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Past and Present: An Overview of The Arian Controversy. Recently the Anglican bishop John Spong called for a reconsideration of the theological debate surrounding Arianism, an alternative view of Christ which was sometimes popular during the third and fourth century AD. Benjamin Mazin! This paper reviews the study questions and answers in business, Arian controversy, and questions wisdom of reopening this theological can of worms. Benjamin Mazin Thesis! Support for the present c hristological paradigm will also be discussed. In his recent best-selling book, gWhy Christianity Must Change or Dieh, the online essay, Anglican Bishop John Shelby Spong writes: The purpose of every written creed historically was not to clarify the truth of God. It was, rather, to rule out some contending point of view. Benjamin! The adoption and expansion of these creeds took place in causes of environmental problems essays, church councils amid raucous debates and politically motivated compromises.

I see no reason to believe that the people who participated in these councils were any more brilliant, insightful or knowledgeable than the Christians of today. Mazin Thesis! I do not, therefore, believe that the christological formula was set for all time at Chalcedon in 451 CE. I believe that we Christians must inevitably revisit Chalcedon and introduction narrative, once again do the hard work of rethinking and redefining the Christ experience for our time and in words and concepts appropriate to our world. I even favor the reopening of the debate between Arius and mazin thesis, Athanasius on the nature of Christ. [1] Bishop Spong is certainly correct that, at least in the beginning, Christian creeds were never seen by most as necessary, until views surfaced which differed from what was either commonly believed or previously unquestioned by the majority of Christians. He is also accurate in asserting that ancient theologians and clergy were, in their search for the truth, involved in heated debates, and were sometime motivated by goals which were less-than-pure.

The search for of environmental problems, clarity and understanding, like any human enterprise, is fraught with human frailty. However, is Spongfs call for a reassessment of the christological formula of Chalcedon warranted? Specifically, would reopening the Arian debate be a constructive and helpful move for Christians, many of whom are already separated by benjamin other theological chasms? Before taking such a step, it would be helpful to look once more at the Arian-Athanasian debate, and study effects this controversy had upon Christian thought. During this review of the Arian controversy, special consideration will be given to the theological implications of Ariusf christology. In studying these events, Christians everywhere might better discern whether the present christological paradigm is satisfactory, or, as Spong has suggested, the current understanding of Christ ghas become empty and meaninglessh [2] and is in need of repair. The dark era of Christian persecution was, for the moment, over. The Roman Emperor Constantine had decreed Christianity as new official religion of the empire.

The ensuing Christian growth, both numerically and thesis, materially, was phenomenal. While only a few years earlier, Christian clergy and theologians were constantly living under the threat of a brutal and painful death, Constantine's decrees now suddenly afforded them with special privileges and exemptions. Benjamin Mazin Thesis! Constantine did all that he could to assure that Christian worship was protected in every way, even in the face of planning dissertation great opposition from traditional elements in the society who favored a return to the worship of the old Roman pantheon. Constantine saw stability in thesis, the ethical teachings of Christianity that was lacking in the old Roman religions. Seeing that a Christian system of ethics could strengthen the case study questions studies, aging empire, he felt it . his duty to assure the welfare of the churches in order that they, by their worship, might assure the good estate of the peoples of the empire. [3] While Christians enjoyed the mazin thesis, support of their newfound patron, they soon found to their dismay that the banking, Emperor, who was not a Christian but a devotee of the Sun Cult, wanted to have a role in their theological decisions. Constantine stressed that he only wanted to benjamin maintain his version of the Pax Romana in the Church, but many saw him as simply meddling in their affairs.

This was especially apparent during an incident known as the Donatist Controversy. A schism developed in North Africa after some Christian churches, which had not lapsed under pre-Constantinian persecution, were refusing to good narrative recognize the authority of the growing Roman clergy. In this controversy Constantine tried and failed to force Donatist Bishops into conformity, and ended up creating an atmosphere in North Africa where many pockets of Christian believers became counter-cultural and schismatic. [4] In a short time, this discontent was to start a war throughout the Empire. It would not be a war of swords and stratagems, but of words and ideas. It was in mazin thesis, this ferment of online banking essay African nonconformity that on the outskirts of Alexandria, in benjamin mazin thesis, the suburbs of Baucalis, a Presbyter by the name of Arius burst upon good introduction to a essay the scene. [5] He was described as a priest of mature age, who after a period of misdirected and factious activity, had attained a high position in the oldest church of Alexandria. He was respected for his ascetic life, and admired for his eloquent preaching and dialectical ability; while his influence was enhanced by a dignified demeanor and a voice full of persuasive charm. [6]

Sometime before or during his time at Alexandria, Arius began to struggle with the question that all Christians must face: Who was Jesus? Theologians today are able to respond to this question with statements such as God very God, God the Son or Trinitarian formulas like Jesus is equal to the Father. However, in Ariusf time Christians had yet to verbalize these beliefs in a manner that was systematic, formal, and universal. For many, it did not seem necessary because of what was already written in scripture and the books of earlier Christians against heresies such as Gnosticism or Marcionism. [7] But soon there would be a need to state openly and clearly what it meant to call Jesus Lord, for Arius was about to start a theological brush fire that would not be extinguished for mazin, sixty years. Arius was sincere in his study and interpretation of Scripture. Based upon his understanding of planning Greek language (in which the New Testament was written), he began to benjamin mazin have doubts about what was traditionally believed about the nature of Christ.

What did scripture mean when it referred to Christ as the gonly-begotten of the planning, Father?h [8] Was only-begottenh to be interpreted in benjamin mazin thesis, the strictest sense of the word? If so, would the biblical terms of gSon of Godh, and gFirstborn of All Creationh refer to his nature as a created being? However, if he were created, how could he at the same time be the Creator? If Christ were a created being, what would this say about the claims of his divinity? Arius ultimately concluded that Christ was the most perfect of all creations, but not eternal and somehow less than God. [9] It was to this growing conviction that he devoted his genius for the rest of his life. Arius began to preach in essays, church about his understanding of Christ.

Because of the apparent logic and persuasiveness of his arguments, Arius soon developed a strong following in Egypt. His logical conclusions offered an easy explanation to the doubts and confusion many Christians had about the mystery of Jesus' humanity and divinity. In AD 319 the Pope of Alexandria, Alexander, began to take notice of the benjamin mazin thesis, Arian movement in his parish, and grew concerned as to it's ramifications. He first took Arius aside and counseled him in a discreet manner to essay repent from mazin his divergent teachings. Arius refused to listen to him. Later Alexander asked Arius to come and debate his views against online banking essay, other teachers of benjamin thesis theology.

Following the labeling genetically modified essay, debate, Pope Alexander again asked Arius publicly to thesis stop teaching his heretical ideas. Arius again refused, and disseminated his views even more zealously. Alexander eventually called for an ecclesiastic council for deposing Arius. Arius, knowing that was about to lose his position in the church, and thesis statement for songs, likely be excommunicated, quickly retreated to Israel where gained the support a number influential people. The most noteworthy of benjamin these was Eusebius of Nicomedia. He wrote to Eusebius, complaining that the Alexander . drives us from the city as atheists because we do not concur with him when he publicly preaches, '. God always, the Son always, the Son exists from thesis God himself.'. We are persecuted because we say the Son has a beginning, but God is without beginning. Mazin! [10] While in Israel, Arius wrote his thesis entitled Thalia.

In it, he systematically presented his christological convictions. His writing style was easier to understand than the of environmental problems, dry works of other Christian scholars, and he frequently used humor to prove his point. He wrote pithy rhymes about his view of Christ, such as there was a time when he was not.h These short phrases, the ancient ancestor of the benjamin mazin thesis, media soundbyte, were soon on the lips of the common man throughout the good introduction essay, empire. [11] Eusebius started a writing campaign against benjamin, Alexander, and online banking, tried to muster enough political pressure among those in Egypt who sympathized with Arius so as to get him reinstated. Alexander fought back and started his own campaign, which caused the controversy to intensify. Thesis! News of Arius' views continued to narrative essay spread all over the Empire, and found a sympathetic ear with a large number of benjamin thesis bishops in planning, the Eastern Churches of Asia Minor. In AD 324, Constantine defeated the forces of Licentius, and he assumed control over benjamin thesis, the Eastern Empire. To his surprise, he found himself stepping right into the middle of the raging Arian Controversy in Asia Minor. By this time, the argument had fallen from the discussion of lofty theological concepts to an embarrassing contest of insults. Confused by the pandemonium, Constantine tried arrange a quick fix by sending his advisor, Hosius of Cordova, with a letter that essentially advised everyone involved to stop arguing over trivial theological matters and get on with more important things. [12] This attempt was a total failure, and Hosius exacerbated the study questions and answers in business studies, situation by installing an anti-Arian priest while in Egypt.

Soon the controversy began to benjamin fester in narrative, the streets. It was recorded that marketplaces were rife with Arian intriguers who would stir up arguments over silly questions such as if a son could exist before he was born. [13] In the summer of benjamin AD 325, Constantine decided that he would settle the planning, Arian Controversy once and for all. He called for a Council of all the parties involved in the dispute. The meeting place was in the city in Asia Minor, called Nicaea. Most who came to benjamin thesis the Council were from the Eastern Church. Representing the small group of Arian supporters was Eusebius of planning dissertation Nicomedia.

Another group, which strongly supported Pope Alexander, included Eustathius of Antioch and a remarkable man from Alexandria by the name of Athanasius. He was a prolific writer and staunch enemy against all heretics of the faith. A third group was led by Eusebius of Caesarea, who was suspected of being an Arian sympathizer because of his support for benjamin mazin thesis, subordinationalism, an older Trinitarian formula invented by Tertullian, which viewed Christ as a gsonh in labeling modified, a subordinate role. With the arrival of the Emperor, who was to preside over the proceeding, the mazin thesis, council could begin. Oddly enough, it seemed that everyone who came to the council was confident that their view would be vindicated. The Arians began by making impressive claims about the Savior.

He was called the monogenes , a Greek word that means gonly-begotten,h but has great theological significance in the writings of the Apostle John. Other titles given to Christ were the power of God, the wisdom of labeling foods God and the word of God. gWordh means glogosh in Greek, and thesis, has an foods active and philosophical nature that is not expressed in mazin, English or Japanese. In the Johannine literature of the New Testament, it was frequently used to express the preexistent state of Christ before the incarnation. During the debate, Christ was frequently referred to as gthe Logosh as a means to causes problems discuss the aspects of his nature that could not be easily perceived. Benjamin Mazin! Eusebius of Nicomedia had stated that Christ was created born before time, and for that reason was unchangeable. [14] Nevertheless, as a created being, the Logos was subject to change and capable of either virtue or vice, just as human beings are. [15] There were numerous references to scripture that were put forth to support this position.

The Arians selected scripture that reported that God, not Christ, raised Christ from the Dead. They pointed out that Christ sat at the right hand of God, and that he did not know the day or hour of the final judgement. [16] Much of labeling foods essay Arius' claims rested on the scriptural record that the Father begot the Son. If the Father beget the Son, he that was begotten had a beginning of mazin thesis existence; hence it is clear that there was when the Son was not. It follows then of necessity that he had his existence from the non-existent. [17] In claiming to be faithful to the literal meaning of essay scripture, the Arians attacked the mazin, theological position of Alexander and problems essays, Athanasius, asserting they were actually preaching two co-equal Gods: But he is eternal, and benjamin, co-exists with the Father, call Him no more the Father's Son, but brother. [18] Alexander countered by in business stating that the Arians were only presenting half the picture when reading scripture: They remember all the passages concerning the Savior's passion, both the humiliation and the emptying, and what is called impoverishment. Benjamin Mazin! but of those sayings which are indicative of his nature and glory and nobility and union with the Father, they are forgetful. [19] It was pointed out that Christ made strong claims to divinity. Not only did Christ state that he and the Father were one, at least on one occasion He was almost stoned to death by case in business studies a crowd who clearly understood that he equated himself with God. [20] Further, Athanasius questioned the framing of the other Arian arguments by expounding upon the concept of Christ the man and Christ the Logos. It was the humanity of Christ that was humbled, did not know certain things and benjamin mazin, died. The Logos was exalted, knew all things, and rose his Crucified body to life. [21] Athanasius explained that, while Arianism seemed logical, one needed to see with spiritual eyes the deeper meaning of Scripture. For, if He is called the eternal offspring of the Father, He is of environmental rightly so called.

For never was the substance of the Father imperfect. Mazin! but He is for songs God's offspring, and as being proper Son of God, who is ever, He exists eternally. God's offspring is eternal, for His nature is ever perfect. [22] Related to this argument are differing cultural concepts surrounding gson.h For ancient Greek and Roman cultures, the status of son was always lower than the father. This was also true for Hebrew and other Semitic cultures as well. However, gson,h is also used as a literary device in the Old Testament Hebrew scriptures, which means one who has the same attributes and partakes of the same character of someone or something else. For this reason one can find poetic references in benjamin mazin, scripture to people as being a gson of the dawn,h gson of thunder,h or gsons of light.h [23] A pivotal issue then for both parties was how to planning dissertation define the sonship of the Logos. Arian confusion arose as to what coming to be, generated or begotten actually meant. Those who opposed Arius sought to benjamin define God as the agennetos , a Greek word meaning, gthe only ungenerated oneh, and case questions, referred to Christ as the gennetos , or gthe begotten one.h Yet it is questionable whether these specialized terms did anything to strengthen their argument or adequately describe the depths of Christ.

All parties decided that the controversy could be resolved by making a universal declaration of faith that would be the measuring rod for mazin, orthodox belief. Eusebius of Nicomedia offered up what was later called the Arian Creed. No more than twenty votes could be mustered in support of it, and the bishops, in what appears to have been a free-for-all, ripped up the document in an angry clamor. After this show of violence, all but five persons completely abandoned Arius. [24] Then Eusebius of Caesarea stepped forward and offered a confession of faith that had been used by Christians in his city. Good Narrative! Eusebius seemed well situated to make this proposal, because he tended to agree with some tenants of Arius' belief, and at the same time was in good standing with Constantine and the other bishops. The Emperor and majority of the Bishops accepted Eusebiusf creed, and meshed it with another creed that some Christians gave publicly before receiving baptism. It looked as if the mazin thesis, council would soon finish without anything definitive being said about Arianism or the Nature of Christ, when Constantine suggested that the word homoousios be added into the creed. Study Questions Studies! This meant to be of one substance with the Father. This was strongly resisted by Eusebius of Caesarea, who felt it to be too close to the heresy of Sabellius, who stated that the Father, Son and Spirit were not three unique persons, but rather three modes of action within one Being. Paul of Samoasota used the same term in AD 269 and was condemned for it. In addition, the Greek word ousia or homoousios were never used by the Apostles in the New Testament to describe either the Father or Christ.

Many felt the inclusion of these words would invite future heresies. Thesis! [25] Nevertheless, the creed was passed, becoming the universal confession of faith that all churches could use to define orthodox faith in Christ. As a demonstration of the power and prestige they had through the causes of environmental problems essays, Emperor, the Bishops pronounced condemnation upon Arianism and sent Arius, Eusebius of Nicomedia and mazin, many of masters their supporters into exile. It appeared that the controversy had finally ended. However, the affair was far from over. Many were uncomfortable with ousia and homoousios as being part of the first universal standard of faith, adding that this new formula was no better than some of the local creed which had circulated before Nicaea. This discontent, as well as some political gains in benjamin, Egypt and the imperial court, gave the Arians the opportunity to reopen the debate. In the to a narrative, same year that Athanasius succeeded Alexander to the See of Alexandria, Eusebius of Nicomedia was recalled from his banishment and reinstated as a priest. Eusebius then maneuvered his way into the post of Constantine's religious adviser following the death of Hosius of Cordova. After solidifying his position with the Emperor, Eusebius soon began a campaign of revenge against those who had exiled him.

Consequently, Athanasius was stripped of his office, condemned as a heretic, and benjamin thesis, died in exile. The next thirty-five years saw what seemed like an unending cycle of intrigue, dismissal, excommunications and arguments. Through the support of Eusebius and others, Arianism began to flourish in the East, and for planning masters, many years was seen as the orthodox faith of mazin thesis Constantinople. Over time, the thesis, Eastern Bishops began to see unwelcome changes in their parishes because of their embrace of benjamin Arianism. Increasingly it became apparent that the case and answers studies, Church in the East was in benjamin mazin thesis, danger of having marginalized the role of Christ to the point of losing Him. Many began to suggest that Athanasius' views were in fact correct, and in AD 361, an improved version of the Nicene Creed was issued. In an effort to settle the cultural unrest started by these christological conflicts, the imperial court called for a final, definitive formula. This was accomplished at Chalcedon in 451 AD. In this creed, Christ was affirmed as the gone and the same Son. perfect in Godhead and for songs, perfect in manhoodh with two natures both distinct and unified in benjamin mazin, one person, being the online banking, only-begotten of God and thesis, God the Word (logos). [26] From this time, onward Arianism suffered a serious decline in case questions, supporters. Although elements of mazin this discarded christological system have sometimes found their way in the writings of thinkers such as Milton, Newton, and schismatic groups such as the labeling genetically modified, Jehovahfs Witness movement, Arianism has never risen to the level of prominence it once had. [27] It has been shown that, as Spong has stated, the formation of Christian creeds was a messy and painful process.

Moreover, the partisan nature of the benjamin thesis, christological controversies fell far short of Christfs command to statement for songs love onefs enemies. The Arians unwittingly sought to confuse people on what was already a difficult concept to understand, and benjamin, the results were a Christianity without Christ. Of Environmental Problems! However, in their zeal to protect the benjamin mazin, truth, Athanasius and others sought to further define Christfs nature in ways that have failed to do justice to scripture. [28] Moreover, the gorthodoxh Christians resorted to political power to statement force their point. This was a temptation that Christ resisted continually during His earthly ministry, but in the days of Constantine, the mazin, Church did not. Through their loveless acts of violence, they too risked preaching a Christianity that was devoid of love, and ultimately, the Resurrected Christ. What is amazing is that this sort of controversy arose among a generation that was separated from Christfs earthly ministry by only 300 years. They spoke and for songs, read the language of the New Testament, and benjamin mazin thesis, most likely had access to written materials and records of the statement for songs, first Christian witnesses which are no longer extant today.

If they, having such advantages as these, still struggled with understanding the nature of Christ, could we, who are separated by 2000 years and several languages, expect to do any better? Spong states that the early theologians were no cleverer than we were, however, it must be admitted that we are no cleverer than they. It is questionable that anyone from any generation could do much better in explaining the benjamin mazin, enigma Christ. For it is written in scripture, God g. has also set eternity in the hearts of men; yet they cannot fathom what God has done from beginning to end.h [29] Humanity may be able to ask questions about Christ, but we will most certainly lack the capacity to fully comprehend. This is not to banking suggest that the Christian community will never learn more about the benjamin thesis, God they worship. The whole Bible attests to the fact that through the ages humanity has grown to know more about the nature and character of God.

Theological truth in this sense is interpreted as a progressive revelation of the planning masters dissertation, Divine, which can be built upon as our understanding of the benjamin thesis, universe grows. For example, for banking essay, several years astrophysicists have been discussing evidence that suggests that the universe is thesis not composed of four dimensions, but eleven. [30] Such a concept, if it proves true, would easily allow for the existence of a triune being who is case questions three persons in one and thesis, operates outside the confines of questions time. Such knowledge can help Christians to better understand that the concept of the trinity and other things discussed in the creeds are not, in benjamin, fact, impossibilities. However, Spongfs concept of theological truth is deconstructionist in nature. All truth is negotiable and continually open to radical redefinition. He calls for planning masters dissertation, each generation to continually redefine what creedal understandings of Christ according to their ever-changing worldview. [31] In a situation where theological truth is constantly in benjamin mazin thesis, a state of flux, it is unlikely that anything constructive would come from a reopening of the planning masters dissertation, Arian debate, except for more debate, conflict, confusion and disruption. In the final analysis, Spong is right in asserting that the Christian creeds should be viewed as imperfect documents which were created by imperfect men. Benjamin! However, while imperfect, the for songs, creeds as they stand today have still been helpful though the centuries as gteaching aidsh that point gropingly towards a deeper, unfathomable truth about God. They serve their purpose admirably so long as one does not mistake the creed for the Christ to whom it points. Thesis! Viewed in light of the difficulty with which they were created, Spongfs call for a reconsideration of the Arian debate should be viewed with skepticism, and the present christological paradigm should remain as a point of Christian unity, not contention. [1] . Spong, John Shelby.

Why Christianity Must Change or Die . San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1998, pgs. 18-19. [3] . Walker, Williston, ed. A History of the Christian Church . Online Banking! Fourth Edition, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1985, pg. 129. [6] . Bright, William.

The Orations of St. Athanasius Against the Arians . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1873 , pg. x. [7] . Justin, Dialogue with Trypho , and Irenaeus, Against Heresies . In Hulgren, Arland J., and Haggmark, Steven J. (eds). The Earliest Christian Heretics . Minneapolis: The Fortress Press, pgs 38-40, 102-103. [9] . Rattenbury, H. Morley. A Sketch of Church History . London: The Epworth Press, 1962, pg. Benjamin Thesis! 26. [10] . Bettenson, Henry, ed. Case! Documents of the Christian Church . Thesis! Second Edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 1962, pg. 39. [11] . Casey, Robert P, ed. The Armenian Version of the Pseudo-Athanasian Letter to the Antiochenes and of the Expositio Fidei.

Studies and problems, Documents , Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1947, pg. Benjamin Thesis! 13. [18] . Anglican Church. Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church Anterior to the Division of the East and West . Vol. 1 and 2. Oxford: John Henry Parker; J.G.F and J. Of Environmental Problems! Rivington, London, 1842, pg 200.

[19] . Gregg, Robert C. and benjamin, Groh, Dennis E. Early Arianism - A View of Salvation . Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1981, pg. 2. [20] . Bible, John 8:58, John 10:30, John 14:9-11. [23] . Bible, Isaiah 14:12, I Thessalonians 5:5, Mark 3:17. [24] . Gwatkin, Henry Melvill. Studies of Arianism . Cambridge: Deighton Bell and Co., 1882, pg. 38. [26] . Online! Schaff, Phillip. The Creeds of Christendom Volume Two: The Greek and Latin Creeds . Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1993, pg.

62. [28] . Benjamin Thesis! Berkhof, Louis. Systematic Theology . London: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1969, pg. 82. [29] . Bible, Ecclesiastes 3:11. [30] . Ross, Hugh.

The Heavens Declare the Glory of God . Paper presented at Hayama Missionary Seminar, Hayama, Japan, 1996.

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An Editor#39;s Guide to benjamin mazin thesis Perfecting Your Resume. Adrian Granzella Larssen. You know that you should edit your resume before you send it off in the world, making sure it’s error-free. But to banking essay make sure that resume is in the best possible shape? You should really take the editing process a few steps further. Here’s the thing: Editing is more than just giving something a once-over to mazin thesis eliminate egregious typos and grammar mistakes. It’s really about looking at something with a critical eye, then making changes to ensure it’s the best it can possibly be.

And that’s what you want for labeling foods, your resume, right? From someone who edits all day, every day for a living, here’s a five-step editing plan that will take your resume from good to full-blown awesome (and—of course—eliminate the typos, too). When I look at mazin thesis an article for the first time, I have to resist the urge to fix typos or make style changes (and believe me, as an editor, it’s hard). But it’s important—the first thing I need to determine is whether the piece is working as a whole. To A Narrative. Is this right for our publication? Is the message of the benjamin mazin, article the one we want to send? Are there any major gaps or sections that are superfluous? On that first read of your resume, try to causes of environmental do the same thing.

Ignore typos or formatting issues, and think about the mazin, overall message your resume is sending : Does this sell you as the perfect candidate for foods essay, the types of benjamin mazin, roles you’re seeking? Are there any gaps between the experience on the page and the experience required for the job? If so, are there ways in which you could bridge those gaps ? What makes your experience stand out among other, similar candidates? Does the banking essay, top third of your resume serve as a hook to thesis get the hiring manager to read more? Is there anything on study and answers in business studies your resume that doesn’t need to be there? Pro Tip: Look at the LinkedIn profiles of benjamin, people at study in business studies your level in benjamin thesis your field, and see how they tell their stories. Which ones are most compelling or stand out the online banking, most? See what you can learn from them and how you can apply those lessons to your own resume. Benjamin Thesis. Step 2: Scrutinize the Bullets and Details.

As editors, we ask constantly ask ourselves if each word is the best one, if a sentence structure is right, if there’s anything that could be said more clearly, effectively, or quickly. And oh, do we add examples! Why say something if you can show it? It makes for online banking essay, better writing and a more interesting read. Benjamin. Walk through your resume again. Your job at masters this point is to benjamin mazin look at every section, every sentence, and every word, and online, determine if there’s a better way to get your point across. For each bullet point, ask: Is this the strongest possible language you could use? Can anything be said more clearly?

Or in mazin fewer words? Is there any language that someone outside of your company or industry wouldn’t understand? Could anything benefit from examples? Can anything be quantified? Can you show a benefit ? Are any words used over thesis statement and over? Can they be replaced with more creative language? Pro Tip: Have a friend who’s not in benjamin your field read your bullet points, and ask what he or she thinks your strongest achievements are. Do you agree? If not, adjust so the introduction narrative essay, most important ones really stand out. Every so often, I’ll edit what I think is a great, well-written article—and realize suddenly that one of the benjamin mazin, source’s names is spelled wrong.

I’ll take a closer look and see that—wait—a book title is incorrect, research numbers are not quite right, and study questions studies, that other “facts” in the article need a second look. It’s a good idea to do this for your resume, too. It can happen even with the right intentions—I, for example, recently realized that my resume said “3 million” on a figure that most certainly should have been 1 million. Whoops. Read every word on your resume again, this time asking yourself: Are the companies you worked for named the same thing? Still located in the same city? Are your position titles accurate? Are your employment dates correct?

Are all of the numbers and percentages you use to thesis describe increases, quotas, budgets, savings, and online essay, achievements (reasonably) accurate? Pro Tip: In the benjamin thesis, editorial world, we have to make sure every number we print is 100% accurate, but you have a bit more leeway with your resume. Genetically Modified Essay. As long as you’re reasonably sure that you increased customer satisfaction, fundraising numbers, or sales 25%, don’t worry about having the “official” numbers to prove it. As I well know, you can work intently on mazin thesis a document for three hours and somehow not notice that you’ve used “their” instead of “there” or mistaken “bran” for “brand.” So, proofreading one last time is a step you can’t skip. I do recommend having someone else look your resume over (even us editorial word nerds hire proofreaders). Good To A Narrative. But before you do, proof word by word, asking yourself: Are there any typos? Wrong word usage? Does each bullet point end with a period (or not)? Either is fine, just be consistent.

Are you using the serial comma (or not) throughout? Pro Tip: When proofreading, it’s helpful to temporarily change the font, or to read your resume from the benjamin, bottom up—your eyes get used to reading a page one way, and can often catch new errors when you mix the format up. When I worked for a print magazine, I’d often submit what I thought was a perfect final draft of an article—until I’d get a proof from our designer. More often than not, my masterpiece would need some adjustments to look right on case study in business studies the page: shortening the thesis, copy so that it didn’t require a miniature-sized font, or lengthening a paragraph so that one word didn’t hang over on a line by itself, for example. Modified. Because part of great writing is benjamin, making it look great, too. While you don’t have to send your resume off to good introduction essay a graphic designer, do keep in mind that presentation is important, and that a few adjustments to your text can make a big difference in how it looks. Benjamin Thesis. Give it a final once-over with a designer’s eye, considering: Does the page look visually appealing?

Is the page overly cluttered? Is the of environmental problems essays, font size too small? Is it difficult to read? Is the font size and thesis, format for each section consistent? Does the layout make sense? Is your contact information easily findable? Pro Tip: Make your document easier to online essay skim by mazin, adding divider lines between sections. Check out section three of this great guide to resume formatting from LifeClever for instructions. Photo of modified foods, pen and paper courtesy of Shutterstock . Adrian was The Muse’s very first employee (ask her about the early days!) who built the mazin thesis, Muse editorial team from the ground up.

Now, she serves as Editor-at-Large, launching new content products and sharing expert career advice with Muse audiences online and off. Introduction To A Essay. When she’s not Musing, you’ll find her planning her next dinner party or international vacation. Say hi on Twitter and Instagram. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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chuck berry essay Chuck Berry is the greatest of the rock and rollers. Elvis competes with Frank Sinatra, Little Richard camps his way to self-negation, Fats Domino looks old, and Jerry Lee Lewis looks down his noble honker at all those who refuse to mazin, understand that Jerry Lee has chosen to become a great country singer. But for a fee--which went up markedly after the freak success of My Ding-a-Ling, his first certified million-seller, in 1972, and has now diminished again--Chuck Berry will hop on a plane with his guitar and go play some rock and roll. He is the symbol of the music--the first man elected to modified foods essay, a Rock Music Hall of Fame that exists thus far only in the projections of television profiteers; the benjamin thesis, man invited to come steal the banking essay, show at the 1975 Grammys, although he has never been nominated for benjamin, one himself, not even in the rock and case questions in business studies roll or rhythm and benjamin mazin blues categories. More important, he is also the music's substance--he taught George Harrison and Keith Richard to play guitar long before he met either, and his songs are still claimed as encores by everyone from folkies to heavy-metal kids. But Chuck Berry isn't merely the greatest of the rock and rollers, or rather, there's nothing mere about it. Say rather that unless we can somehow recycle the concept of the great artist so that it supports Chuck Berry as well as it does Marcel Proust, we might as well trash it altogether. As with Charlie Chaplin or Walt Kelly or the Beatles, Chuck Berry's greatness doesn't depend entirely on the greatness or originality of his oeuvre. The body of his top-quality work isn't exactly vast, comprising three or perhaps four dozen songs that synthesize two related traditions: blues, and dissertation country and western. Although in some respects Berry's rock and roll is simpler and more vulgar than either of its musical sources, its simplicity and vulgarity are defensible in the snootiest high-art terms--how about instinctive minimalism or demotic voice?

But his case doesn't rest on such defenses. Benjamin Mazin Thesis! It would be as perverse to argue that his songs are in themselves as rich as, say, Remembrance of Things Past . Genetically Essay! Their richness is rather a function of their active relationship with an audience--a complex relationship that shifts every time a song enters a new context, club or album or radio or mass singalong. Where Proust wrote about a dying subculture from a cork-lined room, Berry helped give life to a subculture, and both he and it change every time they confront each other. Mazin! Even My Ding-a-Ling, a fourth-grade wee-wee joke that used to mortify true believers at college concerts, permitted a lot of 12-year-olds new insight into the moribund concept of dirty when it hit the airwaves; the song changed again when an oldies crowd became as children to causes of environmental essays, shout along with Uncle Chuck the night he received his gold record at Madison Square Garden. And what happened to Brown Eyed Handsome Man, never a hit among whites, when Berry sang it at interracial rock and roll concerts in Northern cities in the Fifties? How many black kids took eyed as code for skinned? How many whites? How did that make them feel about each other, and benjamin mazin thesis about the song? And did any of of environmental problems that change the song itself?

Berry's own intentions, of course, remain a mystery. Typically, this public artist is an obsessively private person who has been known to drive reporters from his own amusement park, and thesis the sketches of his life overlap and contradict each other. The way I tell it, Berry was born into statement for songs a lower middle-class colored family in St. Louis in 1926. Benjamin Thesis! He was so quick and ambitious that he both served time in reform school on good narrative essay, a robbery conviction and acquired a degree in hairdressing and cosmetology before taking a job on an auto assembly line to support a wife and kids. Mazin Thesis! Yet his speed and ambition persisted.

By 1953 he was working as a beautician and leading a three-piece blues group on a regular weekend gig. His gimmick was to cut the blues with country-influenced humorous narrative songs. And Answers Studies! These were rare in the black music of the time, although they had been common enough before phonograph records crystallized the benjamin mazin thesis, blues form, and thesis statement for songs although Louis Jordan, a hero of Berry's, had been doing something vaguely similar in mazin, front of study questions and answers white audiences for benjamin mazin thesis, years. In 1955, Berry recorded two of his songs on a borrowed machine--Wee Wee Hours, a blues that he and his pianist, Johnnie Johnson, hoped to sell, and an adapted country tune called Ida Red. He traveled to Chicago and planning masters dissertation met Muddy Waters, the uncle of the thesis, blues, who sent him on to Leonard Chess of Chess Records. Labeling Foods! Chess liked Wee Wee Hours but flipped for Ida Red, which was renamed Maybellene, a hairdresser's dream, and forwarded to Allan Freed. Having mysteriously acquired one-third of the writer's credit with another DJ, Freed played Maybellene quite a lot, and it became one of the first nationwide rock 'n' roll hits. At that time, any fair-minded person would have judged this process exploitative and pecuniary. A blues musician comes to a blues label to promote a blues song--It was `Wee Wee Hours' we was proud of, that was our music, says Johnnie Johnson--but the owner of the benjamin mazin thesis, label decides he wants to push a novelty: The big beat, cars, and good introduction essay young love.

It was a trend and we jumped on it, Chess has said. The owner then trades away a third of the benjamin mazin, blues singer's creative sweat to the symbol of labeling genetically modified foods essay payola, who hypes the novelty song into benjamin mazin commercial success and essays leaves the artist in a quandry. Does he stick with his art, thus forgoing the first real recognition he's ever had, or does he pander to popular taste? The question is thesis loaded, of case study and answers course. Ida Red was Chuck Berry's music as much as Wee Wee Hours, which in retrospect seems rather uninspired. In fact, maybe the integrity problem went the other way.

Maybe Johnson was afraid that the innovations of Ida Red--country guitar lines adapted to blues-style picking, with the ceaseless legato of thesis his own piano adding rhythmic excitement to thesis, the steady backbeat--were too far out to sell. What happened instead was that Berry's limited but brilliant vocabulary of guitar riffs quickly came to epitomize rock 'n' roll. Ultimately, every great white guitar group of the mazin, early Sixties imitated Berry's style, and Johnson's piano technique was almost as influential. Online Banking Essay! In other words, it turned out that Berry and benjamin Johnson weren't basically bluesmen at banking all. Through some magic combination of inspiration and mazin cultural destiny, they had hit upon something more contemporary than blues, and planning masters dissertation a young audience, for mazin, whom the Depression was one more thing that bugged their parents, understood this better than the musicians themselves. Leonard Chess simply functioned as a music businessman should, though only rarely does one combine the courage and insight (and opportunity) to pull it off, even once. Chess became a surrogate audience, picking up on new music and making sure that it received enough exposure for everyone else to pick up on it, too. Obviously, Chuck Berry wasn't racked with doubt about artistic compromise. A good blues single usually sold around 10,000 copies and a big rhythm and blues hit might go into the hundreds of thousands, but Maybellene probably moved a million, even if Chess never sponsored the causes problems essays, audit to prove it. Benjamin! Berry had achieved a grip on online banking, the white audience and the solid future it could promise, and, remarkably, he had in no way diluted his genius to benjamin mazin, do it. On the thesis, contrary, that was his genius.

He would never have fulfilled himself if he hadn't explored his relationship to benjamin, the white world--a relationship which was much different for him, an study questions in business, urban black man who was used to machines and had never known brutal poverty, than it was for, say, Muddy Waters. Berry was the first blues-based performer to benjamin, successfully reclaim guitar tricks that country and thesis western innovators had appropriated from black people and benjamin mazin adapted to their own uses 25 or 50 years before. By adding blues tone to some fast country runs, and labeling modified foods essay yoking them to a rhythm and blues beat and thesis some unembarrassed electrification, he created an labeling genetically modified essay, instrumental style with biracial appeal. Alternating guitar chords augmented the beat while Berry sang in an insouciant tenor that, while recognizably Afro-American in accent, stayed clear of the benjamin, melisma and blurred overtones of study and answers in business blues singing, both of benjamin which enter only at carefully premeditated moments. His few detractors still complain about the repetitiveness of this style, but they miss the for songs, point. Repetition without tedium is the backbone of rock and roll, and the components of Berry's music proved so durable that they still provoke instant excitement at concerts durable that they still provoke instant excitement at concerts two decades later. And in any case, the instrumental repetition was counterbalanced by benjamin mazin thesis unprecedented and virtually unduplicated verbal variety. Chuck Berry is the greatest rock lyricist this side of Bob Dylan, and case questions sometimes I prefer him to Dylan.

Both communicate an abundance of the childlike delight in linguistic discovery that page poets are supposed to convey and too often don't, but Berry's most ambitious lyrics, unlike Dylan's, never seem pretentious or forced. Benjamin Mazin! True, his language is ersatz and barbaric, full of good to a narrative mispronounced foreignisms and advertising coinages, but then, so was Whitman's. Like Whitman, Berry is excessive because he is totally immersed in benjamin mazin thesis, America--the America of Melville and the Edsel, burlesque and installment-plan funerals, pemmican and pomade. Unlike Whitman, though, he doesn't quite permit you to take him seriously--he can't really think it's pronounced a la carty, can he? He is banking essay a little surreal. How else can a black man as sensitive as Chuck Berry respond to the affluence of white America--an affluence suddenly his for the taking. Chuck Berry is not only a little surreal but also a little schizy; even after he committed himself to benjamin mazin thesis, rock 'n' roll story songs, relegating the bluesman in him to B sides and album fillers, he found his persona split in case study questions and answers in business, two. In three of the benjamin, four singles that followed Maybellene, he amplified the good introduction to a narrative essay, black half of thesis his artistic personality, the brown-eyed handsome man who always came up short in online banking essay, his quest for the small-time hedonism American promises everyone. By implication, Brown Eyes' sharp sense of life's nettlesome and even oppressive details provided a kind of salvation by humor, especially in benjamin mazin thesis, Too Much Monkey Business, a catalog of hassles that included work, school and the army.

But the statement for songs, white teenagers who were the benjamin mazin, only audience with the cultural experience to planning dissertation, respond to Berry's art weren't buying this kind of salvation, not en masse. They wanted something more optimistic and more specific to themselves; of the four singles that followed Maybellene, only mazin, Roll Over Beethoven, which introduced Berry's other half, the rock 'n' roller, achieved any real success. Chuck got the message. His next release, School Day, was another complaint song, but this time the complaints were explicitly adolescent and were relieved by the direct action of the rock 'n' roller. In fact, the song has been construed as a prophecy of the Free Speech Movement: Close your books, get out of your seat/Down the halls and into the street.

It has become a clich to attribute the problems essays, rise of rock and roll to a new parallelism between white teenagers and black Americans; a common alienation and even suffering are often cited. As with most clichs, this one has its basis in fact--teenagers in the Fifties certainly showed an unprecedented consciousness of themselves as a circumscribed group, though how much that had to do with marketing refinements and how much with the Bomb remains unresolved. In any case, Chuck Berry's history points up the limits of this notion. For Berry was closer to white teenagers both economically (that reform school stint suggests a JD exploit, albeit combined with a racist judicial system) and in spirit (he shares his penchant for youthfulness with Satchel Paige but not Henry Aaron, with Leslie Fiedler but not Norman Podhoretz) than the average black man. And even at that, he had to benjamin mazin, make a conscious (not to say calculated) leap of the imagination to to a narrative, reach them, and sometimes fell short. Although he scored lots of mazin thesis minor hits, Chuck Berry made only three additional Billboard Top Ten singles in the Fifties--Rock and of environmental essays Roll Music, Sweet Little Sixteen, and Johnny B. Goode--and every one of them ignored Brown Eyes for the assertive, optimistic, and benjamin thesis somewhat simpleminded rock 'n' roller. In a pattern common among popular artists, his truest and most personal work didn't flop, but it wasn't overwhelmingly popular either. For such artists, the audience can be like a drug.

A little of it is so good for them that they assume a lot of it would be even better, but instead the causes of environmental essays, big dose saps their autonomy, often so subtly that they don't notice it. For Chuck Berry, the mazin, craving for overwhelming popularity proved slightly dangerous. At the same time that he was enlivening his best songs with faintly Latin rhythms, which he was convinced were the coming thing, he was also writing silly exercises with titles like Hey Pedro. Nevertheless, his pursuit of the market also worked a communion with his audience, with whom he continued to have an instinctive rapport remarkable in a 30-year-old black man. In Business! For there is also a sense in which the popular artist is a drug for mazin thesis, the audience, and a doctor, too--he has to genetically modified foods, know how much of his vital essence he can administer at one time, and in what compound. The reason Berry's rock 'n' roller was capable of such insightful excursions into the teen psyche--Sweet Little Sixteen, a celebration of everything lovely about fanhood; or Almost Grown, a basically unalianated first-person expression of benjamin thesis teen rebellion that Sixties youth-cult pundits should have taken seriously--was that he shared a crucial American value with the humorous Brown Eyes.

That value was fun. Dissertation! Even among rock critics, who ought to mazin, know better, fun doesn't have much of case study and answers a rep, so that they commiserate with someone like LaVern Baker, a second-rate blues and gospel singer who felt she was selling her soul every time she launched into a first-rate whoop of nonsense like Jim Dandy or Bumble Bee. But fun was what adolescent revolt had to be about--inebriated affluence versus the hangover of the work ethic. It was the only practicable value in the Peter Pan utopia of the American dream. Benjamin Mazin Thesis! Because black music had always thrived on exuberance--not just the otherworldly transport of introduction to a narrative gospel, but the candidly physical good times of great pop blues singers like Washboard Sam, who is most often dismissed as a lightweight by the heavy blues critics--it turned into the perfect vehicle for generational convulsion. Black musicians, however, had rarely achieved an optimism that was cultural as well as personal--those few who did, like Louis Armstrong, left themselves open to thesis, charges of Tomming. Chuck Berry never Tommed.

The trouble he'd seen just made his sly, bad-boy voice and good introduction narrative essay the splits and waddles of his stage show that much more credible. Then, late in 1959, fun turned into trouble. Berry had imported a Spanish-speaking Apache prostitute he'd picked up in El Paso to check hats in his St. Louis nightclub, and then fired her. Benjamin Mazin! She went to the police, and Berry was indicted under the study, Mann Act. After two trials, the benjamin mazin, first so blatantly racist that it was disallowed, he went to prison for two years. Questions! When he got out, in 1964, he and his wife had separated, apparently a major tragedy for him. The Beatles and the Rolling Stones had paid him such explicit and thesis appropriate tribute that his career was probably in better shape after his jail term than before, but he couldn't capitalize. He had a few hits--Nadine and No Particular Place to Go (John Lennon is one of the many who believe they were written before he went in)--but the introduction essay, well was dry. Between 1965 and 1970 he didn't release one-even passable new song, and he died as a recording artist.

In late 1966, Berry left Chess for a big advance from Mercury Records. The legends of his money woes at Chess are numerous, but apparently the mazin, Chess brothers knew how to record him--the stuff he produced himself for Mercury was terrible. Working alone with pickup bands, he still performed a great deal, mostly to make money for online banking, Berry Park, a recreation haven 30 miles from mazin, St. Louis. And as he toured, he found that something had happened to his old audience--it was getting older, with troubles of its own, and it dug blues. Introduction Narrative Essay! At auditoriums like the mazin thesis, Fillmore, where he did a disappointing live LP with the Steve Miller Blues Band, Chuck was more than willing to case study questions in business, stretch out on a blues. Mazin! One of his favorites was from Elmore James: When things go wrong, wrong with you, it hurts me too. By 1970, he was back home at Chess, and suddenly his new audience called forth a miracle. Thesis! Berry was a natural head--no drugs, no alcohol--and most of his attempts to cash in on benjamin, hippie talk had been embarrassments. Genetically Modified! But Tulane, one of his greatest story songs, was the perfect fantasy. It was about two dope dealers: Tulane and Johnny opened a novelty shop/ Back under the counter was the cream of the crop.

Johnny is nabbed by benjamin mazin narcs, but Tulane, his girlfriend, escapes, and essays Johnny confidently predicts that she will buy off the judge. Apparently she does, for there is a sequel, a blues. In Have Mercy Judge, Johnny has been caught again, and this time he expects to be sent to some stony mansion. Berry devotes the last stanza to thesis, Tulane, who is masters too alive to live alone. The last line makes me wonder just how he felt about his own wife when he went to benjamin thesis, prison: Just tell her to live, and I'll forgive her, and online essay even love her more when I come back home. Taken together, the two songs are Berry's peak, although Leonard Chess would no doubt have vetoed the vocal double-track on Tulane that blurs its impact a bit. Remarkably, Have Mercy Judge is the mazin, first important blues Berry ever wrote, and labeling modified foods like all his best work it isn't quite traditional, utilizing an abc line structure instead of the benjamin mazin thesis, usual aab . Of Environmental Essays! Where did it come from? Is it unreasonable to suspect that part of Berry really was a bluesman all along, and that this time, instead of him going to his audience, his audience came to him and provided the juice for one last masterpiece? Berry's career would appear closed. He is a rock and roll monument at 50, a pleasing performer whose days of inspiration are over.

Sometime in the next 30 years he will probably die, and mazin thesis while his songs have already stuck in the public memory a lot longer than Washboard Sam's, it's likely that most of masters dissertation them will fade away too. So is he, was he, will he be a great artist? It won't be we judging, but perhaps we can think of benjamin mazin it this way. Maybe the true measure of his greatness was not whether his songs lasted--a term which as of causes problems now means persisted through centuries instead of decades--but that he was one of the ones to make us understand that the greatest thing about art is the way it happens between people. I am grateful for aesthetic artifacts, and I suspect that a few of Berry's songs, a few of his recordings, will live on in that way. I only hope that they prove too alive to live alone.

If they do, and if by some mishap Berry's name itself is forgotten, that will nevertheless be an entirely apposite kind of triumph for mazin, him. Maybellene (Chess 1604; * 5, r* 1, 1955). Thirty Days (Chess 1610; r* 8, 1955). No Money Down (Chess 1615; r* 11, 1956). Genetically! Roll Over Beethoven (Chess 1626; r* 7, *29, 1956). Mazin! Too Much Monkey Business b/w Brown Eyed Handsome Man (Chess 1635; r* 7, 1956). School Day (Chess 1653; r* 1, *5, 1957).

Oh Baby Doll (Chess 1664; * 57, 1957). Rock and Roll Music (Chess 1671; * 8, r* 6, 1957). Sweet Little Sixteen (Chess 1683; r* 1, *2, 1958). Johnny B. Genetically Modified Essay! Goode (Chess 1691; r* 5, * 8, 1958). Carol (Chess 1700; r* 12, * 18, 1958). Sweet Little Rock and Roll (Chess 1709; r* 13, * 47, 1958). Mazin Thesis! Anthony Boy (Chess 1716; * 60, 1959). Almost Grown (Chess 1722; r* 3, * 32, 1959). Back in online essay, the U.S.A. (Chess 1729; r* 16, * 37, 1959). Too Pooped to Pop (Chess 1747; r* 18, * 42, 1960).

Nadine (Chess 1883; * 23, 1964). No Particular Place to Go (Chess 1898; * 10, 1964). You Never Can Tell (Chess 1906; * 14, 1964). Little Marie (Chess 1912; * 54, 1964). Promised Land (Chess 1916; * 41, 1964). Benjamin! My Ding-a-Ling (Chess 2131; * 1, 1972).

Reelin' and good introduction to a narrative essay Rockin' (Chess 2136; * 27, 1972). Benjamin Mazin Thesis! (Chart positions compiled from Joel Whitburn's Record Research , based on Billboard Pop chart, unless otherwise indicated; r* = position on online essay, Billboard Rhythm and benjamin mazin Blues chart.) The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock Roll , 1976.