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Lorenzaccio, Musset - Fiche de Lecture - Acte par Acte. Lorenzaccio d'Alfred de Musset est une oeuvre qui est souvent ©tudi©e pendant l'ann©e de premi¨re L en vue des ©preuves anticip©es de Fran§ais du Bac. Ap European! Avec ce r©sum© de Lorenzaccio sc¨ne par sc¨ne , cela vous permettra d'avoir rapidement une id©e globale de l'oeuvre et de l'Histoire. RESUME LORENZACCIO , Alfred de MUSSET (1834) Une nuit, dans un jardin de Florence, Lorenzo et Giomo accompagnent Alexandre de Me ?dicis. Research Example! Ils attendent une belle jeune fille que le duc a paye ?e pour aller avec lui au bal de Nasi. Write Essay! Celle-ci se fait attendre, quand son fre#768;re - Maffio - la voit traverser le jardin. 12 Essay Hour! Inquie ?te ? par sa fugue, il la poursuit et tombe nez a#768; nez avec le duc, Giomo et Lorenzo.
Il leur demande ce que cela signifie. Essay! Il les menace de rapporter les faits au duc puis les attaque a#768; l’e ?pe ?e. Research Paper! Rapidement contro#770;le ?, il apprend qu’il s’agit du duc en personne. Ap European! Ils ache#768;tent son silence et repartent. A travers les conversations des passants (le marchand, l’orfe#768;vre, le couple de bourgeois, les e ?coliers. Thesis! ), on write ap european essay apprend qu’au petit matin, le bal masque ? des noces de la fille des Nasi bat encore son plein. Research! Les grands seigneurs et le duc y sont pre ?sents. Write Ap European! Leur train de vie est extravagant : costumes superbes, de ?bauche, fe#770;tes monumentales et alcoolise ?es. Research Paper! Ceci contraste avec la vie du peuple : pauvrete ?, travail, re ?voltes contre les seigneurs et contre l’emprise allemande. Write! En fin de sce#768;ne, Julien Salviati harce#768;le Louise Strozzi, qui de ?cline son offre. Le marquis de Cibo fait ses adieux a#768; sa femme, son fils et son fre#768;re : il part a#768; Massa.
La marquise est triste de ce de ?part, tant elle est amoureuse. Research! Le marquis parti, elle se retrouve avec le cardinal de Cibo. Write! Ils discutent du bal des Nasi et tre#768;s vite, la marquise montre son aversion pour le duc, qu’elle de ?crit comme un tyran provocateur. 12 Essay Hour! Lorsqu’elle sort, le cardinal appelle le page ( Agnolo ) de celle-ci. Write! Contraint, il lui tend une lettre (du duc) destine ?e a#768; la marquise. Prospectus Paper! On apprend que le duc lui fait la cour depuis deux mois et qu’elle est partie le rejoindre, malgre ? le discours qu’elle a tenu. Le duc est dans une des cours de son palais, il est rejoint par le cardinal Valori et Sire Maurice. Write! Ceux-ci font part au duc des nouvelles du pape. 12 Essay Hour! Ce dernier pense que Lorenzo est un mauvais personnage pour le gouvernement.
Il n’a qu’un seul ro#770;le : de ?baucher le duc, mais celui-ci n’adhe#768;re pas a#768; cette ide ?e. Ap European Essay! Lorsque Lorenzo les rejoint, Sire Maurice le provoque et le duc ame#768;ne les deux hommes a#768; se battre a#768; l’e ?pe ?e. Scientific Research Paper! Lorenzo, apeure ? et mauvais soldat prend peur et fait un malaise. Write! Le duc intervient alors en expliquant qu’il a p ousse ? le vice pour leur montrer que Lorenzo n’est pas un mauvais garc#807;on. Des passants discutent a#768; Montolivet (lieu de foire).
Lors de leurs e ?changes, un bourgeois s’indigne de la politique (arbitraire et absolue) du duc et de son comportement, alors qu’il n’est pas de sang royal (ba#770;tard). 12 Essay Hour! Deux dames de la cour, chez le marchand, demandent a#768; leurs officiers d’aller chercher Julien Salviati. Ap European! Entre alors le prieur de Capoue, puis Salviati (les dames sont parties entre- temps). Prospectus For A! Celui-ci aperc#807;oit Louise Strozzi et raconte au prieur que cette femme est d’accord pour coucher avec lui. Ap European! Le prieur - fre#768;re de Louise - s’offusque et s’en va . Marie Soderini et Catherine Ginori sont sur les bords de l’Arno. Paper! La me#768;re de Lorenzo , qui a eu vent de son malaise (Acte I, sc.4), s’inquie#768;te de son avenir. Write! Elle relate a#768; Catherine que son fils e ?tait (avant de partir a#768; Florence) tre#768;s avenant et juste avec la volonte ? d’aider tout le monde. Scientific Paper! Elle le voit maintenant comme un homme corrompu, vil et malhonne#770;te. Write Ap European! Elles sont remplace ?es par un groupe de bannis de Florence; Maffio les a rejoint (cf.
Acte I, sc.1). Role Of Music In My Essay! On apprend que Philippe Strozzi est un fervent de ?fenseur d’une Florence libre et saine et qu’il lutte pour la chute du duc. Acte II, sce#768;ne 1. Philippe Strozzi, seul, regrette de laisser la corruption envahir la ville et bannir ses e ?le ?ments. Write Essay! Pierre et Le ?on Strozzi (le prieur de Capoue) entrent. 12 Essay Hour! Le ?on est accable ? par ce qu’il vient d’entendre a#768; Montolivet ; Pierre le voit et lui demande ce qu’il se passe. Write Ap European! Avec appre ?hension il explique qu’il a entendu Salviati, dire qu’il allait coucher avec leur sœur (Louise) et qu’elle e ?tait consentante.
Pierre est dans tous ses e ?tats : il de ?teste Salviati. Acte II, sce#768;ne 2. Lorenzo et Valori sont devant une e ?glise. Role Of Music! Valori fait un e ?loge de la beaute ? de cette e ?glise, lorsque Tebaldeo Freccia les interrompt. Write Ap European! Ce dernier, qui porte un tableau, est un modeste amoureux des arts.
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Cependant, il se me ?fie de l’influence de la mar quise sur le duc qui la courtise. La marquise vient se confesser et le cardinal tente de recueillir des informations sur sa relation avec le duc. Essay! La marquise ne comprend pas son insistance, se fa#770;che et lui reproche de ne pas rester a#768; son ro#770;le de confesseur (il est son beau- fre#768;re). Research! Pique ? , il s’en va. Write! La marquise, seule, re ?fle ?chit a#768; cet e ?change et a#768; ses sentiments, quand Agnolo vient lui annoncer l’arrive ?e du duc. Acte II, sce#768;ne 4. Lorenzo, sa me#768;re et sa tante discutent litte ?rature. Homelessness! Bindo et Baptista Venturi les interrompt ; les femmes sortent. Write Essay! L’oncle tente de savoir si Lorenzo - si proche du duc - est encore de leur co#770;te ? (re ?publicain) ou si son jeu de rapprochement lui a tourne ? la te#770;te.
En effet, on research apprend que Lorenzo est entre ? a#768; la cour du duc afi n de s’e n rapprocher, de renverser le pouvoir et d’amener a#768; une Re ?publique. Ap European! Mais ils ne sont plus tre#768;s su#770;rs de ses opinions. Diamond Research Paper! Lorenzo les rassure sur ses objectifs lorsque le duc parait. Ap European! Lorenzo pre ?sente son oncle et son ami au duc et lui demande des faveurs pour ces derniers. Thesis Statment! Le. duc et Lorenzo, sont seuls et Alexandre avoue avoir fait chavirer la marquise de Cibo. Ap European! Mais apercevant la tante de Lorenzo, il lui demande de la lui pre ?senter. Role In My! Enfin, Lorenzo explique au duc qu’il doit aller chez les Strozzi. Ap European Essay! Il lui fait cr oire qu’il va glaner des informations sur des complots, qu’il lui transmettra.
Acte II, sce#768;ne 5. Lorenzo, Louise, Le ?on et Philippe Strozzi sont dans leur palais. Diamond Paper! Philippe s’inquie#768;te pour son fils (Pierre) car il est parti tuer Salviati afin de venger leur honneur (suite de l’Acte II, sc.1). Write Ap European Essay! Puis il re ?ite#768;re dans une tirade, la description de Florence : ville ensanglante ?e et corrompue. Paper! Enfin, Pierre et les fre#768;res Pazzi (Thomas et Franc#807;ois) rentrent et annoncent qu’ils ont tue ? Salviati. Write Ap European Essay! Il reproche ensuite, a#768; son pe#768;re, d’accueillir Lorenzo au palais. Example! Philippe Strozzi mai#770;trise la situation, et propose a#768; Pierre de se cacher pour ne pas e#770;tre puni de son acte. Essay! Celui-ci refuse, question d’honneur. Acte II, sce#768;ne 6. Tebaldeo est au palais du duc, il fait son portrait.
Alexandre a quitte ? sa co#770;te de maille pour l’occasion. Diamond! Tout en discutant, Lorenzo arrive, et empoigne la co#770;te de maille. Write Ap European Essay! Puis il fait mine d’alle r chercher sa guitare proche du puits. Homelessness! Tebaldeo a termine ? son portrait, et le duc se rhabille. Write Essay! Mais il ne retrouve plus sa co#770;te de maille. Scientific Paper! Lorenzo, qui revient avec sa guitare feint de ne plus savoir ou#768; il l’ a pose ? et de ?tourne l’attention du duc en parlant de sa tante. Acte II, sce#768;ne 7. Salviati, agonisant arrive au palais du duc. Write Ap European! Il accuse les fre#768;res Strozzi de l’avoir tue ? . Diamond Research Paper! Il fait croire au duc, qu’ils l’ont agresse ? car Salviati les avait de ?shonore ?s en disant que le duc e ?tait amoureux de Louise. Write Essay! Le.
duc veut alors, mettre a#768; mort les fre#768;res Strozzi. Acte III, sce#768;ne 1. Lorenzo s’entrai#770;ne a#768; l’e ?pe ?e avec Scoronconcolo . Scientific Paper! Rapidement il se de ?chai#770;ne et Scoronconcolo lui demande la ve ?rite ? sur sa rage. Write Ap European Essay! Lorenzo avoue, qu’il a un ennemi et qu’il va le tuer ici -me#770;me. Prospectus Example! Il demande a#768; Scoronconcolo s’il pourra l’aider dans sa bataille (tenir les mains de l’ennemi), le jour venu. Write! Celui-ci accepte. Acte III, sce#768;ne 2. Pierre est contrarie ? que Salviati ne soit pas mort. Diamond! Il annonce a#768; son pe#768;re qu’il part chez les Pazzi, sie#768;ge de la re ?volte contre le duc. Write! Philippe s’inquie#768;te de l’engagement de son fils et de ce qu’ils ont pre ?pare ? pour faire chuter le duc et mettre en place la re ?publique. Prospectus For A Research Paper Example! Soucieux du sort de son fils, Philippe part avec Pierre.
Acte III, sce#768;ne 3. Des officiers allemands, sous ordre du duc, ont arre#770;te ? Thomas Strozzi. Write Ap European! Dans la rue, Pierre et Philippe Strozzi les rencontrent. 12 Essay Hour! Pierre qui e ?tait recherche ?, est lui-me#770;me arre#770;te ?. Ap European Essay! Ils rejoignent le tribunal des Huit. Philippe, seul dans la rue, pleure ses fils et l’injustice de Florence, lorsque Lorenz o intervient. Paper! Philippe lui demande s’il va aller jusqu’au bout et mettre fin au cauchemar engendre ? par les Me ?dicis. Ap European! Philippe, aussi, a constate ? le changement d’attitude de Lorenzo (il n’est plus la personne loyale et juste qu’il e ?tait). Thesis Statment! Ce dernier demande a#768; Philippe de quitter Florence et de ne pas aller chez les Pazzi. Write Ap European Essay! Philippe refuse et Lorenzo le rassure en lui indiquant qu’il va tuer Alexandre. Role In My Life Essay! Mais il avoue que pour en arriver la#768;, il s’est transforme ? en un homme plein de vices, dont il ne peut, aujourd ’hui, se de ?faire.
Sa soif de justice et de vengeance l’ont de ?route ?. Essay! Le meurtre du duc est le dernier acte qui justifie sa transformation. Diamond Research Paper! Il tente ainsi de montrer a#768; Philippe que la vie de Florence est complexe et peu ide ?ale. Essay! Lorenzo demande a#768; garder ses confessions secre#768;tes. Acte III, sce#768;ne 4. Catherine Ginori a rec#807;u une lettre du duc qui lui fait la cour. Essay System! Dans ce mot, il fait allusion a#768; Lorenzo, son entremetteur. Essay! Quand Marie Soderini entre, Catherine lui montre la lettre qu’elle ne comprend pas. Paper! Marie est ane ?antie : elle n’accepte pas que son fils aille jusque-la#768; dans le vice.
Catherine emme#768;ne Marie chez Lorenzo pour plus d’explications. Acte III, sce#768;ne 5. La marquise de Cibo, tre#768;s en beaute ?, attend la venue du duc. Ap European! Le cardinal de Cibo entre et la complimente sur sa tenue. Homelessness! La marquise ne peut le recevoir et lui demande de repasser plus tard. Write Ap European! Seule, elle s’interroge sur le comportement du cardinal (il la surveille). Acte III, sce#768;ne 6. La marquise en compagnie du duc, le pre ?vient de la re ?volte populaire a#768; son e ?gard. Scientific Research! Elle lui demande d’agir pour retrouver la confiance du peuple, malgre ? les ordres de l’empereur Charles Quint. Ap European Essay! Le duc s’appre#770;te a#768; partir lorsque le cardinal les surprend . 12 Essay Hour! La marquise, seule, s’adresse a#768; son mari en lui annonc#807;ant son de ?shonneur d’avoir succombe ? au duc. Acte III, sce#768;ne 7.
Philippe Strozzi a invite ? sa famille (« les quarante Strozzi ») en son palais. Write! Il fait un long discours qui traduit sa volonte ? de vengeance et de justice : il veut mettre fin a#768; la ligne ?e des Me ?dicis, responsables de son chagrin. Prospectus For A Paper! Mais, lorsque tous le#768;vent leur verre et boivent, Louise s’effondre. empoisonne ?e. Write! Philippe est ane ?anti et ne se sent plus en e ?tat d’aller libe ?rer ses fils, il veut fuir. Homelessness Thesis! Les convives sont side ?re ?es et veulent la mort du duc. Write Essay! Elles tentent en vain de convaincre Philippe de les accompagner, pour venger la mort de Louise. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 1. Lorenzo et le duc sont dans son palais. Homelessness Thesis! Le duc apprend la mort de Louise. Write Essay! Puis, Lorenzo, demande au duc s’il a retrouve ? sa co#770;te de maille.
Celui-ci lui re ?pond que non et qu’il ne p orte rien qui le prote#768;ge. On Today Education! Enfin assure ? de sa vulne ?rabilite ?, Lorenzo lui propose un rendez-vous avec sa tante. Write Ap European! La rencontre se fera dans la chambre de Lorenzo. Research Paper! Ce dernier lui a, en re ?alite ?, donne ? le rendez-vous de sa mort (cf. Write! Acte III, sc.1). Acte IV, sce#768;ne 2. Thomas et Pierre Strozzi, relaxe ?s par le tribunal des Huit, arrivent chez eux. Thesis Statment! Le portier les rec#807;oit et se rend compte qu’ils ne sont pas au courant de la mort de leur sœur.
Les moines qui arrivent pour enterrer le corps, leur annoncent le de ?ce#768;s de Louise. Ap European Essay! Thomas est ane ?anti, Pierre, lui, veut comprendre et rejoindre leur pe#768;re. Thesis! Il suspecte une vengeance de la part des Salviati. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 3. Lorenzo pre ?vient Scoronconcolo du rendez-vous du soir. Essay! Puis, seul, il se demande comment il a pu en arriver a#768; pren dre du plaisir a#768; tuer quelqu’un qui lui a fait de ?couvrir une facette de la vie qui lui e ?tait inconnue et devenir un homme qu’il de ?teste aujourd’hui? Il s’en renvoie a#768; ses croyances, et se pense plus irre ?el qu’humain.
Acte IV, sce#768;ne 4. Chez la marquise de Cibo, le cardinal, lui indique qu’il sait qu’elle est la mai#770;tresse du duc, mais que cela ne rele#768;ve pas de ses confessions: il l’a vu. On Today Education System! Cependant, le cardinal lui demande de rester proche du duc, de re ?pondre a#768; ses besoins pour conque ?rir son cœur, pluto#770;t que de lui parler politique. Write Ap European! Si la marquise re ?ussit a#768; se rapprocher du duc, le cardinal, pense pouvoir en tirer profit (monter en grade). 12 Essay Hour! A cet instant le marquis rentre et le cardinal menace la marquise de tout de ?voiler si elle n’accepte pas de se rapprocher du duc. Write Ap European Essay! Elle de ?cide, finalement, de tout avouer a#768; son mari. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 5.
Lorenzo, a#768; l’aide de ses domestiques, arrange sa chambre pour le « faux » rendez-vous. Homelessness Thesis! Catherine vient lui annoncer que suite a#768; la lettre du duc, sa me#768;re, Marie, est souffrante. Write Ap European! Mais incontro#770;lable, Lorenzo, lui demande ce qu’elle a pense ? du mot. Statment! Lorsqu’il se ressaisit il demande a#768; Catherine de rejoindre sa me#768;re. Write Essay! Seul, Lorenzo, regrette d’e#770;tre devenu (un peu malgre ? lui) un homme de ?pourvu de vertu. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 6. Philippe Strozzi est en train d’enterrer sa fille lorsque Pierre vient lui annoncer que les bannis se sont regroupe ?s pour aller faire tomber la citadelle (lieu de garde des allemands). Prospectus Research Example! Il compte sur Philippe pour commander les troupes et les ope ?rations. Write Ap European Essay! Celui-ci refuse de se battre contre son pays. Diamond Research! Pierre, fa#770;che ?, repart.
Acte IV, sce#768;ne 7. Lorenzo pre ?vient les hommes de te#770;te du mouvement re ?publicain, de la mort imminente du duc. Ap European Essay! Ils ne le croient pas. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 8. Pierre Strozzi vient annoncer a#768; deux bannis que son pe#768;re ne viendra pas.
Mais il faut sa pre ?sence pour que la re ?volte commence. Homelessness! Les bannis refusent donc de se rendre a#768; Sestino pour annoncer le de ?part, sans l’aval de Philippe . Acte IV, sce#768;ne 9. Lorenzo, dehors, la nuit tombe ?e, re ?fle ?chit a#768; la mise en sce#768;ne de l’assassinat du duc. Write Essay! Son monologue est empreint de de ?mence : il passe d’un sujet a#768; l’autre sans aucune logique. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 10. Le duc di#770;ne avec Giomo, lorsqu’entre le cardinal Cibo. Homelessness Thesis! Celui -ci l’interp elle et lui conseille de se me ?fier de Lorenzo qui a annonce ? a#768; plusieurs personnes qu’il tuerait le duc cette nuit. Ap European Essay! Sire Maurice les rejoint, et confirme ces suspicions. Thesis! Le duc ne les croit pas.
Lorenzo arrive, et presse le duc pour son rendez- vous. Acte IV, sce#768;ne 11. Lorenzo ame#768;ne le duc dans sa chambre. Write Ap European! Celui-ci se couche en attendant Catherine. 12 Essay Hour! Lorenzo revient alors et frappe a#768; mort le duc. Write Ap European Essay! Scoronconcolo se pre ?cipite pour aider Lorenzo et se rend compte, que l’ennemi est le duc. Research! Ce dernier mort, Lorenzo refait une crise de de ?mence. Write! Scoronconcolo se charge de le faire quitter la chambre.
Le palais du duc est rempli de courtisan, quand Giomo, vient informer les proches du duc de son de ?ce#768;s. Research! La nouvelle doit rester secre#768;te, car le peuple re ?volte ?, est aux portes de la citadelle et menace les. hauts dignitaires de Florence. Write Ap European Essay! Giomo a ramene ? le corps dans la sacristie du palais. Paper! Le cardinal Cibo, Valori, Rucellai#776;, Sire Maurice, Guicciardini, re ?fle ?chissent a#768; e ?lire un nouveau duc le plus rapidement possible. Ap European! Co#770;me de Me ?dicis est pressenti pour cette place.
Philippe Strozzi, a#768; Venise, se lamente en apprenant que son fils, Pierre est a#768; la te#770;te des troupes franc#807;aises, qui marchent vers Florence, pour la libe ?rer. Role In My! Lorenzo arrive et lui annonce qu’il a tue ? le duc. Ap European Essay! Philippe est heureux de cette nouvelle (il n’en croit pas ses yeux) , et demande a#768; Lorenzo s’il a pre ?venu tous les re ?publicains de cet acte. Paper! Lorenzo acquiesce mais ne sait pas ce qu’ il en est (n’a pas grande confiance en eux), puisqu’il est parti pour Venise, quelques jours auparavant. Write Essay! Cependant, un crieur, annonce a#768; qui veut l’entendre que la te#770;te de Lorenzo est mise a#768; prix. Diamond Research Paper! Philippe, entendant des bruits dans l’escalier, cache Lorenzo dans s a chambre. Dans une rue de Florence, le marquis de Cibo et sa femme se baladent. Write! Deux bourgeois conversent sur le fait que la marquise a e ?te ? la mai#770;tresse du duc. Dans une auberge, Pierre rec#807;oit un message du roi de France.
Il lui annonce q u’il le soutient dans sa re ?volte pour la « liberte ? de l’Italie » et veut l’enro#770;ler . Research Paper! Pierre veut accepter la proposition et quitter son groupe de bannis qui ne suivent que son pe#768;re, malgre ? les conse ?quences. d’une emprise franc#807;aise sur Florence et l’Italie. A travers la conversation entre le marchand et l’orfe#768;vre, on write ap european essay apprend qu’apre#768;s la mort du duc, le de ?sordre est apparu : l’effervescence du peuple et la de ?sorientation du gouvernement. 12 Essay Hour! Le marchand indique aussi l’aspect surnaturel du meurtre du duc (« six Six ont concouru a#768; la mort »). Write Ap European Essay! A leur sortie deux petits Strozzi et Salviati, ainsi que leurs pre ?cepteurs, entrent et se chamaillent. Diamond Research! Dispute enfantine, qui traduit la re ?alite ? des adultes. Des e ?tudiants se re ?voltent, dans une rue de Florence, contre des soldats qui leur refusent le droit de vote (la de ?mocratie) pour l’e ?lection du nouveau duc.
Lorenzo apprend le de ?ce#768;s de sa me#768;re, et propose a#768; Philippe de sortir en promenade avec lui. Ap European! Celui-ci, refuse afin de ne pas exposer Lorenzo a#768; ses de ?tracteurs. For A Paper! On apprend qu’a#768; Florence, les re ?publicains n’ont pas eu le pouvoir et que Co#770;me est devenu duc. Essay! Lorenzo, de ?sabuse ?, de ?cide de sortir. Prospectus For A Research Paper Example! Le temps que Philippe charge ses valets de le suivre pour le prote ?ger, Lorenzo se fait tuer. A Florence, Co#770;me est sacre ? duc par le cardinal Cibo. Essay! Il prononce son serment sur l’Evangile. Vous devez ªtre connect© pour pouvoir lire la suite. Merci pour cette fiche, elle est bien détaillée ! Votre site va me sauver pour le Bac, merci à vous :) ! Ce résumé de l'oeuvre est vraiment très bien fait , très compréhensible.Merci. Merci pour cette fiche. Research Paper! Avec ce résumé Lorenzaccio me parait plus compréhensible.
Cette fiche de lecture ma parue très complète et je pense m'aidera beaucoup. Je vous remercie pour cette fiche de lecture sur Lorenzaccio, j'y vois plus clair, super ! merci beaucoup pour ce document j'en ai vraiment besoin en ce moment en littérature car je ne savais pas comment ficher cette oeuvre. Merci ! J espère que cela m'aidera pour approfondir. Pas aussi détaillé qu'un synopsis, mais parfait pour se remémorer les scènes!! merci . Vous voulez en savoir plus sur les enseignements du Bac L ? digiSchool vous prop. S’inscrire au Baccalaur©at Litt©raire en candidat libre est une ©tape franchir.
Les cours de litt©rature de Terminale L repr©sentent une ©preuve au Baccalaur©at. Le Baccalaur©at est un examen tr¨s redout© par les lyc©ens. Ap European! Entre r©visions et s.
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Dec 19, 2017 Write ap european essay,
Top Ten Reasons Kids Hate Homework. So we have five days of write ap european school for 36 weeks, which makes a good 180 days. Take 13 years of education, including Kindergarten, which is a good 2340 days of hell (Well, that seems less than I thought). For me, Second Grade was the worst. Scientific! I went to school, had a large pack of homework, while my siblings and ap european essay, their friends had NO HOMEWORK AT ALL! If that wasn't bad enough, I had to go to THERAPY because I had problems pronouncing certain letter sounds. I didn't get home until 5, and while my siblings and friends spent all evening having fun, I had to do crap all night, and not have ANY FUN, because by the time I was done, they were getting ready to go to bed. I remember writing this post a long time ago.
16 likes is more than I thought I would get. I mean, we work at school, that's enough! In England, this is 12 essay hour, how we go: Day Care (1 year) 2-3 yr olds. Nursery (1 year) 3-4 yr olds. Reception (1 year) 4-5 yr olds. Year 1 (1 year) 5-6 yr olds. Year 2 (1 year) 6-7 yr olds. Year 3 (1 year) 7-8 yr olds.
Year 4 (1 year) 8-9 yr olds. Year 5 (1 year) 9-10 yr olds. Year 6 (1 year) 10-11 yr olds. Year 7 (1 year) 11-12 yr olds. Year 8 (1 year) 12-13 yr olds. Year 9 (1 year) 13-14 yr olds. Year 10 (1 year) 14-15 yr olds. Year 11 (1 year) 15-16 yr olds. Year 12 (1 year) 16-17 yr olds.
Year 13 (1 year) 17-18 yr olds. Uni/College (3 years usually) 18-19+ 'Ok, go to school now dear.' 'Have you remembered your homework for today? ' 'Er. Write Ap European! well. Role Essay! we had homework? ' 'That's 5 times in a row! ' Later in school. 'Ok, now time to see who has brought . more.
Uhh. Zz. Z. Zzz. WAKE UP! HAVE YOU FINISHED YOUR HOMEWORK!? That's me and homework. the same is with many other kids. it's so boring! There is no creativity, which makes it so dull, it is so easy that it is write essay, tedious, or so hard that it is. Um. well, also tedious. and it doesn't do ANYONE any good. 12 Essay Hour! like, all it does is stresses kids, parents and teachers out, couldn't the homework be Get enough sleep and be relaxed so you can have a happy childhood and no arguments with your parents?! And that sentence in quotation marks ( Get enough sleep and be relaxed so you can have a happy childhood and no arguments with your parents) is THE EXACT OPPOSITE OF HOMEWORK! The amount of stress that homework is ap european essay, causing on us kids is ridiculous! We get sick and miserable because we are so stressed out!
The stress damages the diamond research, amount of write sleep we get. Diamond Research Paper! I am sure that, though it may seem unpleasant and write ap european essay, harsh, that the 12 essay hour, amount of write ap european essay stress caused by homework will lead to statment suicide. The teachers just pile it on write ap european top of us, not realizing that we have lives outside of school and need time to relax! I'm always worried about paper big homework assignments that I didn't complete it I forget a assignment because my parents give me so much about it and write essay, then on essay education system in india top of that the teachers embarrass you about how your homework is not complete and the reason for why its not complete and write ap european, my ANSWER IS I HAVE BETTER THINGS TO DO THEN DO MOTE SCHOOL AFTER SCHOOL! Like We have 30 problems of math homework and it's due the NEXT DAY!
Even a day before the diamond research paper, test that we have WEEKLY every FRIDAY! and over the weekend as well. Essay! I seriously want to kill everyone. I am sooo tired from prospectus research all the write essay, homework. I am so sleep deprived that I literally doze off during class! I really want to get good grades so I study a lot and of course. Less sleep. Does good grades mean walking zombie?
Think about it, we go to school for 7 hours. Come home do 4-5 hours of homework and to diamond research paper top is off (for me and probably many others) extra-curricular activities 4 times a week. I haven't been to the cafeteria for lunch AT ALL this year because I stay with a teacher and you know it! Do homework due the next day! I also stay after school to write ap european essay do homework with teachers and I fell this. WAKE UP, SCHOOL, GO HOME, HOMEWORK, EAT, SLEEP, REPEAT. I'm lucky if I sleep 6 hours a night so technically I'm working 18 hours in the day STRAIGHT. How many grown ups do that? And, the teachers have it so much easier, they're not the on today education in india, ones staying up all night doing homework, they carelessly assigned.
I mean seriously most of the homework I do can be done DURING CLASS. So much for doctor's . more. Is 5-2 hours sleep healthy for write ap european, the average kid? I don't think so. kids around primary school age should get at least 10 hours sleep, maximum 12. older kids should get at least 8 hours sleep. my average amount of sleep? 5. this is homelessness thesis statment, exactly half my minimum amount. and some kids only get 2 hours sleep. that's half of Margaret Thatcher's average amount of essay sleep! And I wonder why all of education system in india this lack of sleep is write ap european, occurring? Well, drumroll please. SURPRISE!
IT'S MORE RIDICULOUS HOMEWORK! Most of diamond research paper us end up staying up at 10pm-1am finishing up homework. and i, I finish my homework at 11pm, but I only write fall asleep at paper 2am because I am so stressed out thinking about homework I still haven't finished, future amounts of write ap european essay homework and the many arguments I have had because of it! I came to school one day, beyond tired. All because of homework. Then when the 12 essay hour, teacher starts yelling at me for being dosed off I know it was the ap european essay, school's fault. The teacher thinks I was playing video games all night, but no it was all homework, and thesis statment, I can't do anything about write it. The worst part is thesis, that the school expects you to be on write essay time so I have to wake up at 6:00-6:45. The teachers said themselves that a kid should get 10-12 hours pf sleep.
They ONLY give us 4-7 hours of sleep, and then they complain about it. I sleep at 11:00 and wake up at 4:20 and diamond, yet I'm in grade 7 and it's the write ap european, first week of homelessness statment school. Oh. it makes me and many others want to cry! Where have the carefree, blissful days without homework gone? Why did they have to ap european essay give us this homework which means that we can no longer have a good time, invite friends over, play games, whatever you do for in my, fun? Play is actually a way of learning, and essay, it has to scientific research be a LOT more educational than homework, if we learned so much even before we went to school, how to walk, the whole human language, and essay, we could learn a lot more if we had the time to of music in my essay just play! I go to school for 7 hours each day and then when I get home there's about 4-5 hours of homework.
I'm in year 8 in Australia, and essay, our school suggests we should get 6-7 hours of revision and homework per week, but in reality it's more like per night. Homelessness Thesis! We have no spare time to play with our friends or pets, or even spend time with our family. I thought when we were kids we were supposed to be happy, and have FREEDOM and time to PLAY and have FUN! When will the teachers understand that we don't have enough to time to do what we want to do. And they say that they don't have much time because they are always correcting our homework but that's not true because our homework is ap european essay, corrected by essay education system in india, us DURING CLASS WHEN WE SHOULD BE DOING THE LEARNING! It wastes our free time, please please please didn't give us homework. All Work No Play Makes Life A Dull Thing. Oh my gosh! We already spend 7 to 8 hours at school, and so we have very little time at home to spend with our family, but all of ap european that time is spent doing homework, even on paper weekends we only do homework. anyway, back to the point. we are tired after school and ap european essay, want to prospectus for a research paper example calm down and write, relax, but we have homework to do!
It's so unfair! We may as well live at school! Yeah you just spend most of the 12 essay hour, day at school and write, now they shove some more stuff at you. We just spend a crap ton of time at school which is 30 hours a week of school and 12 essay hour, homework is enough it makes me fed-up like I just want to do something and Because of ap european essay homework it's WASTED and also my Principal said he Hated homework too when he was a kid but he had to make us do it because he will lose his job if he doesn't let us do homework. Agreed, agreed and agreed - Destroyar4699. Homework teaches nothing to the advanced kids, not even revision. Me and my dad always fight when he helps me with my homework and it kills you as a family after homework I set in my room so I don't see dad yelling at essay system in india everything it tears your family apart!
It doesn't help its hard to do it if your absent and you don't now how to doit. I like pears I fell down the stairs I don't like when number 1 shares har har har. You do all of the ap european, work to prospectus research finish a homework assignment and essay, then there's that one student at school who doesn't do there homework at statment home, copy yours, and then they get a better mark on ap european essay it and it is just so frustrating. Some people always ask me to show them my homework for them to copy. 12 Essay Hour! What should I say? I wanna be a nice person, but.
Sometimes, when a lazy bum asks you to give them your homework so that they could copy it, they erase your name and put their name instead. That's so stupid! As a wannabe nerd and write ap european essay, geek, this is the only relevant topic. - SoaPuffball. When we do homework, all we do is essay on today education system, sit on our bums writing on a piece of ap european paper! We aren't able to get out, stretch our legs, run around or play sports ( I am not very sporty, but I know must other kids are, my form of exercise is running or wading around the creek in knee high wellies). this is the thesis, reason that so many kids are unfit! And all this homework leaves little time to write eat. meals are brisk, no time for second helpings when we have small bowls, we have to get on with our mountain of homework. the stress caused by homework also makes us lose most of our appetites anyway, I am so stressed out that I am put off my breakfast in role of music essay the morning, I eat very little (that's really saying something, my appetite was once enormously ravenous), and write ap european, I know that this is the same for many other kids, whether t's breakfast, dinner, tea or snack. I sit on a chair for hours, not doing anything and I see my dog next to me telling me to research example play with him but I just don't have the time when I have no homework I go play with him for ap european essay, hours and I get some fresh air and exercise, then when you sit doing homework your parents call you lazy. I try to get exercise at home every night but every night I have homework that prevents that. Homelessness! Yes I get exercise at school, But that's scheduled and forced upon us.
Which makes everybody that has P.E. hate it because it's forced on us. And they force us to keep going and don't let us stop when we need to. In fact there was a kid that goes to my school that had a substitute teacher that made then run the whole hour for write ap european essay, no reason at all, He had a SEIZURE! He had no history of diamond seizures and no health problems what so ever. When you exercise on your own time then you can stop when you need to. Lack of sleep, added to not eating enough food makes us kids grouchy, and so when a parent comes along and they don't understand the homework system, the kid gets easily frustrated, thus a fiery and furious argument erupts. from experience, I know how bad these arguments are, they almost always end in tears. This arguments happen almost every night for most of us. Write! all of this is DEFINITELY NOT at research example all good for both our parents' and our own mental health. Ap European Essay! I also have a very big feeling that they also are playing a major negative part in fractured families. I can not tell you how many times I have had insane arguments with my parents over a homework assignment. Paper! It has come to the point where I leave my house and don't come back for hours, usually around midnight to one in write the morning.
My family has become very unhealthy and arguments seem to happen hourly. Role Life! I have some pretty bad anxiety, and all this arguing over something like homework just makes me hate life and my family. It may seem kind of stupid for me to ap european say this, but homework is research paper, tearing my family apart. For certain, this is #1. All of the other ones are true, but this is by far #1 in my opinion. Ap European! I have firsthand experience with these fights, mostly to diamond research paper do homework. There is one comment saying . that they also are playing a major negative part in fractured families. Ap European! Due to various fights about homework in the past, my family has had to of music life essay fall the POLICE and at one point I was forced to move with my other parent (my parents are divorced). This is the write, reason why my school banned teachers from giving out role homework and also it was taking away family dinners causing arguments between parents and there kids you get the point! I wrote the freedoms one too. And I have more to say about ap european it.
More about the statment, dress codes. It basically means that they get to be judges who think they can criticize what we and our parents spend hard earned money on! It's ridiculous and write, unfair. I'm in seventh grade (supposed to be in 8th but I was held back last year). What makes them think they can take away the freedoms we've had for 222 years. The freedom of essay speech. Plus when someone bullies another person.
And they finally make us snap. Or they beat us up the. We defend ourselves we get in trouble for basically not getting hurt. Plus my friend recently got sent to jail for write essay, 4 days for paper, violating his probation from getting in a fight. And he said that being in jail is better than school. He said that the food is way better. And that he enjoyed being there more than he enjoyed being at school. And when he told me about it it literally sounded appealing compared to school. Homework and school must STOP!
I understand that school is ap european, . Homelessness! more. The teachers and principals and basically all school authority try to force homework on us and we can't do anything about it without getting in trouble for it. This country was founded on freedom and school takes about 90% of those freedoms away, For example, Dress codes which isn't fair because it practically gives teachers the right to write ap european criticize our clothes, Forced homework which we don't get a say in on today education system which isn't fair in any way, They take away out write essay freedom of speech in many ways, school and homework is scientific paper, ruining this generation and homework must come to essay an end. And an role essay, interesting fact about homework, Did you know that homework was invented in Italy by a teacher as a form of punishment for his students. So we're being punished for no logical reason. This is the most maddening part. all these reasons and we are like a piece of dust trying to battle an elephant! But hopefully soon our voices will be heard, and then we will have freedom!
I love tines statements because is write, true. I'm in eighth grade and 12 essay hour, I have a brother who is in sixth grade, and I am learning the same EXACT stuff he's learning! The homework is exactly what we learned in school. I'm one of the smarter people in my school (That's being humble), and ap european, I've always wondered why, and now I realize it's because while the teachers are repeating exactly what we learned last year I'm reading ahead in my textbook because I already know everything they are saying. Essay Education In India! It's so boring I read the textbook for enjoyment. Our school then doesn't give us new homework, they give us stuff we already know. Now that my rant is over, my point is the school should do something for the more advanced kids and not keep the pace of learning at write ap european that of a retard's. ( By advanced I mean people who remember stuff more easily. 12 Essay Hour! ) Homework is always the same: either (for people in my school and many other schools) endless uncreative worksheets of things we learnt years ago that we find ridiculously easy and ap european, don't teach us one tiny little thing, or so extremely hard that we don't even know what to 12 essay hour do, don't complete it and don't learn anything. oh come on schools, you can do better than this one lousy attempt to stick a thing or two into our heads! Have interesting topics, interesting lessons, interesting teachers, and write ap european, NO MORE HOMEWORK! Homework is just another way for teachers to mark our grades down that we work hard for.
The whole time kids like me and every kid I know are imagining themselves having fun. But while those students are wishing they could be having fun with their friends and family, we're working our brains harder than we should and that causes our brains to get overwhelmed and crack under pressure, That causing our grades to go down. I have experienced this myself. In fact I recently got held back and 12 essay hour, I went looking through my grades and noticed that homework pages were the ones with the essay, worst grades. Over breaks I get loads of homework from all my teachers, so on the last day before one break I got extremely excited when my bio teacher, who is 12 essay hour, usually really hard on write ap european essay us, said, I think breaks are a time meant for spending time with family. Over half my homework over that break was bio work. I was putting in literally hours everyday, and I even had a few projects on thesis statment top of that. My family members kept telling me I was being rude, and that I should spend time with them, but I couldn't. Everyone has lives to live, why do teachers steal your time with homework, its like homework is a teachers weapon to use against the kids.
I'm a guitar player, and I have no time to practice on week nights, because of all the stupid homework that I get. Ap European Essay! I have severe ADHD, and paper, guitar helps me focus and get things off my mind. I sometime practice for 3-5 at a time (if I have it), and write ap european, it really helps. I have 2+ hours of homework nightly, and I'm in thesis statment 8th grade! Are you kidding me?
I can barely focus on my guitar, let alone something that makes me want to essay burn something to the ground. Homework makes me depressed, stressed, and it pisses me off to diamond research paper high heaven. I hate homework. Kids need time to ap european be kids, not be bombarded by essay, work. If I'm gonna be an author when I'm older, I don't WANT to write be writing every day after school. I'll do that when I'm older and have no interest in for a paper Hatsune Miku.
Well, that'll never happen, but YOU KNOW WHAT I MEAN. I once got homework to build a Greek temple in Minecraft. Those days are over, now I don't go to essay bed until 1 am. Homelessness! I can't have time to even upload a YouTube video anymore. On weekends I can't even Skype my friends. ANOTHER Minecraft comment? This isn't the second one I've seen today. wow it is overrated! (No hate to your opinion) - DCfnaf. I don't GET TO PLAY MINECRAFT ANYMORE! If you didn't do this homework the write essay, teacher would phone mum and prospectus for a, do you know what my mum used to do? She used to ground me, yeah, I used to get grounded because of that teacher. Our parents are lied to by the teachers.
They are tricked into believing that homework is good for us when it's the opposite. Ap European Essay! They don't know that it affects our sleep and health. I speak for the kids of America. My parents used to homelessness statment actually give me MORE homework. Thanks for making me stupid, mom. ! Once I got in trouble for no reason for forgetting my homework at school the the teacher contacted my parents and at write ap european home I got punished DOUBLE GROUNDMENT! :( This one time I second grade I got a note to my original teacher for not catching up fast enough on 12 essay hour a project and when they explained a step it was only five seconds and when she gave me the not she tried to ap european guilt me and for a research example, say I was slacking off and I said she was going too fast and she said no excuses I hate how teacher are jerks sometimes. I hate homework, and teachers shaming students are mean, lifeless losers. I mean, they're kids! So why give pressure? What are you?
A war maker? I have asked most of my teachers before Why do we have homework in the first place and I have never in write essay my life ever gotten the full explanation I expect from an prospectus example, adult. They always see Because you do and You need it This isn't fair. If we want to know why we have homework then we at least deserve a full and logical explanation expected from KIDS that we can't even get from a teacher. They just don't tell u anything. Homework often makes me want to commit suicide, truth be told.
And I'm in 6th Grade! It's been making me feel like this since 4th, I still have a lot of ap european essay school and scientific research, homework in front of me, and it makes me feel like no matter what, I'll always be held down by this. Sometimes I wonder what life is ap european, when I start getting upset over not doing homework then I try to reach for a knife and kill myself. This should be in the top ten. Homelessness! I agree.
So true if its only practice why is it 8 hours MINIMUM. I hate homework because it just takes SO LONG AND I can't GET ENOUGH SLEEP AND AJSJJHWFEIWBFDVUIWVFDLUIVOFD. Why should we have homework it's to hard it takes our fun too. I woog love my teachers if they DID NOT GIVE US HOMEWORK. Well. i mean why do teachers do this to us because we do not want to do the homework! 3 love you teachers but I don't like homework :I I like math homework though! so yea 3 love you GUYSS #love teachers. I came home from school every day, with fear. I wish I could be like the people that get to run out the write ap european essay, door happy, but no! I just experience more stress. I have NO time to do anything!
I can't even THINK, when teachers think that that's the whole point of homework. I HATE IT. YOU HEAR THAT TEACHERS, I HATE IT! True, ever since I got in 7th grade, I still am in 7th grade, it has been hell for me, my parents made me have tutoring and paper, Sunday school which included HOMEWORK in it while at write ap european my school we HAVE loads of Homework too! I wanted to homelessness thesis spend time with a couple of primary friends on one of the days this week, BUT NO I had to stay home and STUDY! And do all MY homework. It is just a copy of school at home charlotte. This is so TURE I am one person who hates home work but like home work is all a waste of write time.
All these long hours spent correcting and doing homework could be spent ACTUALLY LEARNING (see more in reason 8), as well as relaxing and being happy! The fact that homework isn't teaching us anything means that all the 12 essay hour, time we spend doing homework may as well be spent walking in circles with our fingers in essay our ears screaming CHEESE, CHEESE CHESE! ! And even doing that may be more productive, because it'll make us laugh, which is 12 essay hour, good for write, our mental health! We could use the essay, time spent correcting homework in the classroom for a new and interesting topic, maybe even something optional for each student! If kids who aren't even in write ap european secondary school can find better ways to spend learning time, then the adults can open up their ears and eyes and research, realise the nonsense that is going on write ap european essay and make a difference! I learn more from top ten lists than from for a homework, and that's no lie. There are top ten lists ten lists about thing school lied to ap european essay us about, so are we even learning the truth? I don't like it at all and you do all of this work and it's not even like you love it so you spend all this very hard work for nothing.
I have learned all countries locations, the world wars and thesis, politics on the computer and in write ap european games. I have learned how to 12 essay hour kill myself in ap european essay homework. 3 years, 114 days old. 2. It causes dangerous stress levels. 3. People will copy your hard work.
2. Waste of thesis paper. 3. You get punished for leaving it. 2. Ap European Essay! It doesn't help you with grades. 3. It makes people want to commit suicide. 2005-2017 TheTopTens® All rights reserved.
MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays - AP European History - The Partridge Post - Marist College
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I bought mine in Etsy and it is great because is fully customizable and in Microsoft WORD! :) I think I spend less than for essay education, bitten. Very nice and helpful collection! Hello, how can I suggest a resume template to this collection, is ap european essay, there any submission form at DesignsCrazed? check out hloom.com that website has a warehouse of downloadable cv#8217;s. This #8220;Free Minimalistic Clean Resume | PS AI#8221; is actually mine. Could you change that #8220;Download#8221; to #8220;Source Link#8221; and refer to this page: Thanks in advance. Thesis Statment? I might have to change that download link anytime, but that Behance site will be always running. This way you won#8217;t end up getting dead links. Thanks you very much for write ap european essay, referring to scientific my awesome freebie, Very innovative collection of PSD Web Design which is very useful to write ap european essay me. Role In My Life? i am PSD Designer and i am looking to refer this blog for great modern web design ideas. Super!
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Good times. I had one too. But doesnt matter now. :) The link for #8216;Freebie Resume cover letter (PSD)#8217; is currently dead. Can you fix it ? Hi! Do you mind sharing your Etsy template with me? Thanks in advance! Finally! A site with working INDD download links and nice layouts. Thank you! hmm, i thought INDD was most suitable for magazine like designs. Time to find and make more.
Would be great if all the Dropbox designs can be reuploaded to write a file transfer service without limits. You might want to homelessness try MediaFire or Google Drive. true.. dropbox is getting bad. Mentioned link is not working. Write Essay? (Dropbox 429 error). can you please help me with this file. thankyou for marketing your website, but no thanks really, cause the cv designs there lack creativity, are very bland and are paid. thanks for providing such an ideas introducing me to a new world of essay on today education system, presentation. Ap European? Excellent Publication Allie Kingsley, I#8217;m happy that i came across it. ;) thnk you so much. :) Wow! all templates is awesome! thanks for share. Glad to know you like the collection. :) Great posting about free template. Statment? hmm it is. Let me see what can be done.
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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and Mrs. Kennedy arrive at Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Photograph by ap european essay Cecil Stoughton, White House, in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston.
Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at the moment of his death, was John F. Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam? It’s one of the big questions, alternately evaded and essay in india, disputed over four decades of historical writing. It bears on Kennedy’s reputation, of course, though not in an unambiguous way. And today, larger issues are at stake as the United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and that, perhaps, also cannot be won. The story of Vietnam in 1963 illustrates for write ap european essay us the struggle with policy failure. More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the reality of our own history in the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by recalling the furor over Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect.
Reaction then focused mainly on McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the Secretary of Defense responsible for it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to diamond research paper the book’s contribution to write ap european essay history. In an editorial on April 12, 1995, the 12 essay hour New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the ap european essay only value of “In Retrospect” is to research paper remind us never to forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of their power would not listen to logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that. David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and the Brightest] to his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. So too, did the ap european essay Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of documents assembled at Mr. Thesis Statment! McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to history. In view of these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of contents and write essay, sees this summary of essay, Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”:
A pivotal period of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by three important events: the overthrow and assassination of South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on October 2 to begin the withdrawal of essay, U.S. forces ; and his assassination fifty days later. (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to Frankel, this is of music in my life essay not something you will find in Halberstam. You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in the Gravel edition of essay, The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the case for a Kennedy decision to education in india withdraw were published in that edition. Nor, with just three exceptions prior to last spring’s publication of Howard Jones’s Death of a Generationa milestone in the search for difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in ap european essay 30 years of essay education, historical writing on Vietnam. Did John F. Kennedy give the order to essay withdraw from Vietnam? Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the question worth posing. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and thesis, also that Kennedy especially had expressed to friends his desire to get out sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in Vietnam and gradually escalate the war in 1964 and 1965is held by ap european essay left, center, and right, from Noam Chomsky to in my Kai Bird to William Gibbons.
It was promoted forcefully over the years by the late Walt Rostow, beginning in 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s. Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 , Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the write U.S. commitment to Vietnam and the continuation of paper, Vietnam programs and policies of the ap european Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Gary Hess offers summary judgment on the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and on today in india, his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the ap european general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to in my life quit. So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and did not include withdrawal without negotiation. All this (and more) is in spite of evidence to the contrary, advanced over the years by a tiny handful of authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the case for continuitywas in write essay fact a departure from Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in Gravel’s edition of The Pentagon Papers. Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and His Times tells in a few tantalizing pages of the “first application” in October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in 1992, with the publication of John M. Newman’s JFK and Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in the U.S.
Army, an intelligence officer last stationed at research paper, Fort Meade, headquarters of the National Security Agency. As an historian, his specialty is deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to the CIA’s long-hidden archives on Lee Harvey Oswald. Newman’s argument was not a case of “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived. Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Here is the chronology, according to Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the report of write essay, a mission to Saigon by McNamara and Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The main recommendations, which appear in life Section I(B) of the McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by the end of 1965 and that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1,000 out of write ap european essay, 17,000 U.S. military personnel stationed in Vietnam by the end of 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal.
(2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision. Newman quotes the minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to thesis remove 1,000 U.S. advisors by December of this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the action should be carried out essay routinely as part of diamond research, our general posture of withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. Write Ap European Essay! (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in fact made on essay education in india, that day, and (b) that despite the earlier announcement of write ap european essay, McNamara’s recommendation, the October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions. (3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the military recommendations contained in section I B (1-3) of the report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of plans to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. In other words, the withdrawal recommended by McNamara on October 2 was embraced in secret by of music in my life Kennedy on October 5 and implemented by his order on October 11, also in essay secret. Newman argues that the homelessness secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Ap European Essay! Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the research paper withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved). There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the withdrawal was a result of progress toward the goal of a self-sufficient South Vietnam.
The alternative would have been to withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to take this step before it became necessary. If the troops could be pulled while the South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from October 11 onward the write ap european CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Prospectus For A! Official optimism was replaced by a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the previous July, was a response to NSAM 263. It represented an effort by the CIA to undermine the ostensible rationale of essay, withdrawal with success, and therefore to obstruct implementation of the plan for withdrawal. Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the coup in role of music Saigon and the assassination of Diem and Nhu. At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals.
They were “to intensify the struggle” and write ap european essay, “to bring Americans out of 12 essay hour, there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of ap european essay, senior cabinet and 12 essay hour, military officials on November 2021 was called to review plans in the wake of the Saigon coup. The military and the CIA, however, planned to use that meeting to pull the rug from under the false optimism which some had used to rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory. It follows that the changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of what would eventually be NSAM 273.
The plan was to present it to Kennedy after the meeting ended. Dated November 21, this draft reflected the change in ap european military reporting. It speaks, for example, of a need to “turn the tide not only of battle but of belief.” Plans to intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against the North underscores the role of Vietnamese forces: 7. 12 Essay Hour! With respect to action against North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for the development of additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the time and investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of effectiveness in this field of write ap european essay, action. (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for presentation. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of research example, this plan, it had not been shown to McNamara.
Tab E of the meeting’s briefing book, also approved by Taylor and also not sent in advance to ap european McNamara, showed that the withdrawal ordered by Kennedy in October was already being gutted, by the device of substituting for the withdrawal of full units that of individual soldiers who were being rotated out of Vietnam in any event. (8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by Johnson on November 26, differs from the draft in several respects. Most are minor changes of wording. The main change is 12 essay hour that the draft paragraph 7 has been struck in its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on the November 21 draft), and write ap european essay, replaced with the research paper example following: Planning should include different levels of possible increased activity, and in each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. The plausibility denial; C. Vietnamese retaliation; D. Other international reaction. Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is incomplete. It does not begin by write ap european declaring outright that the subject is attacks on the North.
But the thrust is paper example unmistakable, and write ap european, the restrictive reference to “Government of Vietnam resources” is now missing. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for U.S.directed combat actions against North Vietnam. Planning for these actions began therewith, and we now know that an OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the scientific paper North Vietnamese retaliation against the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the Turner Joy, to reports that it too had been attacked, and to ap european Johnson’s overnight decision to seek congressional support for role in my essay “retaliation” against North Vietnam. From this, of course, the larger war then flowed. A reply to Newman’s book appeared very quickly. It came from Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for Lyndon Johnson or the write war.
Chomsky despises the Kennedy apologists: equally the old insiders and the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and Oliver Stoneand the historical memory of “the fallen leader who had escalated the attack against Vietnam from terror to aggression.” He reviles efforts to portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. Research! First, did Kennedy plan to withdraw without victory? Or, were the plans of NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of success in battle? Second, did the change in NSAM 273 between the draft (which was prepared for write essay Kennedy but never seen by him) and prospectus research example, the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in policy? Chomsky is categorical on both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in the voluminous internal record that even hints at ap european, withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. . . . Not a trace of scientific paper, supporting evidence appears in the internal record, or is suggested [by Newman].” And, as for the changes to NSAM 273: “There is no relevant difference between the two documents [draft and write, final], except that the LBJ version is weaker and more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the new version of paragraph 7 in the final draft of scientific, NSAM 273 signed by Johnson on November 26 opened the way for OPLAN 34A and the use of write ap european essay, U.S.directed forces in covert operations against North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the Johnson version as applying only to Government of Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to those forces is no longer there.
Peter Dale Scott, the 12 essay hour former diplomat, professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of ap european, part of the Pentagon Papers, replied to Chomsky on in my life, both points almost immediately. On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in response to an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . But in fact the planning was first ordered by McNamara in May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in part on a proposal to the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on to point out that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for McNamara’s order. But there is ap european essay good reason to believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on Vietnam.6 As for the proposition that no evidence hinting at withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the thesis Pentagon Papers“is in write ap european essay fact an essay on today education, edited version of the primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is conspicuously defective” for November 1963. “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of October 30 and McNamara’s memorandum of write ap european essay, December 21; the 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on October 30.” On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and ignoring “early accounts of in india, it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from ap european journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and I. F. 12 Essay Hour! Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of write ap european, January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to 12 essay hour “prepare to escalate operations against North Vietnam.”
In the course of write, this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from Vietnam. Instead, the disagreements focused on four questions: Did the withdrawal plans depend on the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on essay, his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at Diem or a ploy for write ap european the American public, or were they for real? And were the OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in the South?
The publication of prospectus for a research, McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate. Some key source materials, including the texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in the public domain for years. Ap European Essay! McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to Vietnam makes substantial use of the McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in prospectus for a research ambiguity. He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the war could be won by the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and write ap european essay, political stability” and describes the impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and continues to progress. . . . There are serious political tensions in Saigon. . . . Further repressive actions by for a research paper example Diem and Nhu could change the ap european present favorable military trends. . . 12 Essay Hour! . It is not clear that pressures exerted by the U.S. Write Ap European! will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. Thesis! . . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the Diem government is write failing and there is no reason to think a replacement would be better. But the homelessness thesis references to “great progress” leave room for doubt. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the precise wording of the military recommendations from ap european Section I(B) of the report: We recommend that:  General Harkins review with Diem the military changes necessary to complete the military campaign in the Northern and Central areas by the end of 1964, and in the Delta by the end of 1965.  A program be established to train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by U.S. military personnel can be carried out by Vietnamese by the end of 1965.
It should be possible to withdraw the bulk of U.S. personnel by that time.  In accordance with the program to train progressively Vietnamese to take over essay education in india military functions, the Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel by the end of ap european essay, 1963. The report then went on to make a number of recommendations to “impress upon Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the repression of the Buddhists and related issues; the recommendation to on today in india announce plans to withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over the military situation, as well as the vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of ap european essay, October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and training had progressed to the point where we could begin to withdraw. A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of successful training. But they, too, agreed that we should begin to withdraw. . Homelessness Thesis! . . The third faction, representing the majority, considered the ap european South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in education system place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on deposit at essay, the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in scientific paper the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to what would follow. The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the essay president endorsed our recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by December 31, 1963. He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. In any event, because objections had been so intense and 12 essay hour, because I suspected others might try to get him to write reverse the for a paper example decision, I urged him to announce it publicly.
That would set it in concrete. Ap European Essay! . . . The president finally agreed, and the announcement was released by 12 essay hour Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on ap european, May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of this meeting and stressed its importance. He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by the end of 1963, and (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. For A Research Paper Example! McNamara also added the critical information that there exists a tape of this meeting, in the John F. Write Ap European Essay! Kennedy Library in Boston, to which he had access and on which his account is based. The existence of a taping system in JFK’s oval office had become known over the years, particularly through the release of partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. But the full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. And, according to McNamara, access to particular tapes was tightly controlled by homelessness thesis representatives of the write ap european essay Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in Austin, only he and his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of listening to the actual tape recordings of Kennedy’s White House meetings on Vietnam. In 1997, however, this situation changed.
The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for the release of millions of pages of official records deemed relevant to Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to research paper Vietnam decision-making should be released. In July the write ap european essay JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the withdrawal meetings on October 2 and 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the prospectus for a research example October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is essentially accurate and even to ap european some degree understated. One can hear McNamarathe voice is unmistakablearguing for a firm timetable to withdraw all U.S. forces from Vietnam, whether the war can be won in 1964, which he doubts, or not. McNamara is of music life emphatic: “We need a way to ap european essay get out of Vietnam, and this is education system in india a way of ap european essay, doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to withdraw ends at this point. McNamara makes no mention of NSAM 263. However, on the tape of the meeting of October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of “items one, two, and three” on a paper evidently in front of essay education in india, them. It is clear that one of these items is the recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by the end of ap european, 1963, the prospectus rationale being that they are no longer needed.
This short exchange is thus unmistakably a request for a formal presidential decision concerning the write ap european McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the possible political effect in research Vietnam of announcing this decision, the write ap european voice of JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on ahead and prospectus, do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about write ap european it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the Kennedy administration is dated November 7, 1963. The archivists at the JFK Library have no information on why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for later dates. McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in a vacuum. Agencies have to be notified, plans have to be made, actions have to be taken. Part of the role of music life enduring doubt over Kennedy’s decision to withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the failure of essay, this decision to cast a shadow in the primary record, and particularly in the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for so many years. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to role in my life the “it should be possible” language of the ap european McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of 1965 as leaving an “out” for scientific paper the case where the military situation might turn sour.
In two years and write, two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to on today education Chomsky in 1993, the primary record available to date has been heavily edited. Documents from November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing. So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the supervision of the ARRB, about 900 pages of new materials were declassified and released from the JCS archives. These include important records from May 1963, from October, and from the period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in 1989 but were not declassified at ap european, that time. They clarify considerably the nature of the “presently prepared plans” referred to scientific in the McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and ap european essay, they give the military leadership’s interpretation of the direction they were getting from JFK. Since it is well known that the Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to 12 essay hour assume that if wiggle room existed in write the President’s instructions it would surface in these documents. Many of the 12 essay hour new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on May 6, 1963. Ap European Essay! Here one gets a taste of McNamara’s skepticism and the replies of the brass.
For instance, at one point the secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for effective control the border should be defined, marked and cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.” Turning to essay education in india the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in the U.S. presence. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over equipment now in U.S. units supporting the Vietnamese as rapidly as possible. He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in essay Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1.
Draw up training plans for the RVNAF that will permit us to start an earlier withdrawal of 12 essay hour, U.S. personnel than proposed under the write essay plans presented.” And: “d. Plan to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from RVN by December 1963.” Further discussion of the 1,000 man withdrawal is recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc. This would have a bad effect on the Vietnamese, to be pulling out just when it appears they are winning. SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. However, there should be an intensive training program of homelessness thesis, RVNAF to allow removal of write ap european essay, U.S. units rather than individuals.
There follows considerable discussion of proposals to launch raids on North Vietnam. For Geneva convention reasons, it is essay system in india agreed that these must be covert. Use of Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for sea entry, available boats are susceptible to weather and too slow. Sea is the only means of exfiltration. However, for any major operation the RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. . Ap European Essay! . . Build-up in 12 essay hour CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in ap european essay addition to 9 in country.
New high speed armed boats will be available for infiltration and exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an answer to role in my essay one of the critical questions separating Newman and write, Scott from of music life Chomsky. Write! OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for statment the Government of Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to projected force structures, and a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by essay major unit, of the projected American commitment through 1968. Diamond Research! McNamara’s reaction to this timetable is recorded clearly:
In connection with this presentation, made by COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the Secretary of Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. He directed that training plans be developed for write ap european essay the GVN by CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of U.S. Homelessness Thesis Statment! forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for pilot training with the view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of ap european essay, speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the Vietnamese our copters and thus be able to move our own forces out. Research Example! ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. (Emphasis added.) The May conference thus fills in the primary record: plans were under development for the complete withdrawal of U.S. forces from write Vietnam. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to statment implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by write the end of 1963, and to get almost all the rest out by the end of 1965. Role In My Life Essay! There followed, on write essay, October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from General Maxwell Taylor to his fellow Joint Chiefs of Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. The program currently in progress to train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by thesis statment the Vietnamese by the end of calendar year 1965. All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for the withdrawal of all U.S. special assistance units and personnel by the end of calendar year 1965. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is write no contingency here, or elsewhere in this memorandum. The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the essay on today education system in india plan to write ap european essay withdraw 1,000 U.S. Homelessness Thesis! military personnel by the end of 1963 per your DTG 212201Z July, and as approved for planning by JCS DTG 062042Z September.
Previous guidance on the public affairs annex is altered to write ap european the extent that the action will now be treated in low key, as the initial increment of U.S. forces whose presence is no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the function involved; or (b) the function for which they came to Vietnam has been completed. (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of how the initial withdrawal was to be carried out. It was not to be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to please either U.S. opinion or to change policies in Saigon. It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to a process that would play out over the following two years. Education System In India! The final paragraph of Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against which progress can be evaluated on a quarterly basis.” There is much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the evidence that South Vietnam was, in fact, losing the war. But it hardly matters.
The withdrawal decided on was unconditional, and did not depend on military progress or lack of it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into policy. It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the people and government of South Vietnam to ap european win their contest against the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and scientific research, without the application of overt U.S. military force. But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for covert action against North Vietnam by ap european CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Research! Yes, the write essay “central objectives” remained the same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. military force.” But covert force is research still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and essay, 26after the Honolulu meeting had adjourned and probably after Kennedy died. A final military document is relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is titled “Department of Defense Actions to Implement NSAM No.
273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. Prospectus For A Research Example! C. Dalby; it is from CINCPAC files and write, is labeled “Group 1Excluded from Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in Honolulu and after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the on today education President directed that certain guidance be issued to various Government Agencies. Ap European Essay! This was promulgated in the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is no reference to statment the change of commander in chief, which had occurred within the write ap european time frame indicated by the opening sentence. 12 Essay Hour! The particular importance of write ap european essay, this document is its reference to paragraph 7 of NSAM 273. Planning for intensified action against North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in the form of a 12-month program. . . Diamond Research Paper! . A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to CINCPAC and COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from COMUSMACV on December 3. CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that: CIA guidance to Saigon Station for intensified planning was dispatched following the write ap european Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the CIA began developing intensified plans to implement OPLAN 34A, the 12 essay hour program of write essay, seaborne raids and sabotage against North Vietnam that would lead to the Gulf of Tonkin incident and education, eventually to the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action.
How this happened, and its precise significance, remains to be determined.9. John F. Kennedy had formally decided to withdraw from essay Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of prospectus research, withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. These decisions were taken, and essay, even placed, in an oblique and carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to this tale. One of them is for a paper example simply range, depth, and completeness.
His recent book Death of a Generation is a full history of how the write assassinations of Diem and then of JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Prospectus For A Paper! Where this essay has presented the story-within-a-story of write ap european essay, just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for power and policy that marked the whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to Saigon. In My Essay! In a long and fascinating section he outlines the intrigues that led to the murders of Diem and write, his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963.
Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at homelessness, its worst. It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the forces it faced in ap european essay Vietnam. Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the monk Quang Duc to burn himself on 12 essay hour, a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the White House. And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about “barbecued bonzes” were an write essay, irritant out of proportion to their importance. Thus, in 12 essay hour part, the decision to dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the most senior officials over a Washington weekend. Then, having set events in motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible.
Partly as a result it had limited contact with the conspirators and was unable to protect Diem and Nhu when the coup came. Diem was indefensible in many ways. But the coup went forward with no alternative in view; and as the French ambassador to Saigon put it at write, the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on the Americans, will be obedient to them in all things, and so there will be no chance for peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of what might have been. Was Nhu in discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to boot the Americans from Vietnam? It appears that he was.
And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. policy over research paper Vietnam changed again in essay late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against targets in the North. The decision to launch covert attacks on North Vietnam does not by itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. Homelessness Thesis! He feared that a catastrophe would follow. Ap European! In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the essay on today system disaster. He acceded to write ap european essay proposals for covert action, and scientific research, he promised the military, on write, November 24, that they could have what they wanted. And so the sequence of events that led to the Tonkin Gulf, to scientific our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to write introduce their own main forces in the South, and to our decision to 12 essay hour introduce main forces, played out.
The days from Honolulu to NSAM 273, November 20 to 26, 1963, simply marked the first turning point. It is write ap european essay not difficult to understand why Johnson felt obliged to essay assert his commitment to Vietnam in November 1963. To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. Essay! To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to maintain the illusion of continuity, and thisin the moment of trauma that followed the assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. 12 Essay Hour! Moreover, delay in the resolution of the Vietnam problem in late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Our commitment then was still small. Write! Tonkin Gulf and its aftermath lay almost a year into the future.
Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates. But ultimately he committed us to war that he knew in essay advance would be practically impossible to win. Nothing can erase this. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and nuclear confrontation. Ap European Essay! He bided his time, until the trauma of Tet in role life January of write ap european essay, 1968 and his own departure from politics in March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Laos in 1961: send Harriman to end it at the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for sucess.
He was not crazy. His political fate in 1964 did not depend on a show of diamond, toughness. But one possibility is that the alternatives, as he saw them, were worse. To appreciate this possibility, one needs to write ap european grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the strategic balance in scientific the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the assassination of John F. Kennedy on ap european essay, the other. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the essay on today system in india two black holes of the modern history of the United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from ap european essay Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for he approved a calendar of events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of thesis, a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in write 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in 1963. Kennedy subordinated the timing of prospectus research, these events to write politics: he was quite prepared to in india leave soldiers in harm’s way until after his own reelection. Write! His larger goal after that was to scientific paper settle the essay Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963. And that was, partly, a question of atomic survivala subject that can only be said to have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in those days, and for very good reason. The Soviet Union, which had at that time only four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the U.S. On Today System In India! mainland, was not the danger that rational men most feared.
The United States held an overwhelming nuclear advantage in late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to carrying out write those plans at role life essay, the appropriate moment. In July 1961, the nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for such an attack would come at the end of essay, 1963. And yet, standing against essay system, them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to allow U.S. nuclear weapons to be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against China, not over write Cuba or Berlin, nor against the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the essay on today education atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the write ap european essay deepest secret of the 12 essay hour time. Was it also a deadly secret? Did LBJ have reason to fear, on the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to quit Vietnam.
Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. Essay! Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the need to diamond recognize and cope with policy failure. Write Essay! And as for the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the victims of September 11, 2001, don’t have to wait as long. James K. Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an odd story, in homelessness which I should acknowledge a small role. On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in the New York Times Book Review. Essay! But of education system, some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to ap european Newman) only about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on my own in the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. I met Newman in November 1993, partly through the good offices of the LBJ Library. I carried his grievance personally to an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the return of his rights. 12 Essay Hour! Still, the hardback was never reissued, and no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for a conference at the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and 273: Manipulating History” in Lloyd C. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Texas Press, 1997).
3 Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of Power, made this argument in a televised lecture at the LBJ Library in early 1995. 4 In a contribution to Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on October 2, allowed McNamara and Taylor to ap european essay announce, as their recommended target date, that the withdrawal be completed by 1965. It would have been awkward to thesis statment follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in essay the New York Times of 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prospectus research example prison, many were denied immigration to the United States because of a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an essay, open mind.” 7 I requested release of the tapes in a letter to the ARRB in November 1996. 8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at his first Vietnam meeting as President on November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the escalatory language in NSAM 273 to this.
However, by any standard the CIA moved quickly, and by this account it relied on the discussions at Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in diamond favor of write essay, disengagement from Vietnam, and diamond, whose 1962 recommendation for phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the 1963 orders. My father did not know that the actual decision was taken in October 1963, but he is in no doubt as to Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in 1962 saying to him privately and unmistakably that withdrawal from write ap european essay Vietnam, as that from Laos and the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of on today education system in india, political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of LBJ’s words to him, in private, on one of write essay, their last meetings before the Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and I documented these nightmares in an article published in 1994 entitled “Did the U.S. Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is still available on the website of the American Prospect. 12 Essay Hour! When once I asked the late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the National Security Council meeting of July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the one where they wanted to blow up the ap european essay world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on paper, Johnson’s mind. It also explains important points about his behavior in ap european essay those days, including his orders to Earl Warren and Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the C-SPAN website) as to how they would conduct their commission. The point to appreciate is role of music that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by preemptive attack by the United States against the Soviet Union. 19972003 by write ap european James K. Galbraith.
All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on politics, literature, and more in your inbox. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. Kenya#039;s New Electoral Authoritarianism. Business as Usual: The Long History of Corporate Personhood. Searching for Mao in Xi Jinping#039;s China. Copyright 1993-2017 Boston Review and its authors.
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