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So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step: Resume vs. CV. What's the difference? Hello, blank page. For Essays. Now, what? A resume is a document that showcases your work experience, education, and skills so that you can apply for a job.
What's the difference between a resume and a CV? Curriculum Vitae (CV) is writter, a Latin phrase meaning course of life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and harvard dissertations, experience in much greater detail. Essay Writter. It's the ideal document for academics. So, knowing how to write an academic resume is knowing how to write a CV. If you need to what makes a good essay essay, know more, read our guide: CV vs. Resume: What is the Difference? When to Use Which (Examples)
Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the right format. How to essay, Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of on egon professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the reverse-chronological resume format.
Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Writter. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and essay schiele, not as familiar to essay, recruiters.
Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is best for how my influenced you? Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the essay, professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at the top.
Here is how to write a resume contact section: Adding your address is optional. It is no longer necessary to add it to a modern resume. Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email. For Essays. Instead, create a professional, private email address.
Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see [email protected] or [email protected] . Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for an interview. Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to writter, check for dissertations and theses unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to essay writter, give recruiters the best impression. Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to diversity essays, Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first. But what comes next? Education?
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But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in of critical between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and essay, deciding what's for lunch. She is looking for very specific information, and and theses, she is only going to essay writter, look for essay on egon schiele it in essay the top third of your resume. Diversity Essays. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day.
Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. Essay. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to what makes a good essay essay, leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events.
Has an writter, MA in for essays hand holding and essay writter, a license to cook romantic dinners. What is and rousseau a collection essays, a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Tons of writter experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at dissertations and theses the right time.
Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to essay writter, taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over a summary because he is for essays, changing his career from chef to zookeeper. Either way, the point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an essay, objective for a resume? Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to mother influenced, write something called a professional profile . When considering how to write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and essay, the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the company’s needs and what, values. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to essay writter, Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List.
The first section that should appear in the body of an excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of diversity essays you, that will probably be the writter, experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in mind: Write your job history in reverse-chronological order - start with your current position.
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Responsible for brand strategy. Responsible for analyzing market trends. Responsible for a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of essay job hopping? Let’s face it.
Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to what makes, know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to tamper with dates, leaving only the years in their experience section: Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of essay three months. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of culture your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first.
Usually, you will want to include the type of writter degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative. For professionals, the essay on egon, inclusion of a coursework narrative is another way to reinforce a professional persona.
Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to write a degree on a resume? We can help with that. Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to make a good resume that stands out , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the key skills listed in the job description. Writter. This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. More about that later. Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at your skills for and rousseau a collection essays a resume:
You have the skill set they want and requested in the job post. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to know how to make a great resume for a job that showcases the essay, best resume skills? I thought so. Diversity. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the essay writter, traditional resume sections are doing it for essay schiele you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for extracurricular activities. If you've got a technical background - you might want to writter, consider an extra section for essay certificates, licenses, or software. Writter. Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for mother influenced me essay work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for publications or conferences.
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Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long. Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on essays, your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to 6 candidates will get invited for an interview. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to essay writter, sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords.
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The Goldilocks font size is 10-12 points - not too big and not too small. Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in an attempt to cram everything onto one page. Still not sure about what font to choose while writing a resume? Read our guide about the best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the Best Way to essay, Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to mother influenced, consider how to writter, make a resume file. And that's not as obvious as it sounds. The best advice is to save your resume as a PDF and and rousseau a collection of critical essays, give it your name. When you save your resume as a PDF, there is writter, no chance that the formatting will glitch and get messed up when a recruiter opens the file. Do keep in mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics.
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Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to keep it to one page. But you don’t want to writter, force it, and that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to do is to harvard, go through at the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the essay, value. Here are three tips on how to make a resume for a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for hobbes a collection of critical essays You. One of the worst things you can do is send out essay, a basic resume that is full of grammar and spelling mistakes. You need to mother, proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out. Even the best resumes need to writter, be proofread by a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an objective opinion about how you’ve presented yourself.
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That won't matter if you skip this step. Start by for essays, entering your name into Google to see what comes up in writter the results. Most of you will find links to your social media profiles. As long as you cleared your profiles of dissertations and theses unprofessional content, you should be good to go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about yourself at all. Some of you might be disturbed to writter, find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of influenced me essay your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the information from the Internet for essay writter you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is best to essay, contact the essay writter, webmaster (owner) to have the essays, image or content removed.
Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. A cover letter is still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer. Essay. Up to harvard and theses, 45% of essay writter recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters. So, even if you know how to write a resume, you can forget about landing the diversity essays, job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is essay writter, where you can expand upon things that you need to of critical essays, keep brief on your resume. It also needs to be tailored to the job for which you are applying.
As for resume references, they're the essay writter, one thing you truly don't need anymore. So, lose the phrase references upon request. Okay, so you need a cover letter. But do you know how to write an application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like [email protected] , your resume is entering a swamp of identical messages from other candidates. One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to try to find out the name of the person who will be reading your resume and send them a personal email.
This is not the best solution in every case. And Rousseau. You will need to decide if a hiring manager will see the essay writter, gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the for essays, option to publish your resume and send a link to essay writter, employers. Sending a link will allow you to track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing. Want to send a personal message but can't find the hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to dissertations, write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it. You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses.
Your resume is your passport to job interviews. And knowing how to make a resume for a job is the first step on writter, any career path. So, take the time and energy to think about how to write a resume well and how to tailor it to the job description. A Collection Of Critical. If you can do that, you're well on your way to the next level - the interview. Bonus: Check out our ultimate checklist of essay writter 56 things you need to do before you send your resume. How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in harvard the article?
Do you have any questions about essay writter how to make a resume for your position? Add a comment. What Makes Essay Essay. I’ll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. Writter. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Discussion Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Present HSE Regulation Regime on faulty Premise. HSE Success in essay writter, managing major Hazards is not measured by the Occupational Health and harvard Safety Statistics but by measuring the performance of essay writter, critical systems used to control risks to ensure they are operating as intended. This statement is a very powerful statement and culture essays i want to stand on essay, the premise that it should form the harvard dissertations basis of assessing and formulating regulation regimes. However let us look at the sensitive details of this statement and compare to what has been the safety approach historically. Safety Statistics - HSE says whatever models we have as a measure of success in safety appraoch it should not be based on whether an accident eventually occured or not or how many times it occured but on the measurment systems predefined. Essay. but if we look at the the history of safety regulation and diversity Legistion from the writter First known safety Legislation in 1862 the for essays incident of the beam of a pumping Engine at Hartley Colliery in Northumberland land which broke the only mineshaft and means of ventillation, 204 miners suffocated and died. that gave birth to mining Legislation two years later that required every seam in a mine to have two shafts or outlets to the present goal getting (Safety Case) Regime, which is as a result of the piper Alpha incident, it is historically obvious that the only reason why regulators feel that there is a need for reviev is essay after a major disaster. So in the real sense Legislation has always been on the basis of culture diversity, safety statistics. Measuring the performance of critical control systems : If I try to understand what this means it tries to say that Safety process and systems should adopt PROACTIVE Measures rather reactive measures. In other words we should be able to estimate the lets says probabilisticaly to effectiveness of the system even before any incident is writter likely to occur.
This brings us to my main Point if we need to schiele, determine the performance of essay writter, a safety systems proactively and every single Legislation/Regulation approach in history has always been a reactive approach then the Premise upon which the safety Regime has been built though has been quite effective is yet faulty and requires urgent reviews. I am sure that is mother influenced why these Accidents keep reoccuring and reoccuring even when we think we have made significant progress we still continue to have accident(The Marcondo Well 2010 ) . Proactive measures rather than reactive measures. In addition to Michael Saiki's point on our current reactive measures to safety instead of a proactive one, here are some of the accidents that have occurred and how they continue to show our reactive attitude to writter, safety in essay on egon, the industry. March 28, 1980, Alexander Keilland capsized and sank off the coast of Norway in the North Sea killing 123 people. After the disaster, Norway changed its legislation to the safety case approach.  . February 15, 1982, Ocean Ranger capsized and sank off the coast of writter, Newfoundland in the Canadian waters killing 84 crew members on board. Nobody on the rig survived the accident. Canada also adopted the safety case approach to how my mother, improve the safety in essay writter, its offshore operations  . July 6, 1988, Piper Alpha exploded in UK waters in the North Sea killing 167 people. The Piper Alpha disaster was the for essays worst offshore disaster in essay writter, terms of death toll and its impact on schiele, the offshore oil industry.
After this disaster, the UK also overhauled its offshore industry and came up with its Offshore Installations Safety Case Regulations  . However, not until the recent Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster which occurred on April 20, 2010, the safety legislation in the US has not been reviewed to adopt a mandatory safety case approach instead of the prescriptive approach currently been used . How many more human lives are we going to sacrifice before the essay regulators and essay on egon operators alike adopt a more proactive approach? said it right. Though the HSE regulations have been so far appreciably effective, they are somewhat more reactive than proactive. Over the years it has been obviously. known that there is a need for a step to writter, step procedure in achieving an effective. proactive HSE culture.
Many efforts towards this have shown that it will also. take personal commitment and self-responsibility on the part of the HSE. regulators as well as operators to for essays, achieve this. The Reactive HSE Culture is. concerned with ‘what went wrong?’ In other words, any improvement in HSE. performance is only due to learning from essay writter, incidents after they occurred.
This is. still a common approach worldwide despite evidence that with this model it is. not possible to how my mother, achieve continuous HSE performance improvement. The main challenge. here is with the reporting and monitoring processes. Reporting tools provide. data only after accidents have occurred. These accidents may be health, safety, security and/or environment.
The reportage of these incidents are mostly classified. as ‘accidents’ and ‘near-misses’. However, because the significant potential of. the near-misses can be hardly realized, it is not reported properly and this. can translate into undesired consequences.
To have safe oil and gas productions, it is expedient that HSE regulations. become as proactive as possible and shouldn’t wait for the occurrence of an accident. to revive or review regulations, just like the writter case of the piper alpha incident. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. In addition to the on going discussion we will observe that safety in the oil and gas industry has never been taken to heart till on the 27th December 1965 when the schiele Sea Gem Sanked and 13 lives were lost. The major routine before this incident was just to collect a licence from the essay writter then government and start exploring and how my mother influenced me essay exploiting this mineral resource from the seabed without knowledge of the implications to Health, Safety and the Evironment.
No measures was put in place until a woke up call of the 27th December incident of 1965. Learning from this, its obvious that this era’s were practically reactive in writter, their approach to safety. A little further into the early 80’s on February 15, 1982, Ocean Ranger capsized and sank off the coast of Newfoundland in the Canadian waters killing 84 crew members on board. At this time their was again a need for a wake up call because of another reactive approach to safety. It will be taught that a lot of lessons should have been learnt from all this reactive approach pertaining to the oil and gas safety measures and their have been a mitigation plan in place to stop reoccurrence.
But instead it was another blow on April 20, 2010 the dissertations and theses Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster. T he Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster of April 20, 2010 . Now the question here is that: 1. Why is it that the writter incident is allowed to happen or occur before we start thinking of solution . 2. Harvard Dissertations. Are we really learning from the lessons or we are just busy documenting for essay record purposes. I called this approach a reactive one. A proactive approach should be in place if there is no one available or it should be improved than its current state or measures. It should involve ways of identifying the following:
1. How My. Stringent assessment of environmental impacts; 2. A safety system that requires industry to identify hazards, assess the writter risks and follow best practice to manage them; and 3.Comprehensive emergency response framework. Diversity. At the essay writter same time, their should be a review panel highlighting the importance of continuous improvement and the scope for raising standards through: 1. strengthening mechanisms to assure implementation of safety and environmental management systems; 2. Essay Schiele. improving the writter learning culture and processes for spreading best practice; 3. greater integration between the regulatory authorities; 4. Essay Schiele. a clearer command and control structure in the event of a spill; 5. robust arrangements to ensure operators’ level of liability and ability to pay in the event of a spill; and. 6. intensified RD to develop improved avoidance, capping, containment, clean-up and impact monitoring of essay, major. offshore oil spill incidents. Proactive intergrity management approach to Safety and Risk measures will be the only way safety of the oil and gas industries can be most guaranteed in the nearest future as against reactive approach. Or else we will be learning again. Regulators responsible for for essays accidents and fatalities! I see the comments about a reactive vs proactive approach in writter, the offshore oil industry but I hate to break it to you that it is not likely that we will move to a more proactive approach anytime soon.
I think regulators and Oil majors would definitely tell us what we want to hear but in principle, it is essay essay not likely that anything would change. THE PROACTIVE APPROACH STARTS WITH THE REGULATORS. Essay Writter. I will take the Deep water horizon accident for example. We know that on offshore installations, blowout preventers (containing powerful shear rams designed to cut through the drilling rigs’ steel pipe and shut off a well that has gone out of control) are installed to provide redundancy if all else fails. In 2001, the diversity Minerals Management service, commissioned a study that revealed over 100 failures in the testing of blow out preventers and were advised by experts to enforce the operation of TWO SHEAR ARMS in essay writter, blow out preventers for all offshore installations. . Historically as with enforcement agencies (The Energy department ignored recommendations to apply offshore, the CIMAH regulations already in place onshore in 1975, and we know how their ignorance paid off) they ignored the advice and one wonders if this second shear ram was present, maybe, just maybe the deep water horizon accident would have been avoided. Controversial reports alleged that the Mineral Management service neglected to on egon, enforce a rule that required oil companies to provide evidence periodically showing that their shear rams did in fact work – (New York Times, June, 20, 2010). What makes it worse is that, the same article in writter, 2010, said that at the time, roughly two-thirds of the rigs in the gulf still had only one shear ram as opposed to TWO as prescribed by experts in 2001. Schiele. I bet if another survey was carried out essay, today, that fraction would be the what a good essay essay same and these companies are still in operation). Writter. Correct me if I am wrong but I think the regulators are given a free/lenient pass when an accident occurs and hobbes and rousseau it is the oil companies that fact the wrath of the media, public, and the same regulatory bodies.
I think the regulators do not come under enough fire and this is why their lapses are ignored and downplayed. The regulators only react to essay writter, incidents and accidents instead of being proactive. And finally to makes a good essay, answer the question about how many more human lives must be lost…. My answer is more from more accidents until somebody starts to hold regulators more responsible. I totally agree with the theme of essay writter, this comment. Who regulates the for essays regulators ? It is essay not surprising to learn that many of the makes a good essay essay regulatory agencies / bodies have very close ties to oil companies or share holdings even but there appears to be a very unclear and uncontrolled policing of the essay writter regulators and conflicts of interest aplenty. Is there any examples of harvard dissertations, successful regulation ? every example i can think of seems to writter, have failed in a huge way. Banking, Politics, Media/TV/Newspapers. Medicine and Science seem to do it from within almost and harvard dissertations and theses appear at first glance to writter, use the profession to manage the harvard dissertations professionals ? Is education, certification and professional memberships the essay best means of dissertations, identifying and nurturing the best attitudes and writter cultures that will ensure that industries are policed effectively. The US really uses prescriptive regulation which can result in companies waiting to be caught and punished whereas the UK safety case and PFEER regs push the companies to PROVE their safety and risk management practices. NPD and of critical essays PSA in Norway employ a similar regime whereby performance based regulations, standards and processes are applied as frameworks for companies to essay, work within, monitoring their own management systems with auditable assitance obtained or periodically enforced by the agencies eg DNV.
Who does it best ? Does UK/Norway do it best ? The US is now looking at UK/Norway as they seek to make step changes in their command and control structures and regulatory systems. Should there be GLOBAL regulations ? to protect OUR WORLD and dissertations FUTURE ? Is this workable ? SUT event Macondo - Lessons and implications for essay the North Sea You may like to attend the SUT event Macondo - Lessons and implications for the North Sea on next Wednesday (10 October) and challenge the speaker. Whilst I agree with some of the points raised in this discussion thread, I would like to highlight one of the and theses many proactive programmes that the UK HSE are currently undertaking to tackle issues identified in the offshore indutry. Given a large number of the offshore platforms in essay writter, the North Sea have now exceeded or are close to exceeding their original design life, it is recognised that there is an increased likelihood of equipment and asset integrity failures due to harvard dissertations and theses, material degradation. This has the potential to lead to an increase in major accidents if not addressed. Strategy for KP4 - Ageing and life extension inspection programme 2010 - 2013  is a strategy aimed at promoting awareness of the issues associated with ageing plant in the offshore oil and gas industry. The specific objectives of the strategy are: - to raise awareness within the writter offshore industry of the need for specific consideration of ageing issues as a distinct activity within the asset integrity management process and, in particular, of the need for for essays senior management to demonstrate leadership on and commitment to essay, this matter; - to essay on egon schiele, define a programme of inspection of essay, individual duty holder approaches to the management of for essays, ageing and life extension to ascertain the extent of compliance with the regulatory requirements;
- to identify shortcomings in duty holder practices on the management of ageing and life extension and essay enforce an appropriate programme of remedial action; - to work with the offshore industry to develop a ‘best practice’ common approach to the management of ageing installations and life extension, including the development of long-term plans, for for essays implementation in safety cases and thorough reviews, to ensure the continued safe operation of writter, all ageing offshore installations on harvard, the UKCS. In support of these objectives the Offshore Safety Directorate are actively undertaking inspections, developing standards and writter conducting further research into the area. To me this demonstrates an for essays, extremely proactive approach to one of the biggest challenges facing the industry over essay, the coming decade. I encourage you to read the dissertations KP4 document referenced below and welcome any further discussion. Sure Andrew, the regulations even further demand that the duty holder reviews the safety case to ensure it’s still a live document, sound and applicable to the current conditions. This is another example of how proactive the HSE regulations get. For proof of this I quote this from the KP4 strategy that Andrew has touched on in his post; “Regulation 13 of the essay writter Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (OSCR) requires duty holders to what essay essay, thoroughly review current safety cases within five years of the previous acceptance or review, to confirm that the safety case as a whole continues to be fundamentally sound, and essay writter continues to demonstrate the effective identification, management and diversity control of writter, major accident hazard risks on the installation, as described in Paragraph 187-190 of the L30 Guide to OSCR 2005.” And again one of the main aims and objectives of this KP4 strategy on ALE is to identify areas of improvement and further encourage these improvements in ALE management. KP4 Strategy, Ageing Life Extension Inspection Programme For Offshore Installations 2010 - 2013. Proactive Approach by HSE Industry.
I agree with Andrew and hobbes a collection of critical essays Ambrose on the proactive approach of the HSE. However, an interesting dimension to the work of the essay Health Safety Executive, even though they are the and rousseau essays regulators is that they also sponsor research and provide guidance to the industry through research-oriented papers to advance knowledge for writter the industry, document their concerns especially in particular areas, and present a focus of engagement between the regulators and the industry. Through their wealth of publication, they engender positive knowledge sharing and encourage use of best practise. Other pro-active measures will have to be by culture essays the industry itself. The industry coming together to help each other by sharing experiences. The experiences of most operators are similar in most cases and there are common themes to writter, issues being experienced by for essays operators.
The Step Change in Safety is a forum that provides an opportunity for an industry approach to address such topical issues. An example is the production of the Hydrocarbon Release Reduction Toolkit produced by the Step Change in Safety which contains good practice techniques to assist operations in reducing HCRs . Essay. The type of Joint Industry solution to topical issues such as happened post Macondo in the UK for schiele example where there was the set up of the Oil Spill Prevention and Response Advisory Group (OSPRAG) to fund and essay procure a well capping device and enhance the UK’s capability to respond to dissertations and theses, a major, sustained release of oil. These four dimensional risk management parameters, which I. call the necessary evils, are always. in constant interaction in our engineering systems. We need to essay writter, clearly identify. their roles in everyday operations.
The difficulty of. detection brings us to Uncertainties. which begin from ‘known unknowns’ to “unknown unknowns. On Egon Schiele. In our industry, we deal with multi-disciplinary capital intensive facilities/operations which. have many latent hazards. To ensure safety, reliability and to essay, make economic. sense therefore, we need pragmatic and conscientious approach in confronting.
these challenges, hence a risk management programme which involves risk and. In doing risk analysis, probability. models, reliability theories and statistical inference (which considers amongst. others the frequency of occurrence) provide. a practical approach in identifying and quantifying the occurrence of these.
uncertainties. These tools look at the likelihood of the uncertainties. occurring (probabilities assessment), how often ( frequency ) they are likely to occur and how my mother influenced the impact of the undesired consequences should the uncertainties. occur/events fail (consequence assessment). Writter. Amongst others, some of the how my mother tools.
that help to analyse these four necessary evils in risk management are the Bow-tie. Analysis model  and Swiss Cheese Analysis model . to further strengthen the discussion i would like to say that we cannot say that we have an essay, effective safety management regime if we put the responsibilty of safety solely on the Employers and what makes a good essay Industry as is the writter case in this present Regime. The implication of what makes a good essay, this is that the essay writter Industry or employers are driven by profit oriented objective and shareholders value chain. In other words as much as safety is a serious issue, with the owners it is only as it affects their operation and profitability. especially in the subsea sector where every operation is capital intensive.
From the perspective cost Safety, Reliability and mother me essay Integrity management processes have huge impacts on essay, OPEX and CAPEX. and thus every employer seeks to mother, minimize this cost. Therefore, there should be efforts towards redesigning the regulation/legislation regime to something that would would sorth of share responsibility with the State and essay writter other stake holders in every safety model developed for offshore/subsea installation and production systems. Especially now that E P is going offshore. Or should we wait until we have another High impact accident before we begin another Regime. After Deep Water Horizon Incident - Reactive. After deep water horizon incident, several. researches and measurements had been performed.
In UK, Oil Spill Prevention and. Response Advisory Group (OSPRAG) had been organized by culture diversity essays industrial personnel. from operators, vendors, and institutions. Essay. Purpose was reviewing well integrity. in UK continent shelf and emergency response to oil spill. Technical group evaluate.
and review the safety of hobbes of critical, well design and operation in each field. Well capping. device had been developed for the well control purpose. Emergency response. group review the response system and check whether they have enough material. for use for cleaning operation. UK industry co-ordinated its response to the issues arising from the essay writter Gulf of.
Mexico incident by structuring OSPRAG’s work according to four priorities: • Preventing the culture diversity essays possibility of an. escape of hydrocarbons from a well. • Minimising the length of time and. volume of any escape of well hydrocarbons. • Ensuring effective spill response. • Ensuring sufficient financial. arrangements are in place to cover the response to any spill” 
In order to meet their priorities, they are. sharing the best practice and developing new device. Initiation was reactive. but subsequent action would be effective in preventing or minimizing future. incidents. Proactive measures are the best for minimizing catastrophic. But at. the same time reactive measures would be also required for preventing same type.  Oil Spill Prevention and Response. Changhwan, I will like to highlight the point you raised above on Minimising the length of time and. volume of any escape of well hydrocarbons.
At a recent event organised by the Society for essay writter Underwater Technology (SUT) titled “Macondo - Lessons and implications for the North Sea”, Brian Kinkead, a Consultant and Lead of the Technical Review Group which produced the OSPRAG capping device, gave a presentation on the development of the OSPRAG cap . Approximately 6 weeks ? That is approximately half the time it took BP to cap the Macondo oil spill in the Gulf of on egon schiele, Mexico without any Emergency Response Plan (ERP). What I will like to highlight here is even though we have an ERP in place, it will still take this long to cap a well in the North Sea. How many thousands of barrels of oil would have spilled into essay, the sea, how many marine life would have been lost, what extent would this spill have covered, and what will be the cost of cleaning up a spill which has been running for about 6 weeks? I’m sure cost will be a limiting factor for the response to take that long. What Makes A Good Essay Essay. Why don’t we increase the cost and reduce the time in order to save lives and protect our environment.
SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT: RANK THE TOP TEN SEVERE ENERGY RELATE. 1 The Chinese Mining Industry : in 2008 there were 3000 deaths these included Zhenghou; 25 deaths, Shanxi 38 deaths…and the lis goes on. The underlying issue here appears to be lack of regulations and essay writter hence less regard for culture diversity workers well being before profit. Many of the essay writter accidents are attributable to poisonous or volatile gases. Chinese government has blamed illegal production and although safety improvements and procedures are being introduced they are still very often ignored.
Until Government can enforce these, the situation is unlikely to improve. The PRC government see the enforcement costly, and what makes difficult due to geographical problems associated with enforcement. Essay. For example many of the makes essay mines are located in rural areas that are remote and difficult to access. It appears that this growing economy still has a long way to essay writter, go achieve safety standards that we in Europe are accustomed to. 2 St Frances dam break 1928 resulting in 450 deaths, and a good the destruction of the town of essay, Santa Paula. Essay Schiele. The cause was found to be a result of an ancient geological landslide on the eastern side of the essay dam. The 1920’s technology was not advanced enough to identify this. The damn collapsed as a result of the full hydrostatic load in what makes, the reservoir after a heavy rainfall. Thus exerting excess stress to the eastern side.
To put this into perspective; the construction’s foundations were unsuitable on the eastern side of the essay dam and collapse was certain. The release of the Flood wave said to be in excess of 40m cascaded the hobbes and rousseau a collection town of essay, Santa Paula. A Collection Essays. During the inquiry there was conflict between the writter Government departments, the geologists and the design and engineering departments. The hearings in the aftermath recommended that the construction and operation of a great dam should never be left to the sole judgment of one man, 3 Piper Alpha 187 deaths.
Lead to radical change in regulations for offshore installations. The incident was said to have been caused by miscommunication during a maintenance operation on a Pressure relief valve. This was said to have been moved from for essays, a gas compression module and replaced by writter a blind flange. The flange was only hand tightened as the operations were said not to restart until later in how my mother, the day. When they did restart the Valve was missing and the flange was still only hand tight. Ignition was then imminent. Hence there was no procedural “lock out” or isolation as would be the case today. Essay. The Cullen report was issued in the aftermath and a series of recommendations were implemented; including the necessity for Duty Holders to produce a safety case.
The introduction of several Statutory instruments were also introduced which regulated the design and construction of offshore installations. Initially this was regulated by the Dept of Energy but nowadays it is policed by the Health Safety Executive. The report was also critical of Piper Alpha's operator, Occidental, who were found guilty of having inadequate maintenance and how my mother me essay safety procedures. But no criminal charges were ever brought against them. Essay. Had these safety procedures been implemented and practiced there would have been a strong possibility that more workers could have escaped, but more importantly; the incident may never had occurred.
4 Aberfan ; Waste coal product that was stock piled adjacent to a primary school. After a spell of poor whether the essay schiele waste and deluge had cascaded; as would a normal landslide, and buried the primary school. 116 children and 28 adults were killed. Today we are aware that such a pile would be hazardous but back in essay, 1966 this was not the case. The government appointed Mines Inspectorate were only employed to ensure that the essays mines themselves were safe. Lord Robens the Chairman of the NCB had been seen to be callas by the public and writter did not visit the a good essay site until his return from holiday. Indeed when ordered to essay, make the site safe he used ?150000 from the public donations fund to remove the for essays waste to safe disposal. The following Davies Inquiry had found the NCB responsible for this disaster and the Government had introduced Her Majesty’s inspectorate of mines and essay quarry’s, along with new legislation. During Tony Blairs reign as Prime Minister the ?150,000 was returned to the fund with an apology but no interest was paid. The disaster itself happened very quickly without any prior warning. The timing unfortunately played a key role as the children in the school were all assembled in culture essays, the main school hall, which was directly in writter, the “line of sight” of the how my mother land slide.
That day the visibility was said to be 50m but clear at the top of the heap. The previous wet weather had played a big part in releasing the product. 5 Alexander L Kielland : a Norwegian drill rig that capsized due to fatigue fractures on the structures cross braces. 123 deaths. In 1980 the platform had just completed a campaign at EDDA and was anchored offshore when the weather had seen 40 knot winds with 12m waves. Whist the majority of the writter 200 workers on board were off duty in the cinema, a loud crack was observed and it transpired that 5 out of 6 of the anchor chains had broke and the platform started to influenced, capsize.
The list increased during which time the workers had tried to evacuate but experienced major difficulties releasing the life crafts. In fact of the 50 life crafts on board only one was successfully launched. Whilst the writter evacuation was in progress the final anchor had gave way, and the structure capsized. Investigations found that a small fillet weld to attach a hydrophone bracket to a cross brace was incompletely welded and thus caused a stress point in the cross brace. This had failed causing the bracing to collapse in makes essay essay, the attributed storm. It was later found that the design of the platform had not allowed for any redundancy in its structure. Furthermore the evacuation procedures were criticised and the lessons learned from this had been implemented in the OPITO type safety training we know today. Finally the one contribution that may well had been the route cause of the accident, is that the platform was originally built as an accommodation module only and had makeshift modifications applied to it for essay oil exploration. 6 Greymouth Pike River Mine New Zealand, underground explosion resulting in 29 deaths.
A total of 4 explosions were detected. The cause of the explosions are still unclear but were there is definitive evidence of an abundance of Methane Gas present. The possible safety measures not used in the Pike River Mine were; a tube bundling gas measurement system, stocks of food and water, breathing apparatus, and essay on egon schiele a second entrance. These are mandatory requirements in UK mining but it is still unclear whether this was a key factor in the loss of these lives. The Investigation is still ongoing. 7 Deep Water Horizon / Macondo Gas blow out. Appears to be failure of safety equipment to function in an emergency resulting in 11 deaths and essay a catastrophic environmental disaster.
Investigation is still ongoing. Latest reports suggest that procedures were not followed and Safety equipment such as blow out preventers were not fully tested before use. The Whitehouse oil spill commission leading the dissertations inquiry has collectively blamed Halliburton, Transocean and BP for making time and money savings whist compromising the integrity of the essay well. What Essay. Some of the failures in procedures included failure to run cement bond tests , the use of a cement diagnostic tool, ignoring failed pressure tests etc. The committee did not, however, place the blame on any one of these events. More so it concluded with the essay following statement blaming the management of Macondo “Better management of decision-making processes within BP and essay on egon schiele other companies, better communication within and between BP and its contractors and effective training of key engineering and writter rig personnel would have prevented the what makes a good essay Macondo incident” The jury is still out essay writter, with this incident and I can only assume that more evidence will be revealed as the litigation process continues. 8 Fukushima Nuclear power station . Japan’s coastline was exposed to an unprecedented Tsunami resulting in the meltdown of 3 of the reactors and widespread radiation leakage. There were 37 injuries at the time of the incident although it is too early to establish the full extent of and theses, long term effects. Even though this was a disaster caused by a natural phenomena, lessons can still be learned from the event.
9 Chernobyl ; Ukraine former eastern block nuclear explosion in reactor 4 resulting in writter, an initial 31 deaths and a radioactive leak that has lead to illnesses and culture fatalities including thyroid cancer. There was a sudden power output surge, and when an emergency shutdown was attempted, a more extreme spike in power output occurred, which led to essay writter, a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. The INSAG (The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) had concluded that there were gross violations of regulations but the USSR state committee had disagreed and reassessed the causes. What Essay Essay. They state that the INSAG’s assessment was too erroneous and stated that items such as the turning off of emergency systems is not a violation. Following the writter accident, questions arose about the future of the plant and its eventual fate. All work on culture essays, the unfinished reactors 5 and 6 was halted three years later. However, the trouble at the Chernobyl plant did not end with the disaster in reactor 4. This reactor was sealed off in concrete whist the other reactors were still in essay, service due to the energy shortage created by the disaster. 10 Iraq gulf war . Environmental tragedy deliberately induced by the Saddam Husain Regime where the onshore oil fields were set alight.
The disaster is man made as a result of a political war that today is for essays seen by many as illegal. Husain had ordered the wells to essay, be set alight to ensure the oil was not taken by his enemies. Apart from the odd exception in the above top ten; such the Fukashima disaster (which was the product of a natural phenomena), the remaining disasters have one thing in common. They were all avoidable. The avoidance of these disasters can be attributable to culture essays, people’s behaviour. For example, if correct procedures or even best practice was executed on Piper alpha the platform may have still been producing today. If the Chinese mining regulations’ were followed maybe many of the fatalities would have been averted. Today many of the Energy Company’s and Main Contractors are focusing more on Behaviour Safety. The thought behind this is to encourage employees to alter their unsafe habits regardless of how great or small the consequences may be. This may be as simple as holding the hand rail whilst ascending or descending a stairwell. The concept here is that; whilst tools are available such as procedures, risk assessments, correct equipment etc, there is writter a need to focus on correct use; ie follow procedures, use equipment as instructed by manuals etc.
To put this concept in culture diversity, perspective consider a situation where you have just put your new shoes on essay writter, for a night out. Your lace is undone and unnoticed. You are then descending a stairwell and you trip. Case 1: you are not holding the hand rail, and essay the likely consequences from an inevitable fall could be anything from a minor injury, serious injury that may have lifetime affects or even death. Case 2 you are holding the hand rail and you trip. The natural body reaction would be to tighten the grip on essay, the hand rail reducing the likelihood of a fall. Indeed the likelihood is that you would probably end up in a sitting position on the stair with a few bruises or a sprained wrist from the grip. The same concept can be applied in any work or play situation where our behaviour is changed to reduce or eliminate the risk.
Safety and Equipment Management In Oil and Gas Industry. Oil and gas industry is a broad industry that is divided into two sector namely upstream and downstream sector. While upstream sector is marjorly offshore base and what deals in exploration and process of crude oil and gas, it poses equal amount of risks to human in comparison to downstream sector which is onshore base in most cases and writter engages in further processing and refining crude oil and gas. In oil and gas industry, the most highly rated hazards in term of severity of consequencies are highly combustable and toxic hydrocardon gas and flammable liquid, the crude oil itself. The concept of safety in design make provisions for these hazards to be safely confined in their paths of essay on egon schiele, movement and essay writter containments without or with control exposure to environment. Some of the accidents that have occurred on essay, offshore facilities includes: - 2001 - P36, sinking of semi-submersible, 11 fatalities. -2005 - Bombay High, ship collision with platform and writter riser fire, 22 fatalities. -2007 - Usumacinta, jack up collision with platform, 22 fatalities.
Similar events have also occurred on onshore facilities. Recent examples include: -2003 - Chongqing, sour gas blow out, 243 fatalities. - 2004 - Skikda, explosion on LNG plant, 27 fatalities. -2005 - Texas City, explosion on refinery isomerisation unit, 15 fatalities. - 2009 - Nigeria, pipeline explosion, 100 fatalities. -2009 - Jaipur, explosion in gasoline storage area, 12 fatalities.
- 2010 – Congo, gasoline road tanker overturned, 230 fatalities. (source: RPS Energy, Preventing Major Accidents in Oil and Gas Industry, Nov 2010) However, the makes a good essay integrity of these hazard containments are compromised by a number of factors that cause their unplanned release to environment with undesired consequencies. Some of these factors include: - Human interference while carrying out day to day activities on these containments. - Equipment failure or malfunctioning. - Deterioration of fixed equipment due to ageing. In broader view all other factors are embedded in these four main factors. Human error is a major factor while interfacing with these containments. Major oil and gas companies have put in place a number of behavioural base safety program incorporated into their overall HSE program, behavioural base safety programs are geared towards educating the workforce the consequencies of their actions when dealing with these equipment. Also, commonly used is a system of work permit system and equipment isolation procedure to writter, prevent unplanned release of hazrds from their containment.
Also standard equipment repair procedure should be in place, if properly followed, the likelihood of making fatal mistake by personnel while working on these equipment would be reduced. Adequate training for all equipment operators play importantly role in safe operation of facilities. In most cases, accidents occur as result of monitoring equipment malfunctioning, adequate preventive maintenance program should be a major focal point of top management to ensure that all the control and measuring devices are functioning as designed and function within normal operating range. Also, a program like SERIP (Surface Equipment Reliability and Integrity Process) enhances close monitoring of pressure vessles and other static equipment. Kareem R. Saheed. Still on the theme of the obvious lapses in the regulations guarding health and safety in the offshore oil and gas industry today, i want to highlight a new perspective to it.
Do the oil companies truly have value for the lives of employees, third party contractors and the environment?? The answer is NO. These companies are required by law to have in hobbes essays, place the fanciest HSE policies and essay procedures, HSE deprtments, draw up safety cases and mitigation methods, all these requirements they fulfill, but the bottomline remains that these companies push the essays limits of nature and essay technology to squeeze out ALL resources possible from the noth sea(oil and natural gas) to satisfy shareholders and various boards of directors. Various reports have shown that the oil rigs in for essays, the North sea are FALLING APART with most of them having exceeded their design lifespans(most installed in writter, 60's and 70's) and even the more recent ones lagging behind in scheduled maintenance programmes. these companies are rolling out funds to push the limits of technilogy to extend even further ALREADY EXPIRED INSTALLATIONS and in the process jeopardizing the lives of employees, third party staff in the pursuit of continuous production. It is not rocket science, you can only push equipment so far(maintenance, extending useful life) at some point, equipment would FAIL. In my reading about the TOTAL Elgin gas leak earlier this year, an artile in the daily mail revealed that employees on the platform had expressed safety concerns predicting a gas leak less than a month before the accident bu employers had assured that should a leak occur, there were adequate safety systems to protect lives of employees at risk. Thankfully no lives were lost as all employees on the platform were evacuated on time, but my point is this. Operations in the area are risky by harvard dissertations and theses default, why knowingly expose employees to even higher risk profiles and hope that safety systems would protect them in the event of an accident? I think regulators have a lot to do in terms of ensuring oi majors reduce risk exposure of employees to the barst minimum regardless of revenue sacrificed or safety systems in place.
Personally, I think the writter UK offshore safety system places too much. trust in harvard, oil companies and contain risky assumptions like, “an allowable death. rate of one in every thousand workers”. Recent statistics from the HSE has. shown a major decrease in the fatality and essay major injuries of workers for. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon Rig, which killed 11 workers. and disaster to the environment, it was not just to diversity essays, oil companies that were to. be blamed. Fingers too were pointed at the enforcement and regulators. The US.
after the deepwater incident has considered adopting a safety system like the. UK, particularly as there have not been any major catastrophes since the 1988. Piper Alpha. It is obvious the system which the UK use is working but lets not. forget Oil rigs are practically apartment houses sitting on essay writter, unpredictable. volcanoes. So rather than relying on facility specific and and rousseau of critical essays abstract. demonstrations that risk levels in certain circumstances will result in deaths.
of a number of essay writter, workers, more emphasis should be based on the installation of. the best available “fail safe” technology and teaching the workers to use them. Okechukwu Chukelu (51231798) Safety and risk management in Oil and Gas Industry. The oil and a collection of critical essays gas industry. throughout all these years since its early days is considered one of the most. daring and among the most dangerous occupations of all time. Safety and risk. management is considered vital in essay writter, the oil and gas industry in order to for essays, avoid. and limit undesirable accidents. Essay Writter. These accidents very often may conclude into.
serious injuries of the workers involved and also fatal in many occasions like. the history taught us throughout these years. In other words, safety and on egon risk. management is to prevent undesirable disasters such as: The Piper Alpha disaster on 6 July 1988 in the.
North Sea, killing 167 workers. Gulf of Mexico oil spill on 20 April 2010, 11. people killed and huge environmental catastrophe occurred due to a well blowout. Texas City refinery explosion on 23 of March. 2005, 15 workers killed and more than 170 injured after an explosion.
Common factors in major accidents: Gaps in the industry’s safety culture. Lack of real commitment. to safety by leaders. Differentiation in management procedures may not. Insufficient analysis, design and optimization for. safety and hazard.
Gaps in communication while significant events. Insufficient learning from prior events and. The illusion of the low probability of an. accident to essay, occur. In order to essays, ensure the maximum. possible safety in the oil and gas industry, engineers and any other engaged. members in the oil and gas industry must perform in their highest level of.
engineering, operating and maintenance practices. Writter. Moreover, in order to prevent. major incidents from happening we must learn from the past. Data and facts from. previous incidents must be analyzed in depth in order to uncover shortfalls and. gaps in the management system performance. Finally, monitoring is also very. important especially in multi-level barriers in order to prevent any possible. setback or incident from and rousseau of critical, happening. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. COMMENT ONE:SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY.
In discussing health and safety in the oil. and gas industry as well as all other industries in general, I believe there. are a few inherent factors that need to essay, be discussed. Factors such as the purpose and for essays procedures. for investigating incidents, and as has being point out by essay writter previous discussion. about the reactive nature of the health and essay safety system in general, ensuring. that lessons learnt can used to improve. Health and safety in the oil and gas industry. Emphasis needs to be placed on ensuring an.
effective system is in place to investigate incidents and near misses to. determine the root cause. This system Is. especially lacking in developing countries where most incidents are not properly. investigated. Also, it is pertinent to. ensure that all actions identified through investigations or shared incidents. are acted upon in a timely manner.
Regular reviews should always be done to not only ensure that. appropriate actions have been taken, but to also determine if any new finding will. manifest with new improvements in writter, technology. All statistics and data is mother influenced properly recorded and kept and last but not. least, ensure that information obtain from such incident investigation are.
shared to everyone to writter, ensure a repeat of such an incident does not occur the. world over. One way of ensuring. uniformity and safety especially in mother, developing countries is for world governing. bodies like OPEC (from an oil and writter gas perspective) to adopt a health and safety. management system and insist on all member states adopt that system. MSc Subsea Engineering.
COMMENT 2: SAFTEY AND RIST MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY. In discussing the above topic, I feel it would be beneficial. to identify some of the and rousseau a collection hazards inherent to the Oil and Gas industry. Some of these hazards include: Hazards associated with temperature and flammable materials, taking special note of essay writter, terminologies such as Flash point (lowest temperature at. which vapour above a volatile liquid form a combustible mixture with air); Flammability. and flammability limits (i.e. the proportion of combustible gases in a mixture. with air.
This is for essays usually categorised. into Upper flammable limit and Lower flammable limit. Other hazards worth mentioning include. Toxicity (which is the essay writter degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed. organism).
Toxic entities can be chemical, biological or physical. There are Skin Irritants which are stimuli or. agents which induce a state of irritation. Irritants are usually thought of as chemical agents but mechanical, thermal and radioactive stimuli (such as ultraviolet light or ionising. radiation) can also be irritants.
Also. substances with Carcinogenic properties such as asbestos, certain dioxins and. tobacco smoke are hazards which act as agents directly involved in causing. There are a host of other hazards such as Hydrogen, Methane, LPG, Nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide,
oxygen, additives (such as anti-foaming, anti-wetting agents), micro-biocides, corrosive preventatives, refrigerants, water/steam, the hobbes and rousseau a collection essays list goes on essay writter, and all. contribute to mother influenced me essay, hazards inherent to the oil and gas industry. In the design of oil and essay writter gas plants, emphasis. is always placed on designs which either eliminate or minimise exposure/risk to. all/most of these hazards as low as is reasonably practicable. Source: HSE website and NEBOSH international Health and.
uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. SAFETY IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. Safety in the oil and gas industry has been a concern to the world. Most of the concerns result from handling oil and gas industry and safety has. been a priority in how my me essay, this industry, major concerns have been raised because most. of the essay writter laws and regulations are driven by accidents happening e.g. the piper.
alpha in 1988 had proper regulations been in place it would not have happened. UK offshore oil and gas industry is a. major hazard industry; the sector demonstrates a relatively low lost time. injury rate and has, for many years, outperformed a number of comparatively lower. hazard industrial sectors in the UK. A report states that there were just two. fatalities in harvard and theses, the UK offshore oil and gas industry and that was at the first UK. continental shelf fatalities in a four- year period. Human safety has been. given priority hence the reduction in essay writter, the number of fatalities and injuries. Hydrocarbon release has also reduced drastically since the.
introduction of the regulation on their emissions.in 2010 , HSE started a. program to look into the reduction of hydrocarbon releases , in April 2012 HSE. published data to show that the was a continued improvement in the reduction of. these emission. The reduction target was set for all hydrocarbon releases, it.
was noted that there was 40% decrease in a collection, major and significant releases and. this was attributed to the program. Another factor attributed to improvement. in safety in the sector was proper maintenance and repair of offshore plants. The. safety-critical parts of offshore installations are subject to a verification process. to ensure that they are suitable for their intended purpose and remain in good. condition and repair. These verifications are done by independent competent. FACTORS THAT FACILITATE MAJOR ACCIDENTS IN OIL AND GAS SECTOR. Common Factors in essay, Major Accidents.
Major accidents share some common factors: Flaws in the safety culture of the organization and sometimes the whole industry: Organizational culture is the harvard set of writter, shared values and norms upon what essay essay which decisions are based. Safety culture is simply that subset of the overall culture that reflects the general attitude and approaches to safety and risk management. Safety culture is primarily set by writter the leaders of the organization as they establish the basic values upon which decisions will be based.Lack of real commitment to safety by leaders: Management commitment to for essays, safety has been found to writter, be the most important factor in distinguishing between organizations with high and low accident rates [Leveson, 1995]. Nonexistent or not followed management of change procedures: A large percentage of influenced, major accidents occur after some change in the system or in the way it is operated. While most companies have management of essay, change procedures on their books, these procedures are not always followed. Inadequate hazard analysis and design for safety: Instead of putting the emphasis on designing safety into the system from the beginning, the major emphasis is instead placed on recovery from adverse events or investigating them after they occur.
Flawed communication and reporting systems: In a surprisingly large number of accidents, unsafe conditions were detected prior to the actual loss events or precursor events occurred but were not adequately reported or investigated so that the loss event could be prevented. Inadequate learning from prior events: Prior incidents and accidents are very often only superficially investigated. The symptoms of the underlying systemic causes of the accident or incident are identified as the cause of the events but not the for essays underlying flawed processes or culture that led to those symptoms. Sidney Dekker, The Field Guide to Understanding Human Error, Ashgate Publishing, 2006. Charles Haddon-Cave, The Nimrod Review, HC 1025, London: The Stationery Office Limited, Oct. 28, 2009. Nancy Leveson, Safeware, Addison-Wesley Publishers, 1995. HOW TO MANAGE SAFETY IN THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR. Given this system and control view of essay, safety, we can identify the makes essay flaws in the safety control structure that allowed the Deepwater Horizon accident to occur and what can be done to strengthen the overall offshore oil and gas industry safety control structure. The general key to essay, preventing these occurrences in the future is to provide better information for decision making, not just for the government regulators but for those operating the oil rigs. There are many changes that would be useful in strengthening the for essays safety control structure and preventing future oil spills, these changes are:
Providing appropriate incentives to change the safety culture: Participants in essay writter, industries like commercial aviation understand the direct relationship between safety and their profits and future viability. The relationship is not so clear in the off-shore oil industry.there also need to be incentives to what makes essay essay, update safety technology. The standard BOP design was less effective as exploration moved into deeper water and other technology changes occurred, but the industry ignored the many previous BOP failures and insisted that the writter design could not be improved industry standards: One of the surprises that emerges in the investigation of an accident is the lack of standards in the industry, for example standards for cementing operations improved. Industry self-policing: Any government regulatory agency is diversity limited in writter, what it can accomplish. After Three Mile Island, the nuclear power industry created an industry organization, called INPO, to provide shared oversight of safety in the nuclear sector Certification and training: Another lesson learned from the diversity investigation of the Deepwater Horizon accident is that some workers have minimal training and little certification is required. The changes needed here are obvious. Learning from events. A systems approach to accident and incident investigation needs to essay, be implemented by for essays everyone in the industry in essay writter, order to improve the learning and continual improvement process [Leveson, 2011]. we need to do the following: Hazard analysis: While the process industry has a very powerful hazard analysis technique, called HAZOP, the use of this technique is not as prevalent as it should be.
The results from essay, HAZOP need to be used to improve technological design and also passed to operations to guide maintenance and essay performance audits. Maintenance: For the Macondo well, maintenance of safety-critical equipment, for example on the BOP, was not performed as required for safety and makes a good essay as specified in essay writter, the equipment standards. Regulatory agencies can only spot-check compliance. Essay Schiele. Ensuring that proper maintenance activities are performed is an important activity for the company Safety Management System Integration of writter, safety engineers into for essays, operational decision making: One of the surprises to me personally in the Deepwater Horizon investigations was the lack of any operational safety group advising the decision makers on the platforms. If such a group existed, it did not play an important enough role to be mentioned in the description of the events that occurred. Industries with strong safety programs include a person or group that is responsible for writter advising management at all levels of the organization on both long-term decisions during engineering design and development of new platforms and on harvard dissertations and theses, the safety implications of decisions during operations. In most other industries, a safety engineer would have been resident on the platform and essay involved in all the real time safety-related decision making.
this steps however should be followed to ensure an effective safety management system in the oil and gas sector to reduce the risks of accident occurenc. Nancy Leveson, Engineering a Safer World, MIT Press, to appear fall 2011. In the meantime, a final draft can be downloaded from http://sunnyday.mit.edu/safer-world. Mike Martin and Roland Schinzinger, Ethics in Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1989. SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. Every day, the oil and gas industry contends with an hobbes and rousseau a collection of critical essays, array of writter, safety concerns throughout its range of operations.
In the face of increasing regulatory oversight, as well as increased public scrutiny, oil and gas industries have implemented and are still implementing effective safety management systems to help protect their workers, the general public and the environment. Oil and gas companies have established specific systems, programs and processes to manage and what monitor activities that affect their safety performance, management systems that support safety sustainability and business performance throughout the full life cycle of their assets. The following are some of the programs and writter systems used by and rousseau essays oil and gas companies, to essay, manage their safety performance:- 1. Culture. Integrated HSE management system design and writter development. 2. Incident and near-miss investigation. Companies adopt different tools for their near-miss and for essays incident investigation. Writter. Root cause analysis (RCA), five (5)- why, are some of the tools used by hobbes and rousseau a collection essays oil and gas companies. 3. Management of change (MOC) system design. This is essay a system that is put in place to manage change –which may be a temporary or permanent change, especially if what to be change has a safety concern. 4. Permit to work system.
This is schiele a system that is put in place to manage and control the day to day tasks that are carried out. Tasks that are likely to impact the safety of the personnel’s are further reviewed, so as to have more controls in place and done in a safe manner. 5. Lock out and essay writter Tag out (LOTO). This is used to control personnel exposure to the various energy sources they are working with. For Essays. Locks are fitted to essay writter, either a mechanical or electrical isolation and can only be removed, when the tasks have been completed.
Tags are also used to create the same awareness as a lock. 6. Regulatory compliance audits. 7. Safety culture evaluation and training. 8. HSE training programs. Risk are inherent in every forward-looking business decision. As a result, there has been a great deal of work done and resources invested in risk management in the oil and gas industry in recent years. Financial and regulatory risks have been the focus of much of this effort. But more recently, companies have started including operational risks, process safety risks, prioritizing them, and thinking about how they can manage and monitor all risks in a coordinated way. An effective risk management system needs to dissertations and theses, offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to the specific company and the sectors in writter, which it operates.
1. Hazard Identification and evaluation. 2. Quantitative risk analysis. 1. Top 10 risks for the oil and gas industry. www.spe.org . Oluwaseguu, I agree with the point that an effective risk management system must offer solution that is not only how my me essay tailored to fit the industry but must also be company specific. Leading Oil and Gas Companies like shell, Chevron etc have well established safety and Risk management systems that ensures that the safety of their operations are guaranteed. Essay. These companies most often have invested billions over on egon, the years in safety related matters. Essay Writter. For such companies the measures you have outlined is easy to comply with. For Essays. But what about smaller or emerging companies with smaller oil fields? The drive to make profits for shareholders may often override investment in Safety because it is essay writter expensive. In addition, more research must be put into improving the reliability of materials and systems used in the Oil and gas industry. As efficiency of systems improve, safety also will improve.
I would like to add detail regards with HSE. Offshore industry had developed HSE training as part of safety management. Basic trainings are basic offshore safety induction and emergency training ( BOSIET ) and helicopter underwater egress training ( HUET ). As you know, helicopter. transportation is one of major risk in what essay, the offshore work. These trainings are designed and. standardized by essay writter Offshore Petroleum Industry Training Organization ( OPITO ). Normally. training from center certified by hobbes and rousseau OPTIO is accepted.
Certifications may be. required for offshore crew by essay writter each company’s HSE policy, and for essays then no one can. inboard without certifications if HSE policy is strictly complied. Also it. should be renewed every 3 years through re-training. In BOSIET participant will take class and exercise. for sea survival including evacuation, fire fighting and etc. In HUET, participants. will exercise escape from emergency landing at sea.
Of course, making a safety system is the. best but personnel should be well aware of coping skills in the emergency . I. believe safety training should be repeated more often not only from training. center but also from site. Attention and training will lead minimum loss at.
COMMENT 3: SAFTEY AND RIST MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY. When talking about Health and safety in the oil and gas. industry, one major regulation comes to mind which is the essay Offshore Installation. (Safety Case)Regulation 2005 (SCR05)1. Extracting from the harvard and theses regulation, r.12 states: “Among other things, a duty holder is writter required to ensure; All hazards with the potential to for essays, cause a major. accident have been identified. All major accident risks have been evaluated; Measures have been or will be taken to control. the major accident risks to ensure compliance with the relevant statutory.
This also relates to writter, our argument in class about who is to. blame when accidents/incident occur. Further to this, I thought it might to mention some of the. other relevant statutory regulations in the oil and gas industry. Health and Safety at Work etc. Culture Essays. Act 1974 (HSWA). Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and. Explosions and Emergency Response) regulations 1995 (PFEER). Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and. Construction, etc) Regulations 1996 (DCR) Control of Major Accident Hazard Regulations.
EC Directive 96/82/EC on control of essay, major. accident hazards involving dangerous substances. For Essays. (Seveso II Directive). Chemical (Hazard Identification and Packaging for. Supply) Regulations 1994 as amended (CHIP2008). Control of Substances Hazardous to Health. Reporting of essay writter, Injuries, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences. Regulations 1995. (RIDDOR) Please note this regulation buttressmy point in for essays, my earlier comment about the need for systematic approach to recording and reporting of incidents in essay writter, the workplace. Please note my list might not be exhaustive and I welcome. any colleague to add to this list if aware of any other. uchenna onyia 51232632 MSc subsea engineering.
Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and hobbes and rousseau of critical essays gas industry. Risk and safety management is becoming. increasingly important in essay writter, oil and gas industry, especially many disasters happened. worldwide. In view of the higher risk of offshore oil gas compared with. that of onshore, I would like to focus more on offshore safety and risk. management. Generally, in technology management, it can be classified as six. steps: prevention, detection, control, prevention of escalation, protection and. EER (Evacuate, Escape and Rescue).
Meanwhile, other factors also can have. negative effect on safety and essay on egon schiele risk management, like wars, geopolitical reason. and natural disaster. In technology, prevention should be put a. lot of emphasis. The offshore facilities need to be designed according to design. codes and essay writter standards. Measures.
taken both before design and construction as well as during construction should. prevent components from breaking down or failing to perform their design duty. Besides, hazard areas should be clearly categorized. Fire, explosion and. flow-over should be detected in time through detectors on platform. Once. hazards are detected, relative instruments, like fire protection, blowdown valves,
and ESD, should be activate immediately. What A Good Essay. In general, it is imperative for oil companies. to build and be operated under a comprehensive system which covers the whole. life cycle of oil and gas fields. If the essay writter system can not be executed strictly, it could result in disasters. Take BP’s oil spill in and rousseau a collection essays, 2010 for example, the.
horizontal deepwater accident killed 11 workers and. injured 16 others, as well as billions dollars loss for BP. extent, the above interior factors can be avoided or controlled if appropriate. measurements are taken. Nevertheless, some exterior factors like asset nationalization. by the government can hardly be anticipated and essay manipulated by companies.
In. 2007, Exxon-Mobil and diversity ConocoPhillips lost billions. dollars in Venezuela. The identification of `safety culture' as a major contributor to industrial accidents. is beginning to have a profound effect on the way risk and safety are managed. within organisations. It suggests that the occurrence of accidents can be predicted on. the basis of certain factors that are indicative of the organisation's `state of safety'.
The oil and writter gas industry now faces its strongest set of a collection, challenges in writter, terms of risk and compliance regulations. Recent events such as the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico have further brought to light the presence and relevance of such regulations. Companies in the oil and gas industry must deal with their own unique set of risks, whether natural, man-made or operational, as part of their daily operations. The approach that works well at an offshore installation may not be the and rousseau essays best option for a refinery. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to essay, the industry, but also to the specific company and the sectors in which it operates. What dangers drilling operation occurs? What dangers drilling operation occurs? In this post I want to mention about the dangers that.
drilling operations occur. Drilling operations has one of the highest levels of. difficulty and hobbes essays workers are in a continuous danger. The personnel often make. mistakes during offshore drilling activities, including rotary drilling, well. servicing and essay writter use of oil field explosives. Those mistakes can result to. injuries or even to fatal accidents, but also could let to an oil release to.
the marine environment. Diversity Essays. Another problem that occurs in the drilling operations. is when the mud which is produced by the drilling is disposed in the ocean. Essay Writter. The. mud contains mercury and lead which can harm the subsea environment. A big. problem with the offshore and onshore drilling operation is the natural.
phenomenon. A tropical storm or hurricane can damage rigs (especially those constructed. prior to the 1990s when safer construction practices were instituted) and move. platforms great distances, releasing greater quantities of for essays, oil and dispersing. oil over wider geographic areas. Essay Writter. Storm events are high-risk, low-probability. events but do create dangerous scenarios because safety precautions are.
hindered during the event. Msc Oil and Gas Engineering. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. A few people have questioned the level of for essays, responsibility or. trust placed on operators in the North Sea, but I think this fails to credit to.
the checks and writter balances in place. As has been discussed previously in this forum, the operator has to identify the hazards, assess the for essays risks and implement measures to remove or reduce the risk to as low as reasonably practicable, all of which is documented within the installation's safety case. The safety case then has to be accepted by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) which involves it being reviewed by multiple HSE personnel including specialists with technical expertise in specific areas. Six months is essay writter allocated to this process to essays, allow queries to be resolved and essay revisions made. Operations cannot start until the safety case is for essays accepted. In addition, the operator must identify all the safety-critical elements (SCEs) of the installation and prepare a written scheme of verification to test and examine the SCEs to essay, ensure they are and remain fit for a collection essays purpose. An independent competent person (ICP) must review the selection of SCEs and scheme of examination and is involved in verification process.
The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (Great Britain, 2005) defines safety-critical elements as: such parts of an installation and essay such of its plant (including computer programmes), or any part thereof- (a)the failure of which could cause or contribute substantially to; or. (b)a purpose of which is to prevent, or limit the effect of, a major accident; These are just two examples of harvard dissertations and theses, where checks are placed on essay, the operator in key areas of safety. Reference: Great Britain. The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 [Online]. 07 October 2012]
Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. To build on my previous post about the checks and and rousseau of critical essays balances. within the safety case regime, consider the case of a well being drilled. The operator will plan and essay design the well. taking into makes a good essay essay, account the hazards and reducing the risks to as low as reasonably. practicable as required by the Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and. Construction, etc.) Regulations 1996 (Great Britain, 1996).
The operator must submit a notification of well operations. to the essay writter HSE which will be reviewed by a specialist well inspector and any. queries should be addressed. Although no. acceptance from the HSE must be received, the HSE can take proceeding to halt. the operation if not satisfied with the diversity operator’s plans.
The design must also be reviewed an independent well. examiner, so there are two separate assessments of the essay planned well. On top of this are the requirements for a safety case and dissertations the. written scheme of verification for safety-critical elements (such as the. blowout preventer), as previously discussed.
In addition, the operator must provide weekly reports to the HSE. detailing work carried out on the well and writter its current state. So although the what makes a good essay responsibility for safety lies with the duty. holder, the state does have oversight of key risk areas such as drilling – both. before and during operations – and requires the use of independent bodies to. provide and additional review of critical safety matters. Reference: Great Britain. Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and Construction, etc.) [Accessed 08 October 2012]
***Apologies for formatting*** Topic 9: Safety and essay writter risk management in oil and gas industry. To follow on from my previous posts regarding checks and. balances in the UK goal setting regime, I think it is important to consider the. relationship between the regulator and for essays the operator. The regulator gathers information about an operator’s. assets, management systems and operations built up through review of statutory. submissions such as an installation’s safety case and notifications including. those required for combined operations, well operations and changes to. production pipelines.
On top of this are. proactive measures including routine inspections and meetings, and inspections and. work as part of focused campaigns, such as KP4 mentioned by Andrew Allan. Then there are the reactive measures through the reports. required by RIDDOR (The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous. Occurrences Regulations 1995) – which not only requires reporting of serious.
injuries and fatalities but specified dangerous occurrences associated with. wells and production pipelines – and subsequent follow up investigations and. Through these various means the regulator can build a. picture of the issues of each operator and writter each platform (for there can be. variation within an operator) and work with them to improve weak areas.
The operator should be allowed to work on on egon, recognised issues. so long as progress is being made and essay writter the risks are adequately managed. Dissertations. It must be borne in mind that many issues. cannot be solved overnight. Most. installations in the North Sea were not designed to the standards that prevail.
today, often making it difficult or impractical to essay writter, directly apply current best. practices. Even changes in management. systems or programmes take time to be implemented properly. That is not to say that regulator should not take action for. gross breaches of safety management or when the essay on egon risk to personnel is. intolerable. It can and does, either by. issuing improvement notices that require specified action to be taken within.
the given timescale, or issuing a prohibition notice that shuts down an. The regulator must balance the carrot and stick approaches. to maintain an open dialogue and effective working relationship with the. Topic 9: Safety and essay risk management in oil and gas industry. It has been suggested by several people in this discussion that the culture essays UK’s goal setting regime places too much responsibility place, but I believe it is important to writter, consider the dissertations and theses risks of a prescriptive regime and also the flexibility of the goal setting regime. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. In my recent posts I have tried to highlight some of the. benefits of the UK’s goal setting regime, but, of course, no system is perfect.
Below are some potential weak points in the. As mentioned previously, an independent competent person. must be involved in the written scheme of examination of safety-critical. elements. Although provision is made to. define independence, the essay ICP is chosen by dissertations and theses – and paid by – the operator, so can.
they truly be independent, particularly when competing for contracts? Furthermore, how can competency of the ICP, crucial when. assessing critical safety systems, be guaranteed? This is another case of ‘who checks the. checkers’, similar to essay, the concern raised by for essays Tony Morgan. Moving on to safety cases, the operator is required to. describe the essay management systems and procedures in place to what makes, manage risk, but are.
there any tests to ascertain that these are effective or even applied? How robust are the essay checks and reviews. conducted by the regulator? Overall, the nature of the goal-setting regime will lead to. a variety of approaches to meeting the legislative requirements. While this may create good practice, it also.
allows sub-standard performance to exist. Though underperformance may in some cases be. identified and stopped by the regulator, it could also take an incident to. Topic 9: Safety and dissertations risk management in oil and gas industry. I'd like to illustrate my previous post on the weaknesses of. the UK's goal setting regime with the examples from the essay writter HSE's last focussed. offshore programme, Key Programme 3 (KP3) Asset Integrity (HSE, 2008). Between 2004 and 2007 HSE Inspectors.
visited almost 100 installations across 33 duty holders to investigate and. evaluate management and culture diversity maintenance of safety-critical elements (SCEs). A standardised survey was conducted that. assessed 17 management elements and tested a selection of SCEs. The performance of writter, each installation in each management. element and essays test was marked using a traffic light system. Writter. In this classification a red traffic light. was defined as: Non-compliance with. legislation; Major failing of schiele, system (hardware or management) or partial.
failure with a history of failure; Minded to serve notice Overall, across all installations. and management elements, 8% fell into the red category of non-compliance and. further 31% were classed as amber, defined as an isolated failure or incomplete system . The element with the highest. non-conformance for all installations was ‘maintenance of SCEs' where 22% of installations received a red traffic light. grade and less than a third were given the green mark of essay writter, compliance.
It is a serious problem that the equipment identified. as critical in preventing a major accident is not being maintained properly. across the essay schiele majority of installations inspected. It is also concerning that the. lessons from past incidents do not appear to have been heeded. When safety critical systems were tested by. the HSE, a significant number were classed as non-compliant (red traffic light) including those identified as key safety systems in the recommendation from the.
public inquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster. HVAC systems had the essay greatest proportion of how my mother, non-compliances at 35% of. those tested (Health and Safety Laboratory, 2009). Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and essay risk management in oil and gas industry. There were some interesting. findings in the HSE’s KP3 Asset Integrity Programme described in my previous.
Although there are no identifying. company data in the research report produced by how my mother influenced me essay the HSE (2008), companies with assigned. codes so that the writter ratings of companies and their installations could be. As might be expected, some. companies outperformed others: three companies achieved over 90% green ratings. while three has less than 40% green. More surprisingly perhaps is that, when looking at and rousseau the performance of individual installations, there was. generally marked variation within companies. For example, one of the worst performing installations in terms of writter, management. elements (zero green, 6 amber, 10 red) was part of the how my influenced me essay same company as one of.
the top-ranking installations (15 green, 1 amber). I believe this hints at the. complexity of essay writter, managing SCEs – if it was simple each company would likely have. more consistent results across their assets. Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and culture diversity gas industry. Looking at some of the issues. raised during KP3 (HSE, 2008) may go some way to explain the complexity I. mentioned in a previous post. Maintenance of SCEs was found to.
be poor with work overdue or deferred often due to resource constraints and the. resources directed to drilling and project programmes. This could be seen as the. operator wishing to focus on profit rather than safety, but consider that it. was also found that in the reporting of maintenance backlogs, etc to senior. management it was not clear regarding safety critical equipment. Furthermore, a general lack of understanding. of the role of SCEs in essay writter, preventing major accident hazards was also. uncovered.
In addition, the engineering. function within companies was found to lack authority. Essentially then the message that. something needs to be done is harvard dissertations not getting through, when it is the implication. is not necessarily understood and the people who do understand are not in essay writter, a. position to insist it gets done.
While this is a major simplification. of just some of the factors at work, but I hope it illustrates that there are. multiple, interlinked causes behind the poor performances identified in the KP3. Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.
I mentioned in a previous post. that in the UK the HSE can and do take action when an operator is failing in. their responsibility to manage safety offshore. In 2010, the HSE issued 33. improvement notices and 4 prohibition notices (HSE, 2012) to for essays, oil gas. companies (operators, facilities management companies and drilling. companies). A similar number were issued. in 2011: 39 improvement notices and writter 2 prohibition notices. This data can be viewed in two. ways.
It’s concerning that duty holders. are failing to for essays, comply with their safety responsibilities, especially when the. failure has been so significant that they must be forced to stop. operations. On the other hand it’s. positive to see that the regulator will step in when is sees those failings and. will take action when there is a risk to the safety of offshore personnel. Some posts in this forum have. suggested that the UK’s goal setting regime gives operators too much. responsibility for safety, but I believe this shows that the state does play an.
active role and will take action when it does not think the operator is. adequately managing the essay writter risks offshore. Reference: HSE (2012.) HSE Public Register of Enforcement Notices. Available at http://www.hse.gov.uk/notices/default.asp. [accessed 09 October 2012].
***Apologies for the formatting in these posts. It cannot be helped at this time but I will try to sort it later*** Claire, I am glad that you brought up your point about Independant Competent Person(s). I would very much like to essay on egon schiele, add to essay writter, the discussion on harvard dissertations, this point. I have found, and been told, that many of the ICP's, or at least many people that are ICP's may not be wholly competent in the role they are trying to asses. Lots of ICP's are in essay, fat just going by the regulations they have written down in front of them instead of using the experience of the dissertations and theses people they are working with, or indeed the people they are auditing (or similar), to figure out whether a practice is writter safe. For example, if someone was to be assesing the safety of a vessel, they would go on board the vessel during a mobilisation or during it's down time and observe the conditions. Schiele. However, the better way to observe the safety of essay writter, a vessel is to be on dissertations, board during operations. Essay. Watching the hobbes and rousseau a collection people go about their jobs as if you weren't there. However, the old adage of 'Never judge a man until you have walked a mile in his shoes' may be applicable here.
Someone who has never done a specific job can be the judge of someone who has done the job for years. The person who has done the job for years has built up all of these ways of making a job easier for himself, and essay writter then an ICP can come along and destroy all of his methods due to safety concerns. On another point, I have always found the process of 'Safety Inspections' to be quite flawed. As with any type of inspection, generally people are warned to for essays, be on their 'best behaviour', so I feel the true way to inspect for writter safety is to for essays, use some sort of remote system, ie cameras etc which can observe without people thinking they are being observed, only then do you get true behaviours. Benefits of Independent Competent Person.
Richard, you have raised a very good point on the ICP which is a reality from those experiences. There exists the frustration of the ICP simply going by the letter of the writter regulation. A Good Essay. I guess the moot point, though, is does that mean that the operators are running foul of regulations? That said, I feel there is still a positive to having the ICP especially if they can engender the writter quality discussions that should go on between the on egon ICP and the dutyholder on the condition of each Safety Critical Element. The responsibility for operating safely still sits squarely on the shoulder of the Duty Holder so a decision to either accept, consider or reject any ICP recommendation will need to be taken by operators as the duty holder. Duty Holders have personnel known as Technical Authority who must be technically competent and are responsible for evaluating and making engineering and other technical judgements on the operations of safety critical elements . In my opinion, the writter best way to obtain an advantage from this relationship is to have a sort of on egon schiele, “constructive tension” between the ICP and the Duty Holder to ensure there is a continuous challenge both ways. With regards to the issue of essay writter, competency, this is quite a big issue which applies to not just the ICP but the oil gas industry as a whole and will take not only the operators and regulators but all stakeholders to establish competency frameworks for the industry. To further comment on the issue of “Safety Inspections” raised by Richard, it is evident that having a third party outside of mother influenced, a task with oversight on the task helps to writter, highlight issues the me essay team working on the activities are blindsided to which is where the concept of supervision comes from. The level of awareness to an unsafe condition is usually diminished due to the focus on the task at hand. Whilst safety inspections may not be totally effective for the reasons mentioned, I think the idea of writter, snooping-in on people remotely on cameras whilst at work may not go down so well with a lot of offshore workers.
I feel this “big-brother” approach will not encourage the sort of open and and rousseau of critical essays honest behaviours and just culture needed for a safe organisation. On the other hand, safety inspections being conducted by another member of the team rather than a safety personnel may help in simulating the writter work circumstance is as close to reality as possible or the a collection of critical use of a buddy system that allows Safety Interventions from within the writter team may be a more effective means of preventing personnel from taking short-cuts. SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. I agree with Claire's comment on offshore installations (Safety Case) regulations with respect to safety-critical elements. It has been well researched that major offshore accident and hazards could have been avoided if strict compliance and best industry practice were observed and what implimented to detail and specifications but the writter challenge is often cutting corners and human factors. Attending the last GASECH 2012 CONFERENCE in London where I listened to a presentation of LNG Shipment and Bunkering risks and challenges by the Llyods Register, I then appreciate the for essays need for stringent compliance to offshore HSE regulations. There are always releases of hydrocarbons during tieing in via loading and offloading of writter, gas, fuel or diesel and this a major challenge to the industry.
However, operations are faced with no choice than to keep the environment safe by managing the inherent hazards in all their operations. With the golden era of SHALE GAS and culture diversity essays Floating Liquidified Natural Gas (FLNG), the risk level will ultimately rise and call for critical survelliance by regulators and coastal agencies to checkmate the activities oil and writter gas bunkering. Safety and Risk Management in influenced, Oil Gas Industry. The UK Oil Gas industry has witnessed. some significant disasters such as Piper Alpha. Despite this, it is a global. leader in safety management. The need to essay writter, reduce the number of accidents and improve. safety standards is diversity essays well understood throughout the essay writter industry if a repeat disaster.
is to be avoided. At the core of the industry’s safety. management campaign is the goal setting regulatory framework which tackles. responsible and effective major hazard management. Joined-up working and information. are tools also used to openly report on and theses, safety performance and learn from past. Given the UK’s ageing offshore. infrastructure, appropriate attention must be given to ensure asset integrity as.
the industry pushes for life extension of these assets. Hydrocarbon releases. must also be lowered in order to achieve the industry-set reduction target (cited. MSc Oil Gas Engineering. Safety and Risk Management in the oil industry. At Jesse (Geographical coordinates 5.870? N, 5.750?E) a town in the Oil rich Niger Delta Region of Nigeria on the 17th of October, 1998 an oil pipeline belonging to the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and served as a link between an oil Refinery in the south. eastern town of Warri and the Kaduna Refinery in the Northern part of the country was engulfed by fire. The fire could only be extinguished after five days by a United State company with Nitrogen-rich foam. Essay. It took the life of over culture diversity essays, 1200 people including children, youths, and. adults.
It is essay writter indeed a great disaster. It was found out on egon schiele, that the cause of the fire was as a result of leakage from a pipeline. The pipeline was laid in the early 70s and ought to have been changed. It was also discovered that there were no safety devices on writter, the pipeline as it was designed with old technology. Makes Essay Essay. It was finally concluded that the cause of the fire was due to ageing of the writter pipeline and lack of maintenance by the company involved. This is a clear result of lack of Risk and Safety management if the pipeline has been properly maintained and replaced by the required time this disaster would have been averted. After the incidence it was recommended that the pipeline be replaced and remidiation be carried out on the spilled area of land and the families of the victims be duly compensated. Wasting Lives [Reports by Doifie Ola and David Eighemhenrio] The importance of how my influenced me essay, facility layout in managing risk. I would like to generate some discussion around the issues to be considered in the layout of a new facility so as to minimise the risk to personnel working on the facililty. Below are a number of considerations, please expand on my discussion thread with other issues you think should be considered:
Physical separation of safe areas from high risk areas. It is important when designing a new facility that you maximise the separation distance between areas where personnel will regularly be stationed, and high risk process areas. On an offshore platfrom this often means having the drilling/wellhead area at the opposite end of the platform (or on writter, a separate bridge linked platform) from the Accommodation module. In doing so you minimise the for essays likelihood of major accident events in the wellbay area from impacting personnel within the accommodation module. The required separation distance can determined through the use of fire and explosion modelling softwares to determine potential jet fire distances and blast overpressures. Siting of large volumes of hazardous liquids. In designing an offshore platform, large process vessels and containers for storage of hazardous chemicals should preferrably be situated on essay, a lower deck, such that in the event of a loss of containment, the on egon liquids drain to the sea rather than cascading onto equipment below. In the writter event of a fire, having a large vessel leaking flammable liquids onto equipment below greatly increases the and theses likelihood of escalation and essay should be avoided if possible. If this is not possible then installation of a plated deck with appropriate bunding and hazardous closed drains can be used to safely transport any flammable liquids away from an area, thus reducing the likelihood of fire.
One such example of a hazardous inventory would be the flare knock out drum, this is a vessel which collects flammable liquids from the flare system. This vessel is usually situated on a lower deck of a platfrom such that the liquids can freely drain to the vessel, and so that in the event the makes a good vessel leaks that the inventory is essay released to sea rather than dripping down onto how my me essay, process equipment below. Congestion and confinement in offshore installations. Whilst in onshore oil and gas facilities the designer often has the luxury of having a large land area upon which to layout the essay writter required equipment, for culture diversity essays offshore platforms the writter emphasis is very much on minimising the footprint to remain within the limits of the jacket structure. To do this requires the stacking of multiple decks to essay on egon schiele, house the required process and utilities equipment. In doing this you greatly increase the level of confinement as you essentially box in volumes of essay writter, space which have the essay on egon potential to fill with flammable vapours in the event a leak occurs.
Fitting all of the required equipment in a small area also increases the congestion within the area. These two factors, confinement and congestion, have an impact on the explosion overpressures experienced in the event of delayed ignition of a flammable gas cloud. Confinement and congestion aid in accellerating the blast overpressure wave, increasing its destructiveness. This can have a devastating effect on writter, the immediate area and lead to escalation due to damage to and rousseau a collection of critical essays, surrounding equipment. In offshore facility design it is essay important to maximise the natural ventilation of a space in order to minimise the likelihood of flammable gas clouds forming. This can be done through a number of means including:
- use of grated decks rather than plated decks to reduce confinement and encourage natural ventilation. - Orientation of equipment to minimise congestion. - Use of forced ventialtion in enclosed modules where natural ventialtion is not possible. These are just an example of the steps which can be taken to reduce the likelihood, and consequence of an explosion offshore. Given the small footprint of an offshore platform it is often not possible to dissertations and theses, provide physical separation between process equipment in order to reduce the likelihood of escalation. Essay. Instead, fire and blast walls are often used to segregate areas and reduce the impact of a fire or explosion in hobbes and rousseau a collection of critical essays, an area.
Fire and blast walls are structures which are designed to withstand the essay writter effects of a fire or explosion for a specified load and/or time period. On Egon. In the design of an offshore facility it is imperitive that all hazards identified within an area are assessed. This is often done through the use of fire and essay explosion modleling softwares to predict the magnitude and duration of an event given certain process conditions. This modelling then allows the designer to select an for essays, appropriate fire/blast wall design to ensure the wall remains intact for essay writter the required duration, thus minimising the likelihood of escalation. One example of the use of fire/blast walls is in the design of an offshore temporary refuge. The purpose of a temporary refuge is to provide an area for personnel to muster to assess an event and decide on the appropriate means of escape or evacuation if required.
To enable personnel to take refuge the TR must be adequately designed to withstand the effects of foreseeable fires or explosions for a sufficent period of time for personnel to take the required action. For Essays. The survivability of the TR is ensured through the use of essay writter, fire/explosion proof cladding along with HVAC design. Evaluation- Performance monitoring and importnace. An important aspect of Health and Safety Management is. Performance monitoring. Essay On Egon. Procedures to. monitor, measure and record OSH performance on a regular basis should be. developed, established and writter periodically reviewed. Responsibility, accountability and authority for monitoring at essay different levels in essay, the. management structure should be allocated.
monitoring and measurement should: means of determining the extent to which OSH policy and objectives are being. implemented and risks are controlled; active and reactive monitoring, and not be based only upon work-related injury, ill-health, disease and incident statistics; and. to determine whether the hobbes and rousseau a collection of critical day-to-day arrangements for hazard and risk. identification, prevention and control are in place and writter operating effectively; for decisions about improvement in hazard identification and risk control, and. the OSH management system.
uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. Evaluation - Performance Monitoring and Importance. up to my earlier comment, I thought I would talk more on makes a good, Active and Reactive. monitoring should contain the writter elements necessary to have a proactive system and.
of the achievement of specific plans, established performance criteria and. systematic inspection of work systems, premises, plant and equipment; of the and theses working environment, including work organisation; surveillance of workers' health, where appropriate, through suitable medical. monitoring or follow-up of workers for early detection of signs and symptoms of. harm to health in order to determine the effectiveness of prevention and. control measures; and. compliance with applicable national laws and regulations, collective agreements. and other commitments on OSH to which the organisation subscribes. monitoring should include the identification, reporting and investigation of: injuries, ill-health (including monitoring of aggregate sickness absence.
records), diseases and essay incidents; losses, such as damage to property; safety and health performance, and OSH management system failures; and. workers' rehabilitation and health-restoration. Safety and Health.
Management Systems (ILO-OSH 2001). and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS 18000). and Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001/18002), BSI. uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. While I completely agree that more work needs to be done. about the industry’s response to the subject to be more proactive than. reactive; we need to keep in mind that it is humans like us that design, operate and maintain these systems. I attended the essay schiele LRET lecture by essay writter Prof Torgeir Moan this.
evening and have a new found respect for all the work that goes into. ascertaining that these structures are safe. An accidental limit state is. factored in a good essay, during the design phase. That is proactive. But there is only so. much man can do. Factors of safety will be incorporated but the welder might. have had a bad day and forget to tighten a screw… These things cannot be. Ofcourse Inspections have got to be as regular as possible.
but these are still done by man. HSE has regulations that these companies. adhere to as their licences depend on it. As we blame the operators, regulators, the government and essay writter so. on, may we remember that some things can just not be anticipated. Culture Essays. The industry. learns from previous mistakes to make the future operations safer.
Safety Environmental Management System. Safety Environmental Management System (SEMS) In United States, BSEE regulates how safe and environmentally sound are the Operator's method to extract oil. The Macondo blowout resulted in certain improvements to system, particularly that contractors must comply with SEMS. (We all know that Halliburton and Cameron were critically blamed along with BP and Transocean). In general, SEMS applies to all drilling, production, construction, well workover, well completion, well servicing, mobile offshore drilling units, and Department of Interior pipeline activities and is based on writter, the following element of previously voluntary API RP 75: - Safety and environmental information. - Management of change. - Safe working practices.
- Assurance of quality and mechanical integrity of critical equipment. - Emergency response and how my mother influenced me essay control. - Investigation of incidents. - Audit of essay writter, SEMS elements. - Records and Documentation. Offshore Magazine, August 2012, p46-48. Safety Environmental Management System (SEMS) To further elaborate on the SEMS, Operators need to pass SEMS audit within two years of November 2011 and every three years thereafter. SEMS plans are to be audited be an independent third Party. Needless to say that there is for essays a number of companies providing such services (Lloyds Register, for example). BSEE's position is essay writter that continual improvement in safety requires best practices followed by implementation and culture evaluation.
It is the essay writter responsibility of operator management to ensure the goals and for essays performance measures are established for their SEMS. Essay Writter. (a good example of goal-setting legislation). Specifically operators must: - Verify that personnel, including contractors, have received proper training and have the skills and knowledge to perform their assigned duties* - Conduct design suitability studies when the original mechanical or process design information no longer exists** - Ensure a contractor's hazard assessment and JSA documents are revised and updated to reflect changes in their SEMS program. - Have a copy of all of the diversity essays contractor's Safe Work Practices and ensure they cover all SEMS covered tasks and operations. * Side note. 10 out of essay writter, 11 people responsible for well control and who failed to mother, detect gas kick on 8 March 2010 (blowout averted, however) were on duty on 20 April 2010 when Macondo blew out.
** Side note. Before 20 April 2010 BP engineers changed the steps of well temporary abandonment procedure several times . Offshore Magazine, August 2012, p46-48. And final note in regards of SEMS: If SEMS audit shows any non-compliance to the safety program, there could be fines imposed on the operator up to $35 000 / day until the subject is closed and, in writter, severe cases, the what a good essay whole facility could be shut down. Since it is obviously an Operator's nightmare, Safety and Environmental Management Program is a great risk mitigation incentive. There are six stages in the life of a structure and all six. stages require inspection management. Essay Writter. They are: Fabrication of the structure. Launch and installation.
In the design stage, previous designs will be reassessed to. ensure the same mistakes are not repeated. This include material selection, fabrication methods, installation. techniques, service life conditions and diversity as part of integrated corrosion. management. Computer and often scaled. models are used to demonstrate and essay writter simulate conditions. Designs are made to accommodate lessons. learned from previous mistakes.
As. development continues, the what a good essay amount of mistakes made should naturally reduce. however as has been mention during the lecturers, we also increasingly push the. boundaries and more complex designs are created which always keep us in. pioneering environment where mistakes can and essay writter do happen. Designs have to consider codes and statutory rules. (instruments) in the UK for and rousseau a collection of critical example. DCR SI 913 (1996) Design. and Construction Regulations. PSR SI 825 (1996) Pipeine. PFEER SI 743 (1995) Prevention.
of Fire, Explosion and essay Emergency Response. MAR SI 738 (1995) Management. and Administration Regulations. PUWER SI 2932 (1998) Provision. and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (Plant and Equipment). The main aim of these design considerations is to reduce. risk to and theses, being ;’As Low As Reasonably Practicable’. uchenna onyia 51232632.
MSc Subsea Engineering. Safety issues for essay writter the LNG industry. Safety issues for the LNG industry – Storage of the LNG and conversion. to its gaseous phase. Throughout the history of the LNG industry, there were no. major hazards, and mainly that is because of the reduced dangers that the. liquid has while it is stored and culture essays transfer. Essay Writter. LNG is stored in special storage.
tanks at -160 oC, (the liquefaction temperature of the a collection natural gas), without putting any pressure. So the pressure that is safely kept in its liquid. form is 1 atm. This results that, if a storage tank brakes or cracks and the. LNG liquid leaks to the environment, there will be no ignition or explosion,
and thus there will be no danger to the surrounding environment. Also, when the LNG is going to be converted in to gas, it is. transferred from the special storage tanks of the ship to the tanks that the. natural gas can be stored to its gaseous phase. While the LNG is essay stored in the. tanks, there is natural convection from the environment and the liquid is been. heated up until it becomes gas. When this.
procedure takes place and the liquid starts to become gas, it creates a fog- a. vapor cloud- which can be igniting only if there is an me essay, ignition source. For this, safety devices and operational procedures are intended to minimize the. probability of a release of a vapor cloud. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. and Risk management in oil and essay writter gas industry. In the oil and gas industry. finding oil and hobbes a collection essays supplying it is not the writter only concern companies have. For Essays. Safety is.
also a very important issue. Every day accidents occur on. the oil rigs and essay writter also while oil and gas is being transport. environmental issues must be concerned also. Harvard Dissertations And Theses. Steps should be taken for any. instrument malefaction because if any problem will take place oil and gas leak. is very pollutant. Companies nowadays are using.
a system for managing safety issues for the safety of their workers, the. company it’s self and of course the environment. There are several ways to. ensure safety in the industry. Trained staff should be in. charge for safety issues and monitoring the working environment. There must be. a frequent maintenance and essay writter emergency plans on oil rigs. A good way to avoid any. accidents is to learn from for essays, previous disasters and some mistakes should be.
Safety issues for the LNG industry. Safety issues for the LNG industry – Storage of the essay LNG and. conversion to its gaseous phase. Inside the LNG storage tanks, the liquids that are introduced. sometimes are from different densities and for that, several layers of the liquid. are created.
The liquid with the higher density goes to the bottom and schiele the. lighter to essay, the top. The heat from the side walls leaks inside to the top layer. and the heat from the side walls and from the bottom walls warms up the essays heavier. liquid. Once the heat warms up the bottom liquid, it starts to evaporate and. because of the hydrostatical pressure the vapor is superheated and may cause sudden. increase of pressure in the tank. Essay Writter. This phenomenon is called rollover. This excess.
pressure may result to crack or other structural failures of the tank and to. avoid this to on egon, happen; the density of the writter liquid that is introduced in the tanks. is always measured and if the density is how my me essay different the liquid is unloaded. accordingly. LNG tanks have rollover protection systems, which include. distributed temperature sensors and pump-around mixing systems. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering.
Is training of offshore rig personnel always adequate? We all know how important training is for the operation of complicated and sophisticated piece of equipment. Especially when mishandling it might result in essay, catastrophic damages. There is no doubt offshore rig personnel undergoes extensive training and get numerous internationally recognized certificates. Huge number of companies provide training up to IADC standards, which are set to give Operators and contractors confidence in the knowledge that every program is subject to review and evaluation by independent parties. . Transocean, as the world's largest offshore drilling contractor, probably has the best and most extensively trained people in on egon schiele, charge of well control. It known for a fact, however , that on March 8, 2010 The Deepwater Horizon crew had experienced a kick that went undetected for approximately 30 minutes. A kick is result of wellbore pressure that may suddenly force mud back up the wellbore with considerable. Early kick detection is critical to maintaining well control and obviously crew members monitor various sensors on writter, the rig that show fluid volumes and well pressures and analyze the data on electronic displays to identify potential kicks, among other things. BP did not conduct an investigation into the reasons for the delayed detection of the on egon schiele kick.
Transocean personnel admitted to BP that individuals associated with the. March 8 kick had screwed up by not catching the kick. Moreover, ten of the 11 individuals on duty on March 8, who had well control responsibilities, were also on duty on April 20 during Macondo blowout. On the top of that, everyone on board the Deepwater Horizon was obligated to follow the Transocean stop work policy that was in place on April 20, which provided that each employee has the obligation to essay writter, interrupt an operation to prevent an incident from occurring. There were a number of reasons that the rig crew could have invoked stop work authority, yet no individual on the Deepwater Horizon did so on April 20 . So the question remains - is training sufficient and adequate? 2. BOEMRE report on Macondo Blowout. Oil and Gas industry has evolved from a very basic setup. As the product cost was very high,it lead to furious development of the industry. Keeping these things in mind industry has also framed various standards to make sure that the design, manufacturing, processes, installation,maintenance etc are safe. There are organizations like DNV, API, ASME, IS etc which keep the data of them and update the standards regularly.
It can also be obseved that industry updates there standards after every 3-6 months, which prove that we have not learned everything. It can be arguemented so because in well furnished industries like automobile or aerospace the industry standards are now the bible in the sector. Eg. DNV 2.22 has been updated regularly after 3 months in lasttwo roll outs where as Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) have there standards fixed since 1987 in terms of automotive field. The point where I want to throw the light is a good that since the STANDARDS which are supposed to control the Oil Gas activities from concept to installation and essay writter then to decommissioning are still floating, which proves that all the aspects of safety and health are not fully in practice. Hence its a responsibility of the companies to carry out third party verification for them to ensure HS. Potential health hazards due to exposure to hobbes essays, mercury. Potential health hazards due to exposure. to mercury in writter, the oil and gas industry. Mercury is an mother influenced me essay, element that can be.
found by the oil and gas process. This element can cause health hazards to anyone. that is exposed on it by inhalation, injection, ingestion or absorption through. the skin. In the oil and gas industry the mercury is removed from the other.
liquids and it is essay carefully treated so that it can be used for other uses like switches. (such as thermostats), Transmitters, Paints and fungicides. The mercury that is. coming into culture essays, the process stream can be trapped from engineering controls – which. are chemicals that absorb this element and do not let it proceed into the. As we mentioned before, the mercury. had potential health hazards and to essay writter, avoid contact with mercury, the workers that. are unprotected must be kept far from the places where mercury vapor is. gathered in high levels.
Furthermore, the workers must be educated in culture diversity, order to. know how to use the protective equipment from mercury and must be taught on how. they should prevent the exposure on mercury. Finally, special equipments measure constantly. the levels of mercury in the air. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. Probabalistic approach to essay writter, fire safety. I read a very interesting article the other day in October’s issue of “The Naval Architect” which, I think closely relates to reliability concepts we are reviewing in Safety Engineering course. There is how my influenced a Research project called FIREPROOF which intends to change approach to fire safety as it is currently addressed in the main document promoting safety of life at sea (SOLAS convention). SOLAS, which is applicable to Passenger / Cargo ships, Drill ships and essay Mobile Offshore Drilling Units uses probabilistic approach for calculation of damage stability in its Ch.
II-1 , but deterministic in Ch II-2 which deals with fire safety. The project’s objective is to develop a Risk-Based approach to fire safety, taking into consideration a number of novel designs for ships and drill ship which will emerge due to global economy downturn and resulting competition of shipbuilders. In a nutshell, the Risk can be summarized by the formula: fr(N)=SUM OVER n SPACES of fr(space i) x pr(space i) x pr(N/space i), where. fr(N)-frequency of N fatalities per how my mother me essay, ship-year. fr(space i) – frequency of ignition in a space i per ship-year. pr(space i) – probability of writter, fire escalation. pr(N/space i) - probability of experiencing N fatalities due to fire in essay, space i.
Risk can therefore be represented in conventional Potential Loss of Life or F-N curves. The researchers used a number of modern software to account for writter various scenarios of high and low consequences of fire ignition and escalation. Ultimately, FIREPROOF framework will be submitted to IMO subcommittee for discussion. can be good. Without risk, there would be no reward ”. The purpose of the. risk management is not to eliminate risk, but to understand it so that you can. take advantage of the upside and minimise the downside. exploration and production activities have many hazards and hobbes and rousseau a collection hazardous events. associated with them. “Safety first” is the writter most common phrase used in this.
industry. The oil and gas industry invests a lot of money in schiele, safety and essay these. investments have resulted in a steady improvement in safety performance. Of. course, accidents still happen despite this. The attention of the risk. management in hobbes of critical essays, oil and gas industry is focussed on safety of the personnel and. the installation, prevention of environmental damage and production regulatory. Risk assessment, which include: risk identification, risk analysis and risk.
evaluation, is a key element in a risk management process. For offshore. operations in the North Sea, performance of risk assessments is required. In. Norwegian waters, this is covered by regulations issued by Norwegian Petroleum.
Directorate (NPD) and Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD), and in writter, UK waters by. HSE’s safety case regulations. Helicopter Accident 22/10/2012 (two days back) Two days earlier an unfortunate incident took place. A CHC helicopter flying from Aberdeen to West Phoenix Oil Platform collapsed in to the water. The incident took place when helicopter was performing ditching operations. It is assumed that the reason was low flying and rough sea or fuel error or anything else. The location of essay schiele, crash was 32 miles South-West from essay, Shetland.
There were 19 people aboard and 3 were from Oceaneering. All the people were extracted from the helicopter and were transfered on life shafts. Luckily there were vessels nearby which helped in rescue mission, also the rescue helicopters were operating appriciably. All the people were safe including pilot and co-pilot and reached the mainland safe and sound today evening (24th October 2012). Oil and Gas Union is now raising question for the safety in dissertations, north sea. Essay Writter. Agencies are actively looking into the issue and helicopter is getting towed to the mainland, investigation will follow once its on the aberdeen land. More information on 22/10 helicopter incident. Some further information on the CHC helicopter incident. A controlled ditch was performed by the pilots of the G-CHCN Super Puma EC225 LP after warnings that of a failure of the lubrication system of the main gearbox (AAIB, 2012a). Makes Essay. First an indicator light came on warning that the essay writter duty and for essays standby lubrication pumps had failed, then, shortly after the pilots initiated the appropriate procedure to engage the emergency lubrication system, the warning light came on that indicated the failure of the emergency lubrication system. The investigation being carried out by the Air Accident Investigation Branch (AIBB) is still in the early stages, but initial investigation of the gearbox components has found a full 360 degree circumferential crack on essay writter, the bevel gear vertical shaft within the main gearbox, near the weld joining the for essays two parts of the essay shaft.
This type of shaft is found in all EC225 as well as some AS332 L1 and L2 helicopters. What is particularly important to note is diversity essays that a similar ditching of the essay same type of Super Puma helicopter in May 2012 occurred after warnings that both the main and emergency gearbox lubrication systems failed (AAIB, 2012b). The early investigation into how my influenced me essay, that incident also found a 360 degree circumferential crack on the bevel gear vertical shaft within the essay main gearbox (the cause is still being investigated). Following the May incident the essay schiele European Aviation Safety Agency issued an writter, emergency airworthiness directive on AS 332 and EC 225 helicopters that required helicopter operators to check vibrational health monitoring data related to the gearbox. However, this only applied to specific part and serial numbers - which did not include that of the G-CHCN. The airworthiness directive is being urgently reviewed, but this could have been too late for the 19 people on board the G-CHCN helicopter. Is should be critical to the on-going investigations that the reasons for limiting the most stringent vibration monitoring to makes a good essay essay, certain part numbers is reviewed.
AAIB. (2012a) Special Bulletin S6/2012 - EC225 LP Super Puma, G-CHCN [Online]. Available at http://www.aaib.gov.uk/cms_resources.cfm?file=/S6-2012%20G-CHCN.pdf [Accessed 28th October 2012] safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. and risk management in writter, the oil and gas industry has always been a major issue. and a stand-point for makes essay major oil industry disasters. Ranging from the deepwater. horizon to the famous piper alpha accident, it has always been one of reactive. rather than proactive approach. Essay. After the keep it flowing people. incident, the later regulations demanded that for every installation, there. must be a document to demonstrate how risks had been identified, the nature of.
the control measures to be employed and the adequacy of essays, these measures in. providing safe working conditions. Now, the essay point is that the regulator who has. certified these documents will not be on the platform on daily basis to see to. the effective implementation, thus, it lies on the duty holder and its. me i would rather that these measures be carried out and theses, with all sincererity of. purpose for it is only by adherence to the principles and technologies in place.
that accidents may be prevented as employers always blame major accidents on. Reactive and proactive risk reduction. It is easy to say that companies and essay writter regulators are reactive and not proactive. However it is immeasurable to culture diversity essays, quantify the number of accidents that didn't happen due to a piece of essay writter, proactive legislation or implemented safety procedure. Much of today's safety barriers and procedures result from risk based analysis using probabilities of accidents occurring. Previous accident statistics will be used to calculate probabilities.
Unless an accident happens, if it is already perceived to be highly unlikely, there is no motivator to increase risk reduction measures. Diversity. If the unthinkable occurs due to a sequence of unlikely events the risk must be re-evaluated as the probability has changed. Be responsible for essay your own safety. Many of the authors within this thread seem to believe that safety can somehow be prescribed or legislated. There seems to be an underlying belief that a few more laws or a few more regulators will keep us safe. It appears as if there's a desire to have an army of regulators looking over hobbes essays, each workers shoulder ready to correct them should they stray into writter, unsafe behaviors. The fallacy with this argument is that laws and even regulators are not responsible for our safety. We are all responsible for on egon our own safety and the safety of those around us. Though it may seem a bit cliche, I found it to be true no matter what industry you work in.
It is normally fairly easy to spot a safety minded company. Writter. They are normally the ones in mother influenced, which the employees drive safety from the essay bottom up rather than management droning on and on about their latest safety initiatives. The employees are empowered to make changes and even stop production should the need arise. Excellent point on personal responsibility in and rousseau, assuring safety. I work in Classification Society and my site office is located inside a major South Korean Shipyard. HSE policy here is of utmost importance and safety record for lost time incidents is almost perfect, which is one of the essay writter reasons why customers like Stena Drilling, PDC, Maersk Drilling, Chevron, Shell and others praise it so much. But one of the key contributors to safety in all the major Korean shipyards is people mindset. Full PPE at all times is a must (Safety shoes, overalls, gloves, goggles, hard hat, ear plugs and even full body harness always). Scaffolding constructed with highest level of integrity. Everyone, from welder to foreman will clean the working area regularly to avoid accumulation of residues on which person could trip. And of course the Stop policy - should anyone spot even possibility of essay on egon schiele, danger it will be immediately reported.
Be careful, diligent, attentive, think about yourself and writter others - that's the key. Safety and Risk management in oil and diversity essays Gas Industry. Safety and risk management should be legislated to ensure standard in writter, our working Environment. This is done by culture diversity essays carrying out risk analysis of the system in all stages of writter, operation: Design, Fabrication, Installation, Operation /Production and decommission. It helps to ensure that all possible failures are identified and mitigated as low as reasonably practicable, ALARP before commencement and essays during operation for safe and smooth running of the system. While agreeing with Mr Adavis that employees are responsible for their safety and that of others around them, his opinion to do not take into consideration systemic failure of the system due to essay writter, poor design, failure of component as a result of sharp practices or standards not being adhere to. Hobbes And Rousseau A Collection Essays. Corrosion is another major challenge of oil installation in essay writter, the sea, how does one manage such safely if not adhering to legislation be it prescriptive or safety case. In conclusion, Legislations like the Offshore Safety Case Regs.2005, Health Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 and the PFEER Reg. 1995 are meant to guide our activities and for essays the Integrity of writter, Installations or equipment used while Working safely help reduces occupational hazard and fatalities. It's true that I didn't address the methodology behind how we as engineers ensure that our designs are safe for the public in general.
However, I believe you're missing the point which is laws and how my regulations don't make us safe. Essay. When I design an apparatus or a piece of equipment, I review the schiele safety aspects not because it's legislated but because its the right thing to do. It's the way I was taught and I truly would be horrified if something I had designed harmed someone due to my negligence. There are many tools I use to ensure a safe design. However, very few of those tools are regulations or laws. Most are simply good engineering practices. Don't get me wrong. I do believe legislation has a place in the world. I wouldn't want to essay, live in anarchy.
Laws, Regulations, Industry Specifications are all useful tools to help us keep safety in mind. However, they do nothing to ensure safety. Words on a piece of paper or computer won't keep you safe, unless someone chooses to review and follow them. Individuals have to decide to schiele, be safe and writter keep others safe. Hobbes. In fact, I could argue that too many regulations can be detrimental to essay writter, safety. I'm sure we can all think of examples of regulations that have grown to the point of being incomprehensible. On Egon. A regulation or law can sometimes grow to essay writter, the point where it takes a team of people just to what a good essay essay, understand it. At that point, it's not much use to us as engineers.
I truly believe every accident/injury can be avoided. However to accomplish this, we all have to essay writter, change the way we view safety. We have to think about safety at home, at diversity essays work, as we walk through the airport. US/Canada regulatory framework comparison. It touches upon risks and regulations in deepwater drilling. Two authors from United States and two from Canada review current legislation in US and Canada and have a debate in essay, the end of the paper. Both groups, however recommend (surprise-surprise) a move towards more goal-setting regulatory system in the US . Particularly, they emphasize significant differences between these two countries in national versus regional control, in prescriptive versus goal-based regulation, in penalties imposed on companies for infractions, and in the degree of independence granted to the safety regulator. So first off - US regulatory system. Significant changes were introduced into the regulatory framework post-Macondo. The late Mineral Management Service (MMS), which was understaffed, having only one inspector for every 54 offshore facilities in the Gulf of Mexico Region and for essays didn't even have a comprehensive handbook addressing inspector roles and responsibilities, was replaced by three separate federal bodies , each with clearly defined responsibilities: to collect revenues (the Office of essay writter, Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR)), to how my mother me essay, manage development (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)), and to enforce safety precautions (Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE)).
Offshore regulation by essay the Mineral Management Service (MMS) had generally been highly prescriptive. There were hundreds of pages of technical requirements that offshore operators were supposed to follow on and rousseau a collection of critical, specific issues, yet with advance of drilling technologies these specific prescriptive regulations became increasingly outdated. MMS failed to keep up with industry changes and, where possible, took shortcuts. There was also a historical weakness as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978 which exempted leases in the western and writter central Gulf from the development and production plan requirement and, therefore, the environmental review. After DWH, BOEMRE introduced the Workplace Safety Rule, which requires offshore oil and gas operators to create and maintain Safety and Environmental Management Systems (or SEMS). This rule introduces p erformance-based standards which move away from emphasizing prescriptive regulations and toward a regulatory environment more similar to the safety case requirement in the United Kingdom. BOEMRE also has instituted a Drilling Safety Rule and the Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee was created as a permanent body of experts to provide guidance on offshore safety, well containment, and spill response. To better prepare its employees, BOEMRE has established the National Offshore Training Center and has developed its first formal training curriculum for new inspectors. However, authors emphasize that unlike in other major developed nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and culture diversity Norway, the U.S. system still basically constitutes a prescriptive, top-down regulatory system . While this prescriptive system has some benefits, particularly as it gives the federal government the authority to specify exact requirements, it has trouble staying current in light of the rapidly changing nature of the offshore industry. Also, a strictly prescriptive approach discourages any innovation.
By contrast, a goal-based system encourages operators to find better, more innovative ways to achieve safety standards. Another issue is the liability cap for the United States which remains at $75 million. By contrast, in the United Kingdom, for example, where average penalties are also relatively low, the potential penalty for a breach is unlimited. In addition, in both Norway and the United Kingdom, serious non-fatal safety breaches can be criminal charges punishable through imprisonment of key executives. Authors concluded that the United States has made strong progress in strengthening the framework for offshore drilling but suggest that further improvements could be made.
Canadian system, which allows the provinces and territories to essay, collect royalties; gives developmental, regulatory, and safety responsibilities to joint federal-provincial boards; and allots major decision-making power to local populations. The boards generate guidelines, while the dissertations and theses provincial and federal governments work together to draft amendments to legislation and regulations. Each of the National Energy Boards is tasked with the regulatory responsibility to ensure safety, protection of the environment, and proper exploitation of the resources. The Board has no part in the establishment or administration of royalties or taxes for any offshore activity and essay writter therefore does not promote the Industry. After the Deepwater Horizon incident in the Gulf of me essay, Mexico in April 2010, the Senate of Canada concluded that the regulation of the industry is more than adequate . It specified three Canadian advantages in particular: - Effective January 1, 2010, Canada moved from prescriptive to goal-oriented regulation, which involves the regulator setting goals and specifying outcomes, but not the essay writter means of for essays, achieving compliance.
- The shared federal and provincial jurisdiction over the boards means that the persons most affected by writter drilling (the residents of the adjacent provinces) have a significant voice in decisions. - The boards have no role in essay on egon schiele, the collection of royalties. Also, a Certificate of Fitness issued by a third-party certifying authority is to operate all the essay writter equipment on a drilling installation. If a single underlying certificate or permit cannot be obtained, the Certificate of Fitness is canceled. In final argument authors point out how difficult it will be for the US to roll-out goal setting approach. They mention that any rapid increase in the size of a regulatory bureaucracy presents a number of risks. More staff and the fundamental restructuring of multiple departments can easily lead to organizational chaos. Important questions are: How difficult will it be to staff and train three bureaus rather than one?
How will these regulators establish boundaries among their separate authorities? How to balance potential conflict of interests with multiplicity of regulators? Authors cast doubt on the idea of for essays, creating more regulators and writter emphasize, that without a structured process , there is a considerable risk that the schiele objectives in the new goal-oriented regulation will follow the writter old prescribed regulations, or even change for the sake of change. Risk Management in the Oil and Gas industry. Risk is an essential part in the oil industry. Failure to manage risk can bring an end to a Project. Risk is any potential future event that may influence the achievement of a Project.
The main aim why we focus on Risk is to eliminate the Unfavourable downside risk. examples of Negative Impact are : Increased cost, Disruptions to schedule,Reduced quality,Reputation damage,Financial Penalities,Late Delivery and many more. There are alot of Benefits to for essays, Risk Management: Example, Fosters clear understanding of essay writter, challenges ahead.Mitigation of dissertations and theses, risk is all about taking the right step at the initial start of the Project. HSE goals should be : NO ONE GETS HURT AND NOTHING GETS HARMED . prevention of accidents in oil and gas sector. Oil and gas industry is vast very complex sectorand development is essay not easy there are many risk involves like technical risk ,construction risk,technology risk, operational risk ,regulatory risk,workers risk including various types working at height, chemical exposure etc and it iscomplicated to prevent the occurrences of incident/accidents. owner, operators,contractors, and and rousseau a collection of critical essays suppliers working in petroleum industry all must find innovative solutions to minimize complexity and risk in these massive undertakings, as it becomes a top priority to essay, have all players on a project team work more closely together. to prevent the occurrences of accidents If we Compared Incidents/accidents with past we can see that there is rapid industrial development it reflects less awareness of safety measures to workers has led to a high rate of incidents/accidents. Faiza khatri M.Sc oil and gas engineering.
I agree with this topic motto need, and by saying that i would like to share a recent development on the Statoil Norwegian North Sea Njord field platform that was evacuated this afternoon. http://www.newsinenglish.no/2012/11/07/hundreds-airlifted-off-tilting-platform/ Instead of trying to fix the how my problem with all onboard, statoil considered to be a serious matter and in my view correctly opted to minimise its risk by maintaining strictly needed personel on board to writter, try and stabilize the problem. We cant forget that the mother influenced me essay main issue in the Nort Sea is the water temperature, which for a normal person with those temperatures should only last for 5 or 10 minutes, therefore a quick moving fleet to writter, evacuate was taken. The platform started tilting because one of the what a good essay essay tanks an acnhor ruptured on essay writter, of the balast the essay on egon pontoons in the quarters area ruptured and starting filling up. Safety and risk management in industries. term safety has been used to an extent that means to preclude the event of. failure. But in our world, every device, and even human life, is bound to fail.
No matter how long it takes, the life of everything comes to an end. Thus, it. has become a necessity that when one event is about to fail/end, it should not. lead to the end of other events which had a, perhaps, longer time before its. In the oil industry, much care. has been taken to writter, ensure that certain known factors do not cause events that. are likely to bring to an end, an otherwise long-living event. There have been. major failure events that have happened in the past and these are what have.
shaped the oil industry. Some of the essay essay hazards have been prepared for because. according to human and computational estimates, those were likely to happen. But. for those that there have been no previous knowledge, they are likely to be a. huge burden and more likely to happen. events are more likely to have able bodied resolutions to them than others. Essay. But.
the oil and gas industry is more reactive to major incidents. Although the. industry is quite old, it has not faced all possible hazards that are likely to. occur. In this regard, all institutions in and rousseau a collection of critical, charge of generating ideas to solve. major risks have resorted to not being “prescriptive” in their ways of handling. safety and risk.
is usually the duty of business owners to essay writter, evaluate every possible hazard and. risk at a worksite so as to inform their employees the possibility of danger. This directive is and rousseau a collection very well advised. It goes to essay writter, benefit the government and also. help managers and owners of businesses to harvard and theses, correctly protect those who are. helping them generate wealth. from HSE Lectures, EG50S1 and writter EG501D.
Safety and Risk Management in the Oil and gas Industry: The Oil and gas industry can be. said to be divided into three different sections i.e. upstream (exploration and. appraisal), midstream (production and transportation) and dissertations and theses downstream (refining, petrochemical and decommissioning).From the early days of till date, this. industry has faced and still facing various safety and risk concerns in its. various sections. Over the last four decades several accidents have occurred as. a result negligence, equipment failure, improper training of staffs etc. Essay. As a result.
of these accidents, several laws have been passed in different regions in the. hope to prevent and eliminate these occurrences, despite these laws put in. place by the governments of different nations these events keep occurring e.g. the Gulf of essay, Mexico Oil spill in 2011 resulting in the death of 11 personnel’s. Comparing the UK Health and. safety Legislation to that of the Norwegian government, that of the UK. government is built on a prescriptive approach i.e. it specifies the safety. measures to be carried out but does not give room for essay writter improved safety, innovation, changing industrial processes and it requires constant updating. Essay On Egon. But that of. the Norwegian government is more of writter, a goal setting approach i.e. it gives room.
for the identification of hazards, risk assessment and taking steps to. eliminate them. This other approach has its advantages and disadvantages but it. has been a better method used to prevent the occurrence of accidents in various. industries and it has given a better result than the prescriptive method.
Going through several papers. before writing this piece, I noticed other sectors of the oil and gas industry. were neglected, there was more focus on the offshore section of the upstream. section, but this doesn’t leave out the fact that there have been several accidents. in other sections which have occurred onshore. Due to recent accidents in this. industry, I feel more countries should use the goal setting approach. legislation currently in use by hobbes and rousseau the Norwegian government to reduce the amount. of accidents occurring in this industry. 1) November 2008, J.S. Munro,
An Overview of Regulating Offshore and Onshore Major Hazards. 2) March 2011, ERM, Sustainable. Solutions for the Oil and Gas Industry. Today's risk management system is HSE which assesses companies' performance on essay, managing different types of risks. However, a new system may hopefully replace HSE in the future according to the report of International Association of Oil Gas Producers (OGP).
The Operating Management System (OMS) is currently been developing by a joint OGP-IPIECA Task Force. It is updating and expanding the guidance which had already been published in 1994. The OMS aims to decrease the probability of adverse consequences by providing a consistent approach to mother me essay, risk management by: Consolidating, in one place, the company's knowledge and requirements to safely and responsibly manage its assets and activities. Setting out a systematic process to be used throughout a company, with clear accountability, so that planned activities are carried out as intended. Measuring the success in implementing these activities. The revised OMS guidance is planned coming out at the end of this year. It will provide a flexible framework that companies can adopt, in a manner appropriate to essay writter, their risks and hobbes business approach. OMS and the iied: shared value, shared resposibility.
A very relevant comment Liu Yishan: I clicked on your link and essay writter found a mountain of information about the OMS and an iied report. I particularly found the iied document: “shared value, shared responsibility” of interest. Dissertations And Theses. It highlights that employee and contractor influence towards safety is increasing within the oil and gas industry affecting the environmental and social responsibilities of large organisations. The future vision of this document aims towards removing the writter “tick-box” mentality which hinders the dissertations implementation of good practice standards. However, I imagine that it would be very difficult to change many opinions away from thinking and operating the “tick-box” system.
This organisational change of behaviour would have to essay, extent all the way down to the individual employees and makes a good essay contractors who (I have already mentioned) have a growing influence in essay, their own methods of essay on egon schiele, working. Essay. Change would be a slow process, even with our current safety culture. MSc Subsea Engineering. Preventative measures are the most effective means of minimizing the probability of equipment failure and its associated risk. Harvard Dissertations. Protection systems are not substitutes for well-designed and well-maintained detection, warning and shutdown systems. Writter. However, they can protect the essay on egon structure and process equipment, limit damage to these facilities and prevent escalation of fire.
Examples of Risk reduction measures implemented on writter, existing installations include; prevention, detection, control, mitigation, and EER (Evacuate, Escape. For risks lying below the maximum tolerable, but above the broadly acceptable level, it is expected that: 1. the nature and essay level. of risks are properly assessed and the results used properly to determine control measures; 2. the writter residual risks are not unduly high and kept ALARP; and. 3. the risks are periodically reviewed to ensure that they still meet the ALARP criteria. Duty holders should not assume that if risks are below the and rousseau a collection maximum tolerable level, they are also ALARP. This should be demonstrated through: 1. application of relevant good practice and sound engineering judgment; and. 2. consideration of what further measures can be adopted to reduce risks ALARP.
In essence, the essay writter duty holder’s ALARP demonstration should address the essay on egon question “What more could I do to reduce risks, and why haven’t I done it?” The degree of rigor of the ALARP demonstration should be proportionate to the level of risk associated with the installation. In choosing between design options, duty holders should: 1. consider risks throughout the whole life-cycle of the project; 2. choose the option which achieves the lowest level of residual risk, provided grossly disproportionate risks are not incurred; and. 3. confirm that the writter residual level of risk is on egon no greater than that achieved by the best of existing practice for comparable functions. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. Barriers to the development of a safety culture. management of safety and risk in the oil industry is an issue of writter, great concern. With public concerns and activities of various pressure groups; there has been.
a drive in essay on egon schiele, the industry to achieve near to essay, perfect safe operations. This I believe. can happen by practicing a safety and maintenance culture. Safety Culture is. seen by many as a way of diversity essays, ensuring high levels of safety performance in. organisations, in essay writter, contrast to the systematic engineered management of on egon, hazards. and effects. They are mostly defined by values, beliefs, common working. practices and response to writter, unusual situations. However, the development of.
safety culture experiences so many obstructions and I discuss a few of them. CULTURES: The levels of bureaucracy and culture red-tapes that exist in the oil. industry and health and safety regulations pose a great challenge which most. people are oblivious of. An organisation that has struggled to become proactive. may easily revert, especially in the face of success. At such levels of success. and development, hierarchical structures begin to essay writter, break down under high tempo. operations.
This is mostly experienced when an organisation tries to transit. from ‘reactive to generative’. AND THE LAW: This may come as a surprise to how my me essay, most of us but the writter regulator is. also a form of barrier. Regulators are more inclined to the ‘letter than the.
spirit of the law. This can mean that regulators will not support experimental. improvements, which is typical of how my influenced me essay, a proactive industry. Rather, they may set. high standards which are hard to meet and this can be an obstacle for essay safety. FAILURE: A cultural change is very drastic and doesn’t happen overnight. Changes in top management may prevent the advancement of safety culture in an. organisation as priorities may also change. IS HARD: It is very difficult for personnel to accept new situations which are. different from the normal standard procedures of operation.
This makes it. impossible for a new convention or code of practice to implemented or enforced, or in most cases take longer periods before they are incorporated into the. practice of a well organised safety culture will to a very large extent manage. risk in the oil and gas industry.
Though this may at times prove difficult and. costly, a good management practice can ensure they are well enforced. I recently attended an SPE. organised event where one of the Rig Managers at me essay Archer Ltd. shared some of the. practices the operators emphasise to improve safety and reduce risk in the. risk-prone environment that they work. Below are the points he. highlighted and referred to as ‘Focusing on Tempo’ Adjust the essay pace of operations to fit the least. proficient member Operate within the limits and capacity of the.
equipment Make the and theses time to carry out necessary inspections. and maintenance All tasks shall be risk assessed, planned and discussed. The reason I bring this up is. because we have been so focused on what has not been done and writter are not appreciative. of the fact that with every setback or accident, the industry learns and puts. measures in place to make sure the essay occurrence of writter, these unfortunate incidents is. The point to makes a good essay, drive home from essay, the. above listed points is for essays this: In the everyday operation of the writter oil and gas.
production facilities, the mother me essay workers and everyone involved realises the eminent. risks associated with their operations. Therefore extra care and caution is. taken by every member of the team because one slip-up could lead to essay, a potential. While regulations are made, it is. very important to remember that the observance of dissertations, these to the letter by all. involved is the key to minimising the occurrence of essay, accidents and for essays improved.
I see that all my colleagues have with enthusiasm covered much of the aspects of Safety in the Oil and Gas Industry and I’d like to writter, briefly refer to for essays, the safety training of the individual worker within this industry. The minimum safety requirements are covered by essay the acronym ‘MIST’; this is the Minimum Industry Safety Training and the expectation is essay on egon schiele that all workers are trained to competently undertake their professional duties, while being fully aware of the following main points with respect to safety: 1) To understand the hazards of working in an off shore environment. 2) To be able to work safely and follow all the safety regulatory measures. 3) To be able to assess the risks involved with their work. 4) Understanding the permit to work system. 5) A working knowledge of platform integrity.
6) Manual handling. 7) Control of Substances hazardous to health (COSHH) 8) Working at essay writter height. 9) Mechanical lifting. These points are often referred to as the 9 Elements of MIST. More advanced training covers Basic Offshore Safety Induction and Emergency Training, known by the acronym ‘BOSIET’, this covers how to exit a helicopter in an emergency situation, known as HUET, training of personal survival in emergency situation, training to use Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Crafts or life boats (TEMPSC) and life rafts, how to provide first aid following an escape, basic knowledge on how to fight fires using fire extinguishers and self-rescue breathing apparatus and training on Emergency Breathing Systems (EBS)
This training usually takes place over a period of time and schiele the expectation is not that the new employee will be fully BOSIET trained prior to commencing work; however this should be completed at essay writter the earliest opportunity. MIST on the other hand is a prerequiset and all employees must be MIST trained (or inducted) prior to commencing work! Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Some common factors are sheared in Major Accidents : ? The general values and the approach to safety and risk management. Hobbes And Rousseau Of Critical Essays. For example a Paperwork Culture where all efforts are made to prove the system is safe, but actually doing nothing to make it safe. ? High and essay low accident rates depend mainly on management commitment to safety. ? Major accidents are usually occurred when major changes are made, while procedures stated in diversity essays, the related books are not followed and essay executed properly. ? Investigations on prior accidents are usually focused on Operator error or Technical Failures. Dissertations. Management and systematic factors are usually ignored.
While errors made by human is a symptoms of a safety but it is not a cause by itself. ? In the essay writter design of a system, safety is based on operational components to me essay, prevent hazards to writter, the system. While controlling injuries to culture diversity, the personnel is focused through occupational safety. While the combination of both factors will be at risk as safety hazard. But remember, Lack of safe behavior enforcement will result an accident. Safety risks in oil and gas industry. The safety risks in oil and gas. industry mainly consist of explosion caused by fire, leakage of toxic substance.
and pungent odour by chemical reaction. For facilities for oil and gas industry. work under high pressure and essay writter high temperature, there exists great fatalness for. fire and explosion to occur, so fire and explosion is high potential risk for. factories and surroundings. Most of the chemical materials for refinery are.
toxic and any leakage by equipment malfunctions or disoperation could result in. people venenation. Pungent odour means. that the stench from on egon, chemical materials and catalysts for crude oil exploration. and refinery may be connected with the chronic harm to operators. Safety and risk management in the industry. Accidents hardly originate from essay, just single cause.
What we see when an accident happens is the event that finally occurs at the time of the accident, such as component failures and human errors. Causes such as supervision failures, poor assessment, lack training and poor communication, may not have immediate effect. These causes therefore remain latent until some additional factor drives the situation over board. These latent failures are signs of weak or faulty organisational structures and lack of a good essay, procedures. Key steps in safety management therefore are prudent hazard identification, assessing the hazards and writter making sure the appropriate policies and procedures are implemented, proper supervision, training and above all commitment of management to influenced me essay, reduce the essay writter related risk. Safety and risk management in essays, the oil and gas industry.
The main objective of safety management in any industry is to address the cause of accident and take action to break the accident causation link. This can be achieved by identifying and essay preventing potential failures through hazard identification, analysis of the hazard, devising control measures, implementing the control measure and monitoring it. It is for essays important to periodically review the whole prevention measure to assess its effectiveness vis-a-vis the accident records before and after the implementation. Also technological advancement requires safety measures to be systematically reviewed periodically to factor in equipment and/or process modifications. Essay. The success of safety and risk management greatly depends on employers’ or management commitment to essay schiele, safety and communication.
For example, a decision which requires resource allocation for personnel training can only be implemented with the consent of the essay employer/management. The processes taken place in an oil refinery from the crude oil input till the final products output are so complicated that it is considered an industry with too many safety regulations compared with others. There are managed thousands of cubic meters of flammable liquids every day in an average capacity refinery, either crude oil and for essays products or other chemicals. The main processes that are performed are crude oil desalting, then its distillation, reforming process, solvent extraction and essay writter dewaxing and finally waste treatment. Analyzing the dangers, first of all should be considered the crude oil and hobbes a collection its products sensitivity to any flame source with the continuous fear of igniting a major accident after leakage during the process. Some hydrocarbon gases are denser than air and tend to be concentrated into the refinery’s drainage system, into pits or any underground areas and essay access to those places require safety measures to be taken. Another dangerous gas is hydrogen sulfide which can cause death even if it is inhaled in low concentration and it remains usually in vapor space of crude oil tanks. A Collection. In addition, other dangerous gases produced or used in a refinery are hydrogen which is essay writter explosive, inert gas which can cause lack of oxygen, carbon monoxide which is poisonous, chlorine which is fatal, pyrophoric iron sulfide which is extremely flammable and many other process chemicals. As we can understand from the above concise analysis the of critical safety procedures must be strictly followed by the refinery’s personnel every day in every routine job otherwise the probability of a major accident is highly increased. 1)National Center for Manufacturing Sciences.
Petroleum Refining Impacts, Risks and essay writter Regulations. Diversity. http://ecm.ncms.org/ERI/index.html. Safety and risk management in the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is writter known to be a multifaceted global industry which makes a huge impact on all aspects of our lives. For Essays. One of the top priority and key focus of the industry is to reduce the number of injuries/death (dangerous occurrences) and hydrocarbon releases (oil spillage). Health, safety and environmental issues have risen enormously in the oil and gas industry's agenda which reflects both increased pressure by the society/public and essay writter more complex operational challenges faced in the industry. Although the industry generally works with high pressure, high temperature and flammable fluids and in some cases at very hostile operating environments, it has been discovered that for the past few years as compared with other industries such as construction, mining and for essays transport, the oil and gas industry safety's performance has been better. For example, in writter, 2009, the hours of work across the industry rose, and and a 26% improvement in lost time injury frequency rate (LTIFR) was recorded as well as an 11% improvement in total recordable injury frequency rate (TRIFR) (1).
Also, in terms of essay on egon, safety management issues, the areas where all regulated oil and essay writter gas companies must look into and invest both effort and diversity essays resources in order to ensure continual improvement of safety and environmental protection include; 1. Corporate leadership and essay safety culture - the company's senior leaders should be responsible for me essay overseeing the safety of the company's operation which is essay writter vital to the society. The way the organization manages risk as well should also be an important aspect handled by the senior leaders (2). 2. Effectiveness of management systems - the responsibilities of individuals to ensure the organization's safety, security and environmental protection goals are achieved, should be clearly communicated by the company's management system(2). safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Safety and risk management approach is largely goal-oriented in the offshore oil and gas sector.
This means that high level performance is a good essay required in essay writter, specifics and various types of analysis method carried out to spot the best possible arrangements and the key performance indicators for hobbes of critical measurement of success is pre-agreed upon. These places on one hand the duty of care on essay, the duty holders and on mother influenced, the other hand personal responsibility on the employees as well for their own safety. One of the main challenges is the concept of writter, acceptable risk criteria. I believe that the introduction of pre-determined acceptable risk criteria may give the wrong focus – meeting these criteria instead of an overall whollistic approach towards identifying everything that may go wrong and taking a cost effective measure to its solution. This will involve: identifying the relevant decision attributes (costs, safety, health, hazard); dealing with uncertainties at different project phase; balance between project risk and management portfolio; formulation and use of hobbes a collection essays, goals; criteria and requirements to stimulate performance and ensure acceptable safety standards; use of cautionary principles like the ALARP.
Thus, the focus should be on meeting overall safety objective which should be stipulate using observable quantities (such as the frequency of occurrence of a particular type of essay writter, accident no matter how small it may seem) Aven T. and Vinnem J.E (2007) risk management with applications from the offshore petroleum industry, 1st Edition, Springer series in reliability engineering, Springer: London. Bad Procedures Followed by Inexperienced Professionals. As per a blog article on professional societies the feed was stating that: The young engineers who step in to industry tend to essay, find the easy way. As the company procedures and standards are difficult to follow than the bookish calculations, hence they have a denial tendency towards the standards. They follow the terminology that calculations are done in a way that nearly meets XYZ Standard but not exacltly, which is a very unethical practice. We must understand that one wrong assumptions which passes from our hands may create a huge accident for people on site. Standardization Organization#039;s Responsibility.
As Oil and Gas industry is developing at a very faster rate hence the scope of the writter standardization industry is also expanding at same rate. Where as with more company profits, people tend to ignore updating the safety procedures. But its the culture essays good fortune of the industry that controlling societies like DNV, API, LLoyd's etc. are updating the standards and validation documents at a very faster rates. Recently Det Norske Veritas has updated its offshore procedure control documents and classified the structures into various categories which gives a very good control to design and approval professionals to do their job more accurately. Its very remarkable unlike the controlling authorities in other engineering sectos. Black Elk Energy Fire (Where do we throw the blame to?) In relation to essay, oil and gas safety the recent incident that took place on an oil platform operated by Black Elk energy in essay, the Gulf of Mexico can be said to be one of senior managerial negligence to safety conduct. The incident; a fire which begun while workers were using a torch to cut an oil line critically injured at least four and essay as of harvard and theses, date has left three dead. Coming from reports this is the fourth incident associated with Black Elk in nearly two years with recent incidents drawing heavy fines including a suit being filed against essay them (March 2012) by a collection a rig worker for creating unreasonably dangerous conditions on essay, the platform. In September 2011, the company paid a fine of $307,500 after the Federal Bureau of Ocean Energy Management found that Black Elk let a well go longer than the essay required six months without being tested for leakage.
In February 2011, a battery charger caused a fire on writter, a Black Elk rig in culture essays, the Gulf of writter, Mexico when the battery shorted. My reasoning is this: even after the Deep Water Horizon incident its obvious that further work needs to be implemented on oil drilling safety. Though previous incidents didn't claim lives this new accident has caused fatalities and I believe a finger should be pointed at the senior management of Black Elk. It was reported that the rig drilled from an already estabnlised well unlike the Deep Horizon rig which was exploring in deep water. So far no evidence of oil spills relating directly to the incident has been reported but in the light of this one will have to ask if the required regulatory bodies didn't carry out proper inspection on the oil lines before welding began. Reports say that production seized as of mid-August and the oil which ignited the fire was that trapped within the pipeline network thus pointing fingers to the inspection unit for culture diversity not complying with the set hydrocarbon content limit in pipelines before any welding job can take place. Well I can't be too sure as to why the company exposed the lives of these rig workers to such hazards but whatever reason it might be it sure will have a demeaning effect on the face of Black Elk and even more on the Safety Regulatory bodies considering the short time lapse between this and writter the Macondo incident. Also this goes to show that this regulatory bodies don't pay full attention to small incidents as I expected safety retrictions to be heavy on essay, Black Elk following the number of essay, suits filed against essay on egon them in the span of two years. Msc Oil and writter Gas Engineering. Safety and for essays risk management in the oil and gas sector.
Safety and risk management in the oil and gas sector is one of the very important aspects in the industry as accidents in writter, the sector affects people’s property, health and dissertations and theses the environment. As a result there is a drive for high safety and essay writter reliability in the oil and gas sector. Also there are usually huge financial losses associated with the accidents in for essays, this sector. The piper alpha disaster and essay the macondo incident in the Gulf of Mexico together with other accidents in the sector have shown this. Safety most times in the sector is governed by the legislation which most times are made as a result of previous accidents. The legislation can be prescriptive or goal setting. The prescriptive legislation prescribes the exact actions to be taken to ensure safety in essay on egon schiele, certain situations while the goal setting legislation ensures that each hazardous situation is individually analysed and the best preventive steps taken to ensure safety. Risk management has to do with risk analysis and decision analysis. The risk analysis involves assessing the probabilities of an event occurring using different tools like statistical inference, probability models, reliability theory and expert judgment and also assessing the consequences of the events occurring. With the risk analysis done, different decision to reduce the impact of the accident event are analysed and the best decision taken to manage the risk. Writter. This is how risk is managed in the oil and gas sector.
Safety and hobbes essays operational risk factors in the oil and gas industry. A number of hazardous risks are inherent in oil and gas operations. Essay. Some have little probability of occurrence but may pose catastrophic effects if they do occur. For example, the BP oil spillage in dissertations and theses, the Gulf of Mexico. Writter. Safety and culture diversity essays operational risks in occurrence may impact the oil company's cash flows, financial position, prospected projects, goals, and liquidity. Key safety and operational risks include: Process, personnel safety, and environmental risks. Oil and essay writter gas companies are faced with an essays, extensive range of health, safety, security and environmental risks due to the nature of the business. Materialization of any of these risks could lead to legal action and financial loss as well as injure the writter company's reputation.
This category of safety and operational risk encompass risks posed by natural disasters as well as technical systems failure which could cause loss of containment of for essays, hazardous fluids leading to fires and explosions. Thus, failure to offer safe working environments for employees and general public could give way to regulatory actions and legal liabilities. Furthermore, due to the uncontrollable location of exploitable reserves, oil and gas operations may be carried out in environmentally sensitive locations which are protected by strenuous environmental and essay safety laws. Therefore, the effects of a spill, explosion, and other hazardous incidents in such locations may prompt sanctions such as penalties, and even the risk of revoking the licence to makes essay essay, operate in essay writter, that and subsequent locations . Oil and gas companies face security threats which largely depend on the country they are operating in. Nonetheless, acts of violence, sabotage, terrorism and disruption of property act to impede and how my mother delay operations of companies. Breaches in security are more common in developing countries and could also arise due to political unrest. Security risks are considered to greater detail in subsequent sections of the essay report. Oil companies risk harming and losing customers as well as polluting the essay on egon schiele environment if they fail to meet the quality specifications of their products. In such a scenario could lead the company to incur sanctions from regulatory bodies as well as some degree of financial loss. Also, transportation of produced hydrocarbons involves grave risks. Loss of containment leading to fires and explosions could occur during hydrocarbon transportation despite the chosen mode of transport.
In June 2012 as reported by the New York Daily News, a tanker transporting crude oil products in Nigeria exploded and writter claimed 95 lives, injuring another 50 people. A similar event occurred in Congo claiming 200 lives. Makes A Good Essay Essay. This reveals the level of risk involved in writter, transporting oil products and the severity of the potential impact of such risks occurring. Safety and risk management in the oil and gas sector. Safety in the oil and gas sector is measured using certain safety indicators. Some of on egon, which includes: Fatal accident rate, serious injury rate, individual risk, lost time injury frequency rate, annual fatality rate, potential loss of life and societal risk. These measures give us different insights to the safety performance in writter, the sector and help us take decision to harvard dissertations, reduce the risk in the industry. The risks in the industry are classified in essay writter, different levels due to the level of impact they would have if an accident event occurs.
In the industry, each risk is what makes essay reduced to a region of ALARP which is as low as reasonably practicable. This is the region where the risk is tolerable only if cost of risk reduction is essay grossly disproportionate to the improvement gained by spending the money to reduce the risk. If there is and rousseau a risk which cannot be reduced and its probability of essay, occurrence is influenced high and it has a high negative impact, then, the risk cannot be justified and is avoided. Also in the industry, the risk assessment matrix is used to determine the level of safety. SAFETY RISK MGT. IN OIL GAS INDUSTRY. The identification of safety culture as a main contributor to industrial accidents has started to essay writter, have a deep effect on the way risk and safety are managed within the oil and gas industry. It proposes that the occurrence of accidents can be projected on the basis of certain factors that are suggestive of the organisation's ‘state of safety'.
Presently, the oil and gas industries are now facing its toughest set of essay on egon schiele, challenges in terms of risk, safety and compliance regulations. Today's corporations (oil gas industry) are not just weighed on their economic performance but also on their capability to manage many different types of risks. A robust track record in managing these risks and essay providing safety measures are frequently mentioned as an indicator of a well-run company. High standards of operational controls, implemented thoroughly across assets, assist mitigate these risks. The current Macondo blow out incident in the Gulf of Mexico has conveyed sharp emphasis the need of the oil and what makes essay essay gas industry to effectively identify and manage the risk from essay, major accidents. Harvard And Theses. Delivering effective key hazards management has never been easy, and the consequences for essay writter failure, in terms of impact on human, reputation and assets are becoming more extreme. Conclusively, safety cases and regulations are required for oil and gas operations (both onshore and of critical offshore). The principal aim of the essay writter regulation is to lessen the risk from major accident hazard, to the health and safety of the workers employed.
The Safety case is a document that gives confidence to mother influenced, both the duty holder and HSE that the essay duty holder has the capability and means to control major accident risks effectively. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. The recent disaster in oil industry and subsequent investigations in these hazards and offshore industry makes it clear to understand that several components and players in oil industry are not using the basic and right safety technologies and practices. A subtle point that should be taken into consideration is that managing risk and safety in oil and gas industry should be done in high level since there are potential severe consequences in this industry. In addition, managing occupational safety differs from of critical, risk management of major accidents.
Quantitative Risk Assessments/Analyses (QRAs) which identifies and describes barriers in risk analysis are used for writter risk management in the Oil and Gas industry. Risk management in an approach which involves a formal process for analyzing, identifying and responding to essay on egon, risk events through the essay writter period of the life a project, achieve acceptable degree of risk control. Also, it tackles both insurable and uninsurable risks. References: http://mitei.mit.edu/news/risk-management-oil-and-gas-industry SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Mar 12 - 15, 2005 2005, Kingdom of essay, Bahrain Merna, T, (2002) summarises risk management. Safety and risk management in oil and essay writter gas industry.
The recent disaster in oil industry and subsequent investigations in these hazards and offshore industry makes it clear to understand that several components and players in oil industry are not using the what makes a good basic and right safety technologies and practices. A subtle point that should be taken into writter, consideration is that managing risk and essay safety in oil and gas industry should be done in high level since there are potential severe consequences in this industry. In addition, managing occupational safety differs from risk management of major accidents. Quantitative Risk Assessments/Analyses (QRAs) which identifies and describes barriers in writter, risk analysis are used for risk management in harvard and theses, the Oil and Gas industry. Writter. Risk management in an approach which involves a formal process for analyzing, identifying and responding to risk events through the period of the life a project, achieve acceptable degree of risk control. Also, it tackles both insurable and uninsurable risks. References: http://mitei.mit.edu/news/risk-management-oil-and-gas-industry SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Mar 12 - 15, 2005 2005, Kingdom of Bahrain Merna, T, (2002) summarises risk management. Safety and Risk Management in the Oil and Gas Industry.
The exploration, development and production of oil and gas involve activities that are carried out in risk environments. Overtime, major and minor accidents from safety related issues such as fatalities, severe injuries, loss of properties etc has occurred in the industry; this occurrence has aided formation of sterner safety regulations in the industry. Safety management in the industry relies on accidents models to understand, reduce risk and improve safety practices. The use of accident models is for essays considered the most efficient means of studying occupational hazards. There are various types of accidents models that can be used namely:
•Early Accident Model – provides the writter process of accident occurrence. •Quantitative and Statistical Accident Model – provides the what makes a good entire estimate of accident likelihood. •Comparison Model – used to essay, compare conditions in a case system with existing/ongoing reference system. •Swiss Cheese Model. Irrespective of for essays, this models,management systems must incoporate the continuous awareness of safe practises to staff. Safety and Risk Management is challenge oil and gas industry must contend with an array of essay, health and essays environmental concerns throughout its range of essay, operations. In the face of how my, increasing regulatory oversight, as well as increased public scrutiny, oil and gas industry need to implement effective safety management systems to help protect its workers, the general public and the environment. The approach that works well at an offshore installation may not be the best option for a refinery. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to the specific company and the sectors in which it operates.
The safety and Risk management encountered is as much as making sure that opportunities are missed, it provides a framework to improving decision making. It involves identifying risks, predicting how probable they are and essay how serious they might become, deciding what to do about for essays, them and essay writter implementing these decisions. Safety and Risk analysis and subsequent risk mitigation provides financial information to potential lenders, promotes equity providers for project scenario. It improves project or business planning by answering what if questions with imaginative scenarios. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry provides alternative plans and appropriate contingencies and consideration concerning management as part of risk response.
Decisions are supported by culture diversity thorough analysis of the data and writter estimate can be made with greater confidence both technical and financial. Safety and Risk management in dissertations and theses, oil and gas industry is one of the essay writter most important issues facing oil and gas organisation today. Safety and for essays Risk management can be considered as the essay sustainability of a business in the environment it is in. It can be applied effectively to oil and gas projects like any other investment project. The results of risk and safety analysis, both sensitivity and hobbes probability can identify the quantitative effect on a project economics should such risk occur. It creates confidence in essay writter, decision making; potential losses and gains can be identified and managed. Common factors that cause major accidents in Oil and Gas Industry are: lack of safety culture among the workers, lack of real commitment to safety by supervisors, inadequate hazard analysis (example Job Safety Analysis) and design for safety, Inadequate learning from prior events, confusion between occupational and hobbes of critical system safety and belief that process accidents are low probability. Leveson .N.G (2011), ‘Risk management in the oil and gas industry [online] available at http://mitei.mit.edu/news/risk-management-oil-and-gas-industry [accessed on essay, 8 December] earlier submission leads me to identification of one of the functions of safety and risk management.
For safety and risk management implementation in an industry to be successful a safety policy and procedure in place – this is a corporate statement and for essays guidelines, documented, that clearly expresses the employer’s or management commitment to safety in the industry. The statement must clearly define the safety goals of that industry. The policy must state the importance of safety in all aspect of the industry’s operations. It must identify individually, the essay hierarchy of personnel with corporate responsibility right from the board level, and it must clearly describe the safety standard established. How My Mother. It must also indicate employer’s readiness to provide the necessary resource in terms of writter, funds and time to promote safety. The procedure must provide sufficient guidelines to and rousseau of critical, the way the essay writter industry conducts every aspect of its operations. Functions of Safety and Risk Management. In addition to essay on egon, safety policy and procedure, other functions of safety and writter risk management are: 1. Cordial management/labour interaction – A two way communication at what makes a good essay essay all level must be. established. This will encourage good safety culture in that industry.
2. Effective hazard management mechanism – There must be a prudent hazard identification. system, risk assessment and a commitment to fully implement preventive and. mitigating actions. There must be a way of measuring and reviewing the. effectiveness of this mechanism.
Safety appraisal – A means of monitoring and. reviewing safety performance over a period of time. This should answer. questions like; has the safety plan been adopted, fully implemented? Is it. achieving its goals? Is it improving the safety performance of the organization? Risk Management in Subsea Projects. In this blog i want to essay, zoom in for essays, a bit and concentrate on two main activities we conduct when assessing riks on subsea projects . On each subsea project , a Technical risk analysis is performed by Contractors for all the writter items (system/subsystem/equipment) part of their supply, with the objective to identify, assess and mitigate the technical risks that could impact system availability and production efficiency. This study is used to feed into hobbes a collection of critical essays, the Maturity Assessment required for determinining the Qualification tests required on writter, the project.
2) Operational risk analysis : A specific operational risk analysis is performed by and rousseau a collection essays Contractors, in order to systematically investigate all potential risks that could occur in operation on Subsea Facilities, during the installation phase (including transportation), offshore operations (including commissioning, inspection and maintenance) and normal production (for technical risks occurring during operations). For each risk, Contractors determine cause / consequence / frequency / criticality, and propose specific mitigation actions in order to writter, minimise the impact of the identified risk. The operational risk analysis consider the following parameters: a) Main operational phases. b) Subsea installation and Tie-in, d) Intervention / Maintenance. e) Normal production (including “start-up” and harvard “shut down”). Main risks categories considered are : 1) Production impact of the failure. 2) Equipment damage. 3) Severe injury or Fatality,
4) Hydrocarbon and/or chemical release to sea. Just yesterday a helicopter taking personnel from Aberdeen to an offshore installation was forced to return to the airport (Joseph, 2012). This comes not long after the ditching of a helicopter in the North Sea (please refer to my previous post for essay details). Discussing the hobbes and rousseau a collection essays issue with friends and family it seems that these high profile incidents have made some people believe that travelling by helicopter is very risky and something they wouldn't like to writter, do. This got me thinking, is the actual risk of helicopter travel the same as the perceived risk? An HSE (2004) safety review of offshore helicopter use compared the fatality rates for different types of transport over the period 1992 - 2001.
The fatal accident rate for offshore helicopter travel was 4.3 per billion passenger kilometres, which is roughly on a par with travel by car with a fatal accident rate of 3. Rail transportation is effectively ten times safer with only 0.04 fatalities per billion passenger kilometres, and air (fixed wing) travel even safer with a fatality rate of only hobbes and rousseau of critical essays 0.01. However, cycling and walking are both have much higher fatality rates than helicopter travel at essay writter 42 and 58 respectively. Motorcyclists are at greatest risk with 106 fatalities per billion passenger kilometres. Over the period 1995 to 2002 the fatal and hobbes a collection non-fatal accident rates per 100,000 flying hours in the UK continental shelf region were 0.14 and 1.10 respectively. This is essay much lower than the equivalent worldwide rates of 0.57 for fatal accidents and and rousseau of critical essays 1.10 for essay writter non-fatal accidents. So it can be seen that the helicopter travel in the UK is safer than the for essays global average. Statistically, offshore helicopter travel is safer in the UK than the worldwide average. Also, for the same number of passenger kilometres there are approximately ten times fewer deaths in the UK when travelling by helicopter than walking - something to writter, think about next time you walk to class! Joseph, A. (2012). ‘Helicopter makes emergency landing at Aberdeen Airport', Evening Express, 08 December Evening Express [Online]. Available at: http://www.eveningexpress.co.uk/Article.aspx/3042338 [Accessed: 09 December 2012].
HSE (2004). UK Offshore Public Transport Helicopter Safety Record (1976 - 2002) [Online]. Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/misc/helicoptersafety.pdf [Accessed: 28 October 2012]. Safety and influenced Risk Management a Questionable Subject. Following all comments (positive and no positive approaches) in this forum I would say that the effectiveness of safety and risk management in the oil and gas industry and the roles of the parties involved in this process are questionable subject. This argument being based the writter major accidents the industry has experienced such as: the culture Piper Alpha disaster 1988, Texas City refinery explosion 2005, Gulf of Mexico oil spill 2010, and essay the Venezuelan refinery explosion 2012.
All of them resulted in more than hundred casualties and material damages. This is an indication that although investigations have been carried out and actions taking to improve safety culture and new regulations have been developed, the industry still need to make a significant improvement in safety and risk management. Examples from other industries with high potential risks must be followed. Industries such as the nuclear or aviation industries have learnt and are managing those risks and implementing safety as part of the organizational culture which can be demonstrated by their safety records. Certainly something is culture diversity not going well in this process of essay writter, managing risk and safety in this industry. Makes Essay. It would mainly due to different causes such as organizational, cultural and regulatory issues. Essay. Some of the players are not fulfilling their roles leaving some gaps which have affected the effective implementation of the safety and diversity risk management process. The gaps of this process result from people failing to apply proper designs for essay writter safety or follow procedures or there are not policies to mother influenced, reinforce these processes. There are some organizations in which the writter safety culture does not have strong basis or lacks of appropriate safety engineering concepts. Other organizations have those strong bases, but either there is not commitment and ownership or lack or reinforcement and responsibility to use them.
On the other hand, there are some organizations that have those strong policies and a safety culture which is implemented, followed and for essays reinforced within the organization resulting in a continuous improvement process for essay recognising and assessing risks and managing safety. Some of the main causes identified in the oil industry which have resulted in failing to implement the risks and safety management are: lack of dissertations and theses, commitment of leaders and essay employees to use safety and risk management as part of their culture, lack of implementing effective management of change processes or sometimes a no existence of them at all, inadequate learning and reporting systems to disseminate the learnings and improve the safety awareness, inadequate risks assessments or paperwork cultures with not effective implementation of mitigations, lack of enforcements of safe behaviours, safety policies and standards, lack of sense of liabilities and weakness on regulatory control and reinforcement. Things can be as good or as bad as we want to see them, however, most important is to think about the ways how we can encourage the use of safety and risk management processes. How those processes can be successfully implemented through good leadership and cultural changes or how we ensure companies maintain high levels of compliance of safety standards and regulations. All those initiatives can be implemented by: Increasing awareness through policies and formal training and certification.
Implementing effectively incident investigation techniques. Ensuring safety policies and procedures are followed and operating standards are met. Using a formal and probe system for management of change. Creating liability through new regulations and official control. Most of the work completed in the uk offshore sector are modifications to existing platforms. As such there is a requirement to assess the impact to the existing platform by conducting continuous reviews form concept through to final installation and commissioning. The normal process (non fast track jobs) is to complete a concept select study, then into hobbes and rousseau a collection essays, Front End Engineer and essay writter Design (taking one of the concepts forward) through detail engineering and design into fabrication and harvard dissertations construction to essay writter, final commissioning and hand over. The normal approach is to for essays, have a Hazard management plan for the project that details how the project is going to essay, manage the for essays hazards through the project life cycle by Environmental identification and design reviews, risk assessments, and essay writter regulatory compliance demonstration. Design reviews techniques include but are not limited to, Hazard Identification HAZID, Environmental Impact Identification ENVID, Hazard and Operability studies HAZOP Workpack Risk assessments, Constructability reviews, PUWER reviews. Brown Field Engineering and a collection essays Design.
During the Concept stage and dependant on the information available it is useful to complete course HAZID’s, ENVID’s, Inherently safe design (ISD) reviews. During FEED you’d look at Fire and Gas philosophies, Blast design philosophies, HAZID’s, ENVID’s, ISD (better to conduct ISD workshop as early as possible so that the outcomes can be incorporated into the design), HAZOP’s (May be better to leave to the end of FEED start of Detail Design so that the design is essay mature enough to review), any fire blast studies should be kicked of to what makes, allow the outputs to be affectively incorporated into the design. In detail design, if they haven’t been completed at an acceptable level HAZID’s, ENVID’s, HAZOP’s SIL reviews, will be completed. With a Hazard Management plan in place and completed during the complete lifecycle of a project it is expected that measures will be in writter, place to manage all hazardous associated with the project. Dynamic Risk Assessment (DRA) is. a new concept focuses on culture diversity, managing risks in a dynamic environment clearly has. its place in a dynamic industry like oil and gas industry. Essay Writter. It is important for organisations. to recognise that work environment do change and some changes may occur at for essays a. high frequency or with some degree of unpredictability. DRA is not an exclusive.
tool but should be incorporated into a broader risk management programme. DRA. is largely an on the spot decision making process and should be considered for. managing dynamic situations in which the essay employee may find themselves in. Thus DRA. relies heavily on the behaviour and competency of personnel and part of making. the personnel competent relies on hobbes and rousseau essays, received and past experience. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.
Factors such as severe. temperatures and pressures within the Oil and Gas industry are some of the. leading causes of major risks and its attendant consequences. The size and the. complexity of the Oil and Gas facilities are also contributing factors to the.
risks. Also playing a part are the more. inhospitable routines, deeper waters and essay colder climates. have been put in place by essays the industry to avoid the severe negative. consequences from major accidents. Essay. Some companies have rigorous process in. place to what makes a good, identify major hazards, and assess and manage the essay writter risks if it occurs.
It cannot be emphasized enough that there is no single better way of managing major. Several health and. safety measures, operational management systems are being adopted by the. industry in order to deliver good safety and makes essay essay operational performances. Risk Management is a PM#039;s primary job. Working as a project manager in the oil and essay writter gas industry is basically 95% risk management, and how my mother influenced rightfully so. This is a highly complex and dangerous industry, and our goal on every project is no injuries to people and no harm to the environment.
In order to accomplish this goal, risk management has to always be on the mind of the project manager. This is especially true when managing project on the bottom of the writter ocean. I think that this focus on risk management has truly taken shape over and theses, the past few years, which is a good thing for all the new facilities, but there are a lot of essay, old facilities where it will take many more years for them to get caught up. I have been a project manager in how my, this industry for essay writter approximately 7 years and have managed about 25 different projects, with a total expenditure exceeding $250 million, and not one of my projects have been to increase production, but instead they were mitigating a risk of one form or another. I know the industry has a bad reputation regarding safety, but I've witnessed first hand all the culture diversity time and money which is spent on a daily basis in order to essay writter, try to produce oil and gas in and rousseau a collection of critical essays, a safer manner. Safety and risk management can, to a great extent, be influenced by writter the attitude of workers in an organisation. It has been clearly debated that risks are defined in cultural terms. As people. mingled with others, they accept the definition of risk by their association. with group(s) within the organisation.
To become a member of a group within the. organisation requires conformity. How My. Meaning a member who refuses to conformity is. counteracted and essay writter shunned. The desire to and rousseau a collection of critical, be accepted and respected is the pressure. behind yielding to this demand. Usually this happens unconsciously due to lack. of knowledge, information and advice. The values and essay writter norms of the association/union/group. form the basis for the apparent realities of their members.
MSC IN OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN. The purpose of the HAZOP is to try and establish any operability problems that could lead to an undesirable consequence. The process system is reviewed systematically, dividing it into discrete nodes an analysing against guidewords that have been agreed in a pre-determined Terms of Reference. The HAZOP team is built up from an experienced multi discipline group of engineers that are familiar with the HAZOP process. The outcome of the HAZOP will result in a number of actions being put onto various people within the culture essays review group.
All actions are required to be acted on, and responses agreed and signed off prior to the design being implemented. All completed actions that affect the process design will be incorporated. In oil and gas industry, most of the existing entry training systems for a certain position which involves potential injury risks are only conducted before each employee initiating his/her job. But according to some statistics, a considerable portion of writter, injuries related with lack of awareness of for essays, mistakes during working and wrong operating habits. To reduce the risks involved in these types of issues, a regular skills checking or testing system is critical together with strict entry training.
That means employees who take the potential risk related work, their skills or working routines should be checked and tested against standard operation routines on a certain time base (such as one or two years’ time). In reality, a good example can be updating the driving license after a certain period of time. I believe this would help reduce the possibility of injury resulting from writter, wrong operation routines in for essays, oil and gas industry. I would like to discuss an idea regarding an offshore depleted oilfield. According to the legislation these offshore but also onshore facilities have to be decommissioned, encountering very high costs. So, I thought that their reuse for other purposes such as accommodating rescue teams would be a safety measure to mitigate dangers of remote offshore locations. In the writter UK for instance, continental shelf includes more than 400 offshore structures many of which have already depleted their oil and gas reservoirs.
But these structures have potential life of many years. Culture Essays. So in terms of increasing the safety of offshore processes some of these platforms could be converted into rescue team bases. These bases-teams would be equipped with high speed crafts and may be a couple of writter, helicopters. Hence, this would provide an immediate respond to the neighbors processing oil and gas in for essays, case of accidental incident. I believe the costs of maintaining rescue crew in offshore locations, much closer than other onshore positions, can be afforded by many companies’ and this will decrease significantly the fatality. So if companies are interested in having access to delivery of this kind of service they should invest annually in this effort to make North Sea safer working place.
Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Topic 9: Safety and essay writter risk management in oil and gas industry. Safety of the oil and gas industry has some relationship with. the factory environment , the employees personal. qualities, and as well as the. prevention of fire and explosion safety. measures closely related to oil and gas not only. provide convenience to people's lives , but also there are certain risks , it may cause. the disease and culture trauma.
which caused by essay writter the property , factories, product or environmental damage. Leading to loss of. production or increase the burden . So which can be. implemented through more perfect management system and how my mother influenced improve the security. Zhang Yanan ID: 51233945.
MSC IN OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN. Safety and writter Risk Management During Design Stage. The process of hobbes of critical, HSE Risk Management starts right from the design stage where major accident hazards are identified and reduced to essay, As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) and to a tolerable overall risk. This approach allows early identification of how my mother me essay, concerns when more effective action may be taken and provides a clear understanding of the safety critical elements used to control and writter hazard scenario. What Makes A Good Essay Essay. It follows principles of inherent safety and the risk reduction hierarchy consisting of. • Elimination of the hazards. • Reduction by substituting with a lesser hazard. • Isolation of people from the essay hazard.
•Control of the hazard through procedures. Typically, a HAZID review is conducted at an early stage in order to identify major hazards and action appropriate control measures. At later project stages, more detailed reviews, such as HAZOP, are conducted. Hazards which cannot be eliminated through principles of harvard and theses, inherent safety are managed through application of principle of layers of essay writter, defence mainly consisting of the following; •Prevention of the release (though overpressure protection and prevention of ignition sources) •Detection of the release (through Fire and Gas detection systems)
•Control by inventory removal to a safe location (emergency depressuring and flaring) •Mitigation (through active and passive fire protection) •Emergency response (through provision of escape routes, muster locations and ER equipment) The design of what makes a good, these defences is applied through the variety of writter, reviews and risk studies by different engineering disciplines. Sanjay Vyas- Student ID - 51234203. M.Sc thesis in safety in oil gas engineering. I'm planning to start drafting my M.Sc thesisregarding safety in harvard dissertations and theses, upstream oil gas. In fact I would like to make a bridge between HSE science technical aspects of offshore petroleum. My interested topic in HSE in drilling production and my goal is to essay writter, take a step forward to what a good essay, prevent incidents such as BP horizon, piper alpha etc. Appreciate your supports in recommendingsuitable topics for my dissertation.
Analysis is being terminated from essay writter, a user subroutine 1 day 11 hours ago ***ERROR: USER SUBROUTINE UMAT IS MISSING 1 day 15 hours ago http://www.tamengineeringjobs 2 days 6 min ago Running the UEL subroutine and input files blew in ABAQUS. 3 days 58 min ago Thermodynamics in essay schiele, thirtysome slides 1 week 1 day ago This position has been filled 1 week 6 days ago This position has been filled 1 week 6 days ago invited speaker talk is writter announced --- JF Molinari from EPFL 2 weeks 9 hours ago Re: Comments on the Unusual Thermo Course 2 weeks 1 day ago Comments on the Unusual Thermo Course 2 weeks 3 days ago. Each entry is © copyright 2006-2014 by dissertations and theses the individual user and can be used in accordance with the Creative Commons License. iMechanica is essay writter powered by Drupal, and hosted at for essays the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from essay, Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is and theses, a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Essay! Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in dissertations, New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for writter, Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the on egon, International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in essay writter, Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the and rousseau essays, substance and presentation of writter, their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word.
Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only essays what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. Writter! You need to make the dissertations and theses, most important stuff jump off the essay, page. Use bold. Culture! Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the essay writter, necessary information in the most logical way.
2. Be concise and make every word count. This is essay on egon, related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the writter, best candidate for the specific job. For Essays! It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Writter! Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to a good essay, the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job.
If you are applying to writter, 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of harvard dissertations, your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. Essay Writter! If you can no longer remember the what makes essay, main argument of your senior thesis from essay, college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. And Theses! 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the writter, underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project?
6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on for essays, a committee, delete it from writter, your resume or indicate the proper dates. For Essays! Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot.
Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in essay, common. Essay On Egon! If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Essay Writter! Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an essays, active and essay writter, not just passive participant in hobbes and rousseau a collection essays, these organizations. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in writter, alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in for essays, your chair and confess that you are on essay, the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question.
Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to dissertations and theses, a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space?
If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the essay, same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. For Essays! And another friend.
And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Here’s a freebie. It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are.
You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen.
If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the writter, partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media. Makes Essay Essay! But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in the next step of essay writter, your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right.
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What’s Up With All The New York Mid-Market Lateral Moves? What Were You Thinking? Equifax GC Probed For Executive Stock Sales Before Public Learned Of Breach. Essay On Egon Schiele! Law firms blow a lot of rhetorical hot air affirming their commitment to essay writter, achieving gender diversity in the workplace. Yet, despite some isolated efforts to hire and retain more female attorneys and what essay, promote more women into partnership, little tangible progress has been made to improve the position of writter, women in what makes a good essay essay, the profession… Location: Any Stoel Rives LLP , United States. posted by essay Stoel Rives LLP Jr. Emerging Companies Corporate Associate. Location: San Francisco, California. posted by Kinney Recruiting LLC Legal and a good essay, Compliance Associate. Writter! Location: New York, NY, United States. Essay! posted by Autonomy Capital Develop software for tax and legal application. Work at home. Enjoy life.
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Example Of Topic Outline Essays and writter Research Papers. Research Paper Outline Examples * Main Page * Research * Foundations * Academic * Write Paper * For Kids . by Explorable.com (Nov 5, 2011) Research Paper Outline Examples This is an article with a few research paper outline examples . Creating an outline is the for essays first thing you should do before you start working on your research paper. Write a Paper * 1Writing a Paper * 2Outline * 2.1Write an Outline * 2.2Outline Examples * 3Research Question . Academic publishing , Argument , Breastfeeding 980 Words | 7 Pages. Once you've already decided what topic you will be writing about, the next thing you should pay attention to is the scope of your paper or what . you will be including in essay your discussion. The broader your topic is, the more difficult it is to discuss your topic in full details. How My Me Essay. This is why you should establish before hand the scope and limitations of your paper and this will be the essay writter foundation of your research paper outline . Hobbes And Rousseau Of Critical. Basically, your outline will constitute three main parts namely the Introduction.
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Or maybe you have experienced sexual abuse yourself? Are you aware of the psychological and developmental. Abuse , Child abuse , Human sexual behavior 1166 Words | 3 Pages. Example of a Well Stated Research Topic. 1 a). Give an example of essay, a well stated research topic from a collection of critical essays your area of study and justify why you think the essay writter problem is . researchable.
1 b). Write short explanatory notes on harvard and theses the following concepts or terms; i. Population and essay sample ii. Probability sampling iii. Stratified random sampling iv. Nominal measurement scale AN ASSIGNMENT PRESENTED TO DR KUJEKE AT CHRIST COLLEGE AN AFFILLIATE OF THE GREAT ZIMBABWE UNIVERSITY 66 WEST ROAD AVONDALE,HARARE COURSE ; ADVANCED. Desalination , Drinking water , Research 1557 Words | 5 Pages. ?Country Presentation and Outline with APA Annotated Bibliography Assignments Purpose: To demonstrate your ability to (1) apply the . three-step process to preparing and presenting a presentation, (2) conduct research in support of your recommendation, (3) organize your thoughts in a logical and dissertations appropriately formatted outline , (4) create an annotated reference list of at least five sources formatted according to the APA style manual (can be pulled from your CRR), (5) create slides that illustrate. Annotated bibliography , Annotation , APA style 848 Words | 3 Pages. Example of Topic Outline with Essay. Peer Pressure Thesis Sentence: Dealing with peer pressure in adolescent years has negative and positive effects to essay, a teenager’s life.
I. Positive . Harvard Dissertations And Theses. Effects of Peer Pressure A. Writter. Influence attitude in school’s activities 1. Better performance 2. Work hard for good grades 3. Time management B. Enhance your social aspects 1. Makes A Good Essay Essay. Having a lot of friends 2. Essay Writter. Develop personalities through sharing with friends 3. Knowing the importance of friendships II. What Makes Essay. Negative Effects. Adolescence , Educational psychology , Peer group 794 Words | 3 Pages. ? OUTLINE OF TOPICS IMMUNOLOGY AND SEROLOGY Dec 14, 2014 8:00 am – 12:00 nn Part 1: IMMUNOLOGY UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION 1. . Historical Development 2. Definition of Terms UNIT II: IMMUNITY 1. Natural/Innate Immunity First line of Defense Anatomical/ Physical Barriers of Infections Second Line of essay writter, Defense Physiological Barriers Biochemical Factors Cellular Factors Phagocytosis Third Line of Defense Immune response 2. Acquired/Adaptive Immunity Active Acquired Immunity Passive Acquired Immunity Humoral. Adaptive immune system , Antibody , Antigen 492 Words | 5 Pages. Informative Speech Outline Example. ?Names Here Communication 103 Informative Outline October 7, 2014 General Purpose: To inform the class about the schiele Maasai. Specific Purpose: To . teach the audience certain aspects of the essay Maasai such as their culture, food, living conditions, and what a good essay language. I. Essay Writter. Introduction: A. Attention Gainer: Mika: “Mambo rafiki! Maji maju?” Kelsey: “Ah poa, asante sana dada!” Mika: “Karibu sana.” B. Reason to Listen: This is an dissertations, example of a simple conversation between the Maasai, a unique African tribe whose culture.
According to Jim , Cattle , Livestock 1173 Words | 6 Pages. Formal Outlines Formal outlines use Roman numerals (I, II), capital letters (A, B), Arabic numbers (1, 2), and lower case . letters (a, b) to designate levels of importance. Essay Writter. Formal outlines fall into two categories: sentence outlines use complete sentences, and topic outlines use only essay, key words and phrases. Writter. In a topic or sentence outline , less important entries are indented, as in the sample formal outline below. How My Me Essay. I. A. 1. a. (1) . Capital letter , Exclamation , Exclamation mark 745 Words | 6 Pages. Creating an Outline Once a topic has been chosen, ideas have been generated through brainstorming and free writing, and a . working thesis has been created, the last step a writer can perform in the prewriting stage is creating an outline . An outline allows a writer to categorize the main points, to organize the essay writter paragraphs into an order that makes sense, and to harvard dissertations, make sure that each paragraph/idea can be fully developed.
Essentially, an outline helps prevent a writer from getting stuck when performing. Appropriate technology , Essay , Outline 1224 Words | 4 Pages. This page explains how to make a detailed outline of a speech. It should be remembered that depending on essay the type of speech, the . outline may vary. However, if you base your speeches on this outline you should be able to make a successful speech. Makes A Good Essay. In order to make a detailed and writter useful outline you must understand the structure of a speech. The basic structure of a speech and on egon schiele how to make a simple outline has been explained on another page. Writter. On that page it was shown that there are three main parts.
Introduction , Rhetoric , Want 820 Words | 5 Pages. PREPARATION OUTLINE | Title | : | Shark | Order | : | Topical order | General Purpose | : | To inform | Specific Purpose | : | To inform . our audience about why sharks attack human, type of sharks that usually attack human and what makes essay essay precautious steps on how to essay, avoid from being attacked by a shark. | Central Idea | : | Even though the likelihood of you being attack by a shark is low, it is still common and that is why it is important to know why sharks attack human, the type of sharks that attack human. Bull shark , Great white shark , Lamnidae 1289 Words | 3 Pages. ESSAY OUTLINE TITLE: TOPIC : DIRECTION OR FOCUS: I. INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH: General Statement or Hook: . Transition: Thesis Sentence: Major Divisions of harvard, Essay: A: B: C: II. BODY PARAGRAPH 1: Topic A Transition: Topic Sentence: Supporting Details: Detail 1: Crimes commited by minors and what they are charged with Detail 2: Detail 3: Conclusion/Transition: III.
BODY PARAGRAPH 2: Topic B Transition: . Adult , Crime , Parenting 256 Words | 3 Pages. to create your outline . (Open this document, SAVE AS firstinitiallastname_Eng3or4PD?_ResearchOutline; then type your own research information . into writter it; delete my reminders, such as “add background information”). The parentheses are reminders to add your parenthetical citations. Sometimes, your information will not be from a source, so you won’t need a parenthetical citation. Of Critical. Feel free to add more points (C, D, etc) and (iii, iv, etc). You may also need to omit portions of the outline . Write out essay writter your.
Citation , Parenthetical referencing , Predicate 590 Words | 3 Pages. provided and answer the reading questions. STEP TWO: -Fill out the chart with details from different sources to support both the “ruthless conqueror” . position and the “enlightened ruler” position. What Makes A Good. STEP THREE: -Fill out the writter persuasive paragraph outline (attached) taking a side about the ruler Asoka and supporting your position with evidence from the sources! Use AT LEAST TWO specific pieces of evidence. ASOKA DBQ Analysis Rubric 3- Above Expectations 2- Meets Expectations 1-Developing Expectations. Ashoka the for essays Great , Clear , Clearing 344 Words | 3 Pages. Outline Subject: Making an essay, outline Choose a topic which interests and dissertations challenges you.
Your attitude . towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into your research. Focus on a limited aspect, e.g. Essay. narrow it down from Religion to World Religion to Buddhism. For Essays. Obtain teacher approval for your topic before embarking on writter a full-scale research. Select a subject you can manage. Harvard And Theses. Find information. Surf the Net for writter general or background information, check. Anne Hathaway , Argument , Critical thinking 539 Words | 3 Pages. OUTLINE Thesis Statement: Since technology harms face to face communication alive in the 21st century and has negative effects on human . health, using technology sholud be reduced.
I)Pro Topic Sentence: The technology causes the decrease in hobbes and rousseau of critical the amount of time which people spend interacting with others face-to-face. A.Ending friendships a. Prefering to find entertainment from the internet b.Carrying technolgical devices anywhere B.Ending marriages a.Instead of talking. 21st century , Argument map , Causality 304 Words | 3 Pages. Outlining: Letter Case and Formal Outline. OUTLINING Making and Using an Outline What is an Outline ? • An outline is a way of organizing key ideas • An . outline helps to set up an essay or a research paper • An outline is a tool to writter, help revise an essay or research paper. • An outline can be a study tool to help you summarize key ideas in reading Defining the Kinds of Outlines • A scratch outline is makes a good essay essay a preliminary list that lets you see where you need to go. It is a rough list of your first ideas. • A scratch outline is a starting point only. Immigration , Immigration to the United States , Letter case 587 Words | 11 Pages. ? EXAMPLE OF ESSAY OUTLINE TITLE: ……………… I. INTRODUCTION Topic question: Is downloading music without . permission theft? There are lots of arguments both ways on this subject. Invention of the internet copyable audio-file formats made downloading and sharing music very easy.
Thesis statement: Downloading music for essay free is equal to stealing. *** Generate your arguments to support your thesis by turning your thesis into hobbes and rousseau a collection a question, i.e., How is downloading music for free equal to. Copyright , Crime , Ethics 381 Words | 2 Pages. Example Info Outline Bystander Effect. at all. As members of a growing community, we should be aware of emergency situations and how to react to them. C. Speaker Credibility: As a member of essay, . society, I have been in a situation where I was the bystander and wanted to learn more about the topic . D. Culture Diversity. Thesis: Learning about the Bystander Effect will help us better understand human reactions in public emergencies. E. Preview Main Points: First I will share with you some background information on the Bystander Effect, second, what causes us.
Ambulance , Bystander effect , Crowd psychology 1477 Words | 4 Pages. Sample Persuasive Speech Outline For Public Speaking Sample persuasive speech outline including speechwriting tips on essay writter outlining . the main speech topics for public speaking. Sample Persuasive Speech Outline YOUR NAME, SPEECH CLASS AND DATE: TITLE: SUBJECT: Your persuasive speech topic . GENERAL PURPOSE: To persuade SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To persuade the audience to how my mother me essay, . (fill in essay writter your ultimate goal of course :-) I INTRODUCTION A. Your attention grabber. Influenced. Try a snappy one if you like. American Psychological Association , APA style , Authority 490 Words | 3 Pages. How to essay, Write an Outline Whether you're preparing your State of the for essays Union speech, penning the Great American Novel, or composing an essay for essay . And Theses. English 101, an outline can help you organize your thoughts and plan your writing. Outlines may be unnecessary for writter very short essays but can be absolutely critical to keep larger works coherent and well ordered, so everybody should learn how to create an essays, outline . Fortunately, it's an easy, logical process, and once you make one, you'll never need to essay, learn again. 0 , Category theory , Decimal 1355 Words | 5 Pages.
There are many presentation topics that college students can select. Harvard Dissertations. However, a successful presentation is determined by a number of factors, . thus it is writter important for a student to understand that an interesting presentation topic will not be enough. To start with, students should be armed with the necessary skills to create a captivating presentation. Essay. Using images in your college presentation Balance of essay, graphics in your presentation is very important. Although images and beautiful fonts cannot. Coca-Cola , College , Decriminalization 724 Words | 3 Pages. ?Creating a Working Outline A working outline is an informal outline and is different from a formal . outline . A working outline is simply a way to bring structure and organization to your planning process. Essay On Egon Schiele. A working outline can be words and phrases. It does not have to be complete sentences, nor does it have to contain a full CD.
Once you complete a working outline you will be able to essay, do a self-assessment of your needs. That is, you will be able to see clearly where you have adequate information. 0 , Arch , Decimal 604 Words | 3 Pages. Outline Introduction: Nowadays, most people in the world use the . internet. On Egon. People can get all kinds of information from around the world through the essay Internet and hobbes a collection of critical essays life in writter the world easy to communicate with others. Culture. The Internet seems to be at first glance dream tool. Essay Writter. However, the Internet is not always a bright side. It can be harmful, when people use it and little care. Thesis: Government should regulate the harvard internet. Copyright infringement , Crime , Internet 730 Words | 2 Pages.
central idea. You can talk about writter, many speech topics , but always refer back to - reinforce - that theme or a thesis. It's the what essay only way the . audience will remember your message. 2. Capture the central idea of your extemporaneous in writter one full sentence. It should be a single, declarative sentence. Make sure that you make a specific statement. What do you want the audience to a good essay essay, do, know or remember? 3. Essay Writter. Develop your central speech idea in a clear speech outline that contains your supporting points.
There. Critical thinking , Phrase , Point 716 Words | 3 Pages. Research Paper Outline * HP104 This template is for essay a research paper (essay) with three main points. This template may be adjusted to fit . your needs. If you need to add extra details, just add them. • Your final outline must be word-processed. It must be double-spaced in Times New Roman 12-point font. • You must include the essay sources that you are using in parentheses. Please include the following: 1) working title – This may change by the time you complete your paper. 2). Point , Sentence , Statement 660 Words | 7 Pages. ?Cause/Effect Outline Your introduction should: get your readers’ attention state the title and author of the hobbes and rousseau of critical essays novel indicate historical . context as applicable clearly identify the cause/effect relationship in essay the thesis Organize the body of your essay to fit the cause/effect relationship you are analyzing.
For an a good essay essay, essay that examines one effect with multiple causes I. Introduction A. Writter. Please write out your thesis statement using a complete sentence. II. Body paragraph #1— Topic sentence. Linguistics , Predicate , Rhetoric 475 Words | 3 Pages. catchy music, however, lies a highly controversial and interesting topic . That would be subliminal messaging, and that’s what I’ll be talking . to you about today. Harvard Dissertations And Theses. Thesis: Subliminal messaging has been a controversial method of manipulation for years. Preview: I will talk about the different forms of subliminal messages, I’ll tell you about how influential they can be, and I will describe some of the most controversial examples throughout history. Transition: So let’s start by writter exploring the. Advertising , Backmasking , Communication 1385 Words | 5 Pages.
Human Communication: Speech Outline. 17 of the how my mother me essay Human Communication text. A typed full-sentence outline of the speech, including references, is due on the day you present in essay writter . class. The outline should be formatted in Times New Roman, 12 point font, one inch margins, double spaced, and include a cover page that lists: the title of the speech, your name, institution’s name, and date. Influenced Me Essay. You are required to have a visual aid for essay writter this speech. Materials: Note Cards, Formal Outline , Visual Aid, Yourself Time: 5-7 minutes total Dress: Business. Audience , Automobile , Conclusion 1435 Words | 6 Pages. Reverse Outline ¶ 1 Topic Sentence: In examining Kurt Vonnengut’s Slaughterhouse-Five, we can illuminate the faults in . Weisenburger’s theory of harvard dissertations and theses, satire dichotomy, as well as illuminate the nature of the satirical qualities of Slaughterhouse-Five itself. Function: This is the thesis of Gil Henkin’s essay “Steven Weisenburger and writter the Big Scary Normative Value: An Exercise in Postmodern Posturing.” Its function is to provide the main idea which the author will argue thorough the essay. ¶2 Topic. Billy Pilgrim , Joseph Heller , Kilgore Trout 723 Words | 3 Pages. Informative Outline Topic Theodor Seuss Geisel.
?Informative Outline Topic : Theodor Seuss Geisel General Purpose: To Inform Specific Purpose: To Inform my audience about one . of the most beloved children’s authors of the twentieth century, Dr. Seuss Thesis: Through a few of and rousseau a collection of critical essays, his works, Geisel incorporates multiple messages including the importance of essay, global and earth awareness, and life. I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: Who here knows who Dr. For Essays. Seuss is? How many of you know his real name? Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as Dr.
Seuss, is. And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street , Children's literature , Dr. Seuss 963 Words | 3 Pages. Speech Outline - Com225 Public Speaking. COM225 Public Speaking Speech Outline 1) Explain the essay writter differences between a speaking outline and a formal . outline . According to the course text book, a formal outline is defined as “a complete sentence outline written in sufficient detail that a person other than the for essays speaker could understand it, (Grice amp; Skinner, 2010, p. 197)”. The course text book defines a speaking outline as “a brief outline for the speaker’s use alone and essay writter containing source citations and how my influenced me essay delivery prompts, (Grice amp;. 1920 , Color , Cone cell 926 Words | 4 Pages. essential to define the unit for which you’ll do the essay analysis. Step 2. Define the market.
Defining the market is harvard one of the most important things to do in writter . this analysis. This is because incorrectly defined market may lead to poor classification. For example , if we would do the analysis for the Daimler’s Mercedes-Benz car brand in the passenger vehicle market it would end up as a dog (it holds less than 20% relative market share), but it would be a cash cow in the luxury car market. It is important to. Boston Consulting Group , Cash cow , Dimension 1447 Words | 6 Pages. be well written, and should include clear explanations, examples , and support from the diversity essays textbook where relevant. Writter. Application: Use chapters . 11-15 from your textbook, identify, define, and provide an example from the culture scenario of the communication concepts in action for this situation. Concept 1: Identify the general goal Definition: The general goal of essay, a speech is the overall intent of a speech. (Source: COMM 2 pg. 149) Example : When Gloria says, “It makes the point I want to make—if. Concept , Credibility , Critical thinking 784 Words | 4 Pages.
character has changed. Essay On Egon Schiele. It happened thanks to Depp. He added to the image of Jack some features characteristic of rock musicians of the late twentieth . Writter. century. No one knows if the how my influenced real pirates behaved like this but playing this role Depp took an example of a few rock stars. «I’m alive!»-»I’m alive!»-is the line of one of the rock song and motto of many rockers. The same can be said about Jack Sparrow. Writter. Sense of essay on egon, existence, diversity of the world is perhaps the essay writter key characteristics of Jack Sparrow. Essay. . Carbon dioxide , Global warming , Jack Sparrow 2236 Words | 7 Pages. Good (Occasionally Exceeds) Excellent (Exceeds Standards) SCORE Possible Points Earned Points Introduction Does not adequately convey . topic . Writter. Does not describe subtopics to and rousseau a collection of critical, be reviewed. Lacks adequate thesis statement.
Conveys topic , but not key question(s). Describes subtopics to be reviewed. General theses statement. Conveys topic and key question(s). Clearly delineates subtopics to be reviewed. General thesis statement. Writter. Strong introduction of and theses, topic’s key question(s), terms. APA style , Bibliography , Citation 903 Words | 3 Pages.
? Outline Template Writing Prompt: What stylistic elements does King use to influence his readers? After reading and essay writter analyzing Letter from . Birmingham Jail, write an essay in which you answer the on egon question and analyze structure and language in his text, providing three or more examples to illustrate and clarify your analysis. What conclusion can you draw about the writter power of this text? I. Hook: “Its unjust treatment of hobbes and rousseau, Negroes in the courts is a notorious (well-known) reality. There have been more unsolved. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Coretta Scott King 860 Words | 2 Pages. Anotated Outline Music History Research Topic. ANNOTATED OUTLINE Topic : A comparative study on development of the essay writter Beijing opera.
Thesis: The Beijing opera, the . quintessence of diversity, Chinese culture and the most popular Chinese opera, has shaped its extraordinary characteristic and comprehensive education system throughout the history. I. Essay. Introduction A. In the early 1780s, Beijing opera begin to merge from several regional operas. 1. Ancient Chinese opera comes from drama literacy. 2. Absorbing knowledge from early operas . Beijing opera , China , Chinese opera 654 Words | 3 Pages. Functional Area Interrelationships Outline. FUNCTIONAL AREA INTERRELATIONSHIPS By Beatriz Fajardo, Professor Barbra Hart BUS 475 Integrated Business Topics August 23, 2012 . Functional Area Interrelationships Introduction: We will be discussing the organization existence and structure, functional collaboration, lateral and vertical collaboration, and how my mother influenced stakeholders. I. Target’s Origins A. History 1. Founded in 1881 George Draper Dayton Minneapolis, MN Dayton Dry Goods Company Mission, Values, Goals 1. Mission Statement.
Collaboration , Dayton's , Organization 1328 Words | 6 Pages. acknowledgement. Essay Writter. This could be material copied word for dissertations and theses word from books, journals internet sites, professor’s course notes, etc. It could be material that is . Essay Writter. paraphrased but closely resembles the on egon schiele original sources. It could be the work of a fellow student, for example , a paper or assignment completed by essay another student. It might be a paper purchased.
Plagiarism also includes copying images, graphs, tables, oral presentations, and ideas. Course Assignments Assignments written outside class are submitted in. Classroom , Education , Essay 1352 Words | 5 Pages. ? Asthma Outline I. Hobbes And Rousseau. Introduction A. What is Asthma? 1. Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways in the lungs. II. Asthmatic Symptoms A. . Writter. Shortness of Breath B. Difficulty breathing while exercising C. Wheezing D. Always Coughing III. Dissertations And Theses. Causes of Asthma A. Airway Constriction B. Inflammation IV. Diagnosis of writter, Asthma A. Medical History B. Physical Exam C. Lung Tests V. A Good. Treatment Options A. Medicine 1. Preventative Asthma Medications a. INHALED CORTICOSTEROIDS (ICSs) which improve lung function, prevent. Allergy , Asthma , Corticosteroid 383 Words | 2 Pages.
SAMPLE PREPARATION OUTLINE WITH COMMENTARY The following outline for a six-minute informative speech illustrates the principles . just discussed. The commentary explains the writter procedures used in and theses organizing the essay speech and writing the culture diversity outline . Writter. (Check with your teacher to see if she or he wants you to for essays, include a title with your outline .) Panic Attacks | COMMENTARY | Topic : Panic Attack | Stating your specific purpose and central idea as separate units before the text of the outline makes it easier to. Cognitive behavioral therapy , Fear , Panic 1448 Words | 5 Pages. Good speech topics tutorial. Writter. Generate public speaking topics with these speech writing checklists. Look for ideas that are . interesting, entertaining, and that can outline and and theses communicate your speech ideas. I'll show you how to find them. The key questions below work almost always.
They generate lots good topics . Perhaps you're struck by new public speaking speech topics , stumbling ideas or educative questions. Easy General Checklists For Good Speech Topics First answer these questions. Think. For You/Time Limit , Good topics , Hikaru Utada 1011 Words | 5 Pages. Week Four Content Outline TOPIC and Objectives Environmental Pollution Describe water supply, use, and essay writter management. . Identify potential impacts of environmental pollution to human and ecosystem health.
Identify causes of pollution and harvard its treatments. Analyze the essay writter causes and harvard dissertations and theses potential impacts of essay, global warming. Content outline Environmental ppollution Describe water supply, use, and culture essays management. Review of the hydrologic cycle Sources of freshwater Streams and rivers Lakes Groundwater . Air pollution , Atmosphere , Climate change 310 Words | 3 Pages. social sciences and humanities. Many ethnomusicological works are created not necessarily by 'ethnomusicologists' proper, but instead by anthropologists . examining music as an aspect of a culture. Essay. A well-known example of such work is Colin Turnbull's study of the Mbuti pygmies. Culture Diversity. Another example is writter Jaime de Angulo, a linguist who ended up learning much about the music of the Indians of Northern California .
Yet another is Anthony Seeger, professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, who. Anthropology , Community building , Ethnomusicology 1424 Words | 5 Pages. Emma Rankin Ms. Palazzo Lit/Comp 2 25 March 2013 Outline THESIS: Write your full thesis statement here. How My Influenced. . 1. Superheroes in modern culture -From Superman, created in 1938, Batman in essay 1939 and Wonder Woman, conceptualized in 1941, superheroes have been created with nearly characteristics imaginable and that shape and what regularly reflect the ideologies of society. “Kids look up to these “heroes” they have this dream to essay writter, be this character and essay the mentality that. Batman , Culture , DC Comics 1225 Words | 4 Pages. Topic 6: Mammalian Pheromones Abstract A pheromone is a chemical signal which is released by one animal and received by writter another, which induce . a species specific reaction. Pheromones are detected via chemosensory systems known as the Vomeronasal Organ (VNO).
Within a wide range of me essay, mammals the essay writter VNO is used to elicit a generalized sexual response, primarily affecting the reproductive tract. This is seen in for essays most terrestrial mammals who have adapted to sensing volatile chemical signals; the Mouse displays. Mammal , Olfaction , Olfactory bulb 1246 Words | 1 Pages. ?Argument Essay Outline I. Introduction a. Writter. Hook: Women make up one half of society. Our society will remain backward and in chains unless its . women are liberated, enlightened, and dissertations educated b. Essay Writter. Background Information: women play important role in the family, men in Saudi Arabia consider women as a second sort. How My Mother Me Essay. c. Opposing Position: Men in Saudi Arabia believe women should enjoy their lives and follow religious customs d. Thesis Statement: women in writter Saudi Arabia are deprived many rights, such. Amnesty International , Arabian Peninsula , Human rights 896 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 16 Outline Chapter 16: The Acceleration of Global Contact, 1450–1600 | A. | The Trade World of the Indian Ocean | | | 1. | . Hobbes Of Critical Essays. South China Sea | | | 2. Essay Writter. | Admiral Zheng He | | | 3. | India | | B. | Peoples and Cultures of the what makes a good essay Indian Ocean | | | 1. | Austronesian families | | | 2. | Bride wealth | | C. | Trade with Africa and essay writter the Middle East | | | 1. What Makes Essay. | African cargo | | | 2. | Middle Eastern rivals | | D. | Genoese and essay Venetian Middlemen | . Africa , Age of hobbes of critical, Discovery , Christopher Columbus 308 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sample Theme Based Chapter Outline —Chapter 7 Interaction Between Humans and the Environment Migration of writter, Indo-European Medes peoples into . Essay On Egon. Mesopotamia and Persia Migration of Parthian people into Persia Population increases with advances in agricultural production Development and essay writter Interaction of Cultures Thriving artistic and architectural traditions develop in places like Persepolis under the Achaemenids Spread of essay, Hellenistic culture under the Selucids Development of Zoroastrian religion. Achaemenid Empire , Alexander the writter Great , Cyrus the Great 650 Words | 2 Pages. personal things such as her clothes, jewelery, make up and her perfume. Essay. I think she had been so use to being dressed so plain after being in a mental . hospital for three years, she wanted to essay writter, dress herself up and try to make herself feel pretty.
This an example of artifactual messages by for essays using of clothing and body adornments (Chapter 6: Nonverbal Messages, part 2 page 144). Writter. Body adornment communicates aspects of who you are-from a concern about being up to what makes a good essay, date, to a desire to shock, to perhaps a lack of. Communication , Emotion , Emotional expression 1459 Words | 4 Pages. the Laws of Supply and writter Demand The simulation in the text is dissertations about a small city by the name of Atlantis. Atlantis is a well-maintained city with many . Essay. positive aspects for the community.
All of the aspects make it a pleasant living environment. Makes Essay. For example , the city has maintained streets, maintained sidewalks, large parks and essay writter jogging paths. Essay On Egon Schiele. To rent an apartment in the community of Atlantis an individual would have to go through Good life Management. The current vacancy rate is at 28 percent of availability. Economics , Elasticity , Income elasticity of demand 1569 Words | 3 Pages. traditional logistics services providers started offering warehousing and shared transportation services. Therefore, single function to multifunction . outsourcing was created.
For example , UPS handles the value-added services and essay logistics for essays Nike. The traditional service providers specialize in specific functions; for example , some carriers specialize in moving products between locations. 4. Compare and contrast anticipatory and response-based business models. Why has responsiveness become popular. Distribution , Inventory , Logistics 602 Words | 2 Pages.