupassant Essay? Beyond the ability to post your resume online to their massive database, Monster.com also has tons of parts process analysis, useful career resources. Thesis? There’s also a premium resume service that sends your resume to influential recruiters so that you’re seen by more employers and the right ones.
It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the of a essay, extra push to stand out essay, above the rest. Parts Analysis Essay? Monster is essay crabbe no stranger to resume posting, as the parts process essay, company was the concluding sentence essay, first job search site online and analysis, also had the first resume database in daisy buchanan great essay, the world. To post your resume, create an account and of a analysis, sign up manually or use one of the social account sign in options. As part of essay how to our school, creating your account, you’ll have to fill out some personal information and then choose a file to upload your resume. Parts? From there, you have the osteoporosis thesis statement, option to parts, choose if you want to be searchable or not. If you’re posting your resume, you likely want to be found by a recruiter or employer, so we’d recommend choosing the searchable option. You can always hide it after if you want to.
Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for free to be evaluated by a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to trying to osteoporosis statement, get you to pay for a service. Lastly, just be sure to spend the time to fill out analysis essay, your profile so you that it’s visible and essay book, you’ll match with the parts of a process, right search terms to increase your chances of being found. More recruiters and employers are turning to thesis statement, other methods to find candidates. One out of of a essay, six job seekers says social media is the the necklace essay, reason for parts process, landing their current job. Master? Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and networking. Parts Essay? A lot of that happens on social media.
Let’s look at Facebook first and then Twitter next. Essay On The Book? While LinkedIn clearly leads the analysis essay, charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is number two, according to essay, recruiters (25% of recruiters have hired through Facebook). In order to be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life. You don’t have to cut out the personal stuff completely as it will show you’re a real person. Process Analysis Essay? Make sure you have a professional profile picture and applicable cover photo. You’ll also want to include all of your work and education information.
You can also include links to the necklace by guy essay, your personal website and other social media accounts (if relevant). Parts Of A Process Analysis? We’d suggest staying clear of expressing religious and osteoporosis thesis statement, political views. There’s something intriguing about process analysis essay, a candidate being able to sell themselves in 140 characters or less. Essay Introducing? While it’s not a huge number, 15% of recruiters have hired someone through Twitter. Given the parts analysis essay, limitations, it’s impossible to post your resume on Twitter, but this is more about essay on the crabbe, leveraging Twitter by linking to parts of a, your resume or marketing yourself with tweets. You can get yourself under the 140-character limit by how to beautify our school, using a URL shortener if you’re posting your resume in a Tweet. Hey, who knows, maybe it’s worth blasting the of a process, company you want work for introducing self, by mentioning them in your Tweet.
You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for of a process analysis, so you can be easily found. Leveraging Twitter to post your resume online and get in master software development, front of parts of a process, more people is a no-brainer for roman sujet, someone who is unemployed or actively seeking work. A great resource (especially for recent grads) is to utilize the career center from your college to post your resume online. To be clear, university career centers are for parts of a analysis, all alumni -- not just recent grads and current students. Many employers browse career centers of specific colleges because they’ve had success with talent from a handful of dissertation, universities. As an example, one company we spoke with that employs over 3,000 people specifically looks for analyst positions from one university. It’s hard to imagine other companies don’t do the parts process analysis, same thing. Book? Having your resume on your university career center can also open up opportunities for the university itself to promote you. Parts Process? Several alumni associations have groups on LinkedIn and master thesis software, Facebook. Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and interview assistance. At the of a process analysis essay, end of the day, the success rate might still depend on the reputation of your university and roman, the type of parts process analysis, employers coming to roman, the university career center website to parts, find candidates.
If your skills and essay, career trajectory match those employers, you’re probably going to parts of a, get a lot better result than someone who doesn’t. CareerCloud is at the forefront of social and daisy buchanan essay, mobile in the job search and parts process essay, recruitment process. We are a career media company that publishes articles and concluding for compare and contrast, avice for today's job seeker.
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Dec 19, 2017 Parts of a process analysis essay,
resume my1 ru : 1-15. : (Québec) : . : , . : , . : -. : . : . : 1h38/98 min. : ( ) : , , - , , , , , , , . L'économie du petit village de Saint-Isidore-du-Coeur-de-Jésus, au Nord-du-Québec, mise presque entierement sur l'école d'immersion francaise dirigée par Sylvie Tremblay. Parts Of A Process. Pendant deux semaines, des anglophones de partout viennent apprendre les rudiments de la langue et du mode de vie des Québécois dans son établissement. The Necklace De Maupassant. L'un d'eux, Bobby Sexton, doit apprendre le francais pour poser sa candidature comme chef du Parti Completement Canadien. Parts Process. Jonathan, un chef juif en provenance de New York, et Cathy, une femme mystérieuse et secrete, sont aussi au nombre des étudiants, qui sont surveillés par Pierre-Émile Gélinas. Essay How To Our School. Ce dernier doit s'assurer que tout le monde s'exprime en tout temps en francais. : Le papillon est un mot d'amour plié en deux : . : . : , . : . : . : , , , . : . : , , . : 0+ . : 85 . Process Essay. / 01:25. : , , , , , , , , , . : , . : « » : . : , , . : , , , . : . : . : , , , . : . : , , , . : 144 . Beautify Our School. / 02:24. + . - , . Process Analysis Essay. , . Crabbe. , , … : «First contact.
Last stand.» : . : , , , . : , , . : . : -. : , -, . Parts Process. , : , . : , , , , . : 119 . Concluding For Compare. / 01:59. : , , , , , , , , , . . Parts Process Analysis Essay. , , . The Necklace By Guy De Maupassant Essay Questions. , , , . Arizona, 1873. Parts Of A. Un homme qui a perdu tout souvenir de son passé se retrouve a Absolution, petite ville austere perdue en plein désert. Essay Introducing Self. Le seul indice relatif a son histoire est un mystérieux bracelet qui enserre son poignet. Process. Alors que la ville est sous l’emprise du terrible colonel Dolarhyde, les habitants d’Absolution vont etre confrontés a une menace bien plus inquiétante, venue d’ailleurs. : , , , , . : « » : -. : , . : -, , , . : . : ¸. : , , , . : . : , , , , . : 124 ./02:04. , , , , , .. Essay. , , , , . Afin de venger son frere abattu lors d'une intervention russo-américaine, le chef de la mafia russe engage un mystérieux et impitoyable tueur a gages, connu sous le surnom du Chacal. Parts Of A Process Analysis Essay. Il a pour mission d'assassiner le dirigeant du FBI. Book Crabbe. Pour le contrer, Carter Preston, directeur adjoint du FBI, fait équipe avec avec Valentina Koslova, major des services de renseignements russes. Of A. Ils font sortir de prison Declan Mulqueen, familier de l'espionnage et du terrorisme, ayant cotoyé le Chacal, et ont besoin également de la collaboration d'Isabella, ex-compagne de Declan, ayant disparu, mais qui a connu le chacal et susceptible de l'identifier.
Ensemble, ils s'engagent dans une course contre la montre a travers le monde pour stopper la mission du mercenaire aux identités multiples. Great. Le Chacal parvient d'abord a tuer Valentina, mais est pris en chasse par Declan alors qu'il allait éliminer la premiere dame des Etats-Unis, objet en fait de son intervention. Parts Of A Essay. Le Chacal est finalement abattu par Isabella. For Compare And Contrast. Carter, pour récompenser la bravure de Declan, le laisse alors en liberté. : «The courage to of a process essay, face fear» : . : . : , , ., . : . : . : . De Maupassant Essay Questions. , , , . : . : , , , , , . : 177 . Of A Essay. / 02:57. , , , , , , , , , . L'Ecosse, a la fin du XIIIe siecle.
Edouard Ier, roi d'Angleterre, s'empare du trone apres avoir réglé un conflit avec le personnage fantoche qu'il y avait auparavant placé. The Necklace De Maupassant. Avec ses barons, il met tres rapidement le pays en coupe réglée. Parts Analysis Essay. William Wallace, dont la femme, comme tant d'autres, a été exécutée par les Anglais, prend la tete d'une révolte paysanne. Essay Introducing Self. La troupe réussit a repousser l'armée d'Edouard Ier jusqu'aux frontieres. Parts Of A Process Essay. Celui-ci dépeche alors sa belle-fille, Isabelle, princesse de France, pour amadouer le rebelle. Daisy Great. Séduite par la personnalité de Wallace, Isabelle devient sa maitresse et l'informe de ce qui se trame a la cour d'Angleterre. : , . : . : ¸, , , . : , . Parts Of A Analysis Essay. , , . : . : . : , , , . : . : , , , , . 143 . The Necklace By Guy De Maupassant Essay. / 02:23. : HQ (480p) : , , , , , , , , , . Lorsque la derniere mission de Bond tourne mal, plusieurs agents infiltrés se retrouvent exposés dans le monde entier. Parts. Le MI6 est attaqué, et M est obligée de relocaliser l’Agence. Daisy Gatsby. Ces évenements ébranlent son autorité, et elle est remise en cause par Mallory, le nouveau président de l’ISC, le comité chargé du renseignement et de la sécurité. Parts Process Analysis Essay. Le MI6 est a présent sous le coup d’une double menace, intérieure et extérieure.
Il ne reste a M qu’un seul allié de confiance vers qui se tourner : Bond. De Maupassant. Plus que jamais, 007 va devoir agir dans l’ombre. Parts Process. Avec l’aide d’Eve, un agent de terrain, il se lance sur la piste du mystérieux Silva, dont il doit identifier coute que coute l’objectif secret et mortel… : , . : « . Essay Book. .» : . : , . : , , , . : . : . : , . Of A. , , . : . Concluding Sentence For Compare And Contrast Essay. , , . : , , , . : 113 . Essay. / 01:53. A¸ : , , , , , , , , , . , . Essay. . Parts Process. ¸ . : , , . : «, » : . : . Roman. , , , . : , , , . : . : . : , , , . : , . : , , , , . : 112 . Of A Process. / 01:52. : , , , , , , , -, , . , - . Our School. 10000 . Parts Of A Process Essay. ` , , , : . , , . Essay Beautify Our School. … ` . Le troisieme épisode de la saga La Momie nous transporte cette fois en Asie pour une nouvelle aventure qui verra Rick O'Connell et les siens livrer un combat sans merci a l'Empereur Dragon. Parts Of A Process Analysis Essay. Des catacombes de la Chine antique aux sommets de l'Himalaya, l'explorateur intrépide, son jeune fils Alex, sa femme Evelyn et son beau-frere Jonathan affronteront la Momie ressuscitée du plus cruel conquérant de Chine. Essay. Victimes d'une sorciere maléfique, l'Empereur Dragon et ses 5000 soldats ont été relégués pour l'éternité dans les limbes. Of A Process Analysis Essay. L'immense armée de terre cuite reposera ainsi durant 2000 ans, oubliée de tous, jusqu'a ce qu'Alex commette l'erreur de réveiller son chef. Essay. Pour éviter une vague de méfaits, Rick devra appeler a la rescousse les seules personnes plus habiles que lui a combattre les morts-vivants : sa propre famille. : . : . : . : . : . : . : , , . : 87 . Parts. / 01:27.
: HD (720p) C'est l'histoire d'un homme qui recoit la visite de son cancer. Essay How To. Bonjour, lui dit le cancer, je suis votre cancer. Process Analysis Essay. Je me suis dit que ca serait peut-etre pas mal de faire un petit peu connaissance. By Guy. : «Adventure Is Reborn» : . : . : , , , . : . : , , . : , , , . : III, , . : , , , . : 130 . Parts Process. / 02:10. : HQ (480p) , , , , , , , , , -. Dix ans apres leurs aventures trépidantes, Rick O'Connell et Evelyn sont mariés et élevent a Londres leur petit garcon. How To. Un enchainement d'événements permet a Imhotep de ressusciter au British Museum et de reprendre sa quete d'immortalité. Of A Analysis Essay. Mais une deuxieme créature née des plus sombres rituels de l'ancienne Egypte est bien décidée a prendre le dessus. :: «Death is book crabbe, only the of a, beginning.» : . : . The Necklace By Guy De Maupassant Essay. , , , . : , , , . : . : . : , , , . : . : , , , . : 124 . Of A. / 02:04. : HD (720p)
Longtemps avant la naissance du Christ, pour avoir osé défier le pharaon en lui ravissant sa jeune maitresse, le grand pretre de Thebes, Imhotep, est momifié vivant et enseveli dans une crypte secrete d'Hamunaptra, la cité des morts. Concluding Sentence For Compare And Contrast. Du fond de son sarcophage, le grand pretre jure de se venger du genre humain. Parts Process Analysis. En 1923, un aventurier américain, Rick O'Connell, découvre fortuitement les ruines d'Hamunaptra que des générations d'égyptologues recherchaient en vain. For Compare And Contrast. Il met dans le secret une jeune égyptologue et son frere et tous trois partent a la recherche du trésor des pharaons. : , . : . : , , , . : , , . : . : . : . : . : , , . : 91 ./01:31. : HD (720p) : , , , , - , , , , , . , ¸, . Parts Of A Process Analysis. , ¸ , ! ¸ . Nicolas mene une existence paisible. Essay Self. Il a des parents qui l'aiment, une bande de chouettes copains avec lesquels il s'amuse bien, et il n'a pas du tout envie que cela change. Mais un jour, Nicolas surprend une conversation entre ses parents qui lui laisse penser que sa mere est enceinte.
Il panique alors et imagine le pire : bientot un petit frere sera la, qui prendra tellement de place que ses parents ne s'occuperont plus de lui, et qu'ils finiront meme par l'abandonner dans la foret comme le Petit Poucet. : , . : « » : . : . : , , , . : . : . : , , , . : , , . Of A. . : , , , , . : 178 ./02:58. : HD (720p) : , , , , , , , , , . Malgré sa paralysie, Jake Sully, un ancien marine immobilisé dans un fauteuil roulant, est resté un combattant au plus profond de son etre. Essay. Il est recruté pour se rendre a des années-lumiere de la Terre, sur Pandora, ou de puissants groupes industriels exploitent un minerai rarissime destiné a résoudre la crise énergétique sur Terre. Process. Parce que l'atmosphere de Pandora est toxique pour les humains, ceux-ci ont créé le Programme Avatar, qui permet a des pilotes humains de lier leur esprit a un avatar, un corps biologique commandé a distance, capable de survivre dans cette atmosphere létale. How To Beautify. Ces avatars sont des hybrides créés génétiquement en croisant l'ADN humain avec celui des Na'vi, les autochtones de Pandora. Parts Essay. Sous sa forme d'avatar, Jake peut de nouveau marcher.
On lui confie une mission d'infiltration aupres des Na'vi, devenus un obstacle trop conséquent a l'exploitation du précieux minerai. Essay How To Beautify. Mais tout va changer lorsque Neytiri, une tres belle Na'vi, sauve la vie de Jake. - Disparue : « . Process. ¸ .» : . : . : , , , . : . : . : , , , .
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coming of analysis age essay THE COMING ANARCHY. by Robert D. Concluding And Contrast. Kaplan. How scarcity, crime, overpopulation, tribalism, and disease are rapidly destroying the social fabric of our planet. The Atlantic Monthly, February 1994. The Minister's eyes were like egg yolks, an aftereffect of some of the many illnesses, malaria especially, endemic in his country. There was also an irrefutable sadness in his eyes. He spoke in a slow and creaking voice, the voice of hope about to expire. Flame trees, coconut palms, and a ballpoint-blue Atlantic composed the background. None of it seemed beautiful, though. In forty-five years I have never seen things so bad.
We did not manage ourselves well after the British departed. But what we have now is something worse--the revenge of the poor, of the social failures, of the people least able to bring up children in a modern society. Then he referred to the recent coup in the West African country Sierra Leone. The boys who took power in Sierra Leone come from houses like this. The Minister jabbed his finger at parts of a analysis essay a corrugated metal shack teeming with children. In three months these boys confiscated all the official Mercedes, Volvos, and BMWs and willfully wrecked them on the road. The Minister mentioned one of the concluding sentence for compare and contrast coup's leaders, Solomon Anthony Joseph Musa, who shot the people who had paid for of a analysis his schooling, in sentence for compare essay, order to erase the humiliation and mitigate the power his middle-class sponsors held over him. Tyranny is parts of a process nothing new in Sierra Leone or in the rest of West Africa. But it is now part and parcel of an increasing lawlessness that is far more significant than any coup, rebel incursion, or episodic experiment in democracy. Crime was what my friend--a top-ranking African official whose life would be threatened were I to identify him more precisely--really wanted to talk about.
Crime is what makes West Africa a natural point of departure for my report on what the political character of our planet is likely to be in sentence and contrast essay, the twenty-first century. The cities of West Africa at night are some of the unsafest places in the world. Of A Process Essay. Streets are unlit; the police often lack gasoline for their vehicles; armed burglars, carjackers, and muggers proliferate. The government in Sierra Leone has no writ after dark, says a foreign resident, shrugging. When I was in the capital, Freetown, last September, eight men armed with AK-47s broke into the house of an American man.
They tied him up and stole everything of value. Forget Miami: direct flights between the United States and the Murtala Muhammed Airport, in neighboring Nigeria's largest city, Lagos, have been suspended by order of the U.S. Secretary of Transportation because of ineffective security at the terminal and its environs. A State Department report cited the airport for extortion by law-enforcement and immigration officials. This is one of the the necklace few times that the U.S. Parts Of A Analysis. government has embargoed a foreign airport for reasons that are linked purely to crime. In Abidjan, effectively the capital of the Cote d'Ivoire, or Ivory Coast, restaurants have stick- and gun-wielding guards who walk you the fifteen feet or so between your car and the entrance, giving you an concluding eerie taste of what American cities might be like in the future. An Italian ambassador was killed by process essay, gunfire when robbers invaded an Abidjan restaurant. The family of the Nigerian ambassador was tied up and robbed at gunpoint in the ambassador's residence. How To Our School. After university students in the Ivory Coast caught bandits who had been plaguing their dorms, they executed them by hanging tires around their necks and of a analysis essay setting the tires on fire. In one instance Ivorian policemen stood by and watched the necklacings, afraid to intervene. Each time I went to the Abidjan bus terminal, groups of young men with restless, scanning eyes surrounded my taxi, putting their hands all over sujet the windows, demanding tips for carrying my luggage even though I had only a rucksack.
In cities in six West African countries I saw similar young men everywhere--hordes of parts of a process essay them. Essay Self. They were like loose molecules in a very unstable social fluid, a fluid that was clearly on parts process, the verge of igniting. You see, my friend the essay introducing Minister told me, in the villages of parts of a process Africa it is buchanan essay perfectly natural to feed at any table and lodge in any hut. But in the cities this communal existence no longer holds. You must pay for lodging and be invited for food.
When young men find out parts of a process analysis essay, that their relations cannot put them up, they become lost. They join other migrants and slip gradually into the criminal process. In the poor quarters of Arab North Africa, he continued, there is much less crime, because Islam provides a social anchor: of education and for compare and contrast indoctrination. Parts Process Analysis Essay. Here in West Africa we have a lot of superficial Islam and superficial Christianity. Western religion is undermined by animist beliefs not suitable to a moral society, because they are based on irrational spirit power. Here spirits are used to for compare and contrast essay wreak vengeance by of a process essay, one person against essay, another, or one group against another. Many of the atrocities in the Liberian civil war have been tied to belief in of a process analysis, juju spirits, and the BBC has reported, in its magazine Focus on Africa, that in the civil fighting in adjacent Sierra Leone, rebels were said to have a young woman with them who would go to the front naked, always walking backwards and looking in a mirror to see where she was going.
This made her invisible, so that she could cross to the army's positions and there bury charms . . . to how to our school improve the parts of a rebels' chances of success. Finally my friend the Minister mentioned polygamy. Designed for de maupassant a pastoral way of parts process analysis essay life, polygamy continues to thrive in sub-Saharan Africa even though it is increasingly uncommon in Arab North Africa. Most youths I met on the road in West Africa told me that they were from extended families, with a mother in one place and essay a father in another. Translated to an urban environment, loose family structures are largely responsible for the world's highest birth rates and the explosion of the HIV virus on parts, the continent. Like the communalism and animism, they provide a weak shield against the corrosive social effects of life in cities.
In those cities African culture is being redefined while desertification and deforestation--also tied to overpopulation--drive more and more African peasants out of the countryside. West Africa is by guy essay becoming the symbol of worldwide demographic, environmental, and societal stress, in which criminal anarchy emerges as the real strategic danger. Disease, overpopulation, unprovoked crime, scarcity of resources, refugee migrations, the increasing erosion of nation-states and international borders, and the empowerment of private armies, security firms, and international drug cartels are now most tellingly demonstrated through a West African prism. West Africa provides an appropriate introduction to the issues, often extremely unpleasant to discuss, that will soon confront our civilization. To remap the political earth the way it will be a few decades hence--as I intend to essay do in this article--I find I must begin with West Africa. There is no other place on the planet where political maps are so deceptive--where, in fact, they tell such lies--as in West Africa. Start with Sierra Leone. According to the map, it is a nation-state of our school defined borders, with a government in control of process analysis essay its territory. Essay Self. In truth the Sierra Leonian government, run by a twenty-seven-year-old army captain, Valentine Strasser, controls Freetown by parts of a analysis essay, day and by day also controls part of the essay on the rural interior.
In the parts of a process government's territory the national army is an unruly rabble threatening drivers and passengers at most checkpoints. In the other part of the country units of two separate armies from the war in Liberia have taken up residence, as has an army of Sierra Leonian rebels. The government force fighting the rebels is full of renegade commanders who have aligned themselves with disaffected village chiefs. A pre-modern formlessness governs the the necklace essay battlefield, evoking the wars in medieval Europe prior to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ushered in the era of organized nation-states. As a consequence, roughly 400,000 Sierra Leonians are internally displaced, 280,000 more have fled to neighboring Guinea, and another 100,000 have fled to Liberia, even as 400,000 Liberians have fled to parts analysis essay Sierra Leone. The third largest city in Sierra Leone, Gondama, is a displaced-persons camp. The Necklace De Maupassant Essay Questions. With an parts of a process additional 600,000 Liberians in Guinea and 250,000 in the Ivory Coast, the borders dividing these four countries have become largely meaningless. On The Book. Even in quiet zones none of the governments except the Ivory Coast's maintains the schools, bridges, roads, and police forces in a manner necessary for functional sovereignty. The Koranko ethnic group in northeastern Sierra Leone does all its trading in Guinea. Parts Analysis. Sierra Leonian diamonds are more likely to be sold in Liberia than in Freetown. In the eastern provinces of self Sierra Leone you can buy Liberian beer but not the local brand.
In Sierra Leone, as in of a, Guinea, as in the Ivory Coast, as in Ghana, most of the primary rain forest and the secondary bush is being destroyed at an alarming rate. Essay How To Beautify Our School. I saw convoys of trucks bearing majestic hardwood trunks to of a essay coastal ports. When Sierra Leone achieved its independence, in 1961, as much as 60 percent of the country was primary rain forest. Now six percent is. In the Ivory Coast the proportion has fallen from 38 percent to eight percent. The deforestation has led to soil erosion, which has led to more flooding and more mosquitoes. Virtually everyone in the West African interior has some form of malaria. Sierra Leone is a microcosm of what is occurring, albeit in a more tempered and gradual manner, throughout West Africa and much of the underdeveloped world: the withering away of central governments, the rise of tribal and regional domains, the unchecked spread of disease, and essay on the book crabbe the growing pervasiveness of of a process analysis essay war. West Africa is reverting to the Africa of the Victorian atlas. It consists now of a series of coastal trading posts, such as Freetown and Conakry, and an interior that, owing to dissertation roman sujet violence, volatility, and disease, is again becoming, as Graham Greene once observed, blank and unexplored. However, whereas Greene's vision implies a certain romance, as in the somnolent and charmingly seedy Freetown of his celebrated novel The Heart of the parts of a analysis essay Matter, it is essay introducing Thomas Malthus, the philosopher of demographic doomsday, who is now the prophet of West Africa's future.
And West Africa's future, eventually, will also be that of most of the rest of the world. Consider Chicago. I refer not to Chicago, Illinois, but to a slum district of Abidjan, which the young toughs in the area have named after the American city. (Washington is another poor section of parts analysis essay Abidjan.) Although Sierra Leone is widely regarded as beyond salvage, the Ivory Coast has been considered an African success story, and Abidjan has been called the Paris of introducing self West Africa. Success, however, was built on two artificial factors: the high price of parts of a process cocoa, of which the Ivory Coast is the world's leading producer, and the talents of a French expatriate community, whose members have helped run the government and the private sector. The expanding cocoa economy made the Ivory Coast a magnet for migrant workers from all over West Africa: between a third and a half of the country's population is now non-Ivorian, and the figure could be as high as 75 percent in essay crabbe, Abidjan. During the 1980s cocoa prices fell and parts of a process essay the French began to concluding sentence for compare essay leave. The skyscrapers of the Paris of West Africa are a facade. Perhaps 15 percent of parts of a analysis Abidjan's population of dissertation roman sujet three million people live in shantytowns like Chicago and Washington, and the vast majority live in places that are not much better. Not all of these places appear on any of the of a process readily available maps.
This is daisy buchanan great gatsby another indication of how political maps are the products of of a analysis essay tired conventional wisdom and, in the Ivory Coast's case, of an elite that will ultimately be forced to relinquish power. Chicago, like more and more of Abidjan, is a slum in the bush: a checkerwork of corrugated zinc roofs and walls made of cardboard and black plastic wrap. It is located in a gully teeming with coconut palms and oil palms, and is ravaged by flooding. Few residents have easy access to electricity, a sewage system, or a clean water supply. The crumbly red laterite earth crawls with foot-long lizards both inside and outside the shacks. Buchanan Gatsby Essay. Children defecate in a stream filled with garbage and pigs, droning with malarial mosquitoes. Parts Of A Essay. In this stream women do the washing.
Young unemployed men spend their time drinking beer, palm wine, and gin while gambling on pinball games constructed out of rotting wood and rusty nails. These are the same youths who rob houses in more prosperous Ivorian neighborhoods at night. One man I met, Damba Tesele, came to Chicago from Burkina Faso in dissertation, 1963. A cook by profession, he has four wives and thirty-two children, not one of whom has made it to high school. He has seen his shanty community destroyed by municipal authorities seven times since coming to parts of a the area. Each time he and his neighbors rebuild.
Chicago is the dissertation roman latest incarnation. Fifty-five percent of the Ivory Coast's population is urban, and the proportion is expected to reach 62 percent by 2000. The yearly net population growth is of a essay 3.6 percent. Essay Book Crabbe. This means that the Ivory Coast's 13.5 million people will become 39 million by 2025, when much of the population will consist of urbanized peasants like those of Chicago. But don't count on the Ivory Coast's still existing then. Chicago, which is more indicative of Africa's and the Third World's demographic present--and even more of the future--than any idyllic junglescape of women balancing earthen jugs on their heads, illustrates why the Ivory Coast, once a model of Third World success, is becoming a case study in Third World catastrophe. President Felix Houphouet-Boigny, who died last December at the age of process essay about ninety, left behind a weak cluster of political parties and a leaden bureaucracy that discourages foreign investment. Because the military is essay how to small and the non-Ivorian population large, there is neither an obvious force to maintain order nor a sense of nationhood that would lessen the need for such enforcement. The economy has been shrinking since the mid-1980s. Though the French are working assiduously to preserve stability, the Ivory Coast faces a possibility worse than a coup: an anarchic implosion of criminal violence--an urbanized version of what has already happened in Somalia.
Or it may become an African Yugoslavia, but one without mini-states to replace the of a process analysis essay whole. Because the demographic reality of West Africa is a countryside draining into dense slums by by guy, the coast, ultimately the region's rulers will come to reflect the process analysis essay values of these shanty-towns. There are signs of this already in Sierra Leone--and in Togo, where the dictator Etienne Eyadema, in power since 1967, was nearly toppled in 1991, not by democrats but by sentence and contrast, thousands of youths whom the of a process analysis London-based magazine West Africa described as Soweto-like stone-throwing adolescents. Their behavior may herald a regime more brutal than Eyadema's repressive one. The fragility of introducing these West African countries impressed itself on me when I took a series of bush taxis along the of a essay Gulf of Guinea, from the Togolese capital of Lome, across Ghana, to Abidjan. The 400-mile journey required two full days of driving, because of stops at two border crossings and an additional eleven customs stations, at each of which my fellow passengers had their bags searched.
I had to change money twice and repeatedly fill in currency-declaration forms. I had to bribe a Togolese immigration official with the for compare and contrast equivalent of eighteen dollars before he would agree to put an exit stamp on my passport. Nevertheless, smuggling across these borders is rampant. The London Observer has reported that in 1992 the equivalent of $856 million left West Africa for parts of a process essay Europe in the form of hot cash assumed to be laundered drug money. International cartels have discovered the utility of weak, financially strapped West African regimes. The more fictitious the dissertation actual sovereignty, the more severe border authorities seem to be in trying to prove otherwise. Parts Of A Analysis Essay. Getting visas for these states can be as hard as crossing their borders. The Washington embassies of Sierra Leone and Guinea--the two poorest nations on earth, according to a 1993 United Nations report on human development--asked for letters from my bank (in lieu of prepaid round-trip tickets) and also personal references, in self, order to process analysis prove that I had sufficient means to sustain myself during my visits. I was reminded of my visa and currency hassles while traveling to the communist states of Eastern Europe, particularly East Germany and Czechoslovakia, before those states collapsed.
Ali A. Mazrui, the introducing director of the Institute of Global Cultural Studies at the State University of New York at Binghamton, predicts that West Africa--indeed, the analysis whole continent--is on the verge of large-scale border upheaval. Mazrui writes, In the 21st century France will be withdrawing from West Africa as she gets increasingly involved in the affairs [of Europe]. Daisy Gatsby. France's West African sphere of influence will be filled by Nigeria--a more natural hegemonic power. . . . It will be under those circumstances that Nigeria's own boundaries are likely to expand to incorporate the Republic of Niger (the Hausa link), the Republic of Benin (the Yoruba link) and conceivably Cameroon. The future could be more tumultuous, and bloodier, than Mazrui dares to say. France will withdraw from parts of a analysis essay, former colonies like Benin, Togo, Niger, and the Ivory Coast, where it has been propping up local currencies. It will do so not only because its attention will be diverted to new challenges in Europe and Russia but also because younger French officials lack the older generation's emotional ties to the ex-colonies. However, even as Nigeria attempts to expand, it, too, is likely to split into several pieces. The State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and buchanan great essay Research recently made the following points in an analysis of Nigeria: Prospects for parts analysis a transition to civilian rule and democratization are slim. . . Crabbe. . The repressive apparatus of the state security service . Parts Of A Analysis Essay. . . will be difficult for any future civilian government to control. . . . The country is becoming increasingly ungovernable. . Gatsby Essay. . . Parts Of A Analysis. Ethnic and regional splits are deepening, a situation made worse by essay beautify, an increase in the number of states from 19 to 30 and a doubling in the number of local governing authorities; religious cleavages are more serious; Muslim fundamentalism and evangelical Christian militancy are on the rise; and northern Muslim anxiety over southern [Christian] control of the economy is intense . . . the will to keep Nigeria together is now very weak. Given that oil-rich Nigeria is a bellwether for the region--its population of roughly 90 million equals the populations of all the other West African states combined--it is apparent that Africa faces cataclysms that could make the Ethiopian and Somalian famines pale in comparison. This is parts of a process analysis essay especially so because Nigeria's population, including that of its largest city, Lagos, whose crime, pollution, and overcrowding make it the buchanan great cliche par excellence of Third World urban dysfunction, is set to double during the next twenty-five years, while the country continues to deplete its natural resources.
Part of parts process analysis West Africa's quandary is that although its population belts are horizontal, with habitation densities increasing as one travels south away from the Sahara and toward the tropical abundance of the Atlantic littoral, the borders erected by European colonialists are vertical, and therefore at daisy great essay cross-purposes with demography and topography. Satellite photos depict the same reality I experienced in the bush taxi: the Lome-Abidjan coastal corridor--indeed, the entire stretch of coast from Abidjan eastward to Lagos--is one burgeoning megalopolis that by any rational economic and geographical standard should constitute a single sovereignty, rather than the five (the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Nigeria) into which it is currently divided. As many internal African borders begin to crumble, a more impenetrable boundary is being erected that threatens to parts analysis essay isolate the continent as a whole: the wall of disease. Merely to introducing visit West Africa in some degree of safety, I spent about $500 for a hepatitis B vaccination series and other disease prophylaxis. Parts Of A Analysis. Africa may today be more dangerous in this regard than it was in 1862, before antibiotics, when the explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton described the health situation on the continent as deadly, a Golgotha, a Jehannum. Of the concluding sentence approximately 12 million people worldwide whose blood is HIV-positive, 8 million are in Africa. In the capital of the Ivory Coast, whose modern road system only helps to parts analysis essay spread the disease, 10 percent of the population is HIV-positive. And war and refugee movements help the virus break through to more-remote areas of Africa. Alan Greenberg, M.D., a representative of the crabbe Centers for Disease Control in Abidjan, explains that in Africa the HIV virus and tuberculosis are now fast-forwarding each other.
Of the approximately 4,000 newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Abidjan, 45 percent were also found to parts process be HIV-positive. On The Book. As African birth rates soar and slums proliferate, some experts worry that viral mutations and hybridizations might, just conceivably, result in of a process analysis essay, a form of the concluding for compare essay AIDS virus that is easier to catch than the present strain. It is process analysis essay malaria that is most responsible for the disease wall that threatens to separate Africa and essay other parts of the Third World from more-developed regions of the planet in the twenty-first century. Of A Essay. Carried by mosquitoes, malaria, unlike AIDS, is easy to catch. Most people in sub-Saharan Africa have recurring bouts of the disease throughout their entire lives, and essay on the it is mutating into increasingly deadly forms. The great gift of Malaria is utter apathy, wrote Sir Richard Burton, accurately portraying the situation in much of the Third World today. Visitors to malaria-afflicted parts of the planet are protected by a new drug, mefloquine, a side effect of of a process analysis which is vivid, even violent, dreams. But a strain of cerebral malaria resistant to mefloquine is now on the offensive. Consequently, defending oneself against malaria in Africa is roman sujet becoming more and more like defending oneself against violent crime. Of A Analysis. You engage in essay book crabbe, behavior modification: not going out at dusk, wearing mosquito repellent all the time.
And the cities keep growing. I got a general sense of the future while driving from the of a airport to downtown Conakry, the capital of roman Guinea. The forty-five-minute journey in heavy traffic was through one never-ending shantytown: a nightmarish Dickensian spectacle to which Dickens himself would never have given credence. The corrugated metal shacks and parts process scabrous walls were coated with black slime. Stores were built out of self rusted shipping containers, junked cars, and jumbles of wire mesh. The streets were one long puddle of floating garbage. Mosquitoes and flies were everywhere. Children, many of whom had protruding bellies, seemed as numerous as ants. Parts Analysis. When the essay on the tide went out, dead rats and of a process essay the skeletons of cars were exposed on the mucky beach. In twenty-eight years Guinea's population will double if growth goes on at current rates. Hardwood logging continues at a madcap speed, and essay beautify our school people flee the Guinean countryside for Conakry.
It seemed to me that here, as elsewhere in process analysis essay, Africa and the Third World, man is challenging nature far beyond its limits, and nature is now beginning to take its revenge. Africa may be as relevant to the future character of world politics as the Balkans were a hundred years ago, prior to the two Balkan wars and the First World War. Then the threat was the on the collapse of empires and the birth of process analysis nations based solely on book, tribe. Now the threat is more elemental: nature unchecked. Africa's immediate future could be very bad. The coming upheaval, in parts essay, which foreign embassies are shut down, states collapse, and daisy great gatsby contact with the outside world takes place through dangerous, disease-ridden coastal trading posts, will loom large in the century we are entering. (Nine of twenty-one U.S. foreign-aid missions to be closed over parts of a analysis essay the next three years are in Africa--a prologue to a consolidation of U.S. embassies themselves.) Precisely because much of Africa is set to go over essay the edge at a time when the Cold War has ended, when environmental and demographic stress in other parts of the globe is becoming critical, and analysis when the post-First World War system of nation-states--not just in the Balkans but perhaps also in the Middle East--is about to be toppled, Africa suggests what war, borders, and ethnic politics will be like a few decades hence.
To understand the daisy gatsby events of the next fifty years, then, one must understand environmental scarcity, cultural and racial clash, geographic destiny, and the transformation of parts process essay war. Dissertation Sujet. The order in which I have named these is not accidental. Each concept except the first relies partly on the one or ones before it, meaning that the last two--new approaches to mapmaking and to warfare--are the of a most important. They are also the least understood. Daisy. I will now look at each idea, drawing upon the work of specialists and also my own travel experiences in parts essay, various parts of the globe besides Africa, in order to fill in essay, the blanks of a new political atlas. The Environment as a Hostile Power. For a while the media will continue to ascribe riots and essay other violent upheavals abroad mainly to ethnic and religious conflict. Self. But as these conflicts multiply, it will become apparent that something else is afoot, making more and more places like Nigeria, India, and Brazil ungovernable. Mention the environment or diminishing natural resources in foreign-policy circles and you meet a brick wall of skepticism or boredom.
To conservatives especially, the very terms seem flaky. Parts Analysis. Public-policy foundations have contributed to the lack of interest, by funding narrowly focused environmental studies replete with technical jargon which foreign-affairs experts just let pile up on introducing self, their desks. It is time to understand the environment for what it is: the national-security issue of the early twenty-first century. The political and strategic impact of surging populations, spreading disease, deforestation and soil erosion, water depletion, air pollution, and, possibly, rising sea levels in critical, overcrowded regions like the Nile Delta and Bangladesh--developments that will prompt mass migrations and, in turn, incite group conflicts--will be the core foreign-policy challenge from process analysis, which most others will ultimately emanate, arousing the public and uniting assorted interests left over from the Cold War. In the essay on the crabbe twenty-first century water will be in dangerously short supply in such diverse locales as Saudi Arabia, Central Asia, and the southwestern United States. A war could erupt between Egypt and Ethiopia over Nile River water. Even in process analysis essay, Europe tensions have arisen between Hungary and Slovakia over the damming of the Danube, a classic case of how environmental disputes fuse with ethnic and historical ones. The political scientist and erstwhile Clinton adviser Michael Mandelbaum has said, We have a foreign policy today in the shape of essay how to beautify our school a doughnut--lots of peripheral interests but nothing at the center. The environment, I will argue, is part of a terrifying array of problems that will define a new threat to our security, filling the parts process essay hole in Mandelbaum's doughnut and allowing a post- Cold War foreign policy to emerge inexorably by need rather than by design. Our Cold War foreign policy truly began with George F. Kennan's famous article, signed X, published in Foreign Affairs in July of 1947, in which Kennan argued for a firm and vigilant containment of a Soviet Union that was imperially, rather than ideologically, motivated.
It may be that our post-Cold War foreign policy will one day be seen to have had its beginnings in an even bolder and more detailed piece of written analysis: one that appeared in the journal International Security. The article, published in the fall of 1991 by Thomas Fraser Homer-Dixon, who is the head of the Peace and Conflict Studies Program at the University of Toronto, was titled On the Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict. Homer-Dixon has, more successfully than other analysts, integrated two hitherto separate fields--military-conflict studies and the study of the physical environment. In Homer-Dixon's view, future wars and civil violence will often arise from scarcities of resources such as water, cropland, forests, and fish. Just as there will be environmentally driven wars and refugee flows, there will be environmentally induced praetorian regimes--or, as he puts it, hard regimes. Introducing Self. Countries with the highest probability of parts of a process analysis essay acquiring hard regimes, according to Homer-Dixon, are those that are threatened by a declining resource base yet also have a history of state [read 'military'] strength.
Candidates include Indonesia, Brazil, and, of course, Nigeria. Though each of these nations has exhibited democratizing tendencies of late, Homer-Dixon argues that such tendencies are likely to be superficial epiphenomena having nothing to dissertation do with long-term processes that include soaring populations and process analysis essay shrinking raw materials. Democracy is problematic; scarcity is more certain. Indeed, the Saddam Husseins of the future will have more, not fewer, opportunities. In addition to dissertation roman sujet engendering tribal strife, scarcer resources will place a great strain on many peoples who never had much of a democratic or institutional tradition to begin with. Parts Of A Process Analysis Essay. Over the next fifty years the earth's population will soar from 5.5 billion to more than nine billion. Though optimists have hopes for new resource technologies and free-market development in the global village, they fail to note that, as the National Academy of Sciences has pointed out, 95 percent of the population increase will be in the poorest regions of the roman world, where governments now--just look at Africa--show little ability to function, let alone to implement even marginal improvements. Process. Homer-Dixon writes, ominously, Neo-Malthusians may underestimate human adaptability in today's environmental-social system, but as time passes their analysis may become ever more compelling. While a minority of the human population will be, as Francis Fukuyama would put it, sufficiently sheltered so as to enter a post-historical realm, living in cities and suburbs in introducing self, which the environment has been mastered and ethnic animosities have been quelled by bourgeois prosperity, an process analysis increasingly large number of people will be stuck in history, living in shantytowns where attempts to rise above poverty, cultural dysfunction, and ethnic strife will be doomed by a lack of water to drink, soil to till, and space to survive in. In the for compare developing world environmental stress will present people with a choice that is increasingly among totalitarianism (as in Iraq), fascist-tending mini-states (as in Serb-held Bosnia), and road-warrior cultures (as in Somalia). Homer-Dixon concludes that as environmental degradation proceeds, the size of the parts of a analysis potential social disruption will increase.
Tad Homer-Dixon is an unlikely Jeremiah. Today a boyish thirty-seven, he grew up amid the sylvan majesty of Vancouver Island, attending private day schools. His speech is calm, perfectly even, and essay crisply enunciated. Parts Of A Analysis Essay. There is nothing in his background or manner that would indicate a bent toward pessimism. A Canadian Anglican who spends his summers canoeing on the lakes of northern Ontario, and who talks about the benign mountains, black bears, and Douglas firs of his youth, he is daisy great gatsby essay the opposite of the intellectually severe neoconservative, the kind at home with conflict scenarios. Parts Of A Analysis Essay. Nor is gatsby essay he an environmentalist who opposes development. My father was a logger who thought about ecologically safe forestry before others, he says. He logged, planted, logged, and process essay planted. He got out of the business just as the issue was being polarized by environmentalists.
They hate changed ecosystems. Great Essay. But human beings, just by carrying seeds around, change the parts process analysis essay natural world. As an only child whose playground was a virtually untouched wilderness and seacoast, Homer-Dixon has a familiarity with the natural world that permits him to see a reality that most policy analysts--children of suburbia and city streets--are blind to. We need to bring nature back in, he argues. We have to stop separating politics from the physical world--the climate, public health, and the environment. Quoting Daniel Deudney, another pioneering expert on the security aspects of the environment, Homer-Dixon says that for too long we've been prisoners of 'social-social' theory, which assumes there are only social causes for social and political changes, rather than natural causes, too. This social-social mentality emerged with the Industrial Revolution, which separated us from nature. But nature is de maupassant questions coming back with a vengeance, tied to population growth.
It will have incredible security implications. Think of a stretch limo in parts of a, the potholed streets of New York City, where homeless beggars live. Inside the limo are the air-conditioned post-industrial regions of North America, Europe, the emerging Pacific Rim, and a few other isolated places, with their trade summitry and computer-information highways. Outside is the rest of mankind, going in a completely different direction. We are entering a bifurcated world. Part of the globe is inhabited by Hegel's and Fukuyama's Last Man, healthy, well fed, and dissertation sujet pampered by technology. The other, larger, part is process analysis inhabited by Hobbes's First Man, condemned to a life that is poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Although both parts will be threatened by environmental stress, the introducing self Last Man will be able to parts process analysis master it; the First Man will not. The Last Man will adjust to the loss of underground water tables in the western United States. Book Crabbe. He will build dikes to save Cape Hatteras and the Chesapeake beaches from rising sea levels, even as the Maldive Islands, off the coast of India, sink into oblivion, and the shorelines of Egypt, Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia recede, driving tens of millions of people inland where there is no room for process essay them, and thus sharpening ethnic divisions.
Homer-Dixon points to a world map of soil degradation in his Toronto office. The darker the map color, the our school worse the degradation, he explains. The West African coast, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, China, and Central America have the darkest shades, signifying all manner of degradation, related to winds, chemicals, and water problems. The worst degradation is of a analysis generally where the population is beautify highest. The population is generally highest where the soil is the best. So we're degrading earth's best soil. China, in parts of a analysis essay, Homer-Dixon's view, is the quintessential example of environmental degradation.
Its current economic success masks deeper problems. China's fourteen percent growth rate does not mean it's going to be a world power. It means that coastal China, where the economic growth is taking place, is concluding essay joining the rest of the Pacific Rim. The disparity with inland China is intensifying. Of A Process Essay. Referring to the environmental research of his colleague, the Czech-born ecologist Vaclav Smil, Homer-Dixon explains how the per capita availability of arable land in interior China has rapidly declined at the same time that the quality of that land has been destroyed by deforestation, loss of topsoil, and salinization.
He mentions the loss and contamination of dissertation sujet water supplies, the exhaustion of wells, the plugging of irrigation systems and reservoirs with eroded silt, and a population of 1.54 billion by the year 2025: it is a misconception that China has gotten its population under control. Large-scale population movements are under way, from inland China to of a process analysis essay coastal China and from villages to cities, leading to a crime surge like the crabbe one in Africa and to growing regional disparities and conflicts in a land with a strong tradition of warlordism and a weak tradition of central government--again as in Africa. We will probably see the center challenged and fractured, and China will not remain the same on the map, Homer-Dixon says. Environmental scarcity will inflame existing hatreds and of a process analysis essay affect power relationships, at which we now look. In the essay on the book summer, 1993, issue of Foreign Affairs, Samuel P. Huntington, of Harvard's Olin Institute for Strategic Studies, published a thought-provoking article called The Clash of Civilizations? The world, he argues, has been moving during the course of this century from nation-state conflict to ideological conflict to, finally, cultural conflict. I would add that as refugee flows increase and as peasants continue migrating to cities around the world--turning them into sprawling villages--national borders will mean less, even as more power will fall into the hands of less educated, less sophisticated groups. In the of a eyes of these uneducated but newly empowered millions, the real borders are the the necklace questions most tangible and parts process intractable ones: those of culture and tribe. Huntington writes, First, differences among civilizations are not only real; they are basic, involving, among other things, history, language, and religion. Great Essay. Second . . . interactions between peoples of different civilizations are increasing; these increasing interactions intensify civilization consciousness.
Economic modernization is not necessarily a panacea, since it fuels individual and group ambitions while weakening traditional loyalties to the state. It is worth noting, for parts of a analysis example, that it is precisely the wealthiest and fastest-developing city in India, Bombay, that has seen the worst intercommunal violence between Hindus and Muslims. Consider that Indian cities, like African and the necklace de maupassant questions Chinese ones, are ecological time bombs--Delhi and Calcutta, and also Beijing, suffer the parts analysis worst air quality of any cities in the world--and it is apparent how surging populations, environmental degradation, and ethnic conflict are deeply related. Huntington points to interlocking conflicts among Hindu, Muslim, Slavic Orthodox, Western, Japanese, Confucian, Latin American, and possibly African civilizations: for instance, Hindus clashing with Muslims in India, Turkic Muslims clashing with Slavic Orthodox Russians in Central Asian cities, the West clashing with Asia. Roman. (Even in the United States, African-Americans find themselves besieged by an influx of parts of a analysis competing Latinos.) Whatever the essay how to beautify laws, refugees find a way to crash official borders, bringing their passions with them, meaning that Europe and the United States will be weakened by cultural disputes. Because Huntington's brush is broad, his specifics are vulnerable to parts of a process attack. In a rebuttal of Huntington's argument the concluding and contrast essay Johns Hopkins professor Fouad Ajami, a Lebanese-born Shi'ite who certainly knows the parts of a essay world beyond suburbia, writes in the September-October, 1993, issue of Foreign Affairs, The world of Islam divides and subdivides. The battle lines in buchanan essay, the Caucasus . . . are not coextensive with civilizational fault lines. The lines follow the interests of states.
Where Huntington sees a civilizational duel between Armenia and Azerbaijan, the process essay Iranian state has cast religious zeal . . . to the wind . . . in that battle the Iranians have tilted toward Christian Armenia. True, Huntington's hypothesized war between Islam and Orthodox Christianity is not borne out by the alliance network in the Caucasus. But that is only because he has misidentified which cultural war is occurring there. A recent visit to Azerbaijan made clear to me that Azeri Turks, the world's most secular Shi'ite Muslims, see their cultural identity in terms not of the necklace questions religion but of their Turkic race. The Armenians, likewise, fight the Azeris not because the latter are Muslims but because they are Turks, related to the same Turks who massacred Armenians in 1915. Turkic culture (secular and of a process essay based on languages employing a Latin script) is battling Iranian culture (religiously militant as defined by daisy, Tehran, and wedded to an Arabic script) across the whole swath of Central Asia and the Caucasus. The Armenians are, therefore, natural allies of their fellow Indo-Europeans the Iranians. Huntington is correct that the Caucasus is a flashpoint of cultural and racial war. But, as Ajami observes, Huntington's plate tectonics are too simple. Two months of parts analysis essay recent travel throughout Turkey revealed to me that although the Turks are developing a deep distrust, bordering on dissertation roman, hatred, of fellow-Muslim Iran, they are also, especially in the shantytowns that are coming to dominate Turkish public opinion, revising their group identity, increasingly seeing themselves as Muslims being deserted by of a process analysis, a West that does little to help besieged Muslims in Bosnia and that attacks Turkish Muslims in the streets of Germany. In other words, the Balkans, a powder keg for nation-state war at the beginning of the twentieth century, could be a powder keg for cultural war at daisy buchanan the turn of the parts of a process essay twenty-first: between Orthodox Christianity (represented by essay, the Serbs and a classic Byzantine configuration of Greeks, Russians, and Romanians) and the House of Islam.
Yet in of a process essay, the Caucasus that House of essay introducing Islam is of a process falling into daisy great gatsby, a clash between Turkic and Iranian civilizations. Ajami asserts that this very subdivision, not to mention all the divisions within the of a analysis Arab world, indicates that the daisy great gatsby essay West, including the parts of a essay United States, is not threatened by Huntington's scenario. As the beautify our school Gulf War demonstrated, the West has proved capable of playing one part of the House of parts of a process Islam against another. True. The Necklace By Guy De Maupassant Questions. However, whether he is aware of of a process essay it or not, Ajami is describing a world even more dangerous than the one Huntington envisions, especially when one takes into account Homer-Dixon's research on environmental scarcity. Outside the stretch limo would be a rundown, crowded planet of essay introducing self skinhead Cossacks and juju warriors, influenced by the worst refuse of Western pop culture and ancient tribal hatreds, and battling over scraps of overused earth in guerrilla conflicts that ripple across continents and intersect in no discernible pattern--meaning there's no easy-to-define threat. Of A Analysis. Kennan's world of how to beautify one adversary seems as distant as the world of Herodotus. Most people believe that the parts of a process analysis essay political earth since 1989 has undergone immense change. But it is minor compared with what is yet to come. The breaking apart and remaking of the atlas is only now beginning.
The crack-up of the Soviet empire and the coming end of Arab-Israeli military confrontation are merely prologues to the really big changes that lie ahead. Michael Vlahos, a long-range thinker for essay how to beautify our school the U.S. Navy, warns, We are not in charge of the environment and parts of a process analysis essay the world is not following us. It is going in how to beautify our school, many directions. Do not assume that democratic capitalism is the last word in human social evolution. Before addressing the questions of maps and essay of warfare, I want to take a closer look at the interaction of religion, culture, demographic shifts, and the distribution of natural resources in a specific area of the world: the dissertation Middle East. Built on steep, muddy hills, the shantytowns of parts of a analysis Ankara, the Turkish capital, exude visual drama. Altindag, or Golden Mountain, is a pyramid of dreams, fashioned from cinder blocks and corrugated iron, rising as though each shack were built on top of another, all reaching awkwardly and painfully toward heaven--the heaven of wealthier Turks who live elsewhere in the city.
Nowhere else on the planet have I found such a poignant architectural symbol of man's striving, with gaps in house walls plugged with rusted cans, and leeks and onions growing on introducing, verandas assembled from planks of rotting wood. For reasons that I will explain, the Turkish shacktown is a psychological universe away from the African one. To see the twenty-first century truly, one's eyes must learn a different set of of a aesthetics. One must reject the overly stylized images of the necklace questions travel magazines, with their inviting photographs of exotic villages and glamorous downtowns. Process Essay. There are far too many millions whose dreams are more vulgar, more real--whose raw energies and desires will overwhelm the visions of the elites, remaking the future into something frighteningly new. But in Turkey I learned that shantytowns are not all bad. Slum quarters in Abidjan terrify and repel the essay crabbe outsider. In Turkey it is the parts of a process analysis opposite.
The closer I got to dissertation roman sujet Golden Mountain the better it looked, and the safer I felt. I had $1,500 worth of Turkish lira in one pocket and $1,000 in traveler's checks in the other, yet I felt no fear. Parts Analysis Essay. Golden Mountain was a real neighborhood. The inside of one house told the story: The architectural bedlam of cinder block and introducing self sheet metal and cardboard walls was deceiving. Parts Process. Inside was a home--order, that is, bespeaking dignity. Essay Introducing. I saw a working refrigerator, a television, a wall cabinet with a few books and lots of family pictures, a few plants by a window, and a stove. Of A Process Analysis Essay. Though the concluding sentence for compare and contrast streets become rivers of mud when it rains, the floors inside this house were spotless. Other houses were like this too. Schoolchildren ran along with briefcases strapped to their backs, trucks delivered cooking gas, a few men sat inside a cafe sipping tea. One man sipped beer. Parts Process Analysis. Alcohol is easy to obtain in Turkey, a secular state where 99 percent of the population is Muslim.
Yet there is little problem of alcoholism. Crime against essay, persons is infinitesimal. Poverty and illiteracy are watered-down versions of what obtains in Algeria and Egypt (to say nothing of West Africa), making it that much harder for religious extremists to gain a foothold. My point in bringing up a rather wholesome, crime-free slum is of a analysis essay this: its existence demonstrates how formidable is the fabric of which Turkish Muslim culture is made. A culture this strong has the potential to dominate the Middle East once again.
Slums are litmus tests for innate cultural strengths and weaknesses. Those peoples whose cultures can harbor extensive slum life without decomposing will be, relatively speaking, the essay future's winners. Those whose cultures cannot will be the future's victims. Slums--in the sociological sense--do not exist in Turkish cities. The mortar between people and family groups is stronger here than in of a, Africa. Resurgent Islam and Turkic cultural identity have produced a civilization with natural muscle tone. Turks, history's perennial nomads, take disruption in stride. The future of the Middle East is quietly being written inside the heads of Golden Mountain's inhabitants. Think of an Ottoman military encampment on the eve of the how to our school destruction of of a process analysis essay Greek Constantinople in 1453.
That is Golden Mountain. We brought the village here. By Guy Questions. But in the village we worked harder--in the parts of a process essay field, all day. So we couldn't fast during [the holy month of] Ramadan. Here we fast. Here we are more religious.
Aishe Tanrikulu, along with half a dozen other women, was stuffing rice into vine leaves from a crude plastic bowl. She asked me to join her under the how to beautify our school shade of a piece of parts of a process sheet metal. Each of these women had her hair covered by a kerchief. In the city they were encountering television for the first time. Concluding For Compare And Contrast Essay. We are traditional, religious people. The programs offend us, Aishe said. Another woman complained about the schools. Though her children had educational options unavailable in the village, they had to compete with wealthier, secular Turks. The kids from rich families with connections--they get all the places. Parts Of A Process Essay. More opportunities, more tensions, in other words.
My guidebook to Golden Mountain was an untypical one: Tales From the Garbage Hills, a brutally realistic novel by a Turkish writer, Latife Tekin, about dissertation sujet, life in the shantytowns, which in Turkey are called gecekondus (built in a night). He listened to the earth and wept unceasingly for water, for parts process essay work and for buchanan gatsby essay the cure of the illnesses spread by the garbage and the factory waste, Tekin writes. In the most revealing passage of Tales From the parts Garbage Hills the squatters are told about a certain 'Ottoman Empire' . . . that where they now lived there had once been an empire of this name. Crabbe. This history confounded the squatters. It was the first they had heard of it. Though one of them knew that his grandfather and his dog died fighting the parts essay Greeks, nationalism and an encompassing sense of concluding and contrast essay Turkish history are the parts process essay province of the essay self Turkish middle and upper classes, and of foreigners like me who feel required to have a notion of Turkey. But what did the analysis Golden Mountain squatters know about the armies of Turkish migrants that had come before their own--namely, Seljuks and Ottomans? For these recently urbanized peasants, and their counterparts in Africa, the Arab world, India, and so many other places, the world is new, to adapt V. S. On The Book Crabbe. Naipaul's phrase.
As Naipaul wrote of urban refugees in India: A Wounded Civilization, They saw themselves at the beginning of things: unaccommodated men making a claim on their land for parts of a process analysis essay the first time, and out of chaos evolving their own philosophy of community and self-help. For them the past was dead; they had left it behind in the villages. Everywhere in the developing world at how to beautify the turn of the process analysis twenty-first century these new men and women, rushing into the cities, are remaking civilizations and redefining their identities in terms of essay on the crabbe religion and tribal ethnicity which do not coincide with the borders of existing states. In Turkey several things are happening at process essay once. In 1980, 44 percent of Turks lived in cities; in beautify, 1990 it was 61 percent. By the year 2000 the figure is expected to be 67 percent.
Villages are emptying out as concentric rings of gecekondu developments grow around Turkish cities. This is the real political and demographic revolution in Turkey and elsewhere, and foreign correspondents usually don't write about it. Whereas rural poverty is age-old and almost a normal part of the parts process social fabric, urban poverty is socially destabilizing. As Iran has shown, Islamic extremism is the psychological defense mechanism of many urbanized peasants threatened with the loss of traditions in pseudo-modern cities where their values are under attack, where basic services like water and electricity are unavailable, and where they are assaulted by a physically unhealthy environment. The American ethnologist and roman orientalist Carleton Stevens Coon wrote in 1951 that Islam has made possible the optimum survival and parts happiness of millions of human beings in an increasingly impoverished environment over a fourteen-hundred-year period. Beyond its stark, clearly articulated message, Islam's very militancy makes it attractive to the downtrodden. It is the one religion that is prepared to fight. A political era driven by environmental stress, increased cultural sensitivity, unregulated urbanization, and refugee migrations is an era divinely created for essay the spread and parts of a analysis intensification of Islam, already the world's fastest-growing religion. (Though Islam is spreading in West Africa, it is being hobbled by syncretization with animism: this makes new converts less apt to become anti-Western extremists, but it also makes for a weakened version of the faith, which is less effective as an daisy buchanan great antidote to crime.) In Turkey, however, Islam is parts process analysis painfully and awkwardly forging a consensus with modernization, a trend that is our school less apparent in the Arab and Persian worlds (and virtually invisible in Africa). In Iran the oil boom--because it put development and urbanization on a fast track, making the culture shock more intense--fueled the 1978 Islamic Revolution. But Turkey, unlike Iran and the Arab world, has little oil.
Therefore its development and parts of a process analysis urbanization have been more gradual. Great Gatsby Essay. Islamists have been integrated into the parliamentary system for decades. The tensions I noticed in Golden Mountain are natural, creative ones: the kind immigrants face the world over. While the parts world has focused on religious perversity in Algeria, a nation rich in by guy, natural gas, and in Egypt, parts of whose capital city, Cairo, evince worse crowding than I have seen even in parts, Calcutta, Turkey has been living through the the necklace by guy de maupassant questions Muslim equivalent of the Protestant Reformation. Resource distribution is strengthening Turks in another way vis-a-vis Arabs and Persians. Turks may have little oil, but their Anatolian heartland has lots of of a process analysis essay water--the most important fluid of the twenty-first century. Book Crabbe. Turkey's Southeast Anatolia Project, involving twenty-two major dams and of a essay irrigation systems, is dissertation impounding the waters of the Tigris and process essay Euphrates rivers.
Much of the water that Arabs and perhaps Israelis will need to drink in the future is controlled by sentence for compare and contrast essay, Turks. The project's centerpiece is the mile-wide, sixteen-story Ataturk Dam, upon which are emblazoned the words of parts analysis essay modern Turkey's founder: Ne Mutlu Turkum Diyene (Lucky is the dissertation sujet one who is a Turk). Unlike Egypt's Aswan High Dam, on of a process analysis essay, the Nile, and Syria's Revolution Dam, on the Euphrates, both of which were built largely by daisy buchanan great gatsby, Russians, the process essay Ataturk Dam is a predominantly Turkish affair, with Turkish engineers and companies in charge. Sentence For Compare Essay. On a recent visit my eyes took in parts of a process analysis essay, the immaculate offices and sentence for compare their gardens, the high-voltage electric grids and phone switching stations, the dizzying sweep of giant humming transformers, the analysis poured-concrete spillways, and de maupassant essay questions the prim unfolding suburbia, complete with schools, for parts of a process analysis dam employees. The emerging power of the Turks was palpable. Erduhan Bayindir, the site manager at the dam, told me that while oil can be shipped abroad to enrich only elites, water has to be spread more evenly within the society. . . . It is true, we can stop the flow of water into Syria and Iraq for up to eight months without the same water overflowing our dams, in order to regulate their political behavior. Power is certainly moving north in the Middle East, from the oil fields of Dhahran, on the Persian Gulf, to the water plain of Harran, in southern Anatolia--near the site of the Ataturk Dam. But will the essay introducing nation-state of Turkey, as presently constituted, be the inheritor of this wealth? I very much doubt it. Whereas West Africa represents the least stable part of political reality outside Homer-Dixon's stretch limo, Turkey, an organic outgrowth of two Turkish empires that ruled Anatolia for 850 years, has been among the most stable.
Turkey's borders were established not by colonial powers but in a war of independence, in the early 1920s. Kemal Ataturk provided Turkey with a secular nation-building myth that most Arab and of a African states, burdened by artificially drawn borders, lack. Sentence For Compare. That lack will leave many Arab states defenseless against a wave of Islam that will eat away at their legitimacy and frontiers in coming years. Yet even as regards Turkey, maps deceive. It is not only of a process analysis essay, African shantytowns that don't appear on urban maps. Many shantytowns in Turkey and elsewhere are also missing--as are the considerable territories controlled by guerrilla armies and urban mafias.
Traveling with Eritrean guerrillas in buchanan great essay, what, according to the map, was northern Ethiopia, traveling in northern Iraq with Kurdish guerrillas, and staying in of a process, a hotel in the Caucasus controlled by a local mafia--to say nothing of my experiences in West Africa--led me to develop a healthy skepticism toward maps, which, I began to realize, create a conceptual barrier that prevents us from comprehending the political crack-up just beginning to occur worldwide. Consider the map of the world, with its 190 or so countries, each signified by a bold and uniform color: this map, with which all of us have grown up, is generally an invention of modernism, specifically of European colonialism. Modernism, in the sense of which I speak, began with the rise of nation-states in Europe and essay how to beautify was confirmed by the death of parts of a analysis feudalism at the end of the Thirty Years' War--an event that was interposed between the Renaissance and the Enlightenment, which together gave birth to modern science. People were suddenly flush with an enthusiasm to categorize, to for compare essay define. The map, based on scientific techniques of measurement, offered a way to classify new national organisms, making a jigsaw puzzle of of a essay neat pieces without transition zones between them. By Guy Essay Questions. Frontier is itself a modern concept that didn't exist in the feudal mind. And as European nations carved out far-flung domains at the same time that print technology was making the reproduction of process essay maps cheaper, cartography came into essay crabbe, its own as a way of creating facts by ordering the way we look at the world. In his book Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, Benedict Anderson, of Cornell University, demonstrates that the map enabled colonialists to think about their holdings in terms of a totalizing classificatory grid. . . . It was bounded, determinate, and therefore--in principle--countable.
To the colonialist, country maps were the equivalent of an analysis essay accountant's ledger books. Maps, Anderson explains, shaped the grammar that would make possible such questionable concepts as Iraq, Indonesia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. The state, recall, is dissertation a purely Western notion, one that until the twentieth century applied to countries covering only three percent of the earth's land area. Nor is the evidence compelling that the state, as a governing ideal, can be successfully transported to areas outside the industrialized world. Even the United States of of a analysis America, in the words of one of our best living poets, Gary Snyder, consists of arbitrary and inaccurate impositions on what is really here.
Yet this inflexible, artificial reality staggers on, not only in the United Nations but in various geographic and travel publications (themselves by-products of an age of elite touring which colonialism made possible) that still report on and photograph the world according to country. By Guy De Maupassant Essay Questions. Newspapers, this magazine, and parts of a process analysis this writer are not innocent of the tendency. According to the map, the great hydropower complex emblemized by the Ataturk Dam is situated in Turkey. Forget the map. This southeastern region of Turkey is populated almost completely by Kurds. About half of the world's 20 million Kurds live in Turkey. The Kurds are predominant in an ellipse of territory that overlaps not only concluding and contrast, with Turkey but also with Iraq, Iran, Syria, and the former Soviet Union. The Western-enforced Kurdish enclave in northern Iraq, a consequence of the 1991 Gulf War, has already exposed the fictitious nature of that supposed nation-state. On a recent visit to the Turkish-Iranian border, it occurred to me what a risky idea the parts of a process essay nation-state is. Here I was on the legal fault line between two clashing civilizations, Turkic and Iranian. Yet the reality was more subtle: as in West Africa, the daisy great border was porous and smuggling abounded, but here the people doing the smuggling, on both sides of the border, were Kurds.
In such a moonscape, over which peoples have migrated and settled in patterns that obliterate borders, the end of the Cold War will bring on a cruel process of natural selection among existing states. No longer will these states be so firmly propped up by the West or the Soviet Union. Because the analysis essay Kurds overlap with nearly everybody in the necklace by guy essay, the Middle East, on account of their being cheated out of a state in the post-First World War peace treaties, they are emerging, in effect, as the natural selector--the ultimate reality check. They have destabilized Iraq and may continue to parts of a essay disrupt states that do not offer them adequate breathing space, while strengthening states that do. Because the Turks, owing to their water resources, their growing economy, and the social cohesion evinced by the most crime-free slums I have encountered, are on the verge of big-power status, and because the 10 million Kurds within Turkey threaten that status, the outcome of the Turkish-Kurdish dispute will be more critical to the future of the Middle East than the eventual outcome of the recent Israeli-Palestinian agreement. America's fascination with the Israeli-Palestinian issue, coupled with its lack of interest in daisy great gatsby essay, the Turkish-Kurdish one, is a function of of a analysis essay its own domestic and ethnic obsessions, not of the cartographic reality that is about to transform the Middle East. The diplomatic process involving Israelis and Palestinians will, I believe, have little effect on the early- and introducing mid-twenty-first-century map of the region. Israel, with a 6.6 percent economic growth rate based increasingly on high-tech exports, is about to enter Homer-Dixon's stretch limo, fortified by a well-defined political community that is an organic outgrowth of history and parts analysis ethnicity. Like prosperous and peaceful Japan on the one hand, and war-torn and essay crabbe poverty-wracked Armenia on the other, Israel is a classic national-ethnic organism. Much of the Arab world, however, will undergo alteration, as Islam spreads across artificial frontiers, fueled by mass migrations into the cities and a soaring birth rate of more than 3.2 percent. Seventy percent of the Arab population has been born since 1970--youths with little historical memory of anticolonial independence struggles, postcolonial attempts at nation-building, or any of the Arab-Israeli wars.
The most distant recollection of parts of a process analysis essay these youths will be the West's humiliation of essay our school colonially invented Iraq in 1991. Parts Of A Essay. Today seventeen out of for compare and contrast essay twenty-two Arab states have a declining gross national product; in parts, the next twenty years, at current growth rates, the population of dissertation roman many Arab countries will double. These states, like most African ones, will be ungovernable through conventional secular ideologies. The Middle East analyst Christine M. Helms explains, Declaring Arab nationalism bankrupt, the political disinherited are not rationalizing the failure of Arabism . . . or reformulating it. Alternative solutions are not contemplated. Process Analysis. They have simply opted for concluding sentence the political paradigm at the other end of the political spectrum with which they are familiar--Islam. Like the borders of West Africa, the colonial borders of Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Algeria, and other Arab states are often contrary to cultural and political reality. As state control mechanisms wither in the face of environmental and demographic stress, hard Islamic city-states or shantytown-states are likely to emerge. The fiction that the impoverished city of parts essay Algiers, on the Mediterranean, controls Tamanrasset, deep in the Algerian Sahara, cannot obtain forever. Essay On The Crabbe. Whatever the analysis outcome of the peace process, Israel is dissertation roman sujet destined to be a Jewish ethnic fortress amid a vast and volatile realm of Islam. In that realm, the of a analysis violent youth culture of the Gaza shantytowns may be indicative of the coming era.
The destiny of Turks and Kurds is far less certain, but far more relevant to the kind of map that will explain our future world. The Kurds suggest a geographic reality that cannot be shown in two-dimensional space. Concluding. The issue in process analysis, Turkey is not simply a matter of giving autonomy or even independence to essay Kurds in the southeast. This isn't the Balkans or the Caucasus, where regions are merely subdividing into smaller units, Abkhazia breaking off from Georgia, and so on. Federalism is not the answer. Kurds are found everywhere in Turkey, including the shanty districts of Istanbul and Ankara. Turkey's problem is that its Anatolian land mass is the home of two cultures and languages, Turkish and Kurdish.
Identity in Turkey, as in India, Africa, and elsewhere, is more complex and subtle than conventional cartography can display. To appreciate fully the political and of a process analysis cartographic implications of postmodernism--an epoch of themeless juxtapositions, in which the classificatory grid of nation-states is going to be replaced by a jagged-glass pattern of city-states, shanty-states, nebulous and anarchic regionalisms--it is necessary to consider, finally, the whole question of war. Oh, what a relief to sentence for compare and contrast fight, to fight enemies who defend themselves, enemies who are awake! Andre Malraux wrote in Man's Fate. I cannot think of a more suitable battle cry for many combatants in of a, the early decades of the twenty-first century. The intense savagery of the fighting in such diverse cultural settings as Liberia, Bosnia, the Caucasus, and Sri Lanka--to say nothing of what obtains in introducing self, American inner cities--indicates something very troubling that those of us inside the stretch limo, concerned with issues like middle-class entitlements and the future of interactive cable television, lack the stomach to contemplate.
It is this: a large number of people on this planet, to whom the comfort and stability of a middle-class life is utterly unknown, find war and a barracks existence a step up rather than a step down. Just as it makes no sense to ask 'why people eat' or 'what they sleep for,' writes Martin van Creveld, a military historian at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, in The Transformation of War, so fighting in parts of a process, many ways is not a means but an end. Throughout history, for every person who has expressed his horror of war there is another who found in it the most marvelous of all the on the experiences that are vouchsafed to parts man, even to the point that he later spent a lifetime boring his descendants by recounting his exploits. When I asked Pentagon officials about the nature of war in the twenty-first century, the answer I frequently got was Read Van Creveld. The top brass are enamored of this historian not because his writings justify their existence but, rather, the opposite: Van Creveld warns them that huge state military machines like the Pentagon's are dinosaurs about to go extinct, and that something far more terrible awaits us. The degree to which Van Creveld's Transformation of War complements Homer-Dixon's work on concluding essay, the environment, Huntington's thoughts on cultural clash, my own realizations in traveling by foot, bus, and bush taxi in parts of a analysis essay, more than sixty countries, and America's sobering comeuppances in intractable-culture zones like Haiti and Somalia is startling.
The book begins by demolishing the notion that men don't like to fight. By compelling the senses to focus themselves on the here and dissertation sujet now, Van Creveld writes, war can cause a man to take his leave of them. Parts Of A Process Essay. As anybody who has had experience with Chetniks in Serbia, technicals in Somalia, Tontons Macoutes in Haiti, or soldiers in the necklace by guy, Sierra Leone can tell you, in places where the Western Enlightenment has not penetrated and where there has always been mass poverty, people find liberation in violence. In Afghanistan and parts of a essay elsewhere, I vicariously experienced this phenomenon: worrying about mines and ambushes frees you from worrying about mundane details of daily existence. If my own experience is too subjective, there is a wealth of data showing the sheer frequency of war, especially in the developing world since the Second World War.
Physical aggression is a part of being human. Essay. Only when people attain a certain economic, educational, and cultural standard is process analysis essay this trait tranquilized. Self. In light of the fact that 95 percent of the parts of a process earth's population growth will be in the poorest areas of the globe, the question is not whether there will be war (there will be a lot of for compare essay it) but what kind of war. And who will fight whom? Debunking the great military strategist Carl von Clausewitz, Van Creveld, who may be the most original thinker on war since that early-nineteenth-century Prussian, writes, Clausewitz's ideas . Parts Of A Essay. . . were wholly rooted in the fact that, ever since 1648, war had been waged overwhelmingly by essay book, states. But, as Van Creveld explains, the period of nation-states and, therefore, of state conflict is now ending, and with it the clear threefold division into government, army, and people which state-directed wars enforce. Thus, to see the future, the first step is to look back to the past immediately prior to the birth of modernism--the wars in medieval Europe which began during the Reformation and reached their culmination in the Thirty Years' War. Van Creveld writes, In all these struggles political, social, economic, and religious motives were hopelessly entangled.
Since this was an parts of a essay age when armies consisted of mercenaries, all were also attended by swarms of military entrepreneurs. . . . Many of them paid little but lip service to the organizations for whom they had contracted to fight. Instead, they robbed the countryside on their own behalf. . . . Given such conditions, any fine distinctions . . . Introducing. between armies on the one hand and peoples on the other were bound to break down. Engulfed by war, civilians suffered terrible atrocities. Back then, in other words, there was no politics as we have come to understand the analysis term, just as there is less and less politics today in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, the Balkans, and the Caucasus, among other places. Because, as Van Creveld notes, the radius of trust within tribal societies is narrowed to one's immediate family and concluding sentence and contrast guerrilla comrades, truces arranged with one Bosnian commander, say, may be broken immediately by another Bosnian commander. The plethora of short-lived ceasefires in the Balkans and the Caucasus constitute proof that we are no longer in a world where the old rules of of a state warfare apply. More evidence is provided by the destruction of medieval monuments in the Croatian port of Dubrovnik: when cultures, rather than states, fight, then cultural and religious monuments are weapons of war, making them fair game.
Also, war-making entities will no longer be restricted to a specific territory. Loose and shadowy organisms such as Islamic terrorist organizations suggest why borders will mean increasingly little and sedimentary layers of roman tribalistic identity and control will mean more. Of A Analysis. From the vantage point of the present, there appears every prospect that religious . . Daisy Buchanan Gatsby Essay. . fanaticisms will play a larger role in the motivation of armed conflict in the West than at any time for the last 300 years, Van Creveld writes. This is why analysts like Michael Vlahos are closely monitoring religious cults. Vlahos says, An ideology that challenges us may not take familiar form, like the old Nazis or Commies. It may not even engage us initially in ways that fit old threat markings. Van Creveld concludes, Armed conflict will be waged by men on earth, not robots in space. It will have more in common with the parts of a process analysis essay struggles of primitive tribes than with large-scale conventional war.
While another military historian, John Keegan, in his new book A History of Warfare, draws a more benign portrait of primitive man, it is important to point out that what Van Creveld really means is re-primitivized man: warrior societies operating at a time of unprecedented resource scarcity and planetary overcrowding. Van Creveld's pre-Westphalian vision of essay book worldwide low-intensity conflict is analysis essay not a superficial back to the future scenario. The Necklace By Guy. First of all, technology will be used toward primitive ends. Parts Of A Analysis Essay. In Liberia the guerrilla leader Prince Johnson didn't just cut off the ears of President Samuel Doe before Doe was tortured to death in 1990--Johnson made a video of it, which has circulated throughout West Africa. In December of 1992, when plotters of daisy great gatsby a failed coup against the Strasser regime in Sierra Leone had their ears cut off at parts of a process analysis Freetown's Hamilton Beach prior to introducing self being killed, it was seen by many to be a copycat execution. Considering, as I've explained earlier, that the Strasser regime is not really a government and that Sierra Leone is not really a nation-state, listen closely to Van Creveld: Once the legal monopoly of armed force, long claimed by the state, is wrested out of parts of a essay its hands, existing distinctions between war and crime will break down much as is already the case today in . . . Lebanon, Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Peru, or Colombia. If crime and war become indistinguishable, then national defense may in the future be viewed as a local concept. As crime continues to grow in the necklace de maupassant essay, our cities and parts the ability of state governments and criminal-justice systems to protect their citizens diminishes, urban crime may, according to Van Creveld, develop into low-intensity conflict by coalescing along racial, religious, social, and political lines. As small-scale violence multiplies at for compare and contrast home and parts of a analysis essay abroad, state armies will continue to shrink, being gradually replaced by the necklace de maupassant questions, a booming private security business, as in West Africa, and by urban mafias, especially in the former communist world, who may be better equipped than municipal police forces to grant physical protection to local inhabitants. Future wars will be those of communal survival, aggravated or, in many cases, caused by environmental scarcity.
These wars will be subnational, meaning that it will be hard for parts analysis states and local governments to protect their own citizens physically. This is how many states will ultimately die. As state power fades--and with it the state's ability to help weaker groups within society, not to mention other states--peoples and cultures around the concluding for compare and contrast world will be thrown back upon their own strengths and weaknesses, with fewer equalizing mechanisms to protect them. Whereas the distant future will probably see the emergence of a racially hybrid, globalized man, the coming decades will see us more aware of our differences than of our similarities. To the average person, political values will mean less, personal security more.
The belief that we are all equal is liable to be replaced by the overriding obsession of the ancient Greek travelers: Why the differences between peoples? In Geography and the Human Spirit, Anne Buttimer, a professor at University College, Dublin, recalls the work of an early-nineteenth-century German geographer, Carl Ritter, whose work implied a divine plan for humanity based on of a process analysis essay, regionalism and a constant, living flow of forms. The map of the future, to the extent that a map is even possible, will represent a perverse twisting of Ritter's vision. Imagine cartography in three dimensions, as if in essay introducing, a hologram. Analysis. In this hologram would be the overlapping sediments of essay crabbe group and other identities atop the merely two-dimensional color markings of of a process analysis city-states and dissertation sujet the remaining nations, themselves confused in places by shadowy tentacles, hovering overhead, indicating the parts analysis power of drug cartels, mafias, and private security agencies. Instead of borders, there would be moving centers of buchanan gatsby essay power, as in the Middle Ages. Many of parts process analysis these layers would be in motion.
Replacing fixed and abrupt lines on a flat space would be a shifting pattern of buffer entities, like the sentence and contrast Kurdish and Azeri buffer entities between Turkey and Iran, the parts process analysis essay Turkic Uighur buffer entity between Central Asia and Inner China (itself distinct from coastal China), and the Latino buffer entity replacing a precise U.S.-Mexican border. To this protean cartographic hologram one must add other factors, such as migrations of populations, explosions of birth rates, vectors of disease. Essay. Henceforward the map of the world will never be static. Analysis. This future map--in a sense, the Last Map--will be an ever-mutating representation of chaos. The Indian subcontinent offers examples of what is happening. Concluding Sentence. For different reasons, both India and Pakistan are increasingly dysfunctional. Parts Essay. The argument over the necklace democracy in these places is less and parts analysis less relevant to the larger issue of governability. In India's case the question arises, Is one unwieldy bureaucracy in New Delhi the best available mechanism for promoting the lives of 866 million people of diverse languages, religions, and ethnic groups? In 1950, when the Indian population was much less than half as large and nation-building idealism was still strong, the argument for democracy was more impressive than it is now. Given that in 2025 India's population could be close to 1.5 billion, that much of our school its economy rests on a shrinking natural-resource base, including dramatically declining water levels, and that communal violence and urbanization are spiraling upward, it is difficult to process imagine that the Indian state will survive the next century. India's oft-trumpeted Green Revolution has been achieved by overworking its croplands and depleting its watershed.
Norman Myers, a British development consultant, worries that Indians have been feeding themselves today by borrowing against their children's food sources. Pakistan's problem is and contrast more basic still: like much of Africa, the country makes no geographic or demographic sense. It was founded as a homeland for the Muslims of the subcontinent, yet there are more subcontinental Muslims outside Pakistan than within it. Like Yugoslavia, Pakistan is parts of a process essay a patchwork of ethnic groups, increasingly in violent conflict with one another. While the sentence for compare Western media gushes over the fact that the parts process country has a woman Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto, Karachi is becoming a subcontinental version of Lagos. In eight visits to Pakistan, I have never gotten a sense of a cohesive national identity. With as much as 65 percent of its land dependent on intensive irrigation, with wide-scale deforestation, and with a yearly population growth of 2.7 percent (which ensures that the amount of cultivated land per de maupassant essay rural inhabitant will plummet), Pakistan is becoming a more and more desperate place.
As irrigation in analysis essay, the Indus River basin intensifies to essay serve two growing populations, Muslim-Hindu strife over falling water tables may be unavoidable. India and Pakistan will probably fall apart, Homer-Dixon predicts. Parts Of A. Their secular governments have less and less legitimacy as well as less management ability over people and resources. Rather than one bold line dividing the subcontinent into two parts, the future will likely see a lot of thinner lines and smaller parts, with the ethnic entities of Pakhtunistan and Punjab gradually replacing Pakistan in the space between the Central Asian plateau and the heart of the subcontinent. None of this even takes into account climatic change, which, if it occurs in concluding and contrast, the next century, will further erode the capacity of parts of a analysis existing states to cope. India, for introducing instance, receives 70 percent of its precipitation from the parts process analysis essay monsoon cycle, which planetary warming could disrupt. Not only will the beautify our school three-dimensional aspects of the Last Map be in of a analysis, constant motion, but its two-dimensional base may change too. The National Academy of Sciences reports that as many as one billion people, or 20 per cent of the world's population, live on dissertation roman sujet, lands likely to be inundated or dramatically changed by rising waters. . Of A Analysis. . . Buchanan Gatsby Essay. Low-lying countries in the developing world such as Egypt and Bangladesh, where rivers are large and analysis essay the deltas extensive and densely populated, will be hardest hit. The Necklace By Guy De Maupassant. . . . Parts Of A Analysis. Where the rivers are dammed, as in gatsby essay, the case of the parts of a process analysis Nile, the effects . . . will be especially severe. Egypt could be where climatic upheaval--to say nothing of the more immediate threat of increasing population--will incite religious upheaval in truly biblical fashion. Natural catastrophes, such as the October, 1992, Cairo earthquake, in dissertation, which the government failed to deliver relief aid and slum residents were in parts essay, many instances helped by their local mosques, can only strengthen the position of Islamic factions.
In a statement about greenhouse warming which could refer to essay how to beautify our school any of a variety of natural catastrophes, the environmental expert Jessica Tuchman Matthews warns that many of us underestimate the extent to of a process essay which political systems, in affluent societies as well as in places like Egypt, depend on the underpinning of natural systems. She adds, The fact that one can move with ease from roman, Vermont to Miami has nothing to say about the consequences of Vermont acquiring Miami's climate. Indeed, it is process essay not clear that the United States will survive the next century in exactly its present form. Because America is a multi-ethnic society, the nation-state has always been more fragile here than it is in more homogeneous societies like Germany and Japan. James Kurth, in an article published in The National Interest in 1992, explains that whereas nation-state societies tend to be built around a mass-conscription army and a standardized public school system, multicultural regimes feature a high-tech, all-volunteer army (and, I would add, private schools that teach competing values), operating in a culture in which the international media and entertainment industry has more influence than the national political class. In other words, a nation-state is a place where everyone has been educated along similar lines, where people take their cue from daisy, national leaders, and where everyone (every male, at parts process essay least) has gone through the crucible of military service, making patriotism a simpler issue. Writing about his immigrant family in turn-of-the-century Chicago, Saul Bellow states, The country took us over.
It was a country then, not a collection of 'cultures.' During the Second World War and the decade following it, the United States reached its apogee as a classic nation-state. During the 1960s, as is now clear, America began a slow but unmistakable process of transformation. The signs hardly need belaboring: racial polarity, educational dysfunction, social fragmentation of many and introducing various kinds. Process Analysis. William Irwin Thompson, in Passages About Earth: An Exploration of the New Planetary Culture, writes, The educational system that had worked on the Jews or the Irish could no longer work on essay introducing self, the blacks; and when Jewish teachers in process, New York tried to take black children away from their parents exactly in the way they had been taken from theirs, they were shocked to encounter a violent affirmation of self negritude. Issues like West Africa could yet emerge as a new kind of foreign-policy issue, further eroding America's domestic peace. The spectacle of several West African nations collapsing at once could reinforce the worst racial stereotypes here at essay home. That is another reason why Africa matters. We must not kid ourselves: the sensitivity factor is higher than ever. The Washington, D.C., public school system is the necklace by guy de maupassant already experimenting with an Afrocentric curriculum. Summits between African leaders and prominent African-Americans are becoming frequent, as are Pollyanna-ish prognostications about multiparty elections in Africa that do not factor in crime, surging birth rates, and resource depletion.
The Congressional Black Caucus was among those urging U.S. involvement in Somalia and in Haiti. At the parts essay Los Angeles Times minority staffers have protested against, among other things, what they allege to be the essay introducing self racist tone of the newspaper's Africa coverage, allegations that the editor of the of a analysis essay World Report section, Dan Fisher, denies, saying essentially that Africa should be viewed through the same rigorous analytical lens as other parts of the world. Africa may be marginal in how to beautify, terms of conventional late-twentieth-century conceptions of parts of a analysis strategy, but in an age of cultural and racial clash, when national defense is introducing increasingly local, Africa's distress will exert a destabilizing influence on process analysis, the United States. This and many other factors will make the United States less of a nation than it is the necklace de maupassant essay questions today, even as it gains territory following the peaceful dissolution of Canada. Quebec, based on the bedrock of Roman Catholicism and of a Francophone ethnicity, could yet turn out to be North America's most cohesive and crime-free nation-state. (It may be a smaller Quebec, though, since aboriginal peoples may lop off northern parts of the province.) Patriotism will become increasingly regional as people in Alberta and concluding sentence for compare and contrast Montana discover that they have far more in common with each other than they do with Ottawa or Washington, and Spanish-speakers in the Southwest discover a greater commonality with Mexico City. (The Nine Nations of North America, by analysis essay, Joel Garreau, a book about the continent's regionalization, is more relevant now than when it was published, in 1981.) As Washington's influence wanes, and with it the traditional symbols of American patriotism, North Americans will take psychological refuge in their insulated communities and cultures. Returning from West Africa last fall was an illuminating ordeal. After leaving Abidjan, my Air Afrique flight landed in Dakar, Senegal, where all passengers had to disembark in order to go through another security check, this one demanded by U.S. authorities before they would permit the flight to set out for New York. Once we were in New York, despite the midnight hour, immigration officials at Kennedy Airport held up disembarkation by conducting quick interrogations of the great gatsby essay aircraft's passengers--this was in parts of a process, addition to all the normal immigration and customs procedures. It was apparent that drug smuggling, disease, and other factors had contributed to the toughest security procedures I have ever encountered when returning from overseas.
Then, for the first time in over a month, I spotted businesspeople with attache cases and the necklace by guy de maupassant laptop computers. Of A Process Analysis. When I had left New York for Abidjan, all the the necklace essay businesspeople were boarding planes for Seoul and Tokyo, which departed from parts of a process analysis essay, gates near Air Afrique's. The only non-Africans off to West Africa had been relief workers in T-shirts and essay on the book khakis. Although the borders within West Africa are increasingly unreal, those separating West Africa from the outside world are in various ways becoming more impenetrable. But Afrocentrists are right in one respect: we ignore this dying region at our own risk.
When the Berlin Wall was falling, in November of 1989, I happened to be in Kosovo, covering a riot between Serbs and Albanians. The future was in Kosovo, I told myself that night, not in Berlin. The same day that Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat clasped hands on the White House lawn, my Air Afrique plane was approaching Bamako, Mali, revealing corrugated-zinc shacks at the edge of an analysis essay expanding desert. The real news wasn't at the White House, I realized. It was right below.
Copyright copy; 1994 by Robert Kaplan. All rights reserved. The Atlantic Monthly; February 1994; The Coming Anarchy; Volume 273, No. 2; pages 44-76. Also see: Thomas Homer-Dixon, Jeffrey Boutwell, and George Rathjens, Environmental Scarcity and Violent Conflict, Scientific American, February 1993; and from Homer-Dixon, Environmental Scarcity and Global Security Headline Series (New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1993).
The Project on Environment, Population and Security: Conflict, Sustainable Development Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research The American Association for the Advancement of Science's gopher.
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Essay: The Salem Witchcraft Trials. The Salem Witchcraft trials in Massachusetts during 1692 resulted in nineteen innocent men and women being hanged, one man pressed to death, and in the deaths of more than seventeen who died in jail. It all began at the end of 1691 when a few girls in essay, the town began to on the crabbe, experiment with magic by parts of a essay, gathering around a crystal ball to try to find the answer to questions such as “what trade their sweet harts should be of “. Essay On The Book. This conjuring took place in parts of a analysis essay, the Parris household where a woman named Tituba, an Indian slave, headed the rituals. Daisy Great Essay. Soon after they had begun to practice these rituals, girls who had been involved, including the Master Parris’ daughter and niece, became sick. They had constant fits, twitched, cried, made odd noises, and of a process essay huddled in sujet, corners. The family called in doctors, and they were treated for many illnesses. Nothing helped. Many weeks later after running out of parts of a process, reasons for their strange behavior, all of introducing self, their symptoms seemed to lead to one belief, “The evil hand is upon them.” They were possessed by the Devil. At first the families of the of a children could not find anyone to accuse for being the witch responsible for possessing the children. Then, late in daisy great essay, February of 1692, Parris’ neighbor, Mary Sibley recommended that Parris’ slaves, Tituba and John Indian, should work a spell to try to parts analysis, find the how to our school culprits. Even after trying this solution the girls’ condition worsened, and the people responsible still had not been found.
The girls began to see hazy shadows and believed that these shadows were of the people who had done this to them. Of A Process Essay. After more and essay more children became victims of process, this, the hunting for daisy buchanan great, the witches who were to blame for of a process analysis essay, the girls’ sickness began to get more serious. Essay How To. By the end of February 1692, not one, but three witches had been named. These women were Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba, all residents of Salem Village. Sarah Good was a poor “socially undesirable” member of the village of Salem which made her susceptible to accusations of being a witch and of practicing black magic. She was well known in process essay, the village for her eccentric behavior, and in the past people had suspected her of being a witch. Her husband, William Good, was a simple laborer and his inadequate income forced the Goods to the necklace questions, accept charity and to beg for goods from their neighbors. Sometimes they even had to parts of a process analysis, live with their neighbors, but this never lasted long. Sarah Good’s actions and behaviors would often cause unrest in the hosts and their families, and sentence essay then the Good family would be asked to parts of a process analysis, leave. A few of the villagers they stayed with reported that their livestock would begin to sicken and die after the Goods were forced to leave. More than fifteen families claimed that Sarah Good bewitched their livestock while others reported that she could make objects disappear into great gatsby, thin air.
When Good was questioned about of a process analysis these accusations, her answers were always tight-lipped and aggressive, further leading the people to believe that she was in fact a witch. Sarah Osborne was also one of the by guy questions first three women accused of putting spells on the girls and possessing them. Unlike Tituba and Sarah Good, however, she was from a very wealthy household. Although it is believed sometimes that only poor people were accused of being witches, in the Salem Witchcraft Trials, this was not true, as in the case of Osborne. Women and men accused of being witches were either looked down upon in the community or envied for of a essay, their land and wealth, as Sarah Osborne was in Salem. Tituba, like Good, was very poor. She worked as a servant in the Parris home and was a Carib Indian born in Barbados in the West Indies.
Reverend Parris brought Tituba to New England when he was still a merchant, and after this she married John Indian who also worked as slave for Reverend Parris. Tituba was the person asked to aid with the girls’ illnesses by making a witch’s cake to find their culprit and concluding sentence and contrast after this did not work, she was arrested four days later for being a witch herself. Each of these three women was examined by local Salem officials before they were sent off to await trial in a Boston jail. The girls, who these witches had supposedly inflicted sickness upon, were also present during these trials to show the court how much pain the three women had caused. During the trial Sarah Good kept insisting that she was not guilty but rather that she had been wrongly accused. Of A Essay. When asked why she hurts the innocent children she responded, “I do not hurt them. I scorn it.” Then, she attempted to essay beautify our school, shift all blame onto parts, Sarah Osborne who in turn responded with disbelief. She said that she “was more like to concluding sentence and contrast essay, be bewitched than she was a witch.” While Good and Osborne were trying to of a analysis essay, defend themselves, Tituba confessed, most likely in fear of essay beautify, her Master, Reverend Parris.
When asked who was to blame for all the possessed girls she responded, “The devil for aught I know.” Tituba told the whole court about her pact with the Devil and the type of wonderful things he gave her in process, return for her service and dissertation roman sujet loyalty to him. Then, after she was done telling her story, when the magistrate asked her who she had seen doing the witchcraft, Tituba says, “Goody Osborn and Sarah Good and I do not know who the other were. Sarah Good and Osborn would have me hurt the children but I would not . Parts Of A Process. . . By Guy Essay Questions. ” So according to Tituba there were still witches out there bewitching innocent children. After Tituba’s confession, the entire community of parts analysis essay, Salem increased their efforts to find the witches who were bringing such horrible events to their village. By Guy. The children still were not able to come up with names for their perpetrators until a little thirteen-year-old girl, Ann Putnam, cried out the name of Martha Corey. Of A Process Analysis Essay. Corey, like Osborne, was not poor at all. While she was being tried, Martha Corey had the audacity to laugh at questions presented to her.
She acted naive and said she did not even know if there were any witches in New England She also labeled herself as a “Gospel-woman.” Her presence and attitude during the trial led many to believe that she was in fact guilty of practicing witchcraft. From this point on, after Ann Putnam’s accusation, the essay how to beautify our school females of Salem showed no hesitation in analysis essay, naming the witches who had brought this upon them. The number of women accused was monumental, and the court had very little time to examine each accusation thoroughly. Essay. Soon, anyone who was called a witch was jailed, whether it was a man, woman, child, or adult. Even Dorcas Good, the four-year-old daughter of Sarah Good was accused and thrown into of a process analysis, jail; a four-year-old child who was barely old enough to make coherent sentences, was convicted of being a witch and “taking supernatural revenge on the possessed for taking away her parents.” This is how paranoid the how to beautify our school people of Salem had become. Parts Process Analysis. Everyone jumped at the mention of concluding sentence essay, a witch, afraid that they would be the next person to become a possessed victim of their mysterious black magic. The villagers went from the four-year-old girl to seventy-one-year-old Rebecca Nurse followed by forty-seven-year-old Elizabeth Proctor. Both of these women who were from very wealthy, prosperous homes, were imprisoned because people thought Rebecca Nurse’s mother and Proctor’s grandmother practiced black magic when they were alive. At this point, anyone who was a family member of an of a analysis, accused witch was most likely to wind up in by guy essay questions, jail also.
Next, John Proctor became the first male to be charged for analysis essay, being a witch because he stood by his belief that his wife was innocent and spoke out against the court. The Salem Witchcraft Trials were completely outrageous, convicting women with no solid evidence other than a villager saying that they themselves had seen the person practicing black magic. No one in the court bothered to think that the witnesses could be lying and beautify presenting false testimonies. After John Proctor a long list of alleged witches followed. Mary Easty and Sarah Cloyce, sisters of Rebecca Nurse who had expressed their negative feelings about the trials were locked up in jail. Dorcas Hoar of parts of a analysis essay, Beverly, Susanna Martin of essay beautify, Amesbury, and Bridget Bishop of Salem Town were all taken to jail to be put on trial because they had been convicted of committing witchcraft crimes in the 1660’s, 16670’s, or 1680’s. Afterwards, many of Elizabeth Proctor’s children were named along with her sister and sister-in-law. Likewise, Martha Corey’s husband was put in jail to of a, be brought to sentence and contrast, trial. The most shocking was the essay arrest of George Burroughs, the onetime pastor of Salem Village church. Many villagers thought that he would have become the “Ring Leader of them all,” and on the book crabbe so he was locked up.
While accusations were occurring as routine events for the people of Salem, some came to think that perhaps this outbreak was not related to witchcraft after all. A few in the village had doubted the validity of the trials from the beginning, and as time went on they felt more confident and sure that their beliefs were true. The protests from the people against the trials were not heard at first, and parts of a the members of the court insisted on treating people accused of being witches as the Devil’s servants. Most ministers of Salem warned the government against essay how to our school, accepting these testimonies from the very start of the trials. They said the spirits the girls saw could be just hallucinations resulting from their sickness, or they could be the Devil in disguise, but the government officials simply ignored them. Justice Nathanial Saltonstall also apparently disagreed with the ways of the court because he resigned from his position after the first witchcraft trial. Chief Justice Stoughton, however, thought that the evil spirits would not disguise themselves to parts analysis essay, people who were willing to cooperate with them.
The trials now became even more complicated because people would confess out of fear of the magistrates’ accusations and the girls’ convulsions. Now that the accusations were flying back and forth in full swing, anybody and dissertation everybody came to the court to put their two cents in. Parts Of A Process Analysis. Hundreds of these local residents came into the court to help testify against crimes alleged witches had committed years, even decades, before. Although many people volunteered to come forward and speak out against these witches, they were very concerned about maleficium, the ability of a witch to do harm to another person through supernatural means. Essay Beautify. They were afraid that after testifying against of a process analysis essay, the witch that she may put an evil spell on on the them.
Another concern was that the possessed would be forced to sign a Satanic pact, and if they did not do so then the witches would inflict pain upon them until they did. The number of accusations is what made the Salem case different from any other case of essay, witchcraft. After the executions began in 1692, officials began to the necklace by guy essay questions, deal with the problem of essay, credibility by ignoring any accusations made against the wealthy, well-to-do members of the Salem society. At this point, close to two hundred people had been accused of witchcraft, and dissertation roman sujet more than twenty-five people had died because of the trials. The trials in themselves were a big contradiction. People who pleaded innocent were tortured until they “confessed” that they were guilty. One form of torture was the accused would be pressed by a heavy weight until they confessed. Giles Corey, husband of Martha Corey, was pressed to death when he refused say that he was involved with the Devil, and that he was, in of a analysis essay, fact, guilty. One form of torture, though, was even more absurd. The witch’s head would be forced underwater and kept there for a certain period of time. If she came up alive everyone said she had magical powers which kept her from drowning, and then she would be executed.
If when they lifted her up she was dead then she was presumed innocent, but that was completely pointless. Either way the by guy questions accused were killed. These were a few examples of preposterous tortures against the people. The credibility of these trials was challenged multiple times by many people. These people protesting against the trials varied. Some were villagers and some were authoritative figures in the community. One of these people was Increase Mather, who wrote Cases of Conscience. Process Essay. He stopped short of essay on the, calling the possessed girls liars but instead called them “Deamoniacks” as “mouthpieces for the Father of of a essay, Lyes.” He also argued that “no juror can with a safe Conscience look on the Testimony of concluding for compare and contrast essay, such, as sufficient to take away the Life of analysis essay, any Man even if the possessed normally knew their real tormentors.” He said the gatsby supposed psychic abilities these girls came to have after being possessed should be ignored because God “has taught us not to receive the Devil’s Testimony in any thing.” Mather also claimed that confessing witches were also “not such credibly witnesses.” He told the people that witches sometimes lied outright with no shame about their rituals and about the names of their various “Associates in parts process essay, that Trade.” Other times Satan filled their heads to make them “dream strange things of themselves and others which are not so.” This work is what eventually led to the end of the witchcraft trials in Salem, Massachusetts. Mather’s son, Cotton Mather, also agreed with his father on the matter of the witchcraft trials but he then reported in buchanan, the Wonders of the Invisible World that the of a essay court had listened carefully to the different eyewitnesses and defendants along with the spectral evidence. Finally, in October of essay our school, 1693, so many people were doubting the guiltiness of the witches that Governor Phips, governor of Massachusetts, decided to stop the trials and the executions.
They realized that the trials should not continue due to lack of parts of a process essay, evidence and credibility of the witnesses. Many people accused others of being witches if they disliked them or if they were outsiders in the necklace questions, society. Parts Process Essay. Witches on essay trial were encouraged to give names of their fellow witches and/or to confess to their evil deeds, and in exchange they would be granted a less severe punishment. Parts Analysis Essay. Because of sentence for compare, this, the witches on trial would confess even if they were innocent, and they would also accuse other innocent people of being witches. The government saw that there was no real way to make sure the person was a witch before executing them and that there was a great chance that they may be killing innocent people. People were still being accused of parts of a process analysis, being witches even after the trials were suspended, but the charges were not taken seriously. Now the question was how to handle the rest of the cases of the concluding sentence for compare and contrast essay people still locked up in of a process analysis, the jails awaiting their doom filled trials.
Because the possessed could not testify and the magistrates were reluctant to accept any more false statements, by the month of May 1694, the few men and women left in the jails were sent back to their homes. Even the witches who had been tried already and convicted were let free to return to essay how to, their normal lifestyles. Parts Process Analysis. Although there were still some being accused of witchcraft in other towns the cases went unheeded. This chaotic time was for the most part over. Mostly all confessing witches during this period were females ranging in age from less than ten to more than seventy. Out of the forty-eight possessed, mostly were females. Forty-four percent of the possessed were females between the ages of sixteen to twenty who were “single-women” or “maids” in seventeenth century terms.
Another 38 percent were over twenty while 18 percent were under sixteen. Three-fourths of the non-possessed accusers whose main concern was maleficium were men. In 1711, the de maupassant essay questions legislature passed the parts of a process analysis Reversal of Attainder, which was an act to clear the names of everyone jailed during the trials. Massachusetts also repaid the survivors and the heirs for essay introducing, jail and court fees and for process analysis essay, some property that the government had taken away from them. The government also wrote up a sincere apology for essay crabbe, their mistake in proceeding with the trials when there was no solid evidence and for possibly executing innocent people.(See Appendix 1A) As time passed many people wondered what was the purpose of the Salem Witchcraft Trials? Why were so many innocent people jailed or even killed? How could anyone have hanged their neighbor for parts of a process analysis essay, being a witch?
People pondered on daisy gatsby essay what kind of an illness could have been mistaken for the symptoms of parts process, possession, but some thought that the possessed were simply liars and fools. Many times, the Puritans were blamed for the trials, encouraging witchcraft fears, and the number of people affected by them. Some people believe that the Puritans blamed anyone who was different as being a witch. This was because the Puritans had always suspected, as one of their main beliefs, that the Devil envied their way of essay on the crabbe, life and was constantly trying his best to make their lives miserable. Their goal in life was to process analysis essay, “purify the organization of their church” and to rid it of any sign of the Devil. By accusing so many people of being witches, they thought they were just purifying the church and essay on the their community. Most of the time, credibility of an accusation was not checked thoroughly, instead the person accused was simply locked up in jail until their trial time came.
Even then, if they did not confess to process essay, being guilty, they were punished sometimes even killed. Although the law is innocent until proven guilty, and had been practiced before the trials, in the case of the witchcraft trials, the accused witches were guilty until proven innocent. Not many were given the chance to prove themselves to be innocent. 1. Karlsen Carol, The Devil in the Shape of crabbe, a Woman (New York: Vintage Books, 2. Guilley Ellen, Witches and parts analysis essay Witchcraft (New York: Facts on File, 1989), 152. 3. Trask Richard, Salem Village and the Witch Hysteria (New York: Golden Owl. Publishing Company, 1991), 185.
4. Wilson, Lori Lee, The Salem Witch Trials (Minneapolis: Lerner Publishing Company, 1997) 5. Hoffer Peter, The Salem Witchcraft Trials: A Legal History (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1997), 212. 6. Rosenthal Bernard, Salem Story: Reading the essay our school Witch Trials of 1692 (Cambridge. England: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 132. 7. Concle Maryse, I, Tituba, Black Witch of of a, Salem (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992), 178. 9. Roach, Marilynne, In the Days of the Salem Witchcraft Trials (Boston: Houghton. Mifflin Company, 1996), 94. 10. Hill, Frances, A Delusion of the necklace, Satan: the Full Story of the process analysis essay Salem Witch Trials (New York: Doubleday, 1995), 76. 11. Dissertation Roman. Barstow, Anne, Witchcraze, A New History of the European Witch Hunts (California: Pandora, 1994), 79.
21. Zeinert, Karen. Of A Process Analysis Essay. The Salem Witchcraft Trials, (New York: F. Watts, 1989),