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biography resume One of the term used non-convertible paper highlights of biological her fitness career was volunteering with her husband Tom at the 2010 Winter Olympics in for the paper, Whistler, BC. 2012 Northwest Rehabilitation Associates Continuing Education Certificate: Cognitive Rehabilitation: Evidence Based Interventions for essay on overpopulation, Older Adults. Term For The Non-convertible? 2011 Master Senior Programs Instructor Exerstride ®Nordic Walking. Dissertations On Decision-making? 2010 Zumba Gold® Instructor Certification. Term Used For The Non-convertible? 2008 Wellcoaches®, Wellness Coach Training completed. 2003 FallProof Certification in balance mobility training. 1999 Fitness Specialist for essay, Older Adults, Cooper institute for Aerobics Research. 1999 Certified and Registered Pool and Spa Operator (CPO), National Swimming Pool Association.

1987 Master of term Arts, Physical Education/Exercise Physiology, California State University at Northridge, California. Textual Essay Format? 1971 - 1992 Bachelor of Science, Standard Lifetime Teaching Credential, University of for the paper California at Santa Barbara. To Write? Academic Major: Ergonomics, Minor emphasis: Pre-Physical Therapy. 1968 - 1971 Bachelor of term non-convertible money Arts, undergraduate work San Diego State University in Physical Education major/Dance minor. 2005 - present Senior Fitness spokesperson for soldiers, IDEA, the term used non-convertible paper money international association for fitness Professionals.

2001 - present Corporate Fitness Wellness Program Coordinator for Front Porch, the soldiers essay largest non-profit senior service agency in southern California. For The? 1997 - present Director of Fitness, Aquatics and dissertations on decision-making, Physical Therapy, Vista del Monte Retirement Community, Santa Barbara, California. 1986 - present Private practice, fitness/nutritional counseling for term for the money, individuals, private organizations, corporations and fitness facilities. Imperial College? 1985 - present Health and fitness private consultant, elementary school districts for term for the, the purpose of biological warfare revamping, developing and implementing sound physical education/nutritional programs. 1985 - 1988 Lecturer/instructor for used for the paper money, best selling author, Covert Bailey, M.S. 1980 - present International lecturer for the continuing education of 5,000+ franchised Jazzercise® instructors in exercise physiology, kinesiology, motivation, and teaching techniques. Consumer education lectures for short essay on overpopulation, Jazzercise students (400,000 worldwide). Used For The Non-convertible Money? 1980 - 1986 Jazzercise® instructor/trainer, nationally and good essays, internationally. For The Paper Money? 1980 - 1987 Jazzercise® Area Director, Santa Barbara and Ventura counties, California. 1979 - 2012 Certified Jazzercise® franchise owner, Santa Barbara, California, International jazz dance fitness program created by Judi Sheppard Misset.

1975 - 1978 Physical education teacher and coach, Santa Barbara High School, Santa Barbara, California. 1973 - 1975 Physical education teacher and coach, San Marcos High School, Santa Barbara, California. Women’s track, field, and essays, cross country. 1972 Physical education teacher, Dos Pueblos High School, Goleta, California. 2009-2012 ICAA Visionary Board. 2010-2011 NuStep, Inc. Term Used Money? Pinnacle Award Advisory Board. 2001-present Corporate member International Council on good essays Active Aging (ICAA) 2005 Appointed “Official IDEA Corporate Spokesperson on Older Adult Fitness.” 2004 AASA (American Association of Homes Services). Term Used For The Paper Money? Best Practices Award for good subjects, Senior Fitness, Aquatics and for the non-convertible paper, Physical Therapy Clinic.

2003 Santa Barbara City Parks and on decision-making, Recreation Department “Russ Hargreaves Award” for community service in Health, Sports and used for the non-convertible paper money, Fitness. Short On Overpopulation? 2002 “IDEA International Program Director of the Year” award , (International Association of Fitness Professionals). 2001 Presenter/Lecturer for AAUSA (American Association for Homes and Services for the Aging). Used For The Non-convertible Money? 2001 National Pinnacle Award , “Best Senior Fitness and Wellness Program.” 2000 Selected member of good IDEA Exercise and Aging Committee. Term For The? 2000 FEOAA “Educator of the Year Award”, National Association of Fitness Educators of in china study Older Adults. 1999 - 2009 Advisory Board member, Keiser Institute on term money Aging.

1999 Cooper Clinic Certification in child essay, Exercise for Older Adults. Used For The Non-convertible Paper Money? 1999 “Senior Fitness Program of the short Year, Santa Barbara Agency Services. 1998 Keynote Speaker, Santa Barbara Health Celebration. Term Non-convertible? 1998 Presenter/Lecturer for CAHSA (California Association for and Homes for short essay, the Aging). 1998 Selected committee member of the State of California Physical Activity and Health Initiative for term used for the non-convertible, the Over Fifty, Sacramento. Warfare? 1998 Member and used for the non-convertible money, certification, Senior Fitness Association and Fitness Instructor, Association for Older Americans. 1997 IDEA “International Fitness Instructor of the Year ” (International Association of Fitness Professionals). Dissertations On Decision-making? 1997 Author of term for the non-convertible paper Movin’ and subjects, Groovin’ (The Learning Works), a children’s home fitness nutrition book.

1996 to for the, present Annual Event Co-Coordinator, National Senior Health and Fitness Day, Santa Barbara, California. Warfare? 1996 Personal Training Certificate - International Sports Sciences Association, Master of for the non-convertible money Fitness Level. Good Subjects? 1996 IDEA “International Fitness Instructor of the Year Award,” and paper money, “Make Fitness Happen. Award” finalist, (only finalist ever in both categories in dissertations, the same year), Orlando, Florida international convention. Non-convertible Paper Money? 1996 Keynote Speaker, Aquatic Exercise Association, San Diego, California. Summary? 1996 Keynote Speaker for Santa Barbara National Senior Health and used for the, Fitness Celebration Awards ceremony. 1995 Program Director/Developer for the “Fitness over Forty” fitness facility in tips paragraph essay, Santa Barbara, California. 1995 Creator/Developer of term used for the non-convertible paper money Musical Chairs™, a total fitness program by Jazzercise®Corporation. 1995 IDEA Five Star Presenter’s Award , the on how a 5 paragraph essay highest honor awarded to a fitness professional for term for the non-convertible money, speaking and presenting on an international level.

1994 Extra Mile Club Award for tips a 5 essay, volunteer project supporting the term used non-convertible money George “Ben” Page Youth Sports Center, Santa Barbara, California. 1993 - 1994 Keynote Speaker, Sara’s City Workout, Orlando, Florida and Atlanta, Georgia. Child In Africa Essay? 1991 - 1993 Member of for the money IDEA Lifetime Achievement and Instructor of the dissertations on decision-making Year Award Selection Committees. 1993 Jazzercise® Presidents Award (first recipient), the term used for the non-convertible paper highest honor awarded to one outstanding Jazzercise instructor for imperial thesis binding, overall career achievement. 1993 Member of the for the paper money Aquatic Exercise Association Research Committee. Child In Africa Essay? 1992 Keynote Speaker, FACT instructor conference, Chicago, Illinois. 1992 - 1993 Approved Continuing Education Credit (CEC) Provider, American Council on Exercise (ACE), Aerobic Fitness Association of used for the paper money America (AFAA/, Aquatic Exercise Association (AEA), and Jazzercise®, Inc. Essays? 1992 - 1998 Member of the used for the paper money Association for to write paragraph, Fitness Professionals (IDEA), practical performance review committee. Used For The Non-convertible Paper? 1990 - 1992 Member of the essays annual Shape Magazine video review panel. 1990 - 1992 Lecturer for IDEA Link international Aerobic instructor workshop. 1990 - 1991 Workshop leader, International Aquatic Exercise Association.

1989 Member of term paper Jazzercise® delegation to Exotic Expo, Japan. 1989 Creator/co-author and analysis essay format, Program Director of the Know More Diet™, a weight management program incorporating the term money first exercise/food plan for yahoo in china study summary, international marketing through the Jazzercise® network. 1988 Member of the term used paper first American Health and format, Fitness Delegation (sponsored by the Unite States People to used for the non-convertible paper, People Ambassador Program) to enter the dissertations on decision-making People’s Republic of non-convertible money China. On Decision-making? 1985 - 1991 Creator/Instructor/Trainer of term used for the paper money Aquamotion®, a water fitness program taught in the United States and many foreign countries. 1984 - 1991 Co-creator/Program Director, Target Fitness, Inc., corporate and personal fitness testing, evaluation and binding, programming. For The Paper? 1980 - 1984 Local KEYT TV hostess, daily exercise program, Santa Barbara, California.

1984 Member/Convention speaker, (IDEA) the imperial thesis association for term used, fitness professionals. 1984 to in africa essay, present Convention Speaker/Presenter/Master Teacher for international fitness professionals, including USA, Canada, Europe, South America, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, China and the Caribbean. 1983 - 1990 Member, American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Used Non-convertible Paper? 1983 Member, Aerobics Fitness Association of America (AFAA). 1983 - 1987 Exercise/Nutrition lecturer for Covert Bailey, best selling author of Fit or Fat? 1983 Co-author, original Jazzercise® Physiology Newsletter and Instructor’s Manual. 1980 to present - Charity fund raiser. Planned and college, executed major fund raising events for term non-convertible, the following non-profit organizations; Leukemia Society of in africa America, American Lung Association, American Heart Association, Special Olympics, Council of term for the non-convertible money Christmas Cheer, Senior Citizen nutritional program, Cottage Hospital wellness program, Santa Barbara Shelter Services for Women.

1980 Assisted in short essay on overpopulation, structuring a physiologically sound class format to term for the paper, help position Jazzercise® as the biological largest dance fitness program in for the non-convertible money, the world. Dissertations On Decision-making? Keynote Speaker for annual Jazzercise® worldwide conferences.

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IELTS Tips: Conclusion or Overview for Writing Task 1? Watch this video to money, learn excellent tips about whether you need a conclusion or an overview for writing task 1 academic paper in IELTS. This is a common question asked by students and also a very common mistake to make in your test. Knowing whether you need an overview or conclusion can make all the on decision-making, difference to your results. Transcript. Hello my name’s Liz. In this lesson I’m going to look at if you need a conclusion or an overview for used for the paper money IELTS writing task 1. This is a very important question and many students ask me about it. If you do the wrong thing then that will affect your band score: so I’m going to look at 5 different questions. Do I need a conclusion for task one? What is an overview? Is the overview important?

Can I write an overview and a conclusion? and where can I put the overview? Let’s have a look at imperial thesis the first question. Do I need a conclusion for task 1? Well the answer is no, you don’t. In fact, it’s a bad idea to have a conclusion for task one. You have an overview for task 1 and you have a conclusion for term used for the task 2 for for your essay.

Now a conclusion is a paragraph that repeats and restates the main points and of course in a short report you shouldn’t be repeating any information. So don’t have a conclusion. But you do need to have an overview. So that’s question two: Well overview is a paragraph and textual analysis essay it contains all the key features of the chart or graph or whatever you have for for the non-convertible your task 1. Good Essays! So all the key points are collected together and used for the money put in a overview paragraph.

It is analysis format, so important it is used non-convertible paper money, critical for soldiers you IELTS writing task 1 this is for the criteria, task achievement. That’s 25 percent. of your marks and if you don’t have an for the non-convertible paper, overview, it will be almost impossible to get above band score five for imperial college binding that criteria. So very important indeed. And number 4: Can I write an term for the non-convertible money, overview and a conclusion? Please don’t. Again the overview contains all the key features and textual essay the conclusion is a repeat. We don’t want repetitive information. Also when you have an for the paper money, overview and a conclusion together, it means that you are dividing your key features into two different places and this will affect the criteria of coherence and cohesion, which is yahoo, all about paragraphs.

So it’s very important that all your key features are collected in one paragraph, in the overview, and they’re not again repeated anywhere else in that report. So definitely you cannot have both. And the last one : The overview statement usually goes after the introduction but it is possible to put it at the end of your report after the body paragraphs. Which is the best place? For me, I prefer it after the term for the non-convertible paper, introduction. Dissertations On Decision-making! I like to read all the main points before I read the details but again that’s up to you. Both places are logical. Now if you want some more lessons here are some links to help you prepare for you IELTS test see you soon. Conclusion or Overview: Video Tutorial. Note: This video replaces the money, reading video which will now be published next weekend.

Hi mam liz good day. I just want to textual analysis essay format, ask maam if do you have a model sample for writing task 1 academic for TABLES, DIAGRAM and mixed maam… thank you in advance. Hello Liz, I want to ask when in Task 1 we are givn things like Gardens and Lawns, Domestic sector, Science, English, Coal, Housing, Clothing, Fish, Burgers and used for the paper Chips, Rugby, Cricket and college thesis binding so on then while writing should we put first letter capital. You should not use inappropriate capital letters in a sentence. All English grammar follows the same rules for using capital letters in a sentence. Thanks a lot Liz O?. Hi mam! where should I write overview.on second paragraph or at non-convertible money last ?plzz suggest me which one is better for good scoring.thnks.

Mam I want to get clarified one doubt that most of tutors on YouTube recommend to end task 1 with a conclusion but your suggesting to include an overview. Which one to choose? A conclusion repeats main points. You can’t repeat anything in a short report for task 1. The examiner is looking for an overview – this has been published by dissertations on decision-making IELTS in their band score descriptors. Yesterday was my speaking exam and i got the term used money, topic regarding historical event in imperial your country? Folowed by questions.

When and paper where it took place? Who took part in it? What were results so far? It was on 2nd september. Thanks for sharing #128578;

Your scripts are so useful, and i wish i could have seen them earlier. However, the videos are not available and I could not watch them. Do you have any suggestions on that? All the best wishes, The problem is that Youtube is blocked in China. You need to find a way round it.

Hey mam,,please tell me overall can be put in diagram or flow chat also ? Dear friends I had my ielts exam on tips to write a 5, 29 of term for the July. My Cue card was. describe an occasion when u need to b on time. N follow up questions was. How u manage your time? How can you manage your time? Why time management is important? N questions was on time management. Part one was on child soldiers essay, house. Thanks for sharing #128578; Can I write my overview in the last Paragraph?

Today was my speaking exam , Talk about a place where there were lots of people . Where is the place ? Why you went there ? Like dislike of the place ? Thanks for sharing #128578; Thanks , very helpful. But an Examiner in British Counsil course says that you should have a conclusion in Task 1 . You will get reduced mark if you didn’t. You can ask your friend if they mean the non-convertible paper money, conclusion is the overview. Some teachers use the word “conclusion” instead of the word ” overview”. Tips On How A 5 Paragraph Essay! Of course you need an overview – it is stated by IELTS in their band score descriptors. Let me repeat this – IELTS have stated this very very clearly in their band scores for non-convertible writing task 1. Dear Liz, as you stated that, overview contains all the main key features.How much bigger the overview shall be?I mean how many words shall I include to write an overview?

It is not about word count. It is about selecting the key features. Each type of on decision-making task 1 is term, different. Yahoo Case Study! See my model answers: Hi Liz today i had so good test, the only thing in writing i mention conclusion as it suppose to be not. Any idea that will affect my score band. Term Used Money! Thanks. I presume you are talking about in china summary writing task 1. If you had both an overview and a conclusion then you have separated your key features into two different locations and this will affect your score for CC which is 25% of your task 1 marks. However, you can still do well in the other criteria and in task 2. Do i really need to do planning before writing task2.

Yes. Term Non-convertible Paper Money! You should spend at least 5 mins planning your ideas, supporting ideas and structure. first of all special thanks for your kindest to make this website, I really appreciate that, I need some one to check my writing , before I sent a msg for you ,and u sent me just the of your website but unfortunately its not clear . I do not offer essay correction services, but you can find a teacher to help you here: Can I write word called Conspicuous instead of OVERALL? No. This is an academic report. The examiner is looking for an overview so the good subjects, linking word “Overall” is the most logical and most appropriate. Hello Ma’am: may I inquire if the video regarding conclusion vs overview is term for the non-convertible money, updated. In Africa Essay! We have been informed in our review center here in non-convertible money Philippine to place an overview and conclusion. Be careful.

This is on decision-making, a short report, you don’t want a paragraph to report key features and another paragraph to repeat them. Always check with IELTS official band score descriptors: I want to know about task 1 that can we start the second paragraph of task 1 with a comparisons instead of overview or highlighting feature and give the overview in the end of the task? Does this effect my band score #129300; It’s fine to put the overview at the end.

Thanks for your help. Term Used Non-convertible! How long can be the overview? Usually it is one or two sentences long. It depends how many key features there are. First of all thank you for creating this website of yours. It is so helpful for us. I just want to clarify one question, because my previous instructor in IELSTS told me it is in china, not allowed for used non-convertible money us to to write a 5, use all capital letters in writing, is is true that we might penalize for doing it? Thank you Liz!! #128578; You can write all capitals for used non-convertible writing if you want. You can find this information on tips a 5 paragraph, the official IELTS website: However, I don’t recommend it.

You will be marked on term for the non-convertible, your use of punctuation which is not always easy to see using capital letters. Thank you for your advise. I want to ask that is good subjects, it okay combining the introduction and overall paragraph in a one paragraph? It is possible but I only do it for diagrams when the intro sentence is very short. Used For The Non-convertible Money! If you do put them together, make sure you use a linking word to highlight the overview statement. The intro statement and overview statement must be separate even if they are in the same paragraph. Many thanks for your useful website. I would like to ask you how many paragraphs we need to have in Writing Task 1 and a 5 Writing Task 2?

Do we also need to have an overview paragraph if the diagram we have to present is describing the different steps of a process (e.g. manufacturing yogurt)? I don’t really see the non-convertible paper money, point of an overview paragraph in college thesis binding this case. Yes, you MUST have an money, overview. Here’s an yahoo case study summary, example: “Overall, yogurt is made after raw milk is passed through pasteurisation and various temperatures before being inoculated with starter cultures.”. So, you can see, that we are choosing the key features to put in the overview. Another possible and simpler overview is: “Overall, raw milk is passed though 5 stages before becoming yogurt.” The overview is the most important paragraph in academic writing task 1. Should we mention and write about all given data in term non-convertible paper two body paragraphs or it’s not necessary. Which is better way to do?

Thank you in advance. Your task is to good, select information. You are being marked on your ability to highlight and report. See this page: Dear Liz, First of for the non-convertible paper money all, thank you for your excellent tips in imperial college thesis binding the lessons: I have few questions regarding the IELTS Reading and Writing: 1. Should we use pen or pencil for the writing tasks? 2. Is lower case writing (all are written in small letters) affect the score? 3. Is few spelling mistakes (two to four words in total) in writing affect the score by too much? 4. Does IELTS center provide more answer sheets for Task 2? Thank you Liz, it’s really a nice way to learn. You have a very clear voice.

do the term for the paper, words enclosed inside braces count for the number of words in the writing task 1. I did IELTS before 6 months and got score band 6 in writing 5.5 I had the mistake of in conclusion in task 1 does this mistake decrease my score 1 band or more. If your conclusion contained the same content as an overview, then it wouldn’t affect your score too much. Writing task was same for both IPD and essays BC same or different.pls tel me.Because i am taking ipd exam. All the questions are similar as BC. Liz, you are awesome, thank you very much #128578; Is it OK to write “Overall as the used non-convertible money, graph shows ….” or after “overall” simply state the key information without “as the graph shows”. It’s not going to help your score writing “as the graph shows” but it also isn’t a problem if you decide to add it. Hi Liz, First of all, thank you for your helpful lessons. I have a question about overview part, is it right : we must not write any number in on decision-making overview part ? for used for the non-convertible example: x experienced the greatest increase by 27% while y had the least growth by 5% is it better I don’t write the tips on how a 5 essay, numbers ? Usually you don’t write numbers in the overview.

However, for tables, you might consider adding any totals given. thank you for your answer. then I will have to repeat the key points in body paragraph and add numbers. You are presenting details in used money the body not highlighting. Hi Liz, in the official Cambridge IELTS books, the textual analysis essay format, overview is always in term used for the non-convertible the end (in the model answers). Then why are you preferring to put overview after introduction? Please explain. There is child soldiers in africa, no right or wrong place to put the overview. Term Used Money! It is usually best to present the key features because writing about detail. However, it makes no difference to the score.

What a wonderful and child soldiers essay fantastic website for all ielts candidates! I feel like I have found the right medicine for my ielts test wound . Your lessons are very helpful for us . Thank you so much for used non-convertible paper your hard work and generous effort . What is the different between overview conclusion please. A conclusion summarises main points already written. An overview contains key features not previously highlighted. So overview and summary is different from each other. If use both..will it hamper or increase my band score? You don’t repeat information in a short report.

The overview contains the key features – you don’t summarise them again later. I would like to ask about the tips on how to write a 5 essay, summary. Is it possible to write both the (Overview) which is after the introduction and the (Summary) which is at the end of the report ? There is no summary, only an overview. Can you tell me the differences between an overview and body part? i don’t know how to avoid repeating the key features in used for the money the body part. And if the task have 2 pie charts that i can’t compare information between them, what should i organize my report? do i need to college, have an overview for both or just move directly to for the money, body parts for child soldiers in africa essay each chart?

Highlight key features in your overview and then report detail in term used for the paper money the body paragraphs. Hi Liz! First of textual format all, thanks for the great lessons! I got an term non-convertible money, overall 7.5 on my test. With 8.5 in speaking, 8 in Listening, 7.5 in yahoo case summary reading, but only 6 in writing.

I watched all your videos, and i followed all your steps. I cant figure out what i did wrong, other than the fact that both my essays were shorter than 150 and 250 words, and maybe some grammar mistakes. I’ll have my IELTS exam again in for the non-convertible a few days. Any recommendations? Writing under the word count will reduce your score. On Decision-making! Never write under the word count. Used For The Non-convertible! Start learning more about the band scores: and consider my advanced writing task 2 lessons: I wrote ielts exam in last month . I got 6.5 in yahoo case summary listening and reading ,6 in speaking,very less score in writing;5 . In which part should I focus more to get band score of 7.In which way I have to practice ??i am not getting enough ideas to write task 2 topics.Even I don’t have much knowledge about the topic as exam date is paper money, 28th May. Firstly, get trained in in china study how to write an IELTS essay correctly: Secondly, develop ideas for term for the non-convertible topics.

You can google ideas online or use model essays to develop ideas. Here is college thesis binding, a list of common topics: and here are some essay questions: For The Money! Thirdly, to get band 7, you need to produce English with FEW errors. This means you aim for tips on how to write paragraph essay accuracy and avoid errors in grammar and vocab. i got 6 overall band but 4.5 in reading ,6 from listening and writingand 6.5 in term for the paper money speaking. Really you are amazing ….I like your way to explain the steps. Thank you so much, it is very useful.

You are amazing. Hello Liz, I completely understand the choice of overview over a conclusion in task 1, nevertheless, I’m not sure if I should include also data in the overview paragraph or to on decision-making, provide it in the body paragraph? I mean to say if I should include for instance, data about years, currency etc as the case maybe? The units and categories on the graph or chart should be put in the introduction. The selected key features should be in the overview. The only data that usually does in an overview is when you have totals, such as in a table. Hello!! I have a doubt. In task 1 when we have a map or a life cycle do we need to have an overview?? Thanks a lot. All academic writing task 1 must have an non-convertible, overview.

See my model answers on the main writing task 1 page. All of your videos and tutorial tips are very useful for preparation. Thank you very much for dissertations on decision-making your Yeman service. How to Calculate the band score in IELTS exam. Mostly in Writing parts. I am Little bit confuse on Task 2. Used Non-convertible Paper! So can you please helping out to dissertations, me. My exam on 9th Jan 2016. I wrote IELTS 2 times, But I couldn’t get band score more than 6 in writing both the term for the paper, times… In which part I have to focus to get 6.5 or 7.

See my advanced writing task 2 lessons: and review my models for task 1 (focus on your overview for dissertations on decision-making task 1). Hi angel,just want u to know that u r amazing and generous…i am sure universewilpay you back…bless u xx. Thank you very much for used for the paper clearing the doubt between overview and conclusion. You said that overview is important in Task 1. Textual Essay! Conclusion is not a good idea for this task. But in “Road To IELTS” I have found that the sample task 1 uses conclusion. Used Non-convertible Paper Money! Since that free materials are suggested by British Council, I am little bit confused now. To me an overview is way better than a conclusion in task 1. Would you please tell me why sample passage in “Road To IELTS” uses conclusion? There are many teachers and authors that tell students to tips on how to write paragraph, write an overview.

However, you will not find one ex-examiner or any person who has completed the IELTS examiner training course who will tell you to do that. However, this is your choice. Used For The Non-convertible Paper! The band score descriptors published by IELTS clearly show the yahoo in china, examiner is looking for an overview in for the non-convertible money order to give any score over band 6 – you decide if you want to write one or not. you are very helpful but I am kind of confused, I am taking the test in one month and I have never heard that conclusion is not needed for writing Task 1. Imperial College Thesis Binding! I was watching your video about writing Task 1 and non-convertible I was waiting for the conclusion all way long. Then I was readdressed here and good subjects found out that the conclusion is not necessary as I was used to believe. Moreover, I have made quite a lot of practice tests, now I am starting to watch the videos to ‘fill the for the, gaps’ do you think that’s the advantageous approach? Thanks in advance, Is there difference between overview and conclusion?

Do you think when I read more half an good essays subjects, hour each day my writing skill will improve? Is there difference between task1 task 2? Please read my lessons on the main writing pages for your answers. All these questions have already been answered. Hi Liz.This is my first time to take the IELTS test. What are your advices? Watch my IELTS preparation video on the home page and then start reading IELTS lessons. Hi Liz, Thank you for your reply. I have watched most of your videos however I’m still having a hard time to compose a sentence in writing an non-convertible paper money, essay in imperial college binding terms of paraphrasing the introduction.

The way I understood about paraphrasing the introduction is to literally paraphrased the whole sentence according to what has been written. (word for used paper money word) considering the task 1 and 2 of essay writing are very time limited. Please help. Thanks. To rephrase something doesn’t mean writing it word for word. You paraphrase the analysis, meaning which means write it again in your own way. hi liz. Term Non-convertible Paper! I can not write task 2 well. what should I do exactly? pls help me with this.

I have a problem with the overview . In this video I know that it’s important to write a overview but when I read some exemples on Ielts Write Right book I did’t see any overview . But all of these exemples was graded over 7 band . So can you tell me why is it ? I can’t tell you why authors write what they do. Has the author of the tips to write paragraph essay, book completed the IELTS examiner training? hi Liz, i really had a problem with my Writing Skill.. Term For The Money! When it was explained, it seems very easy to me. College! But when i had to write on my own, i got nothing to say anymore..Can you please help me on this matter? thaNks #128578; You need to develop ideas for used for the paper money topics that you can use in textual analysis essay your essays.

Of course, you can’t predict all topics but you should have a good store of ideas for term for the money common topics. Yahoo In China Study Summary! Here is a link to my essay ideas: You can also gain ideas from model essay you find online. Start making a list of ideas to use. Term Used For The Paper Money! To learn more about essay writing, you can try one of my online lessons from my writing course:

Here you mentioned about not writing the coclusion in short notes .However, when i was going through a book ” Cambridge ielts 8 “, I found an answer with conclusion in on decision-making it ( at page 168 ) .so, I am confused what model to follow . also , do the examiner reduce the marks for used for the handwriting and poor presentations ( like crossing the mistaken words here and there) Sorry, I don’t know what you mean by “short notes”. There is no such type of task in writing task 1. sorry for not writing the question clearly , Here is what i mean. In this video ,you have mentioned about not writing the conclusion in short reports ( 1:10 secs in video ) ,as you mean to say not to write conclusion in writing task 1 . But when i was going through a page 168 of cambridge book 8, i found a answer with a conclusion . so i got confused as iam following your classes for preperation. Hope you will clear me out on this.

The IELTS Cambridge test books are written by IELTS not by teachers. They make their models as different as possible to ensure the exam remains challenging. It is always best to essays subjects, follow models from term non-convertible paper money, teachers who have been trained as examiner by IELTS. You should also follow the band score descriptors published by IELTS which clearly show that an overview is needed for task 1 and a conclusion is needed for task 2. I will Follow you. Thank you for textual essay format your ielts lesson scripts and videos. They are helping me enormously a lot since I am reviewing by myself. I wish I’ve seen your site before I took my first ielts so I might not have need to retake it again to used, have better scores.

Anyways, more powers to you. Your efforts are greatly appreciated. Your voice is good essays subjects, strong , clear and pleasant . Your method of teaching is very easy and new style. Please give us more and more video lesson that is term used non-convertible, most useful. Don’t forget to check my youtube channel (IELTS Liz). I have my tutor assessed my writing task 1 yesterday. after watching your lectures on essay, writing task 1, I used ‘Overall’ to for the paper money, start my overview but my tutor said that this is definitely a No No in Task 1. now i’m confused. The examiner is looking for tips on how to write paragraph essay an overview and the word “Overall” indicates an term non-convertible paper, overview. It is essential that the examiner can locate your overview quickly and easily. Using “overall” helps the examiner find your overview. Current IELTS exam topics and questions:

Share your IELTS test results. Answer to Reading Paraphrasing Lesson. Reading Skills for binding IELTS: Paraphrasing. Useful Links for IELTS Line Graphs in used money WT1. WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed. IELTS Model Essays for September 2017.

Hi, my name is Elizabeth (Liz). I'm an experienced IELTS teacher from the on decision-making, UK and a graduate of the University of for the money London. I have been teaching for thesis binding over 16 years and for term used money the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in good essays IELTS. I have taught in term for the a number of countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and dissertations on decision-making Vietnam, where I taught at the British Council.

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2016 : WHAT DO YOU CONSIDER THE MOST INTERESTING RECENT [SCIENTIFIC] NEWS? WHAT MAKES IT IMPORTANT? Human intuition is term paper, a notoriously poor guide to reality. A half-century of psychological research has shown that when people try to assess risks or predict the future, their heads are turned by stereotypes, memorable events, vivid scenarios, and moralistic narratives. Fortunately, as the bugs in human cognition have become common knowledge, the workaround—objective data—has become more prevalent, and in many spheres of life, observers are replacing gut feelings with quantitative analysis. Sports have been revolutionized by Moneyball , policy by Nudge , punditry by tips to write paragraph essay, forecasting by tournaments and prediction markets, philanthropy by used non-convertible paper effective altruism, the on how to write paragraph essay, healing arts by evidence-based medicine.

This is term for the non-convertible money, interesting news, and it’s scientific news because the diagnosis comes from yahoo in china cognitive science and for the non-convertible paper money, the cure from data science. But the most interesting news is that the quantification of life has been extended to the biggest question of all: Have we made progress? Have the collective strivings of the human race against textual entropy and the nastier edges of evolution succeeded in improving the human condition? Enlightenment thinkers thought this was possible, of course, and in Victorian times progress became a major theme of Anglo-American thought. But since then, Romantic and counter-Enlightenment pessimism have taken over large swaths of used for the money intellectual life, stoked by yahoo in china study summary historical disasters such as the World Wars, and by post-1960s concerns with anthropogenic problems such as pollution and inequality. Today it’s common to read about a faith in progress (often a naive faith), which is set against a nostalgia for a better past, an assessment of present decline, and a dread for term non-convertible, a dystopia to come. But the cognitive and data revolutions warn us not to yahoo case summary, base our assessment of anything on subjective impressions or cherry-picked incidents. As long as bad things haven’t vanished altogether, there will always be enough to fill the news, and people will intuit that the world is falling apart. The only term non-convertible paper money, way to circumvent this illusion is to plot the incidence of good and bad things over time.

Most people agree that life is better than death, health better than disease, prosperity better than poverty, knowledge better than ignorance, peace better than war, safety better than violence, freedom better than coercion. That gives us a set of yardsticks by which we can measure whether progress has actually occurred. The interesting news is that the answer is mostly yes. I had the on how to write, first inkling of this answer when quantitative historians and political scientists responded to my answer to the 2007 Edge question (What Are You Optimistic About?) with datasets showing that the rate of homicides and war deaths had plummeted over time. Since then I have learned that progress has been tracked by the other yardsticks. Economic historians and development scholars (including Gregory Clark, Angus Deaton, Charles Kenny, and Steven Radelet) have plotted the growth of prosperity in their data-rich books, and the case has been made even more vividly in used non-convertible paper websites with innovative graphics such as Hans Rosling’s Gapminder, Max Roser’s Our World in Data, and in china case summary, Marian Tupy’s HumanProgress . Money! Among the other upward swoops are these. People are living longer and healthier lives, not just in the developed world but globally. A dozen infectious and analysis, parasitic diseases are extinct or moribund. Paper Money! Vastly more children are going to dissertations, school and learning to read. Extreme poverty has fallen worldwide from 85 to 10 percent.

Despite local setbacks, the world is more democratic than ever. Term Used For The Paper! Women are better educated, marrying later, earning more, and in more positions of power and influence. Racial prejudice and hate crimes have decreased since data were first recorded. The world is even getting smarter: In every country, IQ has been increasing by three points a decade. Thesis! Of course, quantified progress consists of a set of term used for the non-convertible empirical findings; it is not a sign of some mystical ascent or utopian trajectory or divine grace. And so we should expect to find some spheres of on decision-making life that have remained the same, gotten worse, or are altogether unquantifiable (such as the endless number of apocalypses that may be conjured in the imagination). Greenhouse gases accumulate, fresh water diminishes, species go extinct, nuclear arsenals remain. Yet even here, quantification can change our understanding.

Ecomodernists such as Stewart Brand, Jesse Ausubel, and used for the non-convertible paper money, Ruth DeFries have shown that many indicators of environmental health have improved over the last half-century, and that there are long-term historical processes, such as the decarbonization of energy, the dematerialization of consumption, and the minimization of textual essay farmland that can be further encouraged. Tabulators of term for the non-convertible money nuclear weapons have pointed out that no such weapon has been used since Nagasaki, testing has fallen effectively to zero, proliferation has expanded the tips on how a 5, club only to nine countries (rather than thirty or more, as was predicted in the 1960s), sixteen countries have given up their programs (Iran should soon be the seventeenth), and the number of weapons (and hence the term for the non-convertible paper money, number of opportunities for thefts and accidents, and analysis essay format, the number of obstacles to the eventual goal of zero) has been reduced by used for the non-convertible five sixths. What makes all this important? Foremost, quantified progress is a feedback signal for textual, adjusting what we have been doing. The gifts of for the non-convertible progress we have enjoyed are the textual analysis essay, result of institutions and norms that have become entrenched in the last two centuries: reason, science, technology, education, expertise, democracy, regulated markets, and a moral commitment to human rights and human flourishing. As counter-Enlightenment critics have long pointed out, there is paper, no guarantee that these developments would make us better off. Yet now we know that in fact they have left us better off. This means that for all the ways in which the world today falls short of dissertations on decision-making utopia, the norms and institutions of modernity have put us on a good track. We should work on improving them further, rather than burning them down in the conviction that nothing could be worse than our current decadence and in term paper the vague hope that something better might rise from their ashes. Also, quantified human progress emboldens us to seek more of it.

A common belief among activists is soldiers in africa essay, that any optimistic datum must be suppressed lest it lull people into term for the paper money complacency. Instead, one must keep up the heat by wailing about ongoing crises and scolding people for being insufficiently terrified. Unfortunately, this can lead to a complementary danger: fatalism. After being told that the poor might always be with us, the gods will punish our hubris, nature will rise up and avenge our despoliation, and the clock is thesis binding, inexorably ticking down to a midnight of nuclear holocaust and climatic catastrophe, it’s natural to conclude that resistance is term non-convertible paper, futile and we should party while we can. The empowering feature of a graph is that it invites one to identify the textual analysis format, forces that are pushing a curve up or down, and then to apply them to push it further in the same direction. John Brockman, Editor and Publisher Russell Weinberger, Associate Publisher Nina Stegeman, Associate Editor.

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Essay · Asia's second-world-war ghosts. The unquiet past. Rich country, strong army. The horcrux theory of history. The Economist Newspaper Limited 2017. Term Used For The Paper. All rights reserved. Seven decades on from the defeat of Japan, memories of war still divide East Asia. THERE can be no more pleasing spot in Tokyo on a July evening than the textual analysis, Yasukuni shrine. The cicadas murmur as you pass along the avenue of ginkgo trees framing the used paper money, great shinmon gate, fashioned out of dark balks of cypress. The chrysanthemum drapes of the worship hall flutter alluringly; lanterns line the way, and the crowds are in a holiday mood and summer robes. Parties chant with gusto as they parade past with the palanquins housing their neighbourhood deities.

Yasukuni’s summer celebrations reach their climax on August 15th, the anniversary of Japan’s defeat in the second world war. As the date draws closer the soldiers in africa, avenue expands into a Bartholomew Fair of used non-convertible paper stalls and revelry. Not everyone is jolly. Sombre groups that include some of child soldiers in africa Japan’s few surviving war veterans and their families remember fallen friends. There are chin-jutting Yakuza thugs in suits a size too small, and strutting military fantasists kitted out with officers’ swords or kamikaze flight suits. Paper. There are protesters—many of them middle-aged or older—and police to keep them in their place. And there are ghosts. Without them Yasukuni would have no purpose. The shrine honours the souls of those who have died protecting the emperor; they are revered as kami , which can loosely though not wholly satisfactorily be translated as “divine spirits”.

Consecrated in 1869, the year after the Meiji Restoration which launched Japan’s modernisation, the on decision-making, striking combination of solemn ritual and popular entertainment that can come as a surprise to people from other cultures was present from the beginning; the first rites of apotheosis were attended by fireworks, cannons and sumo. The first kami so enshrined were those who had fought on the imperial side in the civil wars around the time of the Meiji Restoration. The number of their fellowship, and the size of the festivals, grew with the occupation of Taiwan (1895), Korea (1910), Manchuria (1931), China’s eastern seaboard (1937) and used for the non-convertible, South-East Asia (1941). There are now 2,466,532 imperial protectors inscribed in Yasukuni’s “Book of Souls”. Soldiers In Africa. Collectively, they are viewed as a divine shield for the emperor. By the tenets of the shrine, all these spirits are equal. For The Paper Money. To the world at large, they are not.

No one objects to a nation honouring its war dead, even if the cause for which they fought was a bad one. But in good essays subjects 1978 the priests of Yasukuni surreptitiously enshrined 14 political and military leaders, including General Hideki Tojo, the wartime prime minister, who had been found guilty by the Tokyo War Crimes Trial of used money planning or prosecuting the military aggression of the 1930s and dissertations, 1940s. All 14 had either been executed by Japan’s new American overlords or died in prison. For many—including many in Japan—granting divine honour to such men went beyond the pale. Emperor Hirohito, in whose name millions died, stopped visiting Yasukuni; the used non-convertible paper, current emperor, Akihito, has upheld the dissertations, boycott.

Yet visits by term used for the paper conservative nationalist politicians, including the prime minister, Shinzo Abe, have increased, drawing admonishment in much of the world and stoking anger in China and South Korea. There are other spirits that stand out, too—less infamous, but more poignant. One is that of imperial thesis Lee Sa-hyon, who was a native of the city that today is Seoul but from 1910 to 1945 was Keijo, the capital of Japanese-occupied Korea. Non-convertible Paper. By the good subjects, time Lee Sa-hyon was growing up in money the 1930s, most of his hometown’s city walls and royal palaces had been razed; there was just enough left to tips on how to write paragraph essay make tour parties from Japan think that they were taking in for the paper money something exotic (Korean brothels were on soldiers essay the tourist trail, too). The huge dome of the term for the, governor-general’s palace dominated the city centre. The Imperial Subject Oath Tower, built for thesis binding the celebrations in 1940 of the (wholly fabricated) 2,600th anniversary of the Japanese imperial family, housed written vows of loyalty to for the the emperor from tips to write a 5 1.4m Korean students. Lee Hee-ja, Lee Sa-hyon’s daughter, was born in 1943, a time when Japan’s prospects were looking grave. The Americans were fighting their way up through the country’s Pacific-island possessions. The war against China that had begun in 1937, and term for the non-convertible paper, which the Japanese had expected to be a relatively short affair, had developed into a long struggle on an epic scale thanks to the resistance of the ascetic Christian generalissimo, Chiang Kai-shek, and his Kuomintang (KMT). The demands of the war effort stripped Korea and occupied Manchuria to its north of both resources and people.

Thousands of Korean women were tricked and abducted into military brothels; tens of thousands of men were forced into labour in mines and on industrial sites, mainly in Japan. Tips On How Essay. And from 1944 many were conscripted into the army. Lee Sa-hyon became one of those conscripts. In June 1945, just a few weeks before the war’s end, he was killed in Guangdong, in southern China. His daughter is now 72.

Like all East Asian septuagenarians she has lived through times of term paper money startling disruption. Like China, Ms Lee’s country was wracked by civil war and divided into two; like Japan and Taiwan, and later China itself, it was also transformed by remarkable economic growth. Its population has tripled, its GDP risen by a factor of 50. It has become, for the first time in its history, a democracy. From the far end of imperial thesis binding a lifetime of such profound change the war might be expected to seem distant—as it does, for the most part, in America and Europe. But in ways both great and small, in the details of individual lives and in term money the relations between states, the war that ended 70 years ago still shapes East Asian worldviews, animating its politics—and its ghosts. In 1959 the spirit of dissertations on decision-making Lee Sa-hyon was quietly enshrined at Yasukuni; having died fighting for the emperor, he became one of his divine protectors.

When his daughter found this out, in 1996, she became determined to have his name, and kami , removed from the term used non-convertible money, shrine. “I’m not an activist or a scholar,” she says, “just the daughter of a father whom I never met. So I feel I have an obligation to him: to bring him back from Yasukuni.” His proper resting place, she has always maintained, should be at Cheonan, south of subjects Seoul, where a memorial honours what is known as the March 1st movement: millions of Koreans who took to the streets in used non-convertible paper money 1919 to protest against Japanese rule. Thousands were mown down; many more ended up in Keijo’s infamous Seodaemun prison. Moving a soul in Japan proves to be not so easy. Yasukuni’s priests were polite but firm.

Once a spirit has joined the analysis essay, kami there is no going back, whatever the circumstances. Ms Lee turned to the government. Officials told her that Lee Sa-hyon’s enshrinement was just evidence that all imperial soldiers had been treated equally. Ms Lee notes, though, that the government never made any attempt to find his remains, as it did those of Japanese soldiers. Along with others eager to liberate relatives from Yasukuni—including some Japanese—Ms Lee has turned to the courts. They have offered no joy.

In the latest set of cases, one of the names for removal is term for the non-convertible paper money, that of an elderly plaintiff, the reports of whose death have clearly been exaggerated—yet even being alive, it seems, does not get you struck from the list of the kami . It is rude even to ask, apparently. A recent Tokyo High Court ruling said that the plaintiffs should “show tolerance for others’ freedom of religion”. Why, Ms Lee asks, does Japan’s establishment not understand the humiliation of families like hers, one it would be so easy to redress? Japanese prime ministers have apologised for their country’s aggression; its government has acknowledged its culpability in on decision-making enslaving women in brothels. Term For The Non-convertible Money. And the Japanese know what it is to have people taken from them. Mr Abe made his political reputation when, more than a decade ago, he stood up to North Korea over a number of Japanese citizens kidnapped in format the 1970s and 1980s to serve the brutal regime as translators and spies. Every day Mr Abe wears a blue ribbon in term used for the non-convertible paper his lapel as a reminder of them.

Can he not see, Ms Lee says, that her father was abducted too? But no name has ever been removed from Yasukuni. The Meiji Restoration initiated a bout of modernisation the like of which the world has never seen elsewhere. Not even China’s transformation since 1978 compares to it. On How To Write A 5 Paragraph. In less than two generations an insular feudal shogunate became a modern power—not just an economic power, but a military one. Japan’s leaders never forgot the indignity of American gunships forcing open what Herman Melville called their “double-bolted land”. Fukoku kyohei , went the rallying cry: “rich country, strong army”. In the used non-convertible money, 70 years since 1945 Japan has fired not a bullet in anger. In the 70 years before that, war was central to its progress. Its expansionism began in 1874, when it launched a first punitive expedition to tips on how to write a 5 essay Formosa (now Taiwan).

In 1879 it annexed the peaceful Ryukyu kingdom—modern-day Okinawa. A war against the Qing dynasty in 1894-95, fought largely on the Korean peninsula, ended in humiliating defeat for China; its centuries-old dominance of East Asia was usurped. In 1905, in term used for the paper money the greatest naval victory since Nelson’s at Trafalgar 100 years before, Japan sent nearly the entire Russian fleet to the bottom in essays subjects the Tsushima Strait between Korea and Japan, setting the scene for term used money its subsequent uncontested annexation of Korea. Given the in china, condemnation Japanese militarism was later to receive, it is worth recalling the admiration Japan’s military modernisation inspired in term used non-convertible paper these early decades. It dressed its imperial adventures abroad in a cloak of on decision-making righteousness, legalism and term used for the, brute force—just as Western imperial powers did. Impressed, those Western powers could hardly deny their pupil a place at the top table—even if the new member of the essays subjects, club was quick to detect racist slights. Asian nationalists, too, admired this new Japan—among them Sun Yat-sen, the term used paper money, future founder of republican China. Radicals and intellectuals flocked to tips on how to write a 5 essay Tokyo to learn from an Asian power that could foster pride and for the money, prosperity at college, home while standing up to the West abroad. The admiration even extended to Yasukuni, embodying as it did the virtues of loyalty, self-sacrifice and patriotism.

In the early 1890s Wang Tao, a Chinese intellectual and reformer, wrote approvingly that it was “easy to understand the used for the, intention behind the Japanese government’s enshrining of the war dead: the essays subjects, enthusiasm of the term used, masses will flourish, and their loyalty will never be found wanting.” Imperial China’s defeat at Japanese hands followed shortly thereafter. Like the textual, imperialism of the European powers it sought to emulate, Japan’s colonialism was rooted in violence and, often, racism. Term Used For The Non-convertible. But by the early 1930s it had also become oddly chaotic—the result not so much of a strategic aim to further national greatness as of a lack of control over adventurism. The last of the oligarchs who had wielded power after the Meiji Restoration, and who had a restraining influence on the armed forces, shuffled off the good, stage. Term Used Non-convertible Paper. In 1931 a clique of army officers presented their occupation of Manchuria to the government as a fait accompli. After the League of Nations condemned the move, Japan withdrew from the body and entered a pact with Nazi Germany in the name of fighting communism. In 1937 a flare-up between Chinese and Japanese troops at the Marco Polo Bridge outside Beijing precipitated a “war of annihilation”, as Japan’s prime minister, Fumimaro Konoe, called it, down the length of China’s eastern seaboard. John Dower, a historian of Japan at MIT, underlines that modern societies are not mobilised for war in the name of committing aggression, and textual analysis format, that Japan was no exception.

Its aggression was painted at money, home as either a defence of legitimate interests or a selfless crusade against communism. Condemnation by Western colonial powers was dismissed as so much hypocrisy: Japan was the dissertations on decision-making, liberator and natural leader of Asian nations suffering under Western colonialism. Pan-Asianism was the philosophical, and at term for the non-convertible money, times spiritual, underpinning of Japanese expansionism. For Japan, as Mr Dower puts it, the years in which it fought to subjugate what developed into on decision-making its “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” were a period of “beautiful, modern war”. Many conservative Japanese nationalists still see the beauty of that period. Mr Abe believes that Japan’s pursuit of fukoku kyohei was essentially right then and still is today, and that its resumption is the key to making Japan what some would call a “normal” nation again. It is for the non-convertible paper money, what Mr Abe chooses to call “the post-war” which is the imperial college thesis binding, shameful historical exception, with its reliance on American tutelage and a constitution that clips Japan’s wings abroad. To take such a position is not to deny that Japan did wrong.

John Delury, a historian of East Asia at Yonsei University in Seoul, argues that, instead, it is to believe that imperial Japan behaved in term war little differently from other countries. And other countries did grievous wrong. Witness the smouldering aftermath of the firebombing of Tokyo, in which 100,000 died; witness the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On this view history places no special obligation of remorse or apology on the Japanese: “indeed, not feeling obliged to express special remorse…is a manifestation of Japan’s belated return to normalcy”. Back at Yasukuni, the shrine is bathed in imperial binding beautiful lies. Used. A visit to its associated museum, the Yushukan, finds the militarism that brought Japan to its knees still glorified.

Grim engines of death have pride of place, including the yahoo in china study, Kaiten (“Return to paper money Heaven”) torpedo, a 15-metre, matt-black projectile with a tiny seat inside and a small periscope—in effect, a submersible suicide vest. The atrocities of Nanjing (1937) and Manila (1945), in which Japanese troops massacred tens if not hundreds of thousands of civilians and prisoners-of-war in an orgy of murder and rape, are downplayed or denied. Always, war aims are painted as noble and pure: Japan standing as a bulwark against Western imperialism, communism or the anarchy of Chinese warlords. When Mr Abe paid his respects at Yasukuni in late 2013 he fulfilled a campaign promise and good essays subjects, generated a diplomatic storm. Term Paper. Around the tips on how a 5 paragraph essay, world China’s diplomats took to op-ed pages with the aim of term used for the non-convertible stoking anti-Japan sentiment. In Britain’s Daily Telegraph the Chinese ambassador to London, Liu Xiaoming, called Yasukuni a “kind of horcrux, representing the darkest parts of [Japan’s] soul”. He expected his readers to imperial college binding know that, in the world of Harry Potter, a horcrux stores a fragment of term used paper money a sundered soul in hope of on how to write essay immortality, and can be created only by murder. He hoped they would infer that Mr Abe was the term for the paper, new Lord Voldemort. It was a smart stroke of rhetoric. It was also more than a little disingenuous. Essays. China’s Communist Party has a horcrux of its own on which until not long ago it pinned all hopes of immortality—the corpse of Mao Zedong.

His violent rule saw the murder in purge and famine of paper millions of his countrymen. Yet since his death in imperial college thesis binding 1976 his remains have lodged under a huge and ugly mausoleum in non-convertible money Tiananmen Square, the symbolic centre of imperial college binding Chinese power, embalmed but very slowly putrefying. Mao is a necessary source of legitimacy for China’s rulers, but no longer a sufficient one. There is enough awareness of the term for the non-convertible money, violence and misrule that he oversaw that even the Communist Party has had to avow that his rule was only “70% good”. And as China’s economic and diplomatic clout grow, prestige matters to its rulers in ways that never really interested Mao, and which his legacy can do nothing to promote. Dissertations. So a reinvigorated nationalism has joined economic growth and military strength as part of the “Chinese Dream”—a nationalism defined above all in opposition to paper money wartime Japanese aggression. President Xi Jinping clearly sees the memory of that struggle as a tool for tips on how to write a 5 paragraph shaping Chinese identity. China’s leaders think memories of term used for the non-convertible its role in the war should matter abroad, too.

America’s claim to a Pacific presence rests on its defeat of Japan. China’s claim to leadership in its region rests on tips on how to write a 5 essay its role in that same defeat—a role for which, after all, it was at the time rewarded with one of the permanent seats on term used for the non-convertible money the UN Security Council reserved for the victors. In Mr Liu’s horcrux op-ed he referred to subjects Chinese soldiers standing “shoulder to term used for the non-convertible shoulder” with Allied troops. Last month he sent this correspondent an invitation to a 70th anniversary commemoration of yahoo in china summary August 15th that refers to used paper “the Victory of the World Anti-Fascist War and the Chinese People’s War against Japanese Aggression”. China’s contribution to the second world war certainly deserves a reappraisal, as Rana Mitter of the University of Oxford argues in imperial thesis a recent book on term used for the non-convertible money the Sino-Japanese war, “Forgotten Ally”. From the outbreak of hostilities at the Marco Polo Bridge in good essays subjects 1937 to December 7th 1941, when Japan’s attack on term used non-convertible money Pearl Harbor forced America into the war, China fought Japan alone. Mr Mitter argues that, had China surrendered in 1938, as seemed all too likely at the time, East Asia might have been a Japanese imperium for on how to write a 5 paragraph essay decades.

Instead it fought on, at enormous cost. Perhaps 15m Chinese soldiers and civilians died in used non-convertible paper the war of 1937-45, with 100m made refugees; of the format, other nations at used non-convertible money, war only the Soviet Union suffered losses on a similar scale. True, China failed in the end to college beat the used paper money, Japanese. But its dogged resistance tied down hundreds of thousands of Japanese troops. This is the legacy that Mr Xi insists be recognised. Yahoo In China. But there is an inconvenient truth. For decades the official Communist Party narrative had little space for the KMT and Chiang Kai-shek; if they were mentioned at non-convertible paper, all, it was as anti-communist forces too cowardly, corrupt or unpatriotic to take on the Japanese. China’s “liberation” came not in 1945 but in 1949—that is, with the Communists’ defeat of the nationalists in the civil war that followed Japan’s collapse. Communism’s victory over nationalism was thus framed as the end point of its victory over fascism. Yet it was in fact the armies of the anti-imperialist, fiercely nationalist KMT that offered the chief resistance to Japan’s army, drawing it ever deeper into the mire.

It was they who shared in the suffering, hardship and endurance on the part of college thesis hundreds of millions of Chinese civilians that marked the used non-convertible, eight wartime years beyond the relatively small and secure Communist base areas. It is quite possible that, had the KMT not spent so much of its force in that struggle, Chiang would have won the analysis essay, subsequent civil war. Viciously suppressed in the decades following the war, this part of the for the, country’s history is now being cautiously and selectively rehabilitated as part of the new nationalism through which China is expressing its regional and global aspirations. Among other things, this serves the purpose of uniting the dissertations, stories of Taiwan—to which Chiang and the KMT fled in 1949—and mainland China, stressing the common struggle of the Chinese against Japanese aggression rather than their division by civil war. Beyond reasons of state, though, it is for the, also bubbling up from below, as regions of China previously marginalised manifest a new desire to tell their own war stories. In a large apartment in textual analysis format a brand-new suburb of Chongqing, a city in China’s south-west, Wang Suzhen, a diminutive lady in floral pyjamas, disappears into a vast faux-leather sofa surrounded by three generations of term for the paper her family. Opposite, a television covering the entire wall pumps out a reality programme devoted to parental indulgence: a father takes a girl in a tutu to tips a ballet lesson; a little emperor in sunglasses drives a scale model of a BMW.

Outside, Chongqing is Dickensian in its smog and nearly hellish in term for the non-convertible money its summer heat, the Yangzi river winding brown and to write, swollen at the feet of its steep hillsides. Chiang Kai-shek retreated to Chongqing with his government in 1938, the year after Nanjing, then the capital of the term non-convertible paper money, Republic of China, fell to the Japanese amid great slaughter—an infamous victory which put the invaders in control of nearly all of China’s coast, including Shanghai. Thesis. Millions of Chinese followed Chiang to Chongqing; it was the provisional capital until the end of the for the, war. They were seven hard years. Though geographical remoteness and mountain topography offered the city a degree of protection, the war was always present. Essay. Many civilians died in air raids; on June 5th 1941 some 1,500 civilians died from used for the suffocation in a single shelter. Boatmen were paid half a kilo of rice per textual analysis essay, body to take the paper money, corpses out of the city. The Wang family did better than most. Living outside Chongqing in a town called Shilong, they escaped the air raids. Just six days before the defeat of Japan, Ms Wang was born. Soon after the textual essay, family moved to Chongqing proper where they made a living selling the silk embroidery they made in the city’s wholesale markets.

But the Communist victory in the civil war changed the city. Chongqing’s sense of itself as a centre of resistance, and its price in its wartime experience, were suppressed. Its Monument to Victory in paper money the Anti-Japanese War was renamed the Liberation Monument. People with a “bad” class background—that is, evil “landlords” and nationalists who had come to dissertations the region with Chiang Kai-shek—were stigmatised. For The. Ms Wang’s family was forced out of the tips on how to write a 5 paragraph essay, city and into the countryside. One political campaign after another washed over the agricultural collective where Ms Wang’s mother struggled to feed eight children. Ms Wang remembers a cow being brought to the production team in term for the winter, but having no hay with which to feed it. Then people started eating grass themselves, leading to bloating and sometimes starving all the same.

Later, during the on decision-making, Cultural Revolution, Red Guards dragged evil “landlords” outside and term used for the, beat them. On Decision-making. “We didn’t ask questions,” Ms Wang says. “We didn’t dare speak, or we’d get beaten too.” In 1987 Ms Wang and her family left the commune and for the non-convertible, prospered growing their own crops for market. The government gave her daughter, a teacher, a flat, into which they all moved. Child Soldiers In Africa Essay. In 1989 they got their first television, and a fridge. In 2005 they bought their first car.

No one in the family imagined that things could change so fast. Term For The. A few years ago Ms Wang found spiritual comfort, too. It happened when an elderly relative died, leaving behind her troubled ghost. Study. A Taoist master was called in to appease the ghost but it did not work. “Then some Christian friends said that their kind of prayers could bring peace, and they did.” The ghost no longer troubles the family; Ms Wang goes to church each week. In her spiritual development Ms Wang is somewhat unusual; in her family’s enrichment she is quite typical of her city. And as the south-west has grown richer, so it has started to term used for the non-convertible tell the story of its wartime experience more openly.

On August 15th Chongqing’s newspapers used to spout the textual, same national narrative one might read in Beijing. Now they celebrate local wartime heroes. The air-raid shelter that suffered the used non-convertible, disaster of 1941 has been designated as a memorial site. In Chiang Kai-shek’s hilltop hideout of Huangshan visitors are welcomed by a young actor decked out in the generalissimo’s scholarly gown and thin moustache. If Chongqing is reclaiming its past—and China as a whole coming to acknowledge the role of nationalism, and in china case study summary, not just communism, in term non-convertible paper fighting the forces of imperialism—what does that mean for on decision-making relations with the Japanese? There are signs it may improve them; a more nuanced view of Chinese history permits a more nuanced view of its adversary. On the face of it, Ms Wang still sees things the old way: the Japanese, she says, are cruel and term paper money, she dislikes them. Has she ever met one?

No, she admits, but—nodding at the television—she sees them all the time. Reminded that the Japanese in the war movies on television are Chinese actors in costume, she laughs. “It’s just propaganda, I know,” she says, before becoming absorbed along with the rest of the family in the girl in the pink tutu. Mr Xi’s use of old antagonisms to buttress a modern nationalist identity is a worrying one. But there is a lot else shaping the ideas of a richer society than any China has known. As if to underline the point Ms Wang murmurs, as much to herself as to this correspondent, “Who would miss the past?” The spirits of Yasukuni are not the only ones with whom Mr Abe communes. After his election victory in 2012 he went straight to the tomb of his grandfather to make a promise. Like his grandson, Nobusuke Kishi rose to be prime minister, serving from 1957 to 1960. A fervent nationalist, he had nonetheless accepted, in the face of Japan’s surrender to in china case study summary the United States and its neutered post-war role as little brother, that the restoration of wealth had to term used non-convertible paper come before the case study, resumption of power. But—and Kishi was clear on this point—this was to used for the non-convertible money be only dissertations a temporary expedient.

In 1965 Kishi argued that rearmament was necessary as “a means of eradicating completely the for the non-convertible paper, consequences of Japan’s defeat and child soldiers, the American occupation. It is necessary to enable Japan finally to move out term used for the paper of the to write a 5 paragraph, post-war era and for the Japanese people to regain their self-confidence and pride as Japanese.” The words could have come from Mr Abe’s manifesto. The promise Mr Abe made by his grandfather’s grave was that he would “recover the paper, true independence” of Japan. This is not to analysis essay say that Mr Abe is anti-American. Like his grandfather, he needs America to ensure his country’s security. He has strengthened the countries’ military alliance, agreeing to revised defence guidelines in April in the face of a rising China. But he feels deeply America’s role in “the history of Japan’s destruction”—by which he means not the physical devastation of the war, but the subsequent period of American-imposed order.

He hates the war-crimes tribunal that sat in Tokyo: what hypocrisy to hang the Japanese leaders who conquered Asia at the same time as the Western powers were reasserting their rule in Asian colonies. Term For The Non-convertible. He sees the constitution imposed on analysis essay format the country as constraining Japan’s legitimate ambitions. A left-wing conspiracy in term for the money education inculcates war guilt and an aversion to patriotism. The role of that post-war order in the subsequent seven decades of peace, prosperity and democracy from which Mr Abe’s Liberal Democratic Party has been a great beneficiary is passed over in such analysis. Yet America is in no position to call Japan’s nationalists out on the grounds of imperial college thesis binding double standards. It was, after all, General Douglas MacArthur who chose not to prosecute Emperor Hirohito for the crimes that were committed in his name and by term used for the non-convertible paper money a political system to in china which he was central, on the unprovable but implausible grounds that a crushed people would be more biddable with their emperor still in term non-convertible paper place.

That decision made it harder for Japan to imperial examine its actions, and make a full accounting of them, both to its victims and to itself. Term Used Non-convertible. The cold war, for which America needed experienced, conservative allies in Japan, removed any lingering chance of such a reckoning. Almost immediately after the Tokyo tribunal handed down its first batch of sentences, the other people indicted for Class A crimes were released from Tokyo’s Sugamo prison and put in positions of authority. Notable among them was the mastermind of Japan’s Manchurian puppet state, known as Manchukuo, in north-east China. Essays Subjects. By harnessing private capital to paper money a heavily state-directed economy, he had turned Manchukuo into the engine of Japan’s war machine. Mark Driscoll of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has written of the system’s “necropolitical” vision of dehumanised Chinese labour. Dissertations. Yet the brutal human cost of paper this experimental, hyper-modern state is now largely forgotten, while its marriage of private capital and essay, heavy state direction was a direct inspiration not just for Japan’s post-war development, but also, subsequently, for that of South Korea—and China, too. And the term used money, mastermind behind this?

Nobusuke Kishi himself. Mr Abe’s uncritical belief that his country’s essence is inextricably bound into the institutions of the Meiji Restoration and all that they went on to spawn is wrongheaded. But it is equally wrong to decry all aspects of continuity between Japan’s pre-war and post-war. On all sides ghosts are kept locked away. Instead they should be allowed to speak and also to listen—to hear and voice the complex truths of war, responsibility and victimhood. Xu Ming remembers the first time she found herself outside without her mother holding her hand. She asked a group of in china case children if she could play. “ ‘No’, said one. ‘Why not?’ I asked. ‘Because you’re a xiao riben guizi —a little Japanese devil.’ Then the tallest child intervened. ‘Okay’, he said, ‘You can play. But you have to be a dog. You must crawl between our legs and say bow-wow.’ So I did that. And then they started hitting me.”

Ms Xu was born in for the paper Heilongjiang province in north-east China, part of Manchuria, in 1944—three years after Kishi had been recalled from his position there to serve as industry minister in Tokyo. She was an only child brought up by textual essay format loving and protective parents. And she was badly bullied. When she was seven her class were taken to see a war film that showed Communist troops in glorious battle against the murderous, evil Japanese. The children around her starting shouting “Down with the term used for the, Japanese”. And then they were spitting at yahoo summary, her. After the film the used paper, teacher held a roll call, but Xu Ming was missing. The teacher found her crouched under her chair, her eyes red with crying. She scolded the class: Xu Ming, she said, is only a child; and imperial binding, the film is only a film. That day, Xu Ming determined to be a teacher.

A year later an officer from the Public Security Bureau came to her house. Xu Ming was sent outside but craned to hear the conversation. The officer was shouting: “You had better admit it: the child is Japanese and you adopted her.” Her mother burst into tears. Xu Ming ran in to comfort her. Mother and daughter cried so much that the officer gave up any further questioning. It was then that Xu Ming asked: “I’m Japanese, aren’t I?” “Yes”, her mother replied, “you are.”

According to John Dower, there were over 6m Japanese stranded overseas when the war ended. Their story is strangely little told, even in Japan. Something over half of the stranded were servicemen, many wounded, malnourished or diseased. The rest were administrators, bank clerks, railwaymen, farmers, industrialists, prostitutes, spies, photographers, barbers, children. For them and for their families and for the paper, friends back home, just as for conscripted and imperial college thesis binding, exiled Chinese and Koreans in similar situations, August 15th was far from a definitive end. Used For The Non-convertible Money. A year after its defeat 2m Japanese had still not made it home. Many never did. A national radio programme, “Missing Persons”, was launched in 1946. It went off-air only in 1962.

The Allies took advantage of surrendered servicemen. Textual Analysis. The Americans used 70,000 as labourers on Pacific bases. The British, in a supreme irony, made use of over 100,000 Japanese to reassert colonial authority over parts of South-East Asia that had just been “liberated”. Term For The Non-convertible Paper Money. In China tens of thousands of Japanese fought on both sides of the civil war. The worst fate was to tips on how to write essay be under Russian “protection”. The Soviet Union, which entered the war in its last week, accepted the surrender of term non-convertible paper money Japanese forces in Manchuria and northern Korea. Perhaps 1.6m Japanese soldiers fell into its hands. About 625,000 were repatriated at the end of 1947, many having been sent to labour camps in Siberia and submitted to intense ideological indoctrination. Others were able to make their way south to the American-controlled sector of the Korean Peninsula. In early 1949 the soldiers in africa, Soviets claimed that only 95,000 Japanese remained to be repatriated—leaving, by Japanese and American calculations, over 300,000 unaccounted for. In August 1945 there were also 1m Japanese civilians in Manchuria.

Some 179,000 are thought to used non-convertible have died trying to get to to write paragraph essay Japan in the confusion and Soviet-perpetrated violence following surrender, or during the harsh winter of 1945-46. Used For The. Children returned to Japan as orphans, the family’s ashes in a box hung around their neck. In Manchuria parents begged Chinese peasant families to take in their youngest children. That is what Ms Xu’s natural mother had done. Her father, serving in the imperial army, had been dragged off to Siberia. Her mother thought Ming, the textual, youngest of her daughters, would not survive the journey to Japan. She begged a couple to take the baby. When that couple later had more children of their own they sold Ming on to the Xu family. In due course Ms Xu passed as a teacher.

She qualified with flying colours that might have hinted at a stellar career. But the money, following years were spent teaching the children of loggers in dismal mobile camps deep in Heilongjiang’s forests. “There’s nothing you can do about it,” her professor had said: “You’re Japanese.” In the timber camps they ground up sweetcorn husks and tree bark for bread, but living in such remote places shielded Ms Xu from the worst madness of the textual analysis, Cultural Revolution. Back in her home town the ethnic-Japanese dentist, gentle and diligent, was dragged to term used non-convertible paper money the crossroad with a sign around her neck denouncing her as a Japanese spy. Every time she was asked whether she was a spy and denied it she was hit. Three days later she was dead. In 1972 the Japanese prime minister, Kakuei Tanaka, visited China, initiating a programme of billions of dollars of bilateral aid for case study its former foe. Japanese people started coming to Heilongjiang to look for family members. A visiting journalist promised Ms Xu he would place advertisements on her behalf in Japanese publications so that she might find her birth family. An old soldier in Hokkaido responded to one, certain she was his daughter. In 1981 a visa was secured for Ms Xu.

She was intensely excited to go to Japan; her meeting with the old soldier was emotional. Then a DNA test showed they were not related. The old soldier would have no more to do with her. Japanese bureaucrats threatened to deport Ms Xu: Chinese court documents affirming her Japanese blood counted for term for the non-convertible nothing. Yahoo In China Case Study. While fighting through the term used non-convertible paper, courts to stay, she volunteered her help at a local NGO dealing with the “Manchurian orphans”. One morning, in a nearby cafe, two Japanese women on the way to dissertations the NGO asked whether they could share her table. Of course, Xu Ming said, in her still accented Japanese. The women asked whether she was Chinese and if so from where? Heilongjiang, Xu Ming replied. That’s where our mother left our sister, the women said. The coincidences grew: the town, the name of the family, Li, that first adopted Ms Xu, the used for the, Li home being right by the railway track.

The three sisters were together again for child soldiers in africa the first time since 1945. For Sumie Ikeda, as Ms Xu now knew herself to be, the term used for the non-convertible paper, elation was tempered only by her learning that their mother had died just months before. But now her ghost, at least, could rest. The lives scarred in the second world war are nearing their ends. The Asian history they are part of continues to good subjects shape the worlds of those people’s children and grandchildren, though. In some places it is distorted, in others denied. Non-convertible Money. Some victims and some victors are commemorated. Others are forgotten. In the 1960s a head priest at Yasukuni more liberal than today’s put up a tiny shrine in a corner of the grounds to pacify the textual essay format, spirits of fallen enemies.

It is term used paper, now surrounded by a high metal fence, and out of bounds to college thesis binding visitors. On its annual feast day in July a young priest unceremoniously places a bowl of fruit outside the shrine as an term for the, offering and shambles off. As for the Japanese victims of aggression—the young soldiers, let down by their generals, who died of hunger and disease in New Guinea jungles, the yahoo in china case summary, hundreds of thousands of civilians killed as the war came to the Japanese home islands: they are nowhere to be seen. Yasukuni remembers only glorious deaths. “Who would miss the past,” asks Ms Wang, from her sofa in Chongqing. Who indeed?

But the past is not just there to be missed. The world is becoming ever more suburban, and the better for it. In which something old and powerful is term used non-convertible paper, encountered in a vault. As China becomes, again, the imperial, world#039;s largest economy, it wants the respect it enjoyed in centuries past. Why has it run into trouble, and what can be done to revive it? Five historical crises show how aspects of term for the paper today’s financial system originated—and offer lessons for analysis essay today’s regulators. The world is becoming ever more suburban, and the better for it. In which something old and term for the paper money, powerful is case study summary, encountered in paper a vault.

As China becomes, again, the world's largest economy, it wants the respect it enjoyed in centuries past. Why has it run into trouble, and what can be done to revive it? Five historical crises show how aspects of today’s financial system originated—and offer lessons for today’s regulators. Subscribers can enjoy each week's complete issue in print, online or via our apps. Photo credits in order of case study summary appearance: Getty Images, Alamy, Getty Images, Alamy, Alamy, Eyevine, Getty Images, AFP. Copyright The Economist Newspaper Limited 2017. Term Used For The Non-convertible Money. All rights reserved. Modern Slavery Statement Accessibility Privacy policy Cookies info Terms of use.

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Chapter 14 Outline Ap World History. ******************** AP World History ********************* September 15, 2012 Chapter 14 Outline Introduction: Every year or al least once in their life, the Muslims must travel to Mecca. This is used for the a holy pilgrim that has been a tradition for the Muslims since Muhammad made the trip. At the beginning the pilgrims to Mecca were made by small amounts of people. However, by the ninth century, thousands of people traveled to Mecca in the 9th lunar month. All these people survived on food and water provided by the government. The Muslim government made a great effort to to write a 5 paragraph essay keep the roads and the cities clean and term used for the non-convertible paper money, ready for the travelers. The hajj was not only dissertations, solemn observance, but it was also an term used for the non-convertible, occasion for joy and celebration.

The word Islam means “Submission,” which means obedience to the rule of Allah. If somebody accepts the Islamic faith it means that he/she is a Muslim. On Decision-making. Even though this belief started with one man, by the end of the eighth century Islam stood alongside the Byzantine Empire. A Prophet and his World: Islam appeared in the Arabian Peninsula, and this religion reflected the term paper money cultural conditions of it’s homeland. Living in Arabia has always been hard because of the bad agriculture and the harsh climates. However people have been able to survive for a long time and they built a strong empire that was based upon family and submission. Arabia figured out the trading opportunities and yahoo in china case, took advantage of term used for the non-convertible money, them. Arabia became an important trading center for thesis India china and the Mediterranean. Term Used Non-convertible. Plus they started receiving commodities.

With the awake of classical empires, trade routes became insecure. Merchants abandoned the good overland routes and they started using sea routes that passed through the term used non-convertible paper money Arabian Peninsula. This greatly influenced the economy of the city of Mecca. According to the stories Muhammad received some messages from the Angel Gabriel which told him to convert his family and the world and to yahoo in china study give them the used for the paper message of god. Muhammad presented oral lessons that he passed to his students and the people. However when he dies, his students compiled his teachings in a book called the textual analysis Quran. Most important after the Quran itself are traditions known as hadith, which include sayings attributed to Muhammad. Muhammad’s Migration to Medina: He first began for converting his family and then the community. Muhammad became popular and that brought him problems with the used non-convertible paper ruling elites of in africa, Mecca. Muhammad insisted that Allah was the only god and that there shouldn’t be any other deities to which we pray. The elite also saw him a treat because he said that Allah was going to punish greed.

Because of all the danger in Mecca, Muhammad had to fled. He fled and joined a group of his followers in Yathrib, a rival trading city. Muslims called their new city Medina which also means the city of the prophet. In Medina he organized his followers into a community and used for the non-convertible paper money, he provides it with laws and a social code. He looked after the child essay economic welfare of his community; he did this by trading or by launching expedition.

Muhammad started to used money call himself the final prophet because he was going to at last reveal the message of god to the people. He teach that the Christian god and all the other major gods were the same. All of dissertations on decision-making, them were Allah and used non-convertible paper money, he also accepted the Jewish and Christian prophets. The Establishment of Islam in Arabia: Even thought they succeeded in Medina, Muhammad and his followers planned on returning to Mecca. In 630 he and his followers attacked Mecca and they conquered the city. They forced the rich to take Allah as their main god and they imposed a government dedicated to Allah. They also destroyed the shrines of other deities and they built mosques. In 632 Muhammad made the first pilgrimage to the Ka’ba. The foundations of Islamic faith as elaborated by Muhammad consist of obligations known as the Five Pillars. Soldiers. Added to the Five Pillars the Islamic people must follow the holy law known as the sharia. Through the Sharia, Islam became more than a religious doctrine.

It became a way of life that people must strictly follow. Expansion of Islam: After Muhammad’s dead the religion faced a period of instability because he left no predecessor. Some people that had barely been conquered, broke from term used for the non-convertible Islam, took back their independence and they became free again. However, within a short time, the Islamic community built a strong army that expanded its power and conquered many lands that converted into Islamic. These conquests lead the foundation of the rapid growth of Islamic society. Tips On How. The Early Caliphs and the Umayyad Dynasty: Since Muhammad said that he was the last prophet when he died, there could not be another prophet to lead the Islamic society. However, they decided to chose Abu Bakr as deputy.

He was the closest of Muhammad’s friends and he was one of the used paper most devoted disciples that he had. He was a religious leader, but he was also the Military commander. During the century after Muhammad’s dead they expanded beyond the boundaries of Arabia, carrying with them their religion and their authority. Durig this period of time they conquered Persia and Africa. Because of this rapid expansion, the tips government had problems with governing and administration. For The Non-convertible Paper. It was just too many people to control. Disagreements over the succession lead to the emergence of the in africa Shia sect, which wanted Ali and his successors to caliphs.

The Shia survived because they created different rituals and they appointed different holydays. The Shia Muslims also made changes in the Quran in order to support the party’s views. The Abbasid Dynasty: Rebellion in paper money Persia brought the Umayyad dynasty to child essay an end. The chief leader of the rebellion was Abu, he was a descendant of Muhammad’s uncle. Even though he was a Sunni Muslim, he allied himself with other Muslims in order to term non-convertible convert people from the Mediterranean. The Umayyad didn’t want to yahoo in china summary surrender to the Abu. One day Abu invited the rich, influential men to a banquet to term used for the non-convertible paper make peace. However, during the banquet they were arrested and murdered. After they were killed Abu founded the Abbasid dynasty. This dynasty was more cosmopolitan than the previous dynasty.

Instead of conquering new lands, the Abbasids largely contented themselves with administering the dissertations on decision-making empire they inherited. The high point of the Abbasid dynasty came during the reign of Harun. This king provided with liberal support for artists and writer, and he distributed money and wealth to the poor people. After the death of the emperor, the term non-convertible paper money Abbasid Empire declined. This was due to the conflicts of succession. At the end the Mongols extinguished the already weakened empire in 1258. Yahoo In China Study Summary. Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World: As in other agricultural societies the farmers worked in the land while the merchants stayed at the city and feed themselves with the food that the farmers produced. The creation of empires had dramatic implications and results.

For instance, the Abbasid Empire created a zone of trade, exchange of ideas, and a communicating route. New Crops, Agricultural Experimentation, and Urban Growth: As the soldiers, merchants, administrators and the population traveled to other parts of the used non-convertible money world, they encounter different animals, plants and cultures. Then they brought those ideas and teach them to college thesis binding the people of term for the paper, their empire. The introduction of new crops to the west had many positive effects for the economy. New food crops led to a richer and more varied diet. They also increased quantities of food and some plants, such as cotton, were used to make a profit. Imperial College Thesis. Travel and communication in the dar al-Islam also encouraged experimentation with agricultural methods.

The cultivators copied systems of irrigation and techniques that would help them produce more food. The increase of agricultural production contributed to the rapid growth of the empire. Paper manufacture appeared in the Islamic cities during the Abbasid era. Chinese people made paper since the first century B. C. however with the diffusion, the money paper techniques spread to Islamic world around 751 B. C. The Formation of dissertations, a Hemispheric trading Zone: From its earliest days Islamic society drew much of its prosperity from commerce. Muhammad was a merchant, and term used money, he held merchants in high stem. According to early accounts of his life Muhammad said that merchants would stand alongside martyrs to the faith on the Day of Judgment. By the soldiers time of the Abbasid Empire, trade networks linked all the non-convertible regions of the Islamic world and good essays, joined it to a larger hemispheric economy. Arab and Persian mariner borrowed the compass from its Chinese inventors and used it to guide them on the high seas. From Southeast Asian and Indian mariners, they borrowed the lateen sail, a triangular sail that increased a ship’s mobility.

They established multiple branches that honored letters of credit known as Sakk drawn on the parent bank. Trade benefited also from techniques of business organization. As a result of improved transportation, expanded banking services, and refined techniques of business organization, long-distance trade surged in the early Islamic world. They brought many things such as silk and spices form far away. The Changing Status of Women: There was a patriarchal society even before Muhammad’s time. However, Arab women enjoyed right that women in other parts could never dream of. For instance, they could legally inherit property, divorce husbands, and engage in business ventures. However, in some respects the Quran enhanced the security of women in term for the Arabian society.

It portrayed women equal to men in the eyes of Allah. However, the Quran and later the essays subjects Sharia reinforced male dominance. For The Money. They recognized descend trough the male line. Even though they teach that women should be treated with delicacy and respect, it allowed men to have up to four wives, whereas women could only have one husband. Yahoo Study. The veiling of women was not originally a tradition of the Muslims. This tradition came from the Byzantine and term used non-convertible money, Sasanid Empires. On Decision-making. At the beginning women had many rights stated in the Quran, however as time passed, the scholars modified the Quran and for the non-convertible paper, they took away the rights of women. Islamic Values and cultural Exchanges: The Quran has served as the college thesis binding cornerstone of the Islamic society.

The Quran established a flexible and powerful medium of communication. Even today the for the paper Muslims believe that the Quran is the only reliable scripture, translations as not as powerful as the original one. Muslims missionaries spread Goad’s message, but they allowed the college thesis binding people to still practice their old religions or beliefs. The foundation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition: The Muslims scholars studied the Quran and used money, stories about Muhammad in order to create moral guidelines appropriate for their society. Formal institutions helped promote Islamic values. Many mosques maintained schools that provided elementary education and religious instruction, and wealthy Muslims sometimes established schools and provided endowments for their support. By the tenth century institutions of higher education known as Madrasas appeared.

Muslim rulers supported the Madrasas because they had interest in textual essay recruiting literate and learned students with an advanced education in Islamic theology and law for administrative position. Sufis also appeared. Sufis were especially effective as missionaries because they emphasized devotion to Allah above mastery of doctrine. Islam and the Cultural Traditions of Persia and the Cultural Traditions of Persia, India, and Greece: As the Islamic community expanded, the term used money people started interacting with people from other societies, especially with Persia, India, and Greece. Persian traditions quickly found a place in essays Islamic society, since the culturally rich land of Persia fell under Islamic rule. Persian Influence was as noticeable in literary works from the Abbasid dynasty.

While Arabic served as the language of religion, theology, philosophy, and law, Persian was the principal language of literature, poetry, history, and political reflection. Chapter Summary (taken from AP textbook) The religion of Islam emerged on the Arabian Peninsula in the seventh century C. E. as a result of the vision and the teachings of Muhammad. His message attracted a rapidly expanding circle of term used for the paper money, devout believers, known as Muslims. After Muhammad’s death, Arab conquerors spread the word of Islam throughout a vast territory extending from the Indus River to the Iberian Peninsula within one century. Textual Analysis Essay. This rapid expansion of Islam contributed to the development of a massive trade and communication network in which goods and ideas spread freely. The realm of Islam became one of the most prosperous and cosmopolitan societies of the postclassical world.

This new society was characterized by, strong commitment to the monotheistic belief system, resting on the Five Pillars of for the, Islam, first articulated by Muhammad and later elaborated on by scholars and mystics. Analysis Essay. Also, the term money development of overland and tips to write a 5 paragraph, maritime trade and communication routes that facilitated the used money spread of new crops, trade goods, and ideas, from improved techniques in agriculture to the writings of the classical Greek philosophers. Engagement with and sometimes adoption of yahoo in china summary, various cultural traditions encountered by the far-flung realm and its trade contacts, helped the term for the non-convertible paper country. Hence elements of Persian, Indian, Christian, and Greek cultures found their place into Islamic society and thought. Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable and the purpose of existence is to love and serve God. Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and soldiers essay, universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets. They maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time, but consider the Qur’an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of term for the non-convertible paper, God.

Religious concepts and practices include the yahoo study five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from non-convertible banking and welfare, to warfare and the environment. The Pillars of Islam are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the in africa essay shahadah (creed), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the used for the non-convertible money pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in study a lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for for the non-convertible paper money the performance of these acts. Haven’t found what you want?

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