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Kurt graduated from the University of Northern Iowa with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Finance. Coursework. He was awarded the Certified Employee Benefit Specialist designation by the Wharton School of Business and received the essay, Retirement Plan Specialist designation in 2001. Lisa is responsible for pursuing and growing channels for retirement plan business. Lisa holds a Juris Doctor degree from the University of coursework Iowa College of Law and a Bachelor of Arts degree from St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana.
She worked in Chicago as a staff attorney for the Federal Trade Commission and base essay, as in-house counsel for Leo Burnett Company, Inc. Responsible for creating 401(k) and 403(b) proposals for the retirement division. Communicate with financial advisors via email and telephone to gather the data needed. Analyze the data to create a proposal in a timely manner. Send proposals and coursework, marketing materials as requested by the financial advisors. Greg joined Howard Capital Management (HCM) with 15 years of business development and financial planning experience. He was instrumental in helping HCM launch the MyFedLife and TSP Navigator programs, which provide learning opportunities and investment planning software to federal and state employees. Greg's focus is on educating advisors on how to leverage the untapped market of federal employees with a Thrift Savings Plan through turnkey marketing systems designed to increase advisor AUM by adding new clients to their pipeline. Greg is a Charter Federal Employee Benefits Consultant, holds a Series 65, and Life and Health Licenses. He lives in Roswell Georgie with his wife Randee. Missy comes to the 401k Optimizer ® having 8 years of marketing, sales and consulting experience.
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She graduated Cum Laude from Brenau University with a Major in Business and Minor in Management. Working with Howard Capital Management (HCM) in national distribution, Jay focuses on research business helping advisors dramatically improve their business by teaching them how HCM's marketing tools and processes bring new clients and improve revenue opportunities. His years of experience as a marketing executive, business owner and national wholesaler working with financial advisors, positions Jay as an expert on how to ocr science, turn 30, 40, and 50 year old clients into an ongoing stream of current revenue through referrals. Jay's main objective is to help new advisors accumulate high levels of AUM by proposal, exposing them to new markets and proven selling systems. Jay is a husband, father and grandfather. He attended UT Chattanooga, graduating with a BS in Psychology and a minor in Business.
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Transcript: President Obama's Convention Speech. Transcript of coursework, President Obama's acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention, as delivered. Paper! Source: Federal News Service: President Obama gives his acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, N.C., on Thursday. Alex Wong/Getty Images hide caption. President Obama gives his acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, N.C., on Thursday. Alex Wong/Getty Images. PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you. (Sustained cheers, applause.) Thank you.
Thank you. Thank you so much. AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you so much.
Thank you. Thank you very much, everybody. Ocr Science Coursework! (Cheers, applause.) Thank you. Michelle, I love you so much. Paper! (Cheers, applause.) A few nights ago, everybody was reminded just what a lucky man I am. (Cheers, applause.) Malia and Sasha, we are so proud of you. (Cheers, applause.) And yes, you do have to go to school in the morning. (Chuckles.) (Laughter, applause.) And Joe Biden, thank you for being the very best vice president I could have ever hoped for — (cheers, applause) — and coursework being a strong and loyal friend.
Madam Chairwoman, delegates, I accept your nomination for president of the United States. Topics! (Cheers, applause.) President Obama addresses the Democratic National Convention, from PBS NewsHour. AUDIENCE MEMBERS: (Chanting.) Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: Now, the first time I addressed this convention, in 2004, I was a younger man — (laughter) — a Senate candidate from Illinois who spoke about hope, not blind optimism, not wishful thinking but hope in the face of difficulty, hope in ocr science coursework the face of uncertainty, that dogged faith in titration essay the future which has pushed this nation forward even when the odds are great, even when the road is long. Eight years later that hope has been tested by ocr science, the cost of war, by one of the worst economic crises in essay history and by political gridlock that's left us wondering whether it's still even possible to tackle the challenges of ocr science coursework, our time. I know campaigns can seem small, even silly sometimes. Trivial things become big distractions.
Serious issues become sound bites. The truth gets buried under an avalanche of acid essay, money and advertising. And if you're sick of hearing me approve this message, believe me, so am I. (Laughter, cheers, applause.) But when all is said and ocr science done, when you pick up that ballot to vote, you will face the clearest choice of any time in acid base titration essay a generation. Ocr Science! (Cheers.) Over the next few years big decisions will be made in Washington on jobs, the economy, taxes and titration deficits, energy, education, war and ocr science coursework peace — decisions that will have a huge impact on our lives and on our children's lives for decades to abstract topics come. And on every issue, the choice you face won't just be between two candidates or two parties.
It will be a choice between two different paths for America, a choice between two fundamentally different visions for the future. Ours is a fight to ocr science restore the values that built the largest middle class and acid titration essay the strongest economy the world has ever known — (cheers, applause) — the values my grandfather defended as a soldier in Patton's army, the values that drove my grandmother to work on ocr science coursework, a bomber assembly line while he was gone. They knew they were part of something larger — a nation that triumphed over fascism and depression, a nation where the most innovative businesses turn out the world's best products, and everyone shared in acid titration that pride and success from the corner office to the factory floor. My grandparents were given the chance to ocr science go to college and buy their home — their own home and fulfill the owl purdue essay, basic bargain at the heart of America's story, the promise that hard work will pay off, that responsibility will be rewarded, that everyone gets a fair shot and everyone does their fair share and everyone plays by the same rules, from Main Street to Wall Street to Washington, D.C. (Cheers, applause.) And I ran for president because I saw that basic bargain slipping away. I began my career helping people in the shadow of coursework, a shuttered steel mill at proposal, a time when too many good jobs were starting to move overseas.
And by 2008 we had seen nearly a decade in which families struggled with costs that kept rising but paychecks that didn't, folks racking up more and more debt just to ocr science make the business, mortgage or pay tuition, put gas in the car or food on ocr science, the table. And when the house of cards collapsed in owl purdue essay proposal the Great Recession, millions of innocent Americans lost their jobs, their homes, their life savings, a tragedy from which we're still fighting to recover. Now, our friends down in Tampa at coursework, the Republican convention were more than happy to talk about everything they think is wrong with America. But they didn't have much to say about paper ethics, how they'd make it right. (Cheers, applause.) They want your vote, but they don't want you to know their plan. Coursework! And that's because all they have to offer is the same prescriptions they've had for the last 30 years. Research On Strategic Paper! Have a surplus? Try a tax cut.
Deficit too high — try another. Feel a cold coming on? Take two tax cuts, roll back some regulations, and call us in the morning. (Cheers, applause.) Now, I've cut taxes for those who need it — (cheers, applause) — middle-class families, small businesses. But I don't believe that another round of tax breaks for millionaires will bring good jobs to our shores, or pay down our deficit. Ocr Science Coursework! I don't believe that firing teachers or kicking students off financial aid will grow the economy — (cheers, applause) — or help us compete with the owl purdue essay proposal, scientists and engineers coming out of coursework, China. After all we've been through, I don't believe that rolling back regulations on essay, Wall Street will help the small-businesswoman expand, or the laid-off construction worker keep his home.
We have been there, we've tried that, and ocr science we're not going back. Research! We are moving forward, America. (Cheers, applause.) Now, I won't pretend the coursework, path I'm offering is quick or easy. I never have. Base Titration! You didn't elect me to tell you what you wanted to hear. You elected me to tell you the truth. (Cheers, applause.) And the truth is, it will take more than a few years for us to solve challenges that have built up over decades. Ocr Science Coursework! It'll require common effort, shared responsibility, and the kind of bold, persistent experimentation that Franklin Roosevelt pursued during the essay, only crisis worse than this one. (Cheers, applause.) And by the way, those of us who carry on his party's legacy should remember that not every problem can be remedied with another government program or dictate from Washington. But know this, America: Our problems can be solved. (Cheers, applause.) Our challenges can be met. (Applause.) The path we offer may be harder, but it leads to a better place, and I'm asking you to choose that future. (Applause.) I'm asking you to ocr science rally around a set of goals for your country, goals in research paper ethics manufacturing, energy, education, national security and coursework the deficit, real, achievable plans that will lead to new jobs, more opportunity and rebuild this economy on a stronger foundation.
That's what we can do in the next four years, and that is why I am running for a second term as president of the United States. (Cheers, applause.) We can choose a future where we export more products and outsource fewer jobs. After a decade that was defined by what we bought and borrowed, we're getting back to basics and doing what America's always done best. We are making things again. (Applause.) I've met workers in Detroit and Toledo who feared — (cheers, applause) — they'd never build another American car. Paper Business Ethics! And today they can't build them fast enough because we reinvented a dying auto industry that's back on the top of the world. (Cheers, applause.) I worked with business leaders who are bringing jobs back to America not because our workers make less pay, but because we make better products — (cheers) — because we work harder and ocr science coursework smarter than anyone else. (Cheers, applause.) I've signed trade agreements that are helping our companies sell more goods to millions of new customers, goods that are stamped with three proud words: Made in America. Titration! (Cheers, applause.) AUDIENCE MEMBERS: (Chanting.) USA! USA!
USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA!
PRESIDENT OBAMA: And after a decade of decline, this country created over half a million manufacturing jobs in the last 2 1/2 years. (Cheers.) And now you have a choice. We can give more tax breaks to corporations that shift jobs overseas PRESIDENT OBAMA: — or we can start rewarding companies that open new plants and train new workers and create new jobs here in the United States of America. Coursework! (Cheers, applause.) We can help big factories and small businesses double their exports. And if we choose this path, we can create a million new manufacturing jobs in research the next four years. You can make that happen. Ocr Science! (Cheers, applause.) You can choose that future. You can choose the research paper business, path where we control more of our own energy. After 30 years of ocr science, inaction, we raised fuel standards so that by the middle of the next decade, cars and trucks will go twice as far on a gallon of gas. Research Paper Business Ethics! (Cheers, applause.) We have doubled our use of renewable energy, and thousands of Americans have jobs today building wind turbines and long-lasting batteries. Coursework! (Cheers, applause.) In the last year alone, we cut oil imports by research on strategic management - concept, 1 million barrels a day, more than any administration in coursework recent history. (Cheers, applause.) And today the United States of America is less dependent on foreign oil than at any time in the last two decades. (Cheers, applause.)
So now you have a choice between a strategy that reverses this progress or one that builds on it. We've opened millions of research ethics, new acres for oil and ocr science coursework gas exploration in the last three years, and we'll open more. But unlike my opponent, I will not let oil companies write this country's energy plan or endanger our coastlines or collect another $4 billion in corporate welfare from research paper, our taxpayers. (Cheers, applause.) We're offering a better path. We're offering a better path where we — a future where we keep investing in wind and solar and clean coal, where farmers and scientists harness new biofuels to power our cars and trucks, where construction workers build homes and factories that waste less energy, where — where we develop a hundred-year supply of ocr science, natural gas that's right beneath our feet. If you choose this path, we can cut our oil imports in half by 2020 and paper proposal support more than 600,000 new jobs in natural gas alone. Ocr Science Coursework! (Cheers, applause. And yes, my plan will continue to reduce the carbon pollution that is heating our planet, because climate change is acid titration not a hoax. More droughts and floods and coursework wildfires are not a joke. (Cheers, applause.) They are a threat to our children's future. And in this election, you can do something about it. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose a future where more Americans have the chance to gain the with, skills they need to compete, no matter how old they are or how much money they have. Education was the gateway to opportunity for me. Ocr Science! (Cheers.) It was the paper with proposal, gateway for Michelle. It was — it was the gateway for most of you. And now more than ever it is the gateway to ocr science a middle-class life.
For the first time in a generation, nearly every state has answered our call to raise their standards for teaching and learning. Research With! (Cheers, applause.) Some of the worst schools in the country have made real gains in math and reading. Millions of students are paying less for college today because we finally took on a system that wasted billions of ocr science, taxpayer dollars on banks and lenders. (Cheers, applause.) And now you have a choice. We can gut education, or we can decide that in the United States of America, no child should have her dreams deferred because of a crowded classroom or a crumbling school. Essay Abstract Topics! No family should have to set aside a college acceptance letter because they don't have the money. (Cheers, applause.) No company should have to look for workers overseas because they couldn't find any with the right skills here at coursework, home. Job Research! (Cheers, applause.) That's not our future. That is not our future. (Cheers, applause.) A government has a role in this. But teachers must inspire. Principals must lead. Parents must instill a thirst for learning. And students, you've got to do the work. Ocr Science! (Cheers, applause.) And together, I promise you we can outeducate and outcompete any nation on earth. (Cheers, applause.)
So help me. Help me recruit a hundred thousand math and owl purdue proposal science teachers within 10 years and improve early childhood education. Coursework! (Cheers, applause.) Help give 2 million workers the chance to learn skills at their community college that will lead directly to essay a job. Help us work with colleges and coursework universities to cut in half the growth of job research paper, tuition costs over the next 10 years. We can meet that goal together. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose that future for America. (Cheers, applause.) That's our future. You know, in coursework a world of acid essay, new threats and new challenges, you can choose leadership that has been tested and proven. Four years ago I promised to end the war in Iraq.
We did. (Cheers, applause.) I promised to ocr science refocus on the terrorists who actually attacked us on owl purdue proposal, 9/11, and we have. Coursework! (Cheers, applause.) We've blunted the Taliban's momentum in Afghanistan and in 2014, our longest war will be over. (Cheers, applause.) A new tower rises above the New York skyline, al- Qaida is on paper, the path to defeat and Osama bin Laden is dead. (Cheers, applause.) And tonight we pay tribute to the Americans who still serve in harm's way. We are forever in debt to a generation whose sacrifice has made this country safer and more respected. We will never forget you, and ocr science coursework so long as I'm commander in chief, we will sustain the topics, strongest military the world has ever known. (Cheers, applause.) When you take off the uniform, we will serve you as well as you've served us, because no one who fights for this country should have to ocr science fight for a job or a roof over their head or the care that they need when they come home. Around the world, we've strengthened old alliances and forged new coalitions to owl purdue proposal stop the spread of ocr science coursework, nuclear weapons. We've reasserted our power across the Pacific and paper business ethics stood up to ocr science coursework China on behalf of our workers. From Burma to Libya to South Sudan, we have advanced the rights and dignity of all human beings — (cheers) — men and women; Christians and Muslims and Jews. Paper! (Cheers, applause.) But for all the progress that we've made, challenges remain. Terrorist plots must be disrupted. Europe's crisis must be contained.
Our commitment to ocr science coursework Israel's security must not waver, and research paper with neither must our pursuit of peace. (Cheers, applause.) The Iranian government must face a world that stays united against coursework, its nuclear ambitions. The historic change sweeping across the Arab world must be defined not by the iron fist of research management - concept, a dictator or the hate of extremists, but by the hopes and aspirations of ordinary people who are reaching for the same rights that we celebrate here today. (Cheers, applause.) So now we have a choice. My opponent and his running mate are new to foreign policy. (Laughter, applause.) But from ocr science, all that we've seen and heard, they want to take us back to an era of blustering and proposal blundering that cost America so dearly. After all, you don't call Russia our number one enemy — not al- Qaida, Russia — (laughter) — unless you're still stuck in a Cold War mind warp. (Cheers, applause.) You might not be ready for diplomacy with Beijing if you can't visit the Olympics without insulting our closest ally.
(Laughter, cheers, applause.) My opponent — my opponent said that it was tragic to end the war in Iraq. And he won't tell us how he'll end the war in Afghanistan. Ocr Science! Well, I have, and I will. (Cheers, applause.) And while my opponent would spend more money on military hardware that our Joint Chiefs don't even want, I will use the money we're no longer spending on war to pay down our debt and put more people back to work — (extended cheers, applause) — rebuilding roads and bridges and acid titration schools and runways, because after two wars that have cost us thousands of ocr science coursework, lives and over a trillion dollars, it's time to research on strategic management paper do some nation building right here at coursework, home. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose a future where we reduce our deficit without sticking it to the middle class. Owl Purdue Essay! (Cheers, applause.) Independent experts say that my plan would cut our deficit by $4 trillion. (Cheers.) And last summer I worked with Republicans in Congress to cut a billion dollars in coursework spending, because those of us who believe government can be a force for good should work harder than anyone to reform it so that it's leaner and job research paper more efficient and more responsive to the American people. (Cheers, applause.) I want to reform the tax code so that it's simple, fair and asks the ocr science, wealthiest households to pay higher taxes on incomes over $250,000 — (cheers, applause) — the same rate we had when Bill Clinton was president, the same rate we had when our economy created nearly 23 million new jobs, the biggest surplus in history and base titration a whole lot of millionaires to coursework boot. Now, I'm still eager to reach an on strategic paper, agreement based on the principles of my bipartisan debt commission. No party has a monopoly on wisdom. No democracy works without compromise. I want to get this done, and we can get it done. But when Governor Romney and his friends in coursework Congress tell us we can somehow lower our deficits by spending trillions more on job research paper, new tax breaks for the wealthy, well — (boos) — what'd Bill Clinton call it?
You do the ocr science coursework, arithmetic. Paper! (Laughter, cheers, applause.) You do the coursework, math. I refuse to go along with that, and as long as I'm president, I never will. (Cheers, applause.) I refuse to research proposal ask middle-class families to give up their deductions for owning a home or raising their kids just to ocr science pay for another millionaire's tax cut. (Cheers, applause.) I refuse to ask students to research ethics pay more for college or kick children out of ocr science, Head Start programs to eliminate health insurance for millions of Americans who are poor and elderly or disabled all so those with the most can pay less. I'm not going along with that. (Continued cheers, applause.) And I will never — I will never turn Medicare into a voucher. (Cheers, applause.) No American should ever have to owl purdue proposal spend their golden years at the mercy of ocr science coursework, insurance companies. They should retire with the care and the dignity that they have earned. Yes, we will reform and strengthen Medicare for the long haul, but we'll do it by research business ethics, reducing the cost of health care, not by asking seniors to pay thousands of dollars more. (Cheers, applause.) And we will keep the promise of Social Security by taking the responsible steps to strengthen it, not by turning it over to Wall Street. Ocr Science Coursework! (Cheers, applause.) This is the job research, choice we now face.
This is what the election comes down to. Coursework! Over and over, we've been told by our opponents that bigger tax cuts and research paper fewer regulations are the only way, that since government can't do everything, it should do almost nothing. Ocr Science Coursework! If you can't afford health insurance, hope that you don't get sick. (Murmurs of disapproval.) If a company releases toxic pollution into the air your children breathe, well, that's the price of progress. If you can't afford to start a business or go to college, take my opponent's advice and borrow money from your parents. (Laughter, mixed cheers and boos, applause.) You know what, that's not who we are. Business Ethics! That's not what this country is about. Ocr Science! As Americans, we believe we are endowed by our Creator with certain inalienable rights, rights that no man or government can take away. Base Titration! We insist on coursework, personal responsibility, and we celebrate individual initiative.
We're not entitled to success. We have to earn it. Job Research! We honor the strivers, the dreamers, the risk- takers, the entrepreneurs who have always been the driving force behind our free enterprise system, the greatest engine of growth and prosperity that the world's ever known. But we also believe in something called citizenship — (cheers, applause) — citizenship, a word at the very heart of our founding, a word at the very essence of our democracy, the coursework, idea that this country only ethics works when we accept certain obligations to one another and to future generations. We believe that when a CEO pays his autoworkers enough to ocr science buy the cars that they build, the whole company does better. (Cheers, applause.)
We believe that when a family can no longer be tricked into signing a mortgage they can't afford, that family's protected, but so is the value of other people's homes — (cheers, applause) — and so is the entire economy. (Applause.) We believe the essay abstract topics, little girl who's offered an coursework, escape from acid titration, poverty by a great teacher or a grant for college could become the next Steve Jobs or the scientist who cures cancer or the president of the United States — (cheers, applause) — and it is in our power to give her that chance. (Cheers, applause.) We know that churches and charities can often make more of a difference than a poverty program alone. We don't want handouts for people who refuse to help themselves, and we certainly don't want bailouts for banks that break the ocr science coursework, rules. Base! (Cheers, applause.) We don't think the government can solve all of our problems, but we don't think the government is the ocr science coursework, source of all of our problems — (cheers, applause) — any more than our welfare recipients or corporations or unions or immigrants or gays or any other group we're told to blame for our troubles — (cheers, applause) — because — because America, we understand that this democracy is ours. We, the people — (cheers) — recognize that we have responsibilities as well as rights; that our destinies are bound together; that a freedom which asks only, what's in business it for me, a freedom without a commitment to others, a freedom without love or charity or duty or patriotism, is unworthy of our founding ideals, and those who died in their defense. (Cheers, applause.) As citizens, we understand that America is not about what can be done for us. It's about what can be done by us, together — (cheers, applause) — through the hard and frustrating but necessary work of self-government. That's what we believe.
So you see, the coursework, election four years ago wasn't about research - concept, me. It was about you. (Cheers, applause.) My fellow citizens — you were the change. Ocr Science Coursework! (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason there's a little girl with a heart disorder in Phoenix who'll get the paper, surgery she needs because an insurance company can't limit her coverage. You did that. (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason a young man in Colorado who never thought he'd be able to afford his dream of earning a medical degree is about to get that chance. Ocr Science! You made that possible. (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason a young immigrant who grew up here and research went to coursework school here and pledged allegiance to our flag will no longer be deported from the only country she's ever called home — (cheers, applause) — why selfless soldiers won't be kicked out of the military because of who they are or who they love, why thousands of families have finally been able to say to the loved ones who served us so bravely, welcome home. (Cheers, applause.) Welcome home.
You did that. You did that. Abstract! (Cheers, applause.) You did that. If you turn away now — if you turn away now, if you buy into ocr science, the cynicism that the base essay, change we fought for isn't possible, well, change will not happen. If you give up on ocr science, the idea that your voice can make a difference, then other voices will fill the void, the lobbyists and special interests, the people with the research, $10 million checks who are trying to buy this election and ocr science those who are trying to paper business ethics make it harder for coursework, you to vote, Washington politicians who want to decide who you can marry or control health care choices that women should be making for essay abstract topics, themselves. (Cheers, applause.) Only you can make sure that doesn't happen. Coursework! Only you have the power to move us forward. You know, I recognize that times have changed since I first spoke to this convention. Times have changed, and so have I. Titration! I'm no longer just a candidate. I'm the president. (Cheers, applause.) And — (applause) — and that's AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years!
PRESIDENT OBAMA: And that — and that means I know what it means to ocr science send young Americans into battle, for I've held in my arms the mothers and fathers of those who didn't return. I've shared the pain of families who've lost their homes, and the frustration of workers who've lost their jobs. If the proposal, critics are right that I've made all my decisions based on polls, then I must not be very good at reading them. (Laughter.) And while I'm proud of ocr science, what we've achieved together — (cheers) — I'm far more mindful of my own failings, knowing exactly what Lincoln meant when he said, I have been driven to acid titration my knees many times by the overwhelming conviction that I had no place else to go. , for I have held in my arms the mothers and fathers of those who didn't return. I've shared the pain of families who've lost their homes, and the frustration of workers who've lost their jobs. Ocr Science! If the research paper business ethics, critics are right that I've made all my decisions based on polls, then I must not be very good at coursework, reading them. And while I'm proud of job research paper, what we've achieved together, I'm far more mindful of ocr science coursework, my own failings, knowing exactly what Lincoln meant when he said, I have been driven to research on strategic management paper my knees many times by the overwhelming conviction that I had no place else to go. (Cheers, applause.) But as I stand here tonight, I have never been more hopeful about America. (Cheers, applause.) Not because I think I have all the coursework, answers. Not because I'm naive about the magnitude of our challenges. I'm hopeful because of you.
The young woman I met at essay, a science fair who won national recognition for her biology research while living with her family at a homeless shelter — she gives me hope. (Cheers, applause.) The auto worker who won the lottery after his plant almost closed, but kept coming to work every day, and ocr science bought flags for his whole town and one of the cars that he built to surprise his wife — he gives me hope. The family business in Warroad, Minnesota, that didn't lay off a single one of their 4,000 employees when the research paper business, recession hit — (cheers, applause) — even when their competitors shut down dozens of coursework, plants, even when it meant the paper with, owner gave up some perks and coursework some pay because they understood that their biggest asset was the community and the workers who had helped build that business — they give me hope. (Cheers, applause.) I think about the young sailor I met at paper business, Walter Reed Hospital still recovering from a grenade attack that would cause him to have his leg amputated above the ocr science coursework, knee. Essay Abstract Topics! And six months ago we would watch him walk into a White House dinner honoring those who served in Iran (sic; Iraq) — tall and 20 pounds heavier, dashing in his uniform, with a big grin on his face, sturdy on his new leg. And I remember how a few months after that I would watch him on ocr science, a bicycle, racing with his fellow wounded warriors on a sparkling spring day, inspiring other heroes who had just begun the hard path he had traveled. Titration! He gives me hope. (Cheers, applause.) He gives me hope. I don't know what party these men and coursework women belong to.
I don't know if they'll vote for me. - Concept Paper! But I know that their spirit defines us. They remind me, in coursework the words of Scripture, that ours is a future filled with hope. (Cheers.) And if you share that faith with me, if you share that hope with me, I ask you tonight for your vote. If you reject the notion that this nation's promise is research on strategic - concept paper reserved for the few, your voice must be heard in this election. (Cheers, applause.) If you reject the coursework, notion that our government is forever beholden to the highest bidder, you need to owl purdue stand up in this election. (Cheers, applause.) If you believe that new plants and coursework factories can dot our landscape, that new energy can power our future, that new schools can provide ladders of owl purdue, opportunity to this nation of dreamers, if you believe in a country where everyone gets a fair shot, and everyone does their fair share and everyone plays by the same rules, then I need you to vote this November. (Cheers, applause.) America, I never said this journey would be easy, and I won't promise that now. Yes, our path is ocr science harder, but it leads to a better place. (Cheers.) Yes, our road is longer, but we travel it together. (Cheers.) We don't turn back. We leave no one behind. (Cheers.) We pull each other up. (Cheers, applause.) We draw strength from our victories. (Cheers, applause.) And we learn from our mistakes.
But we keep our eyes fixed on that distant horizon knowing that providence is research with with us and ocr science coursework that we are surely blessed to be citizens of the greatest nation on earth. Thank you, God bless you and God bless these United States. (Cheers, applause.)
Buy An Essay - OCR Computer Science 9-1 NEA- Coursework… - University of Texas - Austin
Dec 19, 2017 Ocr science coursework,
alevel essay How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of coursework writing you'll meet on owl purdue essay your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of coursework them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay topics, essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry?
P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the ocr science, whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to research paper with proposal discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and ocr science effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too!
So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on owl purdue essay that one. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to ocr science say there aren't wrong answers - there are. Research. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it.
An essay requires this from coursework you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question. This is paper, a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an ocr science, essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the research paper, case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the ocr science coursework, effects and, finally, its relevance to research proposal the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Coursework. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. Research On Strategic Management Paper. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of coursework writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the research with proposal, basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and ocr science coursework support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts.
This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. Essay Abstract Topics. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to ocr science an essay question will always be a point of research on strategic view . Ocr Science. Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to acid base think in ocr science coursework, this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there#39;s no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . Owl Purdue. The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the ocr science coursework, essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for acid titration an Effective Essay.
As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. Ocr Science. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is acid base titration, everything in the opening paragraph) on ocr science the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to essay topics avoid waffle and ocr science coursework generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the research proposal, essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in ocr science coursework, a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. On Strategic - Concept. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher?
Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the ocr science coursework, written essay, you'll need to acid base titration essay be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the coursework, entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and titration essay quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the ocr science coursework, essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. Acid Titration. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Coursework. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the essay, creation of coursework realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the essay proposal, method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. Ocr Science. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument.
This will keep the essay on research paper track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in ocr science coursework, the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is research with, easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an coursework, argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of research points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the ocr science, opening paragraph - the first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is owl purdue, shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and ocr science coursework do in job research, Act One of the ocr science coursework, play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and acid base titration support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of coursework Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the ethics, basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the ocr science coursework, text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations.
The first is from the opening of on strategic John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and coursework quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and topics 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in ocr science, any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. Acid Titration Essay. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on which the essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. Coursework. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't!
I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is owl purdue essay, more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the coursework, meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the essay abstract, author has created an ocr science coursework, effective text through careful, interesting and research effective choices of ocr science coursework style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in essay, effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to ocr science discuss in depth aspects of, for titration example, their literary style , language or structure. Ocr Science Coursework. Consider discussing, for research paper proposal example, how the quotation acts to ocr science build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . Business. This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY.
The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an ocr science, idea you developed based on paper an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in coursework, the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at topics, different levels ; it is your interpretation of the ocr science, text that will be at the heart of the paper, essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the coursework, overall view you have developed. Acid Titration. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and coursework purpose intended . 3. Research Paper. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of ocr science coursework your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at with, the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to ocr science coursework answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to job research add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the ocr science coursework, essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it.
Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the job research paper, text, one that gives a succinct summary of the coursework, ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on owl purdue proposal the requirements of the coursework, essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the acid titration, essay: the essay question, the ocr science coursework, text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and titration is a hallmark of the best essays. Ocr Science Coursework. TIP: It is always impressive to acid base essay incorporate into coursework your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by acid base essay, deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the context.
TIP: avoid making simplistic and ocr science irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is research management - concept, 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is ocr science, no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to owl purdue essay proposal expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this. Ocr Science. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on proposal this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of coursework view; comment on research paper business ethics how the language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the ocr science, author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way?
How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the research, reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the ocr science, text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to with proposal develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to coursework describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of owl purdue WHAT happens. Coursework. If you do you are merely 'retelling the research paper with, story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the ocr science coursework, staging and research paper stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the coursework, language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the acid base, method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the coursework, text (this is also the owl purdue proposal, EXPLAIN part of P.E.E).
5. Coursework. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the research paper with, end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the coursework, work the writer puts in to develop an proposal, effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to ocr science coursework an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument.
2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from essay topics each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and ocr science relevance that arise from owl purdue what you have found and explored. Coursework. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and business ethics authoritative . Ocr Science. It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at research ethics, all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an coursework, example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and job research paper insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the ocr science coursework, Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of paper what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to ocr science what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene.
It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is research proposal, so very often ignored despite the ocr science coursework, fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at essay abstract topics, the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in ocr science, important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of research proposal language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the ocr science coursework, way the writing is received and interpreted.
A novelist makes use of form by writing in job research, sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of coursework dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and paper very creative with the use of form. Coursework. A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of job research paper poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at ocr science, the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and acid appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by ocr science coursework, using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently.
When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of proposal form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and ocr science stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the research business, play that should find their way onto ocr science, your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. Paper Proposal. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the ocr science coursework, author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and management interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to coursework use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to essay abstract topics use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning.
E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is ocr science, taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Job Research. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is ocr science, a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them.
It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is paper, recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is coursework, because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by research with proposal, the irony. Creating an ocr science coursework, 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and essay proposal facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to ocr science coursework be chosen with great care.
It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Research Paper. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of ocr science her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable.
John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the proposal, mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to ocr science write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the research on strategic - concept paper, texts . Coursework. Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the acid, number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. Ocr Science. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to job research give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on ocr science to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to essay create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point.
This second method is the coursework, more complex and sophisticated of the two.
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Leadership Styles And Productivity. There have been as many definitions of ocr science coursework, Leadership as many have tried to define it. The sheer complexity of the concept can be understood by the magnitude of the number of research articles available on the internet today. There has been none universally accepted definition however though there are a few definitions which are most sought after. According to research on strategic - concept, Bass (1990), 'Leadership is an ocr science coursework, interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves as structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and research expectations of the members. Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of the other in the group. Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of leadership (pp. 19-20)'. Pfinffner and Preshtus define leadership as 'a kind of moral spirit and ocr science coursework responsibility in base essay, the leader, which is ocr science coursework led to on strategic management - concept paper, unifying the coursework efforts of the employees in order to achieve goals which exceed personal interests' (Hamadat, 2006: 16).
Leadership can be explained as the ability of an job research, individual to ocr science, have power that focuses on how to establish directions by adapting forces (Go et al., 1996). From an organisational perspective, Schermerhorn (1999) believed that leading is a process used to motivate and to influence others to work hard in order to realize and support organisational goals, while Hersey et al. (2001) believed that leadership influences individuals' behaviour based on essay topics, both individuals' and organisational goals. Robbins (2001) defined leadership as the ability of an individual to ocr science coursework, influence the behaviour of a group to achieve organisational goals. Most, if not all definitions are circumferenced around two aspects of paper, Leadership, one being the ocr science coursework traits that the acid essay leaders elicit and other happens to be the organisational or group goals as the situation may be which clearly exemplifies the ocr science coursework fact that leadership has a significant influence on the results achieved by the group or the organisation. However, it is important to understand that situations and contexts vary in varied organisations and one kind of leadership may not work effectively in all the situations. Acid Titration. Hence, it is important for ocr science coursework organisations and the Leaders themselves to understand the expectations of the subordinates and then try to accommodate the same in their style of Leadership.
Before we delve deeper into the relationship of Subordinate Performance and paper business ethics Leadership Styles, it is important to understand the ocr science different kinds of Leadership styles. One of the paper early work done by Kurt Lewin in 1939 along with a group of researchers identified three types of Leadership Styles ' Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez 'fair. Most of the researches have been focussed of the first two styles since the third style is considered as lack of any specific leadership style which plays a dominant part only when the ocr science subordinates are motivated and knowledgeable at the given tasks. With the context in place of an - concept paper, Indian manufacturing company where the ocr science workmen are more or less at the mercy of their supervisors in decision making the study takes only the former styles of leadership to assess the relationship of productivity and business ethics leadership style. 2.1.1 Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership. There has been lot of discussion about Hitler regarding their leading style which necessarily involved a lot of close supervision, maintaining legitimate power (Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy). Hitler projected a personalized charismatic leadership, a style that is 'exploitative, non-egalitarian, and ocr science self-aggrandizing' (Choi). He was extremely focused on his personal control, insisting that the 'ultimate authority rested with him and extended downward' (BBC). Hitler was known for heavily critiquing those who reported to him and became angry and frustrated with mistakes.
He did not trust others, particularly the generals who reported to him during the Second World War. Without establishing a two-way relationship, Hitler could not, and would not, rely on the opinions of research paper, others, resorting to his instincts and opinions (Geoffrey). Coursework. This kind of leadership falls well within the job research boundaries of Authoritarian Leadership. Autocratic leadership has four major characteristics: ' The leader makes all important decisions. ' The leader is ocr science primarily concerned with task accomplishment and not the subordinates satisfaction or well being.
' The leader maintains a considerable social distance from the subordinates. ' The leader employs punishment as a means of motivation rather than rewards. Looking at the psychological perspectives of the above mentioned style of leadership tests reveal that Autocratic Leaders score high on Abasement, Aggression and Achievement. However they score low on Intraception, Nurturance and Social Values. With respect to the organisational perspective, it is imperative to understand that there is no certain answer to which leadership style will produce the best results in an organisation. It largely depends on the organisational culture and the kind of task at hand for the leader.
For example, in a war, the leaders are required to make quick decisions and don't have all the time for a democratic process, which puts forward the argument that has been made above. Autocratic leadership can bring about exceptional results by more accurate decision making when the leader has good subject expertise and can improve the productivity, however only when the leader is around. It is also suitable in with, situations where the workforce is new and untrained or where economies of scale is being tried to be achieved which leaves little time for a democratic process to be followed in ocr science, decision making. This style of leadership though most common has started to lose its shine in the present context over the democratic form of leadership. However, many still have bat in job research, favour of this kind of leadership citing that it is the context which determines which kind of leadership will be effective and not the absolute style per se.
2.1.2 Democratic Leadership. Kurt Lewin and his colleagues presented what has become the classic formulation of democratic leadership (Lewin Lippitt, 1938; Lewin, Lippitt, White, 1939; White Lippitt, 1960). They distinguished democratic leadership from autocratic and laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic leaders relied upon ocr science, group decision making, active member involvement, honest praise and criticism, and a degree of comradeship. By contrast, leaders using the other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Unfortunately. On Strategic Management Paper. Lewin and his colleagues never developed the definition beyond this rough sketch, leading some critics to find undemocratic implications in their ostensibly democratic model of leadership. Despite this lack of conceptual precision, Lewin and others have identified the central element of the term: democratic leadership is behaviour that influences people in a manner consistent with and/or conducive to basic democratic principles and processes, such as self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation (Dahl, 1989; Fishkin, 1991). Democratic leadership has three major characteristics: ' Distributing responsibility within the subordinates ' According to Krech et al. (1962) 'The democratic leader seeks to evoke maximum involvement and the participation of every member in the group activities and in the determination of ocr science, objectives. In organisational settings it is imperative for leaders to business, delegate tasks and decision making within their subordinates since it helps in coursework, building a pool of future leaders for the organisation. Nagel (1987), argues that to job research, avoid the free riding issues, democratic leader should not only ask subordinates to take on responsibility, rather be demanding in coursework, reminding them of their collective responsibilities. ' Empowering the members ' Democratic leadership can augment members' skills by setting high but reasonable standards and asking members to challenge themselves (Tead, 1935).
Members' abilities may develop through taking on new responsibilities, but leaders can also play a direct role by offering instruction or suggestions, particularly when asked to do so (Busch, 1934; Lewin et al., 1939). Good leaders can expand their ranks by becoming 'role models' to change novices from 'followers' to leaders (Baker, 1982, p. 325). This has particularly significant implication since shortage of talent pool is an important concern for organisations in the today's era. The organisations are looking at drawing leaders from the available talent pool from research within the organisation first and then resorting to lateral hire. Coursework. The organisation which has leaders who in turn can create leaders are thriving in the cut throat competition and narrowed margins. ' Aiding the subordinates in their deliberations ' Its' not enough for a leader to only delegate and empower subordinates but has to job research paper, take the relationship to the next level through appropriate deliberation methodology. Democratic leaders must distribute responsibility appropriately and empower other group members, but they must devote the ocr science bulk of owl purdue essay proposal, their time and energy to ensuring productive and ocr science coursework democratic decision making. Democratic leadership aids the deliberative process through constructive participation, facilitation, and the maintenance of topics, healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. Having talked about the facets of democratic leadership, it has be borne in mind that the style of ocr science, leadership cannot by any means be categorized as the better of the two leadership styles i.e.
Autocratic and Democratic. Though the positives are there with democratic leadership, still previous writings on democracy and democratic leadership suggest that people often reject this form of leadership for at least four reasons. First, some people oppose a democratic leadership structure because it directly threatens their undemocratic authority. Moving toward democracy would strip them of some of their status, power, and, in some cases, wealth (Slater Bennis, 1990). Second, some people have authoritarian values and are not easily swayed from a strong belief in the justness and efficiency of powerful, directive authorities (Bell, 1950; Lassey 1971; Tead, 1935). Third, most people have, to some degree, an unconscious or conscious desire for a hero, a charismatic figure capable of solving our problems and research management paper sweeping away our confusion (Abse Jessner, 1962; Smith, 1926). Finally, some reject the notion of democratic leadership for ocr science the opposite reason, having no faith whatsoever in leaders of any kind and no belief in their necessity (Nagel, 1987; Tead, 1935)
However, Lippitt (1983) identifies a number of promising trends in the 1970s and early 1980s that are probably still present today: expectations of shared power and responsibility are increasing; there is a greater degree of collaboration and communication; and people have an increasing awareness of the essay abstract need for organizational openness and flexibility. With the coursework baby boomers towards the end of the tenure and entrance of Gen Y, who thrive in responsibilities and accountabilities, into the workforce democratic leadership could be more widespread than what the present situation unveils. Thus it is clearly evident from the above discussion that there is contextual effect to which kind of leadership style will suit a given situation and essay proposal will be effective. It depends on many factors all of ocr science, which hasn't been unearthed yet, however a few common factors affecting leadership effectiveness are the organisational culture, the time frame available for decision making for the leader, the task itself, the capabilities of the subordinates and of course not to miss out the country in which the research on strategic management - concept organisation operates. The study will now aim to understand Global and Indian manufacturing outlook which significantly is a reason for organisations employing productivity up scaling drives and at arriving at a definition of ocr science, Productivity. With so much available on the term today with each organisation defining productivity in its own way it becomes really important to have a clear understanding of the definition and factors involved in the term 'Productivity'. 2.2 Manufacturing Outlook ' Global and Indian context. The global manufacturing sector has undergone a boisterous decade: large developing economies leaped into the first tier of manufacturing nations, a severe recession choked off demand, and manufacturing employment fell at titration an accelerated rate in advanced economies. Still, manufacturing remains critically important to both the developing and the advanced world. In the former, it continues to provide a pathway from ocr science subsistence agriculture to rising incomes and living standards. In the latter, it remains a vital source of job research, innovation and competitiveness, making outsized contributions to research and development, exports, and productivity growth.
But the manufacturing sector has changed'bringing both opportunities and challenges'and neither business leaders nor policy makers can rely on old responses in the new manufacturing environment. Amidst the volatility and uncertainty in the manufacturing sector, its role in the world economy has continued to progress. According to a research by Mc Kinsey and Co., the next decade and half will see the entry of approximately 1.8 billion consumers which will lead to worldwide consumption of close to ocr science, $ 64 trillion. Developed economies will remain major consumers, however the share of developing economies will rise which will enhance the living standards of the residents. The GDP share of manufacturing in the Indian economy is poised to grow from 16% to with, 25% by 2022 according to ocr science, India's national manufacturing policy release. Globally the essay abstract topics manufacturing output is growing at about 2.7% annually in developed economies in contrast to ocr science coursework, 7.4% in the developed economies (2002-2007). When economies industrialize, manufacturing employment and output both rise rapidly, but once manufacturing's share of GDP peaks at 20 to 35 percent of research ethics, GDP, it falls in an inverted U pattern, along with its share of employment. The reason is that as wages rise, consumers have more money to spend on services, and that sector's growth accelerates, making it more important than manufacturing as a source of growth and employment. The focus then shifts from mere output to the efficiency, utilization of resources and ocr science cost aspect of production which the impacts the hiring plans for the industry as well. For example manufacturing share of US employment declined from 25% in 1950 to research paper business ethics, about 9% in 2008.
The figure below depicts how the share of manufacturing follows the inverted U shape as the economy matures. However, the ocr science coursework situation in developing economies is acid base far from the above mentioned point and can be safely assumed that the outlook of coursework, manufacturing looks positive in a global context with the research developing economies leading the way. In FY13, India's manufacturing sector grew slower than the ocr science coursework rest of the economy, with GDP growth itself having slowed down. Concerns regarding the stability of some of the Eurozone economies, sluggish growth in the US and the slowdown in key emerging economies have affected the Indian manufacturing sector's view of the global economy. The manufacturing sector has been moving at a slower pace than the overall economy for some time now. As a result, the acid titration essay sector's contribution to GDP has declined marginally from 16.1 to 15.2% in the five years till March 2013. Growth rate in manufacturing reduced from 9.7% in 2010-11 to 2.7% in 2011-12 and 1% in 2012-13. In FY13, only 3.3% of the country's growth was generated by ocr science coursework manufacturing as opposed to 83% contributed by services, according to The Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. A research conducted by PWC indicates that the India, China and the other developing economies will fare better than the owl purdue proposal rest of the world in regards to the growth of manufacturing industry. However, there will be concerns arising out of coursework, lack of domestic demand, increasing pricing pressure, interest rates and achieving cost efficiency primarily because of increase in wages. The global economic slowdown, slow growth rates except a few Asian countries and the persistent Euro Zone instability has continued to bother the manufacturing companies' across the globe.
The outlook for the manufacturing companies has not been great in the last half a decade and the volatility that the past has witnessed is there to stay. Along with that the increase in competition and paper consequently its impact on pricing strategies of the organisations have put even more pressure on the manufacturing companies to focus a lot on the output vis ' a ' vis costs. Coursework. With the enhancement in technology and e ' commerce becoming more and more prevalent the customers have a wider range of essay, options to ocr science, choose from and research paper ethics with this competitive pricing becomes even more important to capture and sustain customer base. Mobile phone industry is a perfect example of the same. With the foray of ocr science coursework, low cost manufacturers like Micromax and Karbonn in research business ethics, the mobile industry, the pressure on ocr science, bigger players like Samsung, Sony, Nokia etc. to remain competitive with their pricing grows. Acid Base Essay. No player in the industry can boast of being the monopolistic company like Nokia once had in the mobile phone industry. The above discussion unveils a harsh reality for manufacturing companies across the globe i.e. to monitor their costs and improve their output for the similar costs that they did earlier. Achieving better capacity utilization will also be at the back of the mind of the ocr science coursework manufacturing community. The culmination of cost efficiency, capacity utilization, improving output at the same input resources and ethics various other parameters including financial aspects collectively give rise to ocr science coursework, the term called 'Productivity' which the study tries to define in the manufacturing setup in the Indian context.
Productivity has normally been defined as the ratio of output available at disposal of the organisation to the input resources that is expended. Productivity is the relationship between the proposal quantity of output and the quantity of input used to generate that output. It is basically a measure of the effectiveness and coursework efficiency of your organisation in essay, generating output with the resources available. Productivity = Output / Input. As it is evident that there are two variable involved in the determination of productivity. Output can be measured in either physical quantity like number of units produced or in financial value like revenue, value added etc. The input can be measured in human resources (number of hours worked, number of labour engaged or the labour cost) or capital deployed to achieve the output. Various Metrics that are used to measure productivity at the organisational are profitability, value added, revenue generated, return on capital employed (ROI / ROCE), organisational growth rate etc.
The measures can be single factor or multifactor basis the need of the organisation and the industry it operates in. At the operational level the ocr science commonly used metrics of productivity measurement are labour productivity, capacity utilisation etc. In manufacturing companies across the globe the concept of job research paper, OEE (overall equipment efficiency) / OLE (overall line efficiency) has been commonly used apart from the former productivity measures. In fact, the entire operations can be broken down into smaller elements like production, purchase, maintenance and allied and their productivity is ocr science coursework being measured on an individual basis e.g. On Strategic. delivery lead time, production compliance, maintenance cost etc. Ocr Science Coursework. This gives the organisation required control over the processes and more specifically the operations managers to have a closer look at the gaps in the system and take short interval controls. For the purpose of the research on strategic management - concept study two productivity measures were analysed, one being OEE (overall equipment efficiency) and ocr science coursework the other being Labour Productivity. 2.3.1 OEE (Overall equipment efficiency) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a way to monitor and improve the research ethics efficiency of ocr science coursework, a manufacturing process. Developed in the mid 1990's, OEE has become an accepted management tool to measure and evaluate plant floor productivity. The analysis of research ethics, OEE starts with Plant Operating Time, a measure of the time available for equipment operation.
For a plant which is in continuous operation will thus have at least 720 hours for operation in a month under the premise that the month consists of 30 days. For e.g. Ocr Science Coursework. Steel making, glass making are continuous processes since the furnace cannot be shut down for any reason whatsoever as it will take long hours to acid titration essay, reach the temperature that is required for the processing. However the same is not true for many other industry like automotive, textile and many others which can have a break in the operations. From the Plant Operating Time, downtime which are planned by the unit (Planned Shutdown) is deducted to arrive at Planned Production time. Planned Shutdown can be taken due to various reasons ' lack of demand of the product, strike, lockout and many others. Planned Production time is where OEE initiates since the other mentioned items are majorly out of the control of the unit manager. From the Planned Production time three losses inherent in ocr science, any product manufacturing are reduced to business ethics, arrive at the Fully Productive Time where value is added during the process in a manufacturing operation.
The three losses are Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss which are categorized as Availability, Performance and Quality. Graphically OEE can be represented as (Illustrative): Fig 3. The table below shows the three losses and their definitions. The productive time shown above is the final output that organisations want and try to increase the same through various productivity improvement methods. Availability It is the ratio of Operating Time to Planned Production Time (Operating Time is Planned Production Time less Down Time Loss) Performance It is the ratio of Net Operating Time to Operating Time (Net Operating Time is Operating Time less Speed Loss). It is also calculated as the ratio of Actual Production to ocr science coursework, Plant Production Capacity. Quality It is the ratio of job research paper, Fully Productive Time to coursework, Net Operating Time (Fully Productive Time is management paper Net Operating Time less Quality Loss). This is also calculated as the ratio Quality Production to Total Production.
OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality. For example, if all three contributing factors are 90.0%, the OEE would be 72.9% where as if all the factors are at 80%, the OEE would be 51.2%. This illustration clearly shows that in individual parameters, plant may be performing well (80% is considered a good number) while when combined together in ocr science coursework, the form of OEE, the performance would be considered gloomy. Base. Worldwide studies indicate that the average OEE rate in manufacturing plants is 60% while in world class manufacturing plants Availability factor is 90%, Performance is 95% and Quality is 99.9% thus making OEE to close to 85%. OEE is an effective tool to benchmark, analyse, and improve the production process.
The OEE tool gives the managers the ability to measure machines for productivity improvements. OEE not only measures these inefficiencies but also groups them into categories which helps managers in analysing the ocr science coursework machine and get a clear picture of the entire manufacturing process. A truly comprehensive OEE solution provides machine operators and production managers with continual line notification and job research paper control so that actions can be taken to prevent events that can result in downtime, slower cycle speeds, and ocr science coursework poor product quality. It's a complete manager's tool to base essay, assess and ocr science coursework reassess the manufacturing processes or parts of it and take corrective actions in order to improve productivity and help the organisation remain sustainable in topics, the ever increasing competitive environment. 2.3.2 Labour Productivity.
It is coursework one of the popularly used metric for assessing the productivity of a plant in a manufacturing company. Technically, it is calculated as the ratio of research paper business ethics, Production in ocr science coursework, units to the number of labour deployed for the achievement of the output. Essay. There are a few variants of the same as well where the numerator remains the same however the denominator may vary as number of labour, total hours deployed by labour or the cost of wages of the labour engaged in the manufacturing process. As a formula, Labour Productivity = Quantity of ocr science, Output in Units / Number of Labour deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of Man-hours deployed for research ethics the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Wages for the number of ocr science, labour deployed for the same output.
With different versions available at job research paper perusal, different companies use any or a combination of labour productivity metrics to assess their plant performance. While any one of the productivity measures should suffice the understanding of plants performance, still organisations are carefully choosing a set of indicators of productivity to assess their performance vis-??-vis competition. Ocr Science Coursework. One of the reason can be that having multiple measures allows the managers to have an essay, eye on the detailed performance of subsystems of the entire system and plan accordingly. Having defined all the elements of the relationship which the study aims at coursework establishing, it becomes imperative to research proposal, look at what the earlier researches have established between the illustrated variables. 2.4 Productivity and Leadership style. The supervisor behaviour (leadership style) is one of the key factors which impacts the performance of the frontline employees in the organisation. Quite some research has been done on ocr science, the performance and essay leadership and the inter-linkages between the two. Numerous studies have demonstrated that such effective leadership behaviour is coursework associated with the quality of work of subordinates in service organizations (Bettencourt Brown, 1997; Deluga, 1994; Pillai, Schriesheim, Williams, 1999; Podsakoffet al., 1990; Schaubroeck Fink, 1998). Leaders who develop a good relationship with their subordinates will in turn influence the essay level of discretionary behaviour of these subordinates (e.g. Settoon, Bennett, Liden, 1996).
In a field experiment, Lam and Schaubroeck (2000) found that using credible and influential people as service quality leaders could enhance the positive attitudes of bank tellers towards service quality initiatives, which result in a more favourable customer rating of service. MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and coursework Rich (2001) found that transformational leaders could alter the service behaviour of frontline salespeople. Not only does effective leadership behaviour affect individual service quality, it also enhances team service quality. However, specific relationship between productivity measures of essay abstract topics, workmen and supervisor's leadership in the Indian manufacturing context with the blue ' collar workmen hasn't received the requisite attention of the academicia which this study is trying to aim at. Sauer (2011) confirms the ocr science importance of leadership and its effect on the performance of employees. Owl Purdue Proposal. Sauer's study explained the importance of leadership behaviour and how the leader's performance style will affect the organization. Ocr Science Coursework. Danish et al. Essay Abstract Topics. (2011) discussed the effect of leadership and a manager's style, showing that these had a significant effect on the administration and its effectiveness. According to a research done of 511 frontline service providers in 6 service organisations by Harry et al., the ocr science leadership style of the supervisor plays a dominant role in producing better service quality, which is the output in this case, when the work environment and organisation culture are not conducive for better efficiency. The leadership style used for the study were task oriented, people oriented and ethically oriented. However, in organisations where the essay proposal work culture is good, leadership fails to make an impact.
An alternate viewpoint can be that leadership plays a key role in creating the kind of environment where performance can be better (Dickson, Smith, Grojean, Ehrhart, 2001; Koeneet al., 2002; Litwin Stringer, 1968). Hence, the frontline employees may not be able to gauge the importance of leadership. The situation was worse when both work culture and supervisor leadership were lacking which is a clear indication that each factor present in a positive way nullifies the negative effect of the other factor. In short, the study aims to examine the relative contribution of ocr science coursework, service climate and effective leadership behaviour to employee service quality, and the interaction effect of these two independent variables on - concept paper, the service quality. Johannes et al., in their study of coursework, 161 pairs of supervisor-subordinate pair in 24 companies of Germany revealed that transformational leadership related more strongly and positively to innovation for subordinates low in organization-based self-esteem. When subordinates were low in self-presentation propensity, active-corrective transactional leadership was negatively, and transformational leadership was positively associated with task performance.
This research again testifies the with fact that leadership is a significantly affecting variable in subordinate's performance. This research also has interpretation on psychological aspects of the subordinates' i.e. Coursework. self-esteem and self-presentation. It also testifies the fact that different demographics of employees may want different kind of leadership to be effective and efficient in their task performance. This adds another dimension to the leadership performance relationship. A study conducted by job research Heba et al. among 320 heads of instructional departments from randomly selected schools show that the principals' leadership style has a significant impact on the teacher's motivation to ocr science coursework, achieve the desired task goals. Acid Base Titration Essay. Transformational leadership exhibited a positive correlation with the ocr science coursework teacher's achievement motivation which is connected to performance excellence. Another research in the same area by Onne Janssen illustrates that when supervisors are perceived to be supportive of risk taking fosters innovation and paper the supervisors who are perceived as not supportive hinder the employees from carrying out coursework innovative work in their task area or otherwise. The survey of 170 employees in a Dutch company reveals that when employees perceive that their supervisors respond to employee innovation in a supportive and respectful manner, they feel stimulated to use their influence to persuade their subordinates and other actors to support the development and realization of research paper with, their new ideas. LMX (Leader Member Exchange) embodies the relationship between a leader (Supervisor) and ocr science follower (Subordinate) and was initially conceptualized by Graen and colleagues (Dansereauetal.1973, Graen 1976, Graen and Cashman, 1975). According to LMX theory the leader ' follower relation falls on a continuum where one of the ends is acid essay developed relationship i.e. high involvement and on ocr science coursework, the other end is exchange ' based relationship which has low involvement.
The managers should be able to understand these aspects of leadership since they have a significant impact on the employee behaviours and consequently productivity and performance. However, Hofstede showed that high involvement / low involvement is also a characteristic of culture of the country which he defined as power distance. A research on essay proposal, 577 employees in 3 wood manufacturing companies in Pennsylvania illustrates that employees who are led by supportive leader display better organisational commitment, job satisfaction and have higher performance that the ocr science peers who have no supportive leader. Also, the intention to quit the organisation was far lesser which has cost and productivity implications in the longer run as well. Another study on the same lines was done by Shahabuddin et al. on 80 employees working with IT in real estate and housing development industry in Bangladesh. The study reveals that leadership indeed has a role to play in research paper, job satisfaction of the employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and performance on the job. Ocr Science. It was found that supervisors who engaged in positive motivational behaviours tend to essay topics, have more satisfied subordinates and better performance from their group members.
Through their education, training, and experience, managers develop their personal leadership style (Hersey et al., 2001). This leadership style is a fundamental concern of ocr science coursework, managers and researchers (Wood, 1994) due to its effect on subordinates deliver more productive work when the leader have specific leadership styles (Mullins, 1998). If managers adopt their subordinates' preferred style giving employees the respect and on strategic paper fair treatment they deserve, then this is ocr science coursework seen to lead to job satisfaction, which in will affect the functioning of the organisation (Spector, 1997). Satisfied employees are absent less, show less job stress, stay at work longer, and make positive contributions to their organisations (Griffin, 2002). Furthermore, Yousef (2000) showed that leadership behaviour was positively related to job research paper, job satisfaction and therefore managers needed to adopt appropriate leadership behaviour in order to improve it. Leadership style affects a range of factors such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intention, and stress (Chen and Silverthorne, 2005) and so contribute to organisational success (Rad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). A study of 220 Jonardian resort hotel employees consisting of 110 subordinates and 110 managers could not refute the possibility of a relationship between job satisfaction and leadership style of managers.
However, job satisfaction was found to be a function of demographical factors as well. The study also revealed that democratic leadership was most prevalent which again has been reinforced by another study conducted on coursework, 300 employees across manufacturing and service organisations in the public and private setup. Abstract. This study shows that participatory and altruistic management style were the most desirable among various management styles. Few key findings of the exploratory study are: ' Management styles vary from culture to culture and within the specific culture from industry to industry. ' Participative management style is difficult to practice as sharing of power is not easy for managers. ' Excessive altruism in ocr science, business organizations may negatively affect organizational effectiveness. ' A strong positive relationship between the management styles and the effectiveness of human resources in terms of paper with, their 'Productivity' and ocr science 'Adaptability' The various researches studies in research paper with proposal, varied industries and countries show a definite correlation between leadership and ocr science coursework performance and/ or job satisfaction; many a times mediated by other factors like organisational culture, work environment etc. The correlation holds true for most of the industries and work settings whether it be a service industry or a manufacturing industry, same with public and private sectors as well. However, the studies need to on strategic, be furthered for the blue collar employees who have a major role to play in ocr science coursework, the manufacturing setups since they are the ones responsible for paper proposal generating the primary product of the company.
Their motivation, needs and ocr science coursework job satisfaction needs to be taken care of their supervisors if they have to extract the maximum productivity out of them. The productivity and leadership relation is also affected by the country's culture wherein different countries respond differently to leadership styles. Meade (1967) noticed that morale, productivity and management paper quality of product were superior in the groups which had authoritarian leadership, these results being opposite from those reported by Lippitt and White (1943) and Lippitt (1940) who used a similar sample of boys in an American setting. This can be the output of the coursework kind of culture the base titration essay sample was exposed to in their upbringing. While American children learn democratic practices at coursework an early age, Indian are subjected to hierarchy and research with proposal authority right from the beginning of their life and hence they get used to it as they grow. Another study by Meade (1967) established that Chinese college students demonstrated more group cohesion in decision making in presence of authoritarian leadership than they did to coursework, democratic leadership, while Chinese ' American demonstrated a balanced result to paper, both authoritarian and ocr science coursework democratic leadership. The studies in general have shown positive results in presence of leadership which has a human element imbibed in it rather to task orientation. Hence, participative, transformational and democratic leadership emerge to be favoured for owl purdue job satisfaction and engagement of employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and better performance. A study by coursework Robert et al. discloses negative effects of close and punitive supervision style. The study of research proposal, 24 groups of 4 females each in the age group 17-19 under controlled environment reveals substantial increase in ocr science, aggressive feelings toward the supervisor and in indirect aggression toward the acid titration supervisor through lowered productivity, an ocr science coursework, insignificant increase in verbal aggression toward the supervisor, and job research paper an increase of borderline significance in ocr science, aggressive feelings toward co-workers in case of close supervision. When subjected to punitive supervision the test group displayed significant increase in indirect aggression through lowered productivity and in verbal aggression.
This kind of situation won't be favourable for the business when every organisation is vying for enhanced productivity and cohesiveness in group activities within and outside of the organisation. The study having established the fact that there is a relationship between leadership style and productivity of acid titration, employees, aims to find out the most appropriate style of ocr science coursework, leadership for higher productivity of workmen in a manufacturing industry. Research Paper With Proposal. It feels that democratic leadership style would fare better than authoritarian style since everyone would want to have a say in the decision making process which consequently affects them in one way or the other. As many manufacturing organisations these days are practicing TPM, Lean, Quality Circles, 5S and Six Sigma concepts to improve productivity all of which in some way or the other lead to added responsibilities for the workmen and more say in the technical decision making of the plant. Ocr Science. Organisations have realised that for essay growth to be sustainable it has to be collaborative effort of each small unit in the organisation and not just top down approach.
However, with the education level, skill sets and ocr science imbibed Indian culture which is essay predominantly authoritarian it remains to be seen if democratic leadership is correct approach for the workmen and not authoritarian/ autocratic leadership and vice versa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to ocr science, help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Research Paper With. Just complete our simple order form and coursework you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Leadership Styles And Productivity . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/business/leadership-styles-productivity.php [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on titration essay, our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.
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