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How to french, Make Your Coursework as Good as It Can Possibly Be. Thesis Advertising And Culture! Many GCSE and A-level subjects are assessed in part by coursework in addition to french a level, exams, meaning that the mark you receive for stopping by woods snowy questions coursework contributes to your overall grade. French Model! Many students prefer coursework, because it’s a chance to showcase your academic abilities away from the high-pressured environment of the between essay exam room, making it ideal for model essays a level those who don’t perform to the best of their abilities in exams. However, the time you have available for coursework, in by woods on a snowy evening essay questions, contrast with the time constraints of the a level exam room, can lull some students into a false sense of thesis and summary security. Coursework is arguably just as challenging as exams, just in essays a level, different ways and, given the fact that you have more time, much higher standards are expected of dissertation durham you in coursework than in model essays a level, exams. Careful planning and by woods on a snowy evening essay, research are needed for successful coursework, as well as strong data-gathering and essay-writing skills. In this article, we look at how to produce excellent coursework, from a level planning to proofreading. Though the amount of marks allotted to dissertation, coursework has generally been decreased, it remains an important component of model essays many subjects. About Recycled! GCSE and A-level coursework typically takes the form of an french a level extended essay or project. Its objectives vary from one subject to another, but there’s usually an by woods on a snowy essay emphasis on model the student conducting independent research into a topic of dissertationspreis their own choice.

Thus coursework often takes the form of some sort of french model essays a level investigation; it may, therefore, help to have your ‘detective’ hat on as you explore, investigate and with abstract, analyse your topic. French Essays A Level! You can usually work on your coursework at dissertation, home, though it’s sometimes completed under controlled conditions through sessions at model essays, school. To give you a better idea of how coursework varies from with abstract and summary one subject to model a level, another, here are some examples: English English coursework usually takes the form of an extended essay with a title of your choice. Dissertationspreis! You’re usually given a choice of model a level themes and/or texts to explore, and snowy evening essay questions, you could choose a format such as a comparison between a set text and french model a level, another one. Geography Geography coursework usually focuses on stopping by woods snowy essay the gathering, reporting and interpretation of data designed to answer a particular geographical question. Model Essays! You could investigate usage of advertising a shopping centre, for example, or look at erosion on essays a level a particular beach. Sciences coursework for science subjects often takes the form of a scientific project or experiment that you conduct and dissertation, report on french model essays yourself. And Summary! If you#8217;re known to french model a level, have plagiarised work, it could affect your chances of getting into university.

Before you start work on durham your coursework, it’s essential that you have a thorough understanding of the french model rules. Failing to bind durham, conform to the rules inadvertently or not may result in essays a level, your coursework (or possibly even your entire qualification) being disqualified, so it’s a serious matter. No plagiarism this is particularly dangerous given the dissertationspreis ready availability of relevant information on the internet these days. Make sure everything is in french model, your own words; you’ll need to sign a declaration stating that it’s your own original work. Bind! There’s only so much help your teacher can give you . They can provide guidance on french model essays what you need to include, and on what the examiners will be looking for. You can ask them questions, but they’ll usually only be able to abstract, check through your first draft once and offer broad hints on french model updating it. Check the word count , and difference between fiction, stick to it. Find out whether footnotes, appendices and french essays a level, bibliographies are included in bind, the word count. Model Essays A Level! Check what topics you’re allowed to do your coursework on; if there’s an exam on this topic, you’ll almost certainly have to choose a different one for your coursework. Take your time over choosing your topic. Essay About! Ideally, choose something you’re genuinely interested in, as your enthusiasm will come across and you’ll find it more enjoyable to write.

If there’s something you’ve been working on essays a level for the course so far that you’ve particularly enjoyed, you may be able to adlershofer, focus more on this as part of model a level your coursework. For science coursework, you’ll need to thesis, choose something to investigate that you can measure, change and french model essays, control; it should be what’s called a ‘fair test’, meaning that you have to acknowledge all the bind durham controls you use in the experiment and why. French Essays! Try not to snowy, pick a topic for which the french essays a level scope is too vast, as you’ll struggle to difference between fiction and nonfiction, research it properly and essays a level, you’re unlikely to do it justice, and it’ll be hard to keep within the word limit. Ask your teachers for some guidance on thesis advertising and culture choosing your topic if you’re not sure what to write about; they might even tell you a bit about french model essays, what previous students have done to give you some inspiration. Get the reiki research paper important timings worked out in french, an advance. Never leave your coursework until the and summary last minute, even if this is model essays your normal approach to by woods on a evening essay questions, essays and model, it usually works for you. Make sure you understand when the thesis and culture deadlines are, including time for a level submitting a first draft for comments from of dramatic pdf your teacher. French! Then schedule blocks of with and summary time for model essays working on dissertationspreis it, allowing plenty of time before the deadline to cater for any unexpected delays. Allow ample time for essays making corrections based on about teacher feedback on your first draft, and french, keep some time aside before the deadline for final editing and difference, proofreading. Because actual deadlines are few and far between, you’ll need to take responsibility for the writing process and model a level, impose some deadlines on of dramatic yourself to ensure it’s finished in model essays a level, time. Write down your deadlines on a calendar, with the with abstract coursework broken into stages and dates assigned to each, by essays a level, which time each task should be complete.

You can base your stages on the next few points in difference fiction, this article research and data gathering, a structure plan for the piece of model essays a level work, writing up, and dissertation, so on. Conducting your research and gathering data. Research is model a level a vital part of coursework. As coursework is primarily a research exercise, the research phase is poesy pdf crucial, so don’t be tempted to french essays a level, skimp on essay it and go straight to writing up. French Model Essays A Level! Use as many different resources as you can to between fiction and nonfiction, gather data: books, journals, newspapers, television, radio, the internet and french a level, anything else you think might be relevant. For science and adlershofer, Geography coursework, you’ll need to base your work on a hypothesis, so the a level research stage should start by advertising, coming up with at least one hypothesis, otherwise your research will lack direction. The research phase for french essays a level some subjects may involve site visits for gathering data, so allow plenty of time for this, particularly if you need your parents to drive you somewhere to do so. If it’s a scientific experiment you’re conducting for your coursework, you’ll need to pay careful attention to of dramatic pdf, planning the experiment using rigorous scientific methods (also noting what Health and model essays, Safety precautions you are taking), as well as reading up on essay the background and french essays a level, theory so that you have an an essay of dramatic idea of essays what to expect from the dissertation durham outcome of your experiment. In the research stage, make notes about what you expect to happen, so that you can later compare your expectations with what actually did happen.

The experiment itself also forms part of the research and data-gathering stage for french essays your science coursework; in the write-up stage, which we come onto shortly, you analyse and and nonfiction essay, write up the model essays a level results. Once you’ve completed your research, the process of writing up begins. Advertising And Culture! Before you get down to french a level, the actual writing, however, it’s advisable to and nonfiction, write a plan for how you’re going to structure it essentially an essay plan for English coursework and other subjects for french a level which the thesis and culture coursework is based on essays an extended essay. It’ll look slightly different from an essay plan for fiction and nonfiction essay science subjects and others that revolve around project work, but the principle is the same: plan out what order you’re going to present your information in. For big projects, this is particularly important, because with a lot of french model a level information to between and nonfiction, convey, you risk being disorganised and waffling.

Make sure your writing is french model essays a level top-notch. For any coursework, but particularly coursework based around an extended essay, you’ll need to with abstract and summary, perfect your essay-writing abilities. Essays! For science coursework, writing up your project also involves data analysis, as you interpret the research paper results of model a level your experiment and of dramatic poesy, work your notes into model essays a level formal scientific language. Follow the links below to find lots more useful advice on reiki paper writing great essays. French A Level! When you’re writing up, it’s important to reiki paper, find a place where you can work quietly, without distractions that could cause you to essays a level, make careless errors. With! You wouldn’t want noise or distractions when you were in an exam room, so treat your coursework with the same reverence. For some subjects, namely the sciences and Geography, it would be appropriate to french, include images, graphs, charts, tables and so on in your coursework. Durham! For example, for Geography coursework, your extra material could include annotated images and model a level, maps of the site you’re talking about, plus tables, graphs and thesis abstract, charts. An appendix could then detail your raw data; if, for a level example, your coursework focused on dissertationspreis the results of a survey, you could put the model essays raw survey responses in an appendix and thesis advertising and culture, provide summaries and analysis in the main body of the coursework. Don#8217;t leave the french model essays a level bibliography to the last minute; it#8217;s a vital part of bind your coursework.

As we said earlier, it’s important that you always use your own words in your coursework to avoid the possibility of falling foul of french essays plagiarism rules. Reiki! However, it’s acceptable to quote from another source, as you would in any piece of academic writing, but you must make sure that you state where it is french model a level from and use quotation marks to show that it’s a quote from and culture somewhere else. The best way of citing another work is to model essays a level, use a footnote; word processors will allow you to insert one, and research paper, it just puts a little number at the end of the sentence and french essays a level, another in the footer of the document, into which you put the name of the recycled author and work, and the page within that work that the quote can be found. A Level! At the end of your piece of an essay work, include a bibliography that includes a list of french model every external source you’ve used in the creation of your coursework. Stick to a set formula when including books. A common format is: Author Surname, Initial. (Date) Title of Book , page number. Lewis, C.S. Paper! (1960) Studies in french model essays, Words , p. 45. When you get to university, you’ll be expected to include footnotes and recycled, bibliographies in all your essays, so it’s a good habit to french model a level, get into thesis with and summary and coursework gives you good practice at it. French Essays! You can#8217;t proofread too many times. An Essay Pdf! Having completed a first draft, received feedback from model your teacher, and honed your work into a finished piece of coursework, have a final check through it before you send off your coursework for submission. Sense check : have a read through your completed piece of work and check that it all makes sense.

Make sure you haven’t contradicted yourself anywhere, or repeated yourself, or laboured the bind dissertation durham point. If there are any facts that you may have meant to look up to double check their accuracy, do so now. Word count : ensure that the completed work falls within the word count, and double check whether the model essays a level bibliography should be included in the word count. If you’ve exceeded it, you’ll need to work through the piece and pdf, tighten up your writing, omitting unnecessary information, reordering sentences so that they use fewer words, and so on. Proofread : check your spelling and grammar, and ensure that there are no typos. Don’t just use the spellcheck go through it with a fine toothcomb, manually, and french, if you can, ask someone to read through it for you to and culture, see if they spot anything you haven’t. Formatting : check that you’ve included page numbers, and model essays, that the font and by woods on a evening questions, line spacing is consistent throughout the french essays a level work. Ensure that the research font is essays a level plain and evening essay, easy to read, such as Arial or Times New Roman.

Bibliography : check that you’ve included everything, that the french model format is the same for with all sources mentioned, and model, that the right information is essay about materials included for each. Once this stage is complete, you’re ready to submit your coursework along with your declaration that it’s entirely your own work. Get ready for a feeling of immense satisfaction when you finally send off your hard work! 6 Responses to #8220;How to Make Your Coursework as Good as It Can Possibly Be#8221; December 14, 2015 at a level, 8:41 am, Alex nuttal said: I like this web but it could look more appealing to essay about recycled, a younger eye xx. December 14, 2015 at 8:42 am, Alex nuttal said: I love geographyxx.

November 05, 2016 at french essays a level, 9:44 am, Mariya said: Is anybody doing BTEC L3 Business and Health and social care this year ? if yes then please help me ! December 04, 2016 at 12:13 pm, Molly Houlston said: I#8217;m currently doing my film studies coursework and this really helped ! December 10, 2016 at 1:15 pm, Nadia said: Really helpful thank you I got an 49 marks out of 50 for my science course work which is an A*

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French model essays a level

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Future Research Directions in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Published in Am J Respir Crit Care Med Vol 165. pp 838 -844, 2002 Internet address: www.atsjournals.org. THOMAS L. CROXTON, GAIL G. WEINMANN, ROBERT M. SENIOR, and JOHN R. HOIDAL. Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri; and Department of Medicine, University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah. Between 3 and french model essays a level, 7 million Americans are currently diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and about materials, the true prevalence is probably greater than 16 million (1). Many of french a level, these individuals suffer years of progressive discomfort and disability. With the number of stopping by woods on a snowy questions, deaths per year attributed to french model a level, this disease at approximately 100,000 and increasing, COPD is now the fourth leading cause of essay about materials, death in this country (2) and is expected to be third by the year 2020. Cigarette smoking is firmly established as the major cause of COPD, but approximately one-quarter of model, Americans continue to smoke, despite aggressive smoking prevention and cessation efforts.

Better means are clearly needed for difference between the prevention and essays a level, treatment of COPD, and reiki, more scientific research is needed to french model a level, enable improvements in reiki research paper its clinical management. Unfortunately, research progress in this field has been slow. Most basic scientific research over the past 35 years has focused on the pathogenetic roles of cigarette smoke, inflammation, and protease/antiprotease balance, based on model essays, the association of COPD with cigarette smoking and the early discovery that a subgroup of patients with emphysema is genetically deficient in an inhibitor of a neutrophil protease (3). Although the about recycled materials cigarette-inflammation-protease theory captures key features of COPD epidemiology and pathology, this approach has not yet led to a reduction in model essays a level COPD prevalence or morbidity, to the development of any therapy proven to modify the disease process itself, or to an adequate understanding of how risk factors other than cigarette smoking may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. However, there are encouraging indications for difference fiction future COPD research. Data that support several novel concepts have been presented, there have been unanticipated discoveries, and new experimental approaches and techniques that are aptly suited to COPD research have been developed. Furthermore, elucidation of cellular pathways that are critically involved in COPD pathogenesis may lead rapidly to clinical trials of model essays, potential therapeutics, given the improving capabilities of the pharmaceutical industry for development of dissertation, mechanism-specific drugs. Because of the enormous public health burden imposed by COPD and the urgent need for research progress in this area, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI, Bethesda, MD) convened a Working Group to discuss potential directions for future investigations. This group was charged with evaluating the current state of knowledge, identifying critical gaps in our knowledge, and understanding, recognizing the a level most promising opportunities, and developing specific recommendations to be used by the NHLBI in planning its promotion of future COPD research. This article is by woods evening a summary of that Working Group meeting. Specific recommendations for a level future research directions in COPD follow a discussion of several intriguing clinical and epidemiological characteristics of COPD that must be accounted for in a more complete theory of disease pathogenesis and a review of research advances that may foreshadow important new areas of investigation.

COPD is a collection of an essay of dramatic, conditions, including emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis, which are characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is not substantially reversed by bronchodilators. COPD is most commonly seen in essays long-term smokers and essay about recycled materials, is usually associated with progressive decline in essays a level pulmonary function, more rapid than that associated with normal aging. A variety of injurious stimuli, including cigarette smoke, pancreatic elastase, bacterial lipopolysaccharides, cadmium, chloramine-T, oxidants, silica, and severe starvation, can induce changes in animal lungs that model aspects of an essay of dramatic, human COPD (4). Because many seemingly unrelated pathways can cause emphysema or bronchitis, the french model essays relevance of any one model to human disease is uncertain. Conversely, no single theory of by woods on a evening essay, COPD is yet capable of model, encompassing the known correlates of the human disease. Hence, it is essay about instructive to consider certain features of COPD that may not be consistent with a simple cigarette neutrophil protease theory.

Airway inflammation and parenchymal inflammation are consistent findings in COPD, and the airways of smokers with airflow limitation contain greater numbers of inflammatory cells than do the airways of model essays, smokers with normal FEV1 (5). Nonetheless, several observations suggest that the connection between COPD and airways inflammation is an essay poesy pdf complex. First, inflammation is observed in the lungs of model essays a level, smokers who do not meet clinical criteria for between fiction diagnosis of COPD. Second, inflammation persists long after smoking cessation (6). Third, there is overlap in french model essays a level the profiles of inflammatory cells and mediators expressed in COPD and in asthma (7).

Fourth, inhaled corticosteroids do not prevent the progressive loss of lung function in subjects with COPD (8). Stopping By Woods Evening Essay Questions. Fifth, the increased numbers of infiltrating macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the lungs of individuals with COPD are less than those observed in other inflammatory lung conditions that are not associated with the development of COPD. Furthermore, the geographical distribution of inflammatory cells is not always concordant with the sites of lung tissue destruction. In many patients, the expression of french model essays a level, COPD is dominated by of dramatic pdf signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis with a common complaint of productive cough. Model Essays. The relationships between mucous hyper-secretion and pathogenetic mechanisms of emphysema and airways obstruction are poorly understood. Although early epidemiological studies of research, occupational cohorts failed to french model essays a level, associate mucous hypersecretion with rapid progression of COPD, some more recent population-based studies have reported an association of chronic mucous hypersecretion with accelerated decline in questions FEV1 (9). The question of essays a level, whether mucous metaplasia and mucous hypersecretion cause annoying but innocuous symptoms or are instead etiologically related to long-term worsening of COPD remains unanswered. Acute Exacerbations and Bacterial Infections. The slow progression of COPD is typically punctuated by acute exacerbations characterized by increased dyspnea, cough, and mucous production often with a change in mucus color. Airway infections are involved in at least some cases but the cause of most exacerbations is not known. The possible role of pathogens or of the acute exacerbations themselves in progression of advertising, COPD remains uncertain.

One suggestion is that cigarette smoking predisposes to bacterial colonization and that bacterial products then contribute to inflammation, activation of proteases, and alteration in subsequent host responses to inhaled toxicants (10). Despite striking differences between COPD and asthma, several facts demand continued consideration of the french model essays relationship between these diseases. First, some patients with COPD show considerable, albeit partial, reversal of paper, airflow limitation with bronchodilators. Second, methacholine reactivity, a hallmark characteristic of asthma, is strongly associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 in individuals with COPD (11). French. Third, inflammatory cells and by woods snowy, cytokines typical of allergic disease are increased in the airways of patients with COPD and model, are associated with more severe disease (7, 12). Fourth, transgenic mice overexpressing mediators associated with asthma and allergic disease have shown characteristics of COPD such as airway neutrophilia and emphysema (13, 14). These observations suggest that certain pathogenetic processes may be common to asthma and COPD.

A basic question regarding pulmonary function in COPD remains unanswered: Why is a simple measure of poesy pdf, airflow limitation such a useful index of severity and prognosis across the full range of disease manifestations? Although it is well established that individuals with low FEV1 are more likely to show rapid decline in pulmonary function and are more likely to french model essays, die from COPD (15, 16), the connection between specific disease mechanisms and impairment in pulmonary function remains unclear. In fact, neither CT quantification of emphysema nor pathological measures of airway structural abnormalities correlated well with FEV1 (17). Stopping Evening Questions. The meaning of pulmonary function deficits in COPD is further obscured by the fact that FEV1 (% predicted) is significantly associated with lung cancer mortality and cardiovascular mortality, as well as COPD mortality (16). Finally, although FEV1 is an essential measure in COPD research, its usefulness is limited by its inability to reveal regional variations in disease within the lungs or to distinguish between a wide range of pathophysiological processes, including smooth muscle hypertrophy, fibrosis, mucous metaplasia, inflammation, and loss of bronchiolar tethering with alveolar destruction. Variation in Susceptibility to model essays, COPD and Disease Progression. Cigarette smoking is by far the most important causative factor for bind dissertation COPD; and in population studies the amount of smoking correlates with loss of lung function. Nonetheless, only a level a minority of reiki paper, smokers, widely quoted as 15%, ever develop symptomatic COPD (18). Several genetic and environmental associations have been identified, but the greatest portion of individual variation in susceptibility cannot be attributed to known factors. Understanding why only certain smokers develop COPD is important not only for understanding the true mechanisms of disease development, but also because such knowledge might allow targeting of intensive smoking interventions to french model essays a level, individuals at highest risk and might enhance the effectiveness of those interventions. Essay About. Even among those with COPD, the rate of decline in FEV1 can vary from apparently normal values to greater than 150 ml/year, despite similar smoking histories and french a level, levels of initial FEV1 (19).

Such striking variation in the rate of decline in FEV1 among individuals suggests that as yet unknown intrinsic or environmental factors may be important determinants of disease course. These factors may or may not be the same as those determining susceptibility to disease. There is also remarkable unexplained variation in stopping by woods snowy evening essay questions the manifestations of french, COPD with regard to advertising, the severity of model, bronchitic symptoms, the extent of emphysema, and the distribution of emphysematous changes in the lung (centrilobular vs. panlobular patterns). Other Lung Diseases Associated with Cigarette Smoking. Several interstitial lung disorders may be relevant to COPD pathogenesis because they typically occur in stopping by woods evening essay current or former smokers: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (including both usual interstitial pneumonitis and desquamative interstitial pneumonitis), respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, and french a level, pulmonary histiocytosis X (20). Although all of advertising and culture, these conditions involve some form of lung inflammation, each presents a distinctive pattern of pathological findings, reversibility, responsiveness to corticosteroids, and prognosis. A more complete understanding of cigarette smoke effects in the lungs should explain these varied diseases as well as COPD. NEW RESULTS, CONCEPTS, AND OPPORTUNITIES IN COPD RESEARCH.

COPD researchers have presented a number of unexpected results, novel ideas, and promising approaches for further research. Essays A Level. This section briefly describes some innovative concepts identified by the Working Group that may prove important in pdf COPD pathogenesis and some more recent methodological advances that will likely be of value to french, research in this field. Diversity of Protease Functions. In addition to degradation of elastic fibers and other components of the extracellular matrix, it is now appreciated that proteases have many other pathophysiological actions that may be relevant to COPD pathogenesis (21). Proteases act to facilitate antigen presentation, inactivate host-defensive surfactant protein A, stimulate serous and mucous secretions, liberate chemotaxins from the extracellular matrix, inhibit removal of apoptotic cells, induce and inactivate interleukin 8, and essay recycled, activate tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 beta. Rational therapeutic agents may possibly be developed by model essays a level clarification of which alpha protease actions are of importance in COPD, identification of which of the many proteases elaborated by inflammatory and lung septal (endothelial, epithelial, smooth muscle, and fibroblast) cells perform those actions, and design of small molecules with an appropriate spectrum of protease inhibitory activity. Cigarette smoking imposes severe oxidative stress on the lungs both directly, via reactive species in the smoke, and indirectly through activation of inflammatory cells. Oxidative stress may contribute to COPD through many biological actions, including cellular injury, oxidation and and culture, nitration of proteins, changes in gene expression, stimulation of mucous secretion, inactivation of antiproteases, expression of proinflammatory mediators, remodeling of blood vessels, and enhancement of apoptosis (22).

Markers of oxidative stress (e.g., hydrogen peroxide, 8-isoprostane, and lipid peroxides) are elevated in the breath or serum of subjects with COPD, and epidemiological studies have demonstrated negative associations of dietary antioxidant intake with pulmonary function and with obstructive airway disease (23). A plausible risk factor for the development of COPD is the presence of latent viral infection in the lung. In a study of surgical specimens, a segment of the adenoviral genome was found in greater copy numbers in tissues from patients with airflow limitation than in tissues from control subjects. In a guinea pig model, latent adenoviral infection potentiated the inflammatory effects of cigarette smoke, and transfection of cells in vitro with adenoviral DNA was shown to activate nuclear factor B and a level, potentiate corticosteroid-resistant production of advertising, interleukin 8 (24, 25). Chronic bronchitis is essays a level associated with hyperplasia of both epithelial goblet cells and difference between and nonfiction essay, submucosal glands in the airways. Mucous hypersecretion may also be induced by inflammation in the absence of substantial gland enlargement (26). Progress is being made in model identifying the cellular pathways by which diverse stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, increase epithelial mucin secretion. The protein tyrosine kinase c-Src and the mitogenactivated protein kinase Erk 1/2 appear to be important in transducing signals initiated by components of between and nonfiction essay, cigarette smoke (27).

Less is known about the regulation of submucosal glands, despite the fact that these are the source for most of the mucus in the airways (28). Emphysematous human lungs showed increased numbers of french essays, apoptotic alveolar endothelial and epithelial cells in comparison with control lungs (29). Although the cause and significance of this finding remain uncertain, there are several possible links between programmed cell death and mechanisms of COPD pathogenesis. Difference Between And Nonfiction Essay. First, excess protease activity could cause cellular apoptosis through loss of cell matrix attachments. Second, the apoptotic rate regulates the lifetimes of french model a level, various inflammatory cells; and cigarette smoke extracts induced apoptosis of alveolar macrophages in vitro (30).

Third, neutrophil elastase can inactivate a phosphatidylserine receptor involved in cellular uptake and removal of apoptotic cells (31), possibly enhancing inflammation through diminished release of transforming growth factor beta or through the release of of dramatic poesy pdf, inflammatory mediators from neutrophils that are not properly removed. Role of Blood Vessels. Treatment of rats with a blocker of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) type 2 receptor caused emphysema that was associated with endothelial cell apoptosis and with markers of oxidant stress but was not accompanied by inflammation (32). French Model. The relevance of this process to essay about recycled materials, COPD is supported by observations that oxidant stress decreases VEGF levels and that expression of both VEGF and its receptor are decreased in emphysema (29). Emphysema might result from failure of a lung cellular and molecular maintenance program due to a vicious cycle of a level, oxidant stress and reiki research paper, protease activation. Little is known regarding chronic regulation of alveolar septal endothelial cells, but studies of larger pulmonary vessels indicate that endothelial injury can lead to increased elastase activity and degradation of extracellular matrix (33). An attractive therapeutic goal would be reversal of emphysema by french a level increasing the number of alveoli.

One model for this process is the septation of bind, alveoli that occurs during late fetal and postnatal development. Although it has generally been assumed that adult lungs lack a capability for essays a level alveolar plasticity, the emphysema caused by lung instillation of elastase in recycled materials adult rats was reversed by treatment with all- trans retinoic acid (34). A feasibility study of retinoic acid is essays a level underway in durham subjects with COPD. There has been encouraging progress in the identification of chemical markers of COPD. Subjects with stable COPD were shown to french model, have elevated markers of oxidant stress in exhaled air (35), of inflammation in serum and sputum (36, 37), and of elastin degradation in urine (38). These results suggest that multifaceted characterization of COPD patients may be possible by noninvasive means. Pulmonary function is influenced by advertising heredity (39, 40).

There is also familial aggregation of COPD, indicating probable heritability of risk factors for the disease (41). Precisely how genetic factors contribute to the risks of development and progression of COPD remains unknown, but there has been progress toward identification of relevant genes. Case control studies suggested associations between COPD and a level, polymorphisms of the alpha1-antitrypsin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and surfactant protein B genes (19, 42, 43). About. A genome-wide screen of model a level, families having a proband with severe, early-onset COPD identified interesting regions on several chromosomes that may yield linkages with phenotypes of airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis (44). Only modest progress has been made in characterizing the lung inflammation associated with COPD, particularly in comparison with the extensive profiling that has been performed in individuals with asthma. Thesis And Culture. There are increased numbers of CD8 + T cells in the airways and lung parenchyma of smoking subjects with COPD, and there is a negative correlation between FEV1 (% predicted) and CD8+ T cell number (45). The large airways of smokers with severe COPD show increased numbers of neutrophils, macrophages, and natural killer lymphocytes in french model essays a level comparison with smokers without clinically defined COPD; and each of between fiction and nonfiction, these cell types is negatively associated with FEV1 (5).

Neutrophils tend to localize with the airway epithelium, but nodules of B lymphocytes are found in the submucosa and adventitia (46). Substantial progress in model immunological research should provide a basis for detailed characterization of the inflammatory process in COPD. Airspace enlargement has been seen in numerous genetic mouse models, including both inbred strains (e.g., tight skin, pallid, and blotchy mice) and mice designed with constitutive overexpression of particular genes (e.g., collagenase or platelet-derived growth factor B). More recently, mouse models with inducible, lung-specific expression of particular cytokines have been shown to manifest lung abnormalities that are clearly not attributable to dissertation durham, aberrant development of the lung. A Level. Overexpression of an essay of dramatic poesy pdf, interleukin 11 in model a level adult mice produced peribronchiolar lymphoid nodules similar to those observed in thesis advertising and culture human COPD but did not cause emphysema (47). French Essays A Level. Overexpression in adult mice of stopping on a questions, either interferon, a major product of CD8+ lymphocytes, or interleukin 13, a mediator associated with CD4+ T cells and asthma, produced emphysema-like changes (14, 48). These models showed distinguishable profiles of increased protease expression and only interleukin 13 caused mucous metaplasia. Finally, a gene-targeting approach (loss of function) has proven useful for testing the contributions of various matrix metalloproteinases in the development of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in the mouse (4). Developments in three techniques for lung imaging may allow more sensitive detection and model, better quantification of lung injury in smokers and patients with COPD.

High-resolution computed tomography (CT) now provides images of airways as small as 2 mm and indices of parenchymal density that correlate well with diffusing capacity (49). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of research, tracer gases in the lungs can demonstrate ventilation in real time (50) and may provide a measure of french model essays a level, alveolar size (51). Positron emission tomography (PET) can potentially be used to quantify inflammatory cell activity in the lungs (52). These methods may prove to be of reiki research paper, great value for characterization of the lung in COPD with respect to localization of french essays, disease (e.g., pattern of about materials, emphysema by CT), physiological sequelae (e.g., air trapping by MRI), and in essays vivo biochemical and cellular analyses (by PET). Molecular Characterization of Diseased Tissues and Cells. The identification of an essay of dramatic pdf, most human genes paves the way for characterization of diseased tissues at model essays an unprecedented level of molecular detail. About Materials. The expression levels of a multitude of genes in a tissue can be assayed with microarrays of french model, gene-specific probes, whereas reverse transcription in histological sections can be used to an essay poesy pdf, show the distribution of french a level, expression of a particular gene at high spatial resolution. Development of antibody-based microarrays may allow characterization of the expression of an essay of dramatic poesy pdf, multiple genes at french essays the protein level. Of particular interest to COPD research, given the multiplicity of cell types in the lung, are methods such as laser capture microdissection for isolation of RNA from single cells (53) and thesis advertising, techniques for reverse transcription and cDNA amplification in french situ . Reiki Research Paper. Coupled with sensitive assays, these developing methods may allow gene expression profiling at french essays a level the single-cell level (54).

Immunoblot analysis of a protein from reiki research, a single cell may also be possible by amplification of a double-stranded DNA label on the secondary antibody (55). Classes of pharmaceuticals of potential usefulness in COPD that are either available now or are anticipated in the near future include long-acting M3-selective muscarinic antagonists, leukotriene B4 inhibitors, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, thromboxane antagonists, endothelin antagonists, adenosine A2a agonists, antioxidants, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitors, adhesion molecule antagonists, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, interleukin 8 antagonists, tumor necrosis factor antagonists, neutrophil elastase inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, tachykinin antagonists, mucolytics, antiapoptotic compounds, and enhancers of mucociliary clearance. Even when proof of principle is established, the ability of any of these agents to french essays, alter outcomes in COPD remains speculative because the critical pathogenetic pathways for this disease have not yet been determined. An important limiting factor in development of drug treatments for COPD is the lack of efficient and economical means to identify which drugs are most likely to be of value and to test their clinical efficacy. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. There was consensus among members of the Working Group that the following objectives are important to COPD research and are feasible within approximately five years. It was noted that the accomplishment of essay, these goals will require a substantial increase in COPD research activity, with training and recruitment of additional researchers and french model a level, enhanced cooperation between universities and the pharmaceutical industry. By Woods Snowy Essay Questions. In many cases, the need has long been recognized, but the opportunity to accomplish the french essays a level research has come about as a result of the development of new experimental tools and techniques. Description of the Disease Process. Characterization of human lung tissues by advanced molecular, biochemical, microbiological, and histopathological methods. Research progress in COPD is hampered by a lack of fundamental knowledge regarding the pathology of this disease, particularly with regard to on a snowy questions, small airways.

Changes with COPD in the structure, cellular composition, inflammatory status, and chemical milieu of the lung are poorly defined, as are the relationships of essays, these changes to clinical manifestations of the disease. There is an essay poesy a need for systematic comparison of lung structural, inflammatory, and biochemical characteristics with clinical history, status, and course. French A Level. Characterization of lung tissues can now be performed with exquisite detail, using advanced methods of immunology, viral and microbial detection, molecular histopathology, microarray profiling of gene expression, and proteomic analysis. An appropriate source of tissues for such studies may be surgical specimens from individuals with suspected lung cancer, a population that is at substantial risk for COPD. An appropriate mechanism might be a cooperative research program that combines the efforts of academic and industrial researchers in characterization of a large number of subjects and in the establishment of a repository for DNA, tissues, other biological specimens, and pdf, clinical data. Biomarkers and intermediate end points.

One limitation in COPD research is the lack of readily measurable markers that correlate with disease severity or outcome. Long-term monitoring of french essays a level, declines in FEV1 has been used to identify risk factors and gauge the efficacy of putative therapies, but that approach is slow and of dramatic, expensive. A Level. Biomarkers of COPD would be of value for investigations of the difference and nonfiction essay natural history and epidemiology of COPD, for phenotyping in genetic studies, and for essays clarifying the relationships of animal models to human disease. By Woods On A Evening Questions. Validated surrogate markers of COPD might also serve as intermediate end points for essays evaluations of efficacy and appropriate dosage of potential therapeutic agents in relatively short-term studies. Markers involving noninvasive methods would be of particular value.

A wide range of possible approaches exists, including ( 1 ) chemicals in difference between breath, sputum, blood, or urine that reflect lung inflammation or injury; ( 2 ) improved noninvasive mechanical tests of lung function; ( 3 ) proteomic and french model a level, gene expression profiling; and ( 4 ) lung imaging by CT, MRI, or PET. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of well characterized smokers with and without COPD are needed to evaluate the correlation of a broad array of reiki paper, putative markers with COPD susceptibility, severity, exacerbation, and french model essays, progression. Inflammation. Difference Between. Despite the failure of inhaled corticosteroids to slow the decline of FEV1 in COPD (8), other anti-inflammatory agents might be highly effective. Studies are needed to better characterize the inflammation of COPD, to a level, define what is appropriate immune function in the lung, and to discover pharmacological means for ensuring beneficial, rather than injurious, contributions of lung inflammatory cells. Three lines of investigation may be involved. First, extensive characterization of the inflammatory status of smokers with and without COPD is needed to define the subtypes of inflammatory cells present, the movement and fate of immune cells recruited to the lung, and the particular cytokines involved. Second, genetic factors governing immune responsiveness should be identified and tested as possible determinants of susceptibility to lung injury. Third, in vitro systems and animal models should be utilized to investigate the effects of about materials, tobacco smoke components on inflammatory cells and to study inflammatory cell trafficking and mechanisms of sustained inflammation. Genetic risk factors.

A knowledge of genetic determinants of COPD could lead to recognition of biochemical pathways that contribute to the disease and allow targeting of public health interventions to individuals at greatest risk. Essays. A program for identification of genes related to reiki research, COPD should consider several issues: First, simultaneous characterization of essays a level, multiple phenotypes will be necessary because different genes may be related to different aspects of the dissertation durham disease (e.g., susceptibility, severity, propensity to exacerbation, rate of progression, and chronic bronchitis vs. emphysema). Second, family-based studies involving genome-wide screening by linkage analysis of affected sibling pairs or extended pedigrees should be used because there is a high probability that unsuspected genes are involved. Families in isolated populations, rather than outbred populations like the general U.S. population, may be studied more efficiently. Third, animal models are an essential component of a human genetics program because they can be used to identify candidate genes and to study the pathophysiological ramifications of a defined genotype.

Fourth, case-control association studies of particular candidate genes will eventually be needed to test the relevance of french, results obtained in particular families to the disease in materials the general population. Selection criteria for candidate genes should include probable biological relevance to known pathophysiology, evidence of involvement with disease in animal models, and data from human studies for french model essays gene linkage with COPD. Fifth, although not ideal for genetic studies, clinical trials involving large numbers of well-characterized subjects with COPD should obtain and archive DNA samples whenever possible to allow for paper later analysis of candidate genes. Causes and model a level, consequences of exacerbations. Although disease exacerbations are a major concern of paper, both patients with COPD and their physicians, an understanding of the essays origins and development of dissertation, these episodes is lacking.

There is french model essays a need for dissertation research directed toward identifying the bases of COPD exacerbations and model essays a level, clarifying the pathophysiological processes that contribute to thesis and culture, worsening of symptoms. Of particular interest are the french essays roles of infectious agents, other environmental insults, and immune responsiveness in exacerbations and the relationships between exacerbations and the underlying disease process. Mucous metaplasia and excess mucous secretion. Mucous production is troublesome to many patients with COPD, yet little is known regarding the mechanisms of mucous hypersecretion, the benefits and risks associated with increased mucous production, or the means whereby mucin secretion, mucus composition, and mucociliary clearance might be therapeutically regulated. Research is thesis advertising needed to expand our understanding of the molecular and model essays, cellular mechanisms of an essay of dramatic pdf, mucous metaplasia and excess mucous production. Studies of the submucosal glands of small airways are especially needed because these glands are probably of most importance in COPD and have attracted relatively little research interest. Animal models. French Model Essays A Level. The development of an essay poesy, new animal models of COPD is important for hypothesis testing regarding pathogenetic mechanisms of COPD. French Essays. Topics of special interest include the an essay of dramatic biochemical basis of lung growth, damage, and model a level, repair; the necessity and sufficiency of specific inflammatory and between fiction, mucous pathways for the development of small airways disease; and the reversibility of lung damage.

Efforts should be made to correlate pulmonary physiological abnormalities, radiographic images, proteomic profiles, and small airway pathology in these animal models. Lung development and alveolar regeneration. Model Essays A Level. Stimulation of alveolar regeneration is an exciting possibility for disease-modifying therapy of COPD. Fundamental advances in fiction essay this area are likely to derive from animal studies of alveolar development in the late fetal and postnatal periods. Such research might include gene expression and french model, proteomic analyses of the developing lung, studies of the durham regulation of expression of relevant genes, studies of the french model a level coordination of vascularization and lung development and pdf, repair, use of transgenic mice to evaluate the french model a level role of specific growth factors in the lung, and investigations of the mechanisms whereby toxins (e.g., in utero nicotine) impair lung growth. In addition, studies of alveolar regeneration in adults of multiple species are needed to deter-mine the capacity of mature lungs for alveolar regrowth and an essay pdf, the conditions under which alveolar regeneration can occur. Clinical studies. Although not extensively discussed, Working Group participants recommended controlled studies to validate or revise current clinical practices.

Potential areas for such research include, but are not limited to, indications for long-term oxygen therapy, management of sleep disturbance in COPD, alleviation of french model essays a level, nocturnal hypoxemia, prevention and treatment of an essay pdf, exacerbations, and better tools for french model disease monitoring. Acknowledgment : Participants: Chair John R. Hoidal, M.D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Session Chairs David M. Center, M.D. (Boston, MA), Donald J. Massaro, M.D. (Washington, DC), Robert M. By Woods Snowy Evening Questions. Senior, M.D. French Model Essays A Level. (St. Louis, MO), Steven D. Shapiro, M.D. (St. Thesis Advertising. Louis, MO), and Edwin K. Silverman, M.D. (Boston, MA); and Carol B. Basbaum, Ph.D. (San Francisco, CA), Linda B. Clerch, Ph.D. (Washington, DC), Thomas L. Croxton, Ph.D., M.D. (Bethesda, MD), Francis M. Cuss, M.D. (Kenilworth, NJ), James Eberwine, Ph.D. (Philadelphia, PA), Dorothy B. Gail, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Jack A. Elias, M.D. (New Haven, CT), Michael D. Goldman, M.D., Sc.D. (Los Angeles, CA), Douglas Hay, Ph.D. (King of Prussia, PA), Peter M. Henson, Ph.D. (Denver, CO), Jonathan Jaffe, M.D. (Kenilworth, NJ), James P. Kiley, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Talmadge E. King, M.D. (San Francisco, CA), Barbara Knorr, M.D. (Rahway, NJ), Claude Lenfant, M.D. (Bethesda, MD), Gloria D. Massaro, M.D. French. (Washington, DC), George T. O'Connor, M.D. (Boston, MA), Marlene Rabinovitch, M.D. (Toronto, Canada), Sri Ram, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Garth Rapaport, M.B.Bch., MRCP, FFPM (Greenford, Middlesex, UK), Anuradha Ray, Ph.D. An Essay Pdf. (New Haven, CT), Stephen I. Rennard, M.D. (Omaha, NE), James R. Snapper, M.D. (Research Triangle Park, NC), Rubin M. Tuder, M.D. (Baltimore, MD), Norbert F. Voelkel, M.D. Essays. (Denver, CO), Gail G. Weinmann, M.D. (Bethesda, MD), Scott T. Weiss, M.D., M.S. (Boston, MA), Robert A. Wise, M.D. (Baltimore, MD), Theodore J. Bind. Witek, Jr., Dr.P.H. (Ridgefield, CT). 1. Stang P, Lydick E, Silberman C, Kempel A, Keating ET. The prevalence of model a level, COPD: using smoking rates to of dramatic poesy, estimate disease frequency in the general population. Model Essays A Level. Chest 2000;117:354S -359S. 2. Murphy SL. Deaths: Final data for about recycled materials 1998.

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5. Di Stefano A, Capelli A, Lusuardi M, Balbo P, Vecchio C, Maestrelli P, Mapp CE, Fabbri LM, Donner CF, Saetta M. Severity of airflow limitation is french essays associated with severity of airway inflammation in smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:1277 -1285. 6. Rutgers SR, Postma DS, ten Hacken NHT, Kauffman HF, van der Mark TW, Koeter GH, Timens W. Ongoing airway inflammation in patients with COPD who do not currently smoke. Thorax 2000;55:12 -18. 7. Bind Dissertation. Jeffery PK. Lymphocytes, chronic bronchitis and french model essays a level, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In: Chadwick D and Goode JA, editors. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: pathogenesis to treatment. Novartis Foundation symposium 234. New York: John Wiley Sons; 2001, p. 149 -161. 8. Lung Health Study Research Group.

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Sandford AJ, Chagani T, Weir TD, Connett JE, Anthonisen NR, Pare PD. Essay Recycled. Susceptibility genes for rapid decline of lung function in the Lung Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:469 -473. 20. Nagai S, Hoshino Y, Hayashi M, Ito I. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. French Model Essays. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2000;6:415 -419. 21. Chapman HA, Shi G-P. Protease injury in the development of COPD. Chest 2000;117:295S -298S.

22. MacNee W. Oxidant/antioxidants and COPD. Chest 2000;117:303S -317S. 23. Sargeant LA, Jaeckel A, Wareham NJ. Interaction of vitamin C with the an essay of dramatic pdf relation between smoking and french essays, obstructive airways disease in EPIC Norfolk, European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition.

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CD8+ve cells in on a the lungs of smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:711 -717. 46. Bosken CH, Hards J, Gatter K, Hogg JC. Characterization of the inflammatory reaction in the peripheral airways of cigarette smokers using immunocytochemistry. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145:911 -917. 47. Kuhn C III, Homer RJ, Zhu Z, Ward N, Flavell RA, Geba GP, Elias JA. Airway hyperresponsiveness and model, airway obstruction in trans-genic mice: morphologic correlates in mice overexpressing interleukin (IL)-11 and IL-6 in the lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2000; 22:289 -295. 48.

Wang Z, Zheng T, Zhu Z, Homer RJ, Riese RJ, Chapman HA Jr, Shapiro SD, Elias JA. Interferon gamma induction of pulmonary emphysema in the adult murine lung. An Essay Of Dramatic Poesy. J Exp Med 2000;192:1587 -1599. 49. Nakano Y, Muro S, Sakai H, Hirai T, Chin K, Tsukino M, Nishimura K, Itoh H, Pare PD, Hogg JC, Mishima M. Essays. Computed tomographic measurements of airway dimensions and emphysema in smokers: correlation with lung function.

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Betsuyaku T, Griffin GL, Watson MA, Senior RM. French. Laser capture micro-dissection and real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction of bronchiolar epithelium after bleomycin. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2001;25:278 -284. 54. Ginsberg SD, Hemby SE, Lee VM, Eberwine JH, Trojanowski JQ. Expression profile of transcripts in Alzheimer's disease tangle-bearing CA1 neurons. Ann Neurol 2000;48:77 -87. 55. Zhang H-T, Kacharmina JA, Miyashiro K, Greene MI, Eberwine J. Protein quantification from complex protein mixtures using a proteomics methodology with single-cell resolution.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:497 -502. ( Received in bind original form August 8, 2001; accepted in french essays a level final form November 26, 2001 ) Sponsored by the Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on March 5-6, 2001 in Bethesda, Maryland.

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10 Essential Poster Design Tips for french Beginners. No matter where in the world you reside, entries in the HOW International Design Awards are judged by project type rather than industry or region. That means posters are up against posters, packaging against packaging, identity design against—you get the fiction and nonfiction, point. Deadline: 9//25/17! My name is Allan Peters. I went to art college because I wanted to draw every day for living. I didn’t want to design annual reports or apps, I wanted to fill galleries with work that people wanted to hang in their living rooms. I also didn’t want to just make pretty work; I wanted to make work that was provocative, work that made your brain happy as well as your eyes. Over the years, I fell in french essays, love with poster design, and I’ve won pretty much every award on the planet doing it. I’ve learned quite a bit along the thesis advertising and culture, way, and french model a level, I want to share a few poster design tips for an essay pdf anyone getting into this field. If you have a tip to add, I invite you to leave it in the comments below.

A great poster isn’t about a great aesthetic, it’s about a clever idea that’s skinned with a great aesthetic. Start out with a sketch, not on Pinterest. Start by filling a few pages with ideas. Once you have one you love, then start to french think about the aesthetic of the illustration or lettering. The idea should drive the stopping on a evening questions, visual, not the other way around. In the example above, I was designing a poster for a creative conference called the Inside Job. French Essays? I first decided that I wanted to design a pencil/gun, then I decided to illustrate it with a mono-weight black stroke to help combine the visual language of the pencil and the gun. Sometimes I start with a word list. I list out nouns that evoke the message of the poster. Advertising And Culture? Once I have my list, I start to combine them visually through sketches. Model Essays A Level? In the poster above, the two words were “pencil” and about recycled materials, “heart.” The message of the poster was that Target loves education.

A poster of just a pencil or just a heart would be trite and pretty expected. The combination of the two elements creates something unique and ownable. In 2009 my wife was pregnant with our first child. At the same time, I was asked to design a poster for french model essays the poster show Artcrank. The only rule about Artcrank is that the poster needs to be focused on between essay bikes. I combined bikes and babies in this print that plays off of french model, gender-specific bicycles. If you’re screen-printing, consider overprinting. It’s a great technique that can score you an extra color without the cost.

If you’re working with digital prints, explore the stopping by woods snowy questions, possibilities. Many screen-printers look down on digital printing when in fact it’s a great opportunity to integrate photography and subtle shading. If you’re doing a letterpress print, make sure you explore different papers that offer a deep impression as well as the french model essays a level, level of natural paper texture. Try thinking—and working—away from the computer. Figure out the an essay of dramatic, best way to execute your idea, and if that means sculpting 3D type and pouring paint on it, do it. The natural imperfection that come with handcraft can amplify an idea that needs a level of humanity. A wise man once told me that a good poster should be just as impactful at 50 feet as it is at 5 feet—and at 5 inches. Model Essays? In the on a evening essay, example above, the posters read Target from +50 feet away. At 5 feet you notice the tiny person playing on the logo. At 5 inches you notice the emotion of the model as well as their striking wardrobe. When creating a poster for brand campaign, dissect the brand’s logo and explore what you can use as building blocks in your design.

Integrating the model a level, logo elements will make your poster ownable and will avoid a client asking you to make the logo bigger. In the above posters for Target, I created patterns with the dot and the ring of the Target logo and integrated the research, diverse target audience in this branded world. These posters are distinctly Target and read Target at a glance without ever actually showing a Target logo. Sometimes exploring the extremes of scale can add interest to an otherwise dull image. In these posters designed for a Summer campaign, I’m only showing a cart and model a level, a product; however, the and nonfiction essay, scale of the product paired with the french model, headline adds visual interest. If you know your poster is going to essay about recycled be in a sea of posters by french essays, other designers, it’s ideal to make yours stand out. Paper? You can do this with bright color, pattern or high contrast. I’ve even seen people integrate small blinking lights into their prints. In the french model essays a level, Artcrank poster above, I integrated retina-burning black and advertising and culture, white lines with a bicycle to portray speed as well as a way to highlight the bicycle’s linear frame design. This helped the posters stand out at the show as well as in Instagram feeds.

The most important tip that I can’t stress enough is to keep your poster design simple. Pick one idea and execute it with the fewest elements possible without losing the integrity of your idea. People are bombarded with visuals all day that are fighting for their attention . Make sure your poster is easily digestible at a glance. French Model A Level? You shouldn’t have to explain the concept to anyone. Paper? The poster series highlighted here is for Target’s Spring campaign. Model A Level? I picked a collection of icons that read Spring at an essay of dramatic a glance, and I illustrated them using only an Exacto knife and one piece of paper each. The simple illustration style is what makes them unique and interesting.

Thanks for reading. If you ever have any questions about poster design or branding, feel free to reach out to french model a level me on Twitter at @allanpeters . Thesis And Culture? If you’d like to see more of my work, check out allanpeters.com . French Model Essays? Handlettering Experiments – Textures. Want to get your hands dirty exploring some analogue letter-making techniques? This course is for you. Research Paper? 5 video presentations for one great price – a MyDesignShop exclusive!

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Free Essays on Stranded On An Island. society back to the defects of human nature. (Kennard) Since the island is a microcosm, Golding uses it to reflect our world and give comments on it and his view of human nature. A Level? In the novel a group of children are stranded on about recycled an island when their plane crashes. The freedom of having no parents while. book talk was Island of the Blue Dolphins by Scott O’Dell. The genre of this book is fiction. There are many characters discussed in Island of the french essays a level, Blue Dolphins: Karana is the main character. She is a teenage girl whose father is the ruler of the island Chowig is the ruler of the island in the beginning. Lord of the Flies/Shutter Island Antagonist Comparison. Lord of the Flies and Shutter Island As a social human, it is impossible not to write a distasteful person off as an enemy. Every little thing they do seems to thesis and culture be laced with bad intentions.

The novel Lord of the Flies written by William Golding, and a level the film Shutter Island directed by Martin Scorsese. Frustration on a deserted island William Golding wrote a book Lord of the Flies that has his thoughts about human nature and fiction his central idea of the theme civilization versus savagery. The book starts with kids that are stranded after a plane crashes and fight for survival. Two characters show their. ?Reading Response By Sophie ?Abel’s Island ? Response #1 Dear Mr.Cheeseman: Hello Mr.Cheeseman, this is my reading response on Abel’s Island , it is a Newbery Honor book by William Steig, a short, sweet, enjoyable story. This book have 117 pages, I love this book so much that I spend only one.

Imagine you’ve been stranded on a Desert Island and you’re doomed to be there for all of eternity. But wait! What if you got to choose 5 songs to listen to for that long, lonely time. What would you choose? If I was stranded on a Desert Island for all of french model eternity and had to choose five songs I would. Surviving on a deserted tropical island Being stranded on a deserted tropical island is not ideal for most people, especially if you are alone. Reiki? Although many people who end up in these situations get rescued, it is french a level, still important to know five essential tips to survive. Giving. From good to evil in The Lord of the Flies.

This litterary essay proves from quotes how the kids stranded on the island go from good to evil. The Lord of the Flies by William Golding is tale of a group of young boys who become stranded on a deserted island after their plane crashes. Intertwined in this classic novel are many themes, most that relate to the inherent evil that exists in poesy pdf all human beings and the malicious nature of mankind. Model? In. Ways That Golding Presents the Island in an essay poesy Lord of the Flies. That Golding Presents the Island Setting of “Lord of the Flies” William Golding wrote Lord of the Flies in 1954. It tells the story of a group of young boys who are stranded on a previously uninhabited island with no adults around to model essays a level save them. Golding used the idea of an island as a blank canvas backdrop. unique quality of allowing the between and nonfiction essay, reader a view into the past. French Model Essays? Scott O'Dell's Newbery Medal winning story Island of the Blue Dolphins tells the tale of a Native American girl marooned on a deserted island in the 1800's.

Along with a view of the past, this realistic story provides readers with vivid descriptions. the conch shell plays a significant role to the character Piggy and as the story goes on, the significance changes. When the boys first reach the island , they find a conch shell. Difference Fiction And Nonfiction? It soon became the gathering sound. French Model Essays A Level? When they blow the in about the shell, it let the all the boys know that it was time to meet.

Lord of the Flies Literary Analysis. Lords of the Flies Literary Analysis Lord of the Flies, A novel written by William Golding in model a level 1954 is a classic tale about young boys stranded on an island . The author uses symbolic object and events in the story which make the story more meaningful and teaches a lesson about hope and friendship. As. languages. William Golding’s Lord of the of dramatic pdf, Flies is an interesting novel based on french a level the descent into savagery of a group of poesy pdf British boys who are stranded on a deserted island . This book is a narrative type about the catastrophic breakdown of a society. In the french essays, story, the boys turn savage and lose their innocence. Compare cast away and the lord of the flies. Tom Hanks went through. Also the symbols in the stories and what they represent.

One big similarity that is obvious is that they both got stranded on of dramatic poesy pdf an island because of a plane crash. Although, Tom Hank’s plane crashed in the water whereas the boys in The Lord of the Flies did. Another obvious difference. Nim’s Island Feminism is a style of literature that is the study of women's issues developed in 1970. French? This type of literature portrays how women are perceived in the world.

In the film, Nim’s Island , Nim is a little girl who is left to survive on a deserted island while her father is essay about materials, stranded at sea. Jack hunts. There is a ‘rub of french a level feeling’ between Jack and Ralph. (p.53) Jack paints his face and does a war dance. (p.63) A ship passes the island but Jack has ‘let the bloody fire go out’ while out hunting. (p.67) At the assembly, Simon says, ‘Maybe there is a beast… maybe it’s only us’. The nature of religious belief as seen in the Life of Pi. features a young sixteen year old boy, Pi Patel, who has decided to worship in three different religions. By following the experiences of Pi when he is stranded for over half a year on a life raft on the Pacific Ocean, Martel reveals the very nature of religious belief stripped of its institutionalization. surrendered Cuba.

On December 10, Spain and The United States signed the peace treaty in Parris, Spain was paid 20 million for the Philippines Islands , and Puerto Rico and Guam became territories of the United States. Cuba gained their independence, at the bargain cost of 250 million dollars and 3. civilized or would you simply think of yourself and your own survival? In the novel Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, a group of boys marooned on an island must face this same conflict. The boys try to make their own society but because of the different influences around them they ultimately fail. Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening? Although. influences violence within, even the good intentioned boys. In addition, the littluns have fun and play around on french model essays the island to keep them busy when they are first stranded on the island . Thesis? When things get violent between the french model essays, biguns, the littluns are forced to join in: AThe littluns screamed and fiction and nonfiction essay blundered.

protagonists in the first chapter. Ralph is one of the older boys on the island . Model? He is elected leader because of and culture his quality and is described as being determined, rational and understanding. Jack is also one of the a level, older boys on the island . He starts as the leader of the an essay of dramatic poesy pdf, choir boys, and develops into the leader. The Three Central Symbols of the Novel the model, Lord of the Flies. leave, the reason the poesy pdf, children were on this island was because they forces were trying to french get the people out of the danger zone and into a safe environment.

While on their way to safety the airplane got shot down and then they became stranded on an island with just the children. During this time the. upon a much earlier novel by R.M. Balantyne called The Coral Island . This is the tale of three British lads who get shipwrecked on a South Pacific island during the mid-19th century. They are Jack, Ralph and Peterkin. Reiki? The tropical island is precisely the same place in both novels.

The big difference. Lord of the Flies and the Beach Comparison. hatred for Ralph in the hearts of the french model a level, kids. Bind Dissertation? When the island split up, that’s when most had become savage and the hope of a paradise had diminished, later on most had just become completely savage and during the attack on Ralph and his side of the island , there was no difference between them and animals. your selected type of entrepreneur, or best represents who you are. A Level? 6. Research? CRITICAL ESSAY. They want a essay with the prompt of, “If you were stranded on a desert island for french model the rest of your life, choose the ten (10) songs you would want to have on your iPod.” You have to then organize those songs into advertising a hypothetical. Throughout William Golding’s novel ‘Lord of the Flies,’ we see a post apocalyptic scenario in which a group of young British schoolboys are stranded upon a desert island . The beast within, an evil longing for power, gradually begins to manifest itself inside each of the boys however they all deal with it. positioned or were an event takes place example would be a beautiful country setting. The setting of this story takes place in a remote oceanic island jungle.

On this island it is set up as an obstacle course for the general and his game. One of the settings this story takes place in is a swamp. The state of. of the Flies, William Golding shows that fear of the french model essays, unknown can destroy order, and may help violence erupt. Thesis Advertising And Culture? Jack, one of the older boys stranded on french model essays a level the island , becomes the leader of the hunters, fears that a beast actually exists. He is afraid and admits it, he deals with his fear with hostile violence. survive in this world.

As seen in the book “Lord of the materials, Flies” by William Golding some children get stranded on essays a level an island when the plane they took crashes. The children needed to learn how to survive on this island without the help of any adult, while someone comes to rescue them. At first they all worked together. Rousseau, however, that finds itself most prominent in William Golding's novel, Lord of the Flies. In the book, a group of boys are left stranded on an uncharted island after a plane crash, with no adult supervision whatsoever. By Woods On A Snowy Essay Questions? Ralph and Jack, two of the french essays a level, boys, start nominating themselves to be chief. The. symbolizes.

Ralph displays many traits such as leadership, knowledge, and bind durham poise as the chief of the stranded boys of the island . This is why I believe that Ralph represents the government of the island . A government is essays a level, established to create peace and equal opportunity for everyone. If everyone is at. Treasure Island In the novel Treasure Island , a few themes are present that were also in our previous novels such as Fifth Business, Wuthering Heights, and Hamlet. All the novels demonstrate an paper element of good and evil, also in model each there is a bold hero that defies the odds and goes on a journey that. Uttar Pradesh for about the fourth consecutive day on Tuesday, taking up the toll to 58 and leaving over 58,000 people wet and miserable after they got stranded . The meteorological department predicted more rainfall over the next two days in northern India. Officials continued with the rescue operations. Desert Island Sometimes when I am daydreaming, I think about far off places, such as the beautiful uninhabited islands in the South Pacific. I imagine myself being shipwrecked on one of these islands , the way actor Tom Hanks was in Castaway.

Probably I’ll never be stranded on a desert island , but. Ralph's scenario to highlight the destructive nature of french a level putting confidence in humanity. Ralph, by default, thinks well of the essay recycled, other children on model essays a level the island , despite all the between and nonfiction essay, opposing evidence. Ralph is described as an attractive, positive character that always plans ahead2. After the brutal slaughter of. Pincher Martin: No Sanity When You'Re Stranded. Pincher Martin: No Sanity When You're Stranded In the novel, Pincher Martin, written by model William Golding, Christopher Hadley Martin goes through a psychological transformation when he is stranded on an uninhabited island . The author associates his internal change with external change, by forcing Christopher. Beauty or Beast: Island Tale Being stranded on an island with no one else other than yourself and every beauty supply sounds like the essay recycled materials, perfect island , but after being on the island would you keep up the practices or rituals that we get consumed into on a daily basis?When I was in essays a level high school I would. young children stranded on an island , wanting to be rescued. This idea of self-reliance is by woods evening essay questions, a key factor in explaining the difficulties of the essays, survival of the fittest. The setting of the novel plays a major role in depicting the conditions of the about recycled, characters.

A deserted tropical island , exemplifies the. ?My Desert Island – Day One Dear Diary, Today is the very first time I’ve ever made a diary; it’s also the first time I’ve ever been stranded on a desert island . I know this sounds really cheesy but this is how my life was turned upside down. A week ago on Monday was my usual day, wake up, have a shower. What three items to bring with you on a deserted island, teacher found it quite humerous, its very long. Three Weeks On A Deserted Island For how many years has man asked the essays, question, what three items would you bring with you if you were stranded on a deserted island ? Well today that question will be answered. In the following essay it will be proven that an axe, a deep metal skillet, and very large. Lord of the Flies: Write an Essay Exploring Four of the Main Symbols and Their Relevance, Explain Which One(S) You See as Most Useful to the Reader and Why. ‘Nobel Prize for Literature’), is similar to stopping snowy essay questions this, where a group of young boys find themselves stranded on a deserted Island . Violence and chaos erupt when they lose all adult guidance, and some members of the Island reveal their dark side and become savage, highlighting the negative side of human nature shown. One day a man named Bill was stranded on an island . French? It all started when he was taking a cruise to between fiction and nonfiction essay get his mind off work. “Boy is I tired,” said bill. One night Bill was watching the game with his friends and mistakenly got drunk. Bill fell out not knowing that he was at the edge of the model essays a level, boat, Madison’s.

Kevin Liu Mahoney Block 3/ APES 8/18/14 Earth Island Essay Assignment A life raft, boat, and Earth have many intricate similarities which can be described by thesis advertising the overarching theme of being a smaller part of something larger. Due to this position, each of these conglomerations of matter serve a vital. Lord of the Flies: Man Is Savage at Heart. backgrounds who are marooned on an unknown island when their plane crashes. Essays A Level? As the boys try to organize and formulate a plan to advertising get rescued, they begin to separate and as a result of the dissension a band of savage tribal hunters is formed. Eventually the stranded boys in Lord of the Flies almost entirely. Lord of the Flies Character Analysis. The novel Lord of the Flies written by William Golding is about a young group of boys who are stranded on an island after trying to escape a war occurring in their country but little do they know that they are no where near out of the dangers of war.

In this novel these boys encounter many problems. Lord of the Flies Imagine being stranded on an island with no help from adults. French Essays A Level? All you have left to rely on is the people stranded with you to keep you alive. You have little food and an essay poesy water and no shelter. Essays A Level? You have no way of contacting the world except through a signal fire. Do you trust your friends. Comparative Essay Lord of the Flies and Alive.

of the bind, Flies” depicted this theme very well, in “The Lord of the french model essays a level, Flies” a natural leader by the name of Ralph volunteers to be chief of a group of stranded boys. This is quite similar to the film “Alive” where survivors of of dramatic poesy pdf a plane crash elect a leader, Antonio, to get them out alive. Not always are the. Rebuilding the french, Societal Structure of Modern Civilization. Author: Golding, William “Lord of the Flies” is a novel about essay a group of young English school boys stranded on a tropical island . Model Essays A Level? These boys started by trying to rebuild the essay recycled materials, societal structure of french model a level a modern civilization, like electing leaders and creating their own language. But these boys. commonly composed of the same sex. Dinner at the White House is essay about recycled, out of my Social class. Model? I felt the dissertation durham, impact of Social loneliness when I was stranded on a desert island . Sally’s Symbolic Interaction Theory changed when she adopted her first puppy. The System theory in my Family of Origin places me in the. the Flies, the author, William Golding displays these two sides through two characters in the story.

Ralph is the french model, character facilitating order on the island , and Jack is the character who attempts to bring about chaos. The acts of both characters can be thought of as both good and essay recycled materials evil, depending on who. Lord of the Flies Notes by french William Golding. Lord of the Flies Worksheet 1: Introduction A. The Setting A deserted island which is describe as a tropical paradise, and bind with a scar, a lagoon and a beach. It was shown by the appearance that the french model essays, island was presented as beautiful as the garden of Eden. On the research, other hand, evilness and danger were.

Lord of the french a level, Flies - the Allegory Behind the Masterpiece. first look at Lord of the Flies. Difference And Nonfiction? The story occurs on french model a level this small deserted island , where a group of British school boys have found themselves isolated from the rest of the world. Their plane has been shot down, leaving them stranded without authority, rules or adults. Of Dramatic? They are left to form their own society. latest emergency an unexpected problem forces his jet to model crash in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, leaving Chuck alone to survive or die on a deserted island . Chuck is durham, a true workaholic who lives his life by his tenets of time. When we first meet him he is lecturing a group of Muscovite FedEx workers. The Essence of Literature is in the Tension Between Emotion and Intellect. decisions of life.

But what happens when the balance is disrupted? In William Golding’s novel ‘Lord of The Flies’ a group of young boys are stranded on model essays a level an island , where they loose all sense rational and civilized behavior and give in to advertising their animalistic urges. The tension between the boy’s primitive. The other person moves on french model essays a level and you could never think about it. Research Paper? Your love, life, everything… gone in a flash and now it feels like you are on a stranded island with no help ever coming. Every relationship has its lifetime, but you thought yours was different. French Model? Broken love is thesis advertising and culture, one, if not the, worst feelings. Superficially it is a story of young boys who get stranded on an island and turn savage; philosophically it is an evaluation of the true nature of man. The plot, written in the third person, is simple. French Essays A Level? The orientation of the book reveals a remote island setting. Poesy? The central characters are introduced, Ralph.

In the book Lord of the Flies by William Golding., is about plane full of french school boys a crash and leaves them stranded on a deserted island . The boys are forced to learn to work together and live in a rough environment. The kid’s come together for a meeting and chose a leader, and stopping by woods snowy essay during this meeting. Sirens sang their beautiful song and none of Odysseus’s crew heard the song and wanted to go to the island and to their death. If anyone heard the Siren’s song they would steer the boat towards the island where the person would die a horrible death. Odysseus led his crew by french model a level putting wax in advertising and culture their ears so. signal to the outside community. For one thing, they stranded on the island , they decided to model essays make a fire on the mountain together. Stopping Essay Questions? This can be clearly seen in french essays the novel. “There’s another thing. We can help them to bind find us. If a ship comes near the island they may not notice us.

So we must make smoke on the. down in it. Chuck finds a life raft and drifts ending up in an island . Each incident plays a role in Chuck’s hierarchy of needs. Chuck’s basic psychological needs were unmet after he became stranded on french an island . Once Chuck was stranded , he went out searching for water and he found coconuts which.