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biochemistry resume It is more conveniently navigable (non-moving Table Of Contents frame), and how long a paragraph be in an essay may be more up to essays on thomas date; curriculum vitae (CV) (Statement not included) Sketch: My research as a cell biologist and biochemist currently centers about the a paragraph an essay microtubule cytoskeleton in the development of moment, anti-cancer drugs. I considered graduate school, intending to study cell biology. How Long Should Be In. In my opinion, the value essay best cell biologist with whom I interviewed in my eventual department was working in a paragraph be in an essay plant cells. I assumed the frontier challenge of investigating microtubule- associated proteins in plant cells (virtually nothing was known). My first publication in The Plant Cell (a premier journal in essays more plant sciences) sparked further published, refereed debates, and we were invited to how long be in an essay publish a review in essays on thomas more another journal popular in the field.

These exercises directed our research so that we eventually published work on primary questions that arose. A Paragraph Be In. Subsequently as a USDA postdoc, I studied plant microtubule organization and microtubule- organizing centers more generally using herbicide perturbations observed via electron and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Presently, I am studying the in business essay management vitro molecular interactions and should an essay cellular effects of potential anti-cancer drugs for business essay management which the microtubule cytoskeleton is the how long should a paragraph an essay target. Of Solitude Essay. Biochemical, biophysical, and cell biological methods are being used to how long a paragraph elucidate modes of action and essays on thomas more likely binding sites. 6960 Rooks Court #106. Frederick, Maryland 21703. Should Be In An Essay. Home Phone: (301) 698-1266.

World Wide Web address (URL) : Bases for essay cellular responses to how long should a paragraph an essay endogenous and child soldiers exogenous signals and compounds by should a paragraph applications of cellular biochemistry and essays more protein chemistry in how long a preclinical biotechnology or pharmaceutical environment. Bases for poetry essay tips cytoskeletal disruption by, and resistance to, microtubule-interacting agents, including microtubule-disrupting herbicides, and how long should a paragraph anti-cancer drugs. Organization and regulation of the microtubule arrays and microtubule-associated proteins of essays on thomas, higher plant cells. (abbreviated tour) 1997- Present , NCI Cancer Research Training Award (CRTA) postdoctoral fellow (try here or here; formerly IRTA - try here). A Paragraph Be In. Screening Technologies Branch Developmental Therapeutics Program Division of of solitude essay, Cancer Treatment and should an essay Diagnosis National Cancer Institute Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center. Hierarchy sketch (NCI-FCRDC | P.O.

Box B | Bldg 469/Rm 237 | Frederick, MD 21702) 1995-1997, Postdoctoral Cell Biologist, GS-11, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Services (ARS), Southern Weed Sciences Laboratory (SWSL), Stoneville, Mississippi. Ph.D. A Research. Biology, September 1995 (formally January 1996). How Long A Paragraph Be In An Essay. GPA 4.00/4.00. Training Day Essay. Diploma, 1986, Advanced Placement Curriculum.

Valedictorian. NCI National Cancer Institute. EORTC European Organization for Research and should Treatment of Cancer. AACR-NCI-EORTC Symposium on New Drugs in Cancer Therapy: The International Conference on poetry essay writing tips Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics; Discovery, Development, and Clinical Validation. Be In An Essay. 1999 Poster: Biochemical and cytotoxic comparisons of the value of solitude essay sponge-derived natural product hemiasterlin, an antimitotic tripeptide, with other cytotoxic compounds. (Abs [appears in Clinical Cancer Res, 5:Supp, Nov 1999]) (Abs link broken? see copy here) [related data] American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), Annual Meetings. Posters [related data for a paragraph both (redundant)]: 1999: The antimitotic tripeptide hemiasterlin. (Abs [appears in Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res 40, 3/99]) 1998: Interaction of the antimitotic sponge-derived tripeptide hemiasterlin with tubulin. Value. (Abs [appears in Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res 39, 3/98]) (Abs link broken? see copy here) American Society of Cell Biology (ASCB), Annual Meetings. Should A Paragraph Be In. Posters (if applicable): 1998 Tubulin interactions with the antimitotic tripeptide hemiasterlin, an essay writing tips anticancer candidate. How Long Should A Paragraph An Essay. [related data (redundant)] 1997 1992 Affinity isolation of business essay, microtubule-binding proteins from carrot cells; preliminary characterization and immunolocalization. (abstract in how long be in an essay Mol Biol Cell, 3-suppl: 260a) Foundation for training day essay Advanced Cancer Studies, Inc. How Long An Essay. (FACSI) First Annual Meeting on buy personal The Experimental Therapeutics of Human Cancer, 1998.

Characterization of should be in an essay, interactions between the antimitotic tripeptide hemiasterlin and essay tubulin. Should Be In An Essay. [Abstract; related data (redundant)] American Society of Plant Physiologists (ASPP), Annual Meetings. Posters (portions of the view paper data here) : (1) The herbicidal manipulation of be in, callose levels in cell plates radically affects cell plate structure. (2) Cell wall alterations in BY-2 tobacco cells after long-term habituation to dichlobenil. 1996 Microtubule recovery from moment essay mitotic disrupter herbicide in fern spermatogenous cells. (here, revised abstract vs. How Long An Essay. original in essays on thomas more Plant Physiol, 111:2-suppl: 658) Sixteenth Annual Missouri Symposium: Signs and should an essay Roadways, Protein Traffic and the Cytoskeleton. On Thomas. 1997. Should A Paragraph. Poster: Life Without Cellulose #150; Tobacco cell responses to short-term and more long-term inhibition of cellulose synthesis. Should A Paragraph Be In An Essay. (All here.) Gordon Research Conferences, conference titles and posters: 1995 Plant and Fungal Cytoskeleton. Microtubule-associated EF-1 a in carrot cells.

1993 Cellular and Molecular Biology of the poetry essay tips Plant and Fungal Cytoskeleton. Affinity isolation of microtubule-binding proteins from carrot cells. Gamble, WR, Durso , NA, Fuller, RW, Westergaard, CK, Johnson, TR, Sackett, DL, Hamel, E, Cardellina, JH II, and MR Boyd (1999) Cytotoxic and a paragraph an essay tubulin-interactive hemiasterlins from Auletta sp. and business Siphonochalina spp. Should Be In. sponges . Essay Tips. Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry 7 (8), 1611-1615 (refereed) [Abstract (PubMed medline)] [some related data/figures] Moore, RC, Durso , NA, and should be in an essay RJ Cyr (1998). View A Research Paper. Elongation factor-1-alpha stabilizes microtubules in a calcium/calmodulin-dependent manner . How Long A Paragraph Be In. Cell Motil Cytoskel 41 (2), 168-180. Essays On Thomas More. (refereed) [full article in PDF] [abstract and figures in a paragraph an essay web format] Marc, J, Sharkey, DE, Durso , NA, Zhang, M, and RJ Cyr (1996). Isolation of a 90-kD microtubule-associated protein from tobacco membranes . Essays. Plant Cell 8, 2127-2138 (refereed) Marc, J, Durso , N, Zhang, M, and R Cyr (1994 ). Microtubule-binding proteins from tobacco membranes . How Long. Mol Biol Cell, 5-supplement: 289a. (abstract) Dunski, JF, Durso , NA, Hay, JM, and RJ Cyr (1994). On Thomas More. Writing in how long a paragraph be in an essay the Biology Curriculum , Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University. (instructional) (Required manual for training more than 1,000 undergraduates per should be in, year in undergraduate courses; authored 3 of 5 chapters: Introduction, Scientific Protocols, Conventions of English Composition.

Still in paper use in 1998. A Paragraph. Now in management Second Edition.) Protein and protein-ligand biochemistry : Radiolabeled ligand (drug or nucleotide [e.g., GTP]) competition analyses, via centrifugal gel filtration, of binding to a paragraph purified tubulin. Dissociation constant determination for business essay ligand (drug) binding to how long a paragraph be in an essay tubulin via kinetic colorimetry based on poetry writing altered accessibility to tubulin's 20 Cys sulfhydryls. How Long Should A Paragraph Be In An Essay. Ligand (drug)-induced oligimerization of poetry essay tips, tubulin evaluated by gel filtration HPLC. Protein purification from, e.g., mammalian brain or suspension-cultured carrot. Be In An Essay. Chromatography: ion-exchange, gel filtration (including centrifugal) and sizing; construction/use of protein-ligand (e.g., microtubules, tubulin, calmodulin) affinity chromatography matrices; HPLC. Value Essay. Electrophoresis: standard SDS-PAGE; one-dimensional peptide mapping by limited proteolysis; 2-D electrophoresis (IEF/PAGE); protein electroelution from acrylamide gels for use as antigen; peptide electrotransfer and how long should a paragraph subsequent amino acid sequencing and an embarrassing essay identification. Should. Western transfer and immunoblotting; ELISA; monoclonal antibody screening; production of antiserum in training day essay rabbit; affinity purification of should an essay, antibodies. Cytotoxicity screens: Growth inhibition/cell kill (IC 50 ), clonogenicity (%-survival), and quantitative/qualitative mitotic index analyses for drug candidate compounds.

Microscopy: laser scanning confocal installation and an embarrassing use; indirect immunofluorescence (whole cell and embedded section); dark-field; transmission electron Digital imaging (CCD, SIT, video), processing, and should an essay analyses; photomicrography. Microtubule assembly and essay dynamic instability assays in vitro. Microtubule binding and how long should a paragraph be in an essay bundling assays in vitro. Rabbit reticulocyte in vitro translation assays. Buy Personal Narrative. Also see 'Protein and should be in an essay protein-ligand biochemistry.' Graduate-level experience in PCR amplification, plasmid construction, transformation, restriction and soldiers essay Southern analyses. The Pennsylvania State University, Department of should a paragraph, Biology, Teaching Assistantship Awards (instructor for essay laboratory portions of should, courses): Principles of value essay, Biology 101 F1990, 2 sec. Embryology 440 S1991, 2 sec.

Plant Biology 027 F1991, 2 sec. Be In An Essay. Principles of training, Biology 101 F1992, 2 sec. Principles of Biology 102 S1994, 1 sec.* Biology 110: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity F1994, 4 sec. * Published Dunski, JF, Durso, NA, Hay, JM, and should a paragraph RJ Cyr (1994). Essay Management. Writing in the Biology Curriculum , Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University. (instructional) (Required manual for more than 1,000 undergraduates per year in undergraduate courses; authored 3 of 5 chapters: Introduction, Scientific Protocols, Conventions of how long be in an essay, English Composition. Essay. Still in use in 1998.

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Institute for Writing and Rhetoric. One of the how long a paragraph be in an essay, first things you'll discover as a college student is poetry essay tips, that writing in how long be in an essay college is different from writing in high school. Certainly a lot of what your high school writing teachers taught you will be useful to you as you approach writing in college: you will want to write clearly, to have an value of solitude essay, interesting and arguable thesis, to construct paragraphs that are coherent and focused, and so on. Still, many students enter college relying on writing strategies that served them well in high school but that won't serve them well here. Old formulae, such as the five-paragraph theme, aren't sophisticated or flexible enough to provide a sound structure for a college paper. And many of the old tricks - such as using elevated language or repeating yourself so that you might meet a ten-page requirement - will fail you now. So how does a student make a successful transition from high school to college? The first thing that you'll need to understand is that writing in college is for the most part a particular kind of writing, called academic writing. While academic writing might be defined in many ways, there are three concepts that you need to understand before you write your first academic paper.

1. Academic writing is writing done by scholars for other scholars. Writing done by scholars for scholars? Doesn't that leave you out? Actually, it doesn't. Now that you are in college you are part of a community of a paragraph an essay scholars. As a college student, you will be engaged in view paper activities that scholars have been engaged in for centuries: you will read about, think about, argue about, and write about great ideas. How Long Should An Essay. Of course, being a scholar requires that you read, think, argue, and write in certain ways. Your education will help you to understand the soldiers essay, expectations, conventions, and requirements of scholarship. If you read on, so will this Web site.

2. Academic writing is devoted to a paragraph topics and questions that are of interest to essay the academic community. When you write an academic paper, you must first try to find a topic or a question that is relevant and appropriate - not only to how long should a paragraph an essay you, but to the academic community of which you are now a part. Poetry. But how do you know when a topic is relevant and appropriate to this community? First of should be in an essay all, pay attention to what your professor is saying. An Embarrassing Moment. She will certainly be giving you a context into which you can place your questions and observations. Second, understand that your paper should be of interest to other students and scholars. Remember that academic writing must be more than personal response.

You must write something that your readers will find useful. In other words, you will want to write something that helps your reader to better understand your topic, or to see it in a new way. 3. This brings us to our final point: Academic writing should present the reader with an informed argument. To construct an informed argument, you must first try to how long a paragraph sort out what you know about a subject from training day essay, what you think about a paragraph be in a subject. Or, to put it another way, you will want to consider what is value, known about how long should a paragraph an essay a subject and then to essay determine what you think about it. If your paper fails to inform, or if it fails to argue, then it will fail to how long be in meet the expectations of the academic reader. Constructing An Informed Argument. When you sit down to write an academic paper, you'll first want to consider what you know about your topic. Essay. Different writing assignments require different degrees of knowing. A short paper written in response to a viewing of Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window, for example, may not require you to be familiar with Hitchcock's other works.

It may not even require you to have mastered the terms important to film criticism - though clearly any knowledge you bring to the film might help you to make a thoughtful response to it. However, if you are asked to write an academic paper on the film, then you will want to an essay know more. You will want to have certain terms in essay hand so that you can explain what Hitchcock is how long an essay, doing in key moments. You will want to be familiar with Hitchcock's other films so that you can understand what themes are important to training day essay him and his work. How Long A Paragraph Be In An Essay. Moreover, if you are watching this film in a research paper an upper-level film class, you will want to be aware of different critical perspectives on Hitchcock's films and on films in general, so that you can place your argument within the an essay, larger ongoing conversation.

When you sit down to essay write an a paragraph be in an essay, academic paper, ask yourself these questions: Can I answer the questions who, what, when, where, why, how? What do I know about the day essay, context of my topic? What historical or cultural influences do I know about that might be important to how long an essay my topic? Does my topic belong to any particular genre or category of topics? What do I know about this genre?

What seems important to me about training this topic? If I were to summarize what I know about this topic, what points would I focus on? What points seem less important? Why do I think so? How does this topic relate to other things that I know?

What do I know about the topic that might help my reader to understand it in new ways? What do I need to know? How can I find out more? You'll discover as you consider the should a paragraph be in an essay, questions listed above that you are moving beyond what you know about a topic and are beginning to consider what you think. In the day essay, process of should a paragraph an essay really thinking about your topic, your aim is to come up with a fresh observation.

After all, it's not enough to summarize in a paper what is already known and talked about. You must also add something of your own to the conversation. Understand, however, that adding something of view a research your own is not an invitation simply to how long should a paragraph an essay bring your own personal associations, reactions, or experiences to the reading of a text. To create an informed argument, you must first recognize that your writing should be analytical rather than personal. In other words, your writing must show that your associations, reactions, and experiences of a text have been framed in a critical, rather than a personal, way. How does one move from personal response to analytical writing? First, summarize what the primary text is training day essay, saying.

You'll notice that you can construct several different summaries, depending on how long a paragraph be in, your agenda. Returning to the example of an embarrassing Hitchcock's film, you might make a plot summary, a summary of its themes, a summary of its editing, and so on. You can also summarize what you know about the film in context. Should A Paragraph An Essay. In other words, you might write a summary of the difficulties Hitchcock experienced in the film's production, or you might write a summary of how this particular movie complements or challenges other films in the Hitchcock canon. You can also summarize what others have said about the film. Film critics have written much about Hitchcock, his films, and their genre. An Embarrassing. Try to summarize all that you know.

The process of evaluation is an ongoing one. You evaluate a text the moment you encounter it, and you continue to evaluate and to re-evaluate as you go along. Evaluating a text is different from simply reacting to a text. When you evaluate for an academic purpose, it is how long should, important to be able to clearly articulate and to support your own personal response. What in training day essay the text is leading you to respond a certain way? What's not in how long should a paragraph be in the text that might be contributing to buy personal essay your response? Watching Hitchcock's film, you are likely to how long a paragraph be in an essay have found yourself feeling anxious, caught up in the film's suspense.

What in the film is making you feel this way? The editing? The acting? Can you point to a moment in the film that is particularly successful in creating suspense? In asking these questions, you are straddling two intellectual processes: experiencing your own personal response, and analyzing the text. Constructing an informed argument asks you first to analyze - that is, to consider the parts of your topic and then to examine how these parts relate to each other or to the whole. Narrative. To analyze Hitchcock's film, you may want to break the film down by examining particular scenes, point of view, camera movements, and so on.

In short, you'll want to ask: What are the components of Hitchcock's film, and how do these components contribute to how long a paragraph the film's theme? How do they contribute to Hitchcock's work as a whole? When you analyze, you break the whole into parts so that you might see the whole differently. In the a research paper, process of analysis, you find things that you might say. When you analyze, you break down a text into its parts. When you synthesize, you look for connections between ideas. Consider once again the how long should a paragraph be in, Hitchcock film. In analyzing this film, you might come up with elements that seem initially disparate.

You may have some observations that at training day essay first don't seem to gel. Or you may have read various critical perspectives on a paragraph be in, the film, all of them in disagreement with one another. Now would be the time to consider whether these disparate elements or observations might be reconciled, or synthesized. This intellectual exercise requires that you create an a research, umbrella argument - some larger argument under which several observations and perspectives might stand. Many students writing in college have trouble figuring out what constitutes an a paragraph an essay, appropriate topic. Sometimes the professor will provide you with a prompt. Essay. She will give you a question to explore, or a problem to resolve. When you are given a prompt by your professor, be sure to read it carefully. Your professor is setting the how long, parameters of the assignment for you. She is telling you what sort of paper will be appropriate. In many cases, however, the professor won't provide you with a prompt.

She might not even give you a topic. Training. For example, in be in an essay a psychology course you might be asked to write a paper on any theory or theories of self. Training. Your professor has given you a subject, but she has not given you a topic. Nor has she told you what the paper should look like. Should it summarize one of the a paragraph be in an essay, theories of self? Should it compare two or more theories? Should it place these theories into some historical context? Should it take issue with these theories, pointing out narrative essay, their limitations?

At this juncture, you have two options: talk to the professor and see what her expectations are, or figure out this matter for yourself. How Long Should Be In An Essay. It's always a good idea to talk with the professor. An Embarrassing Moment Essay. At the very least, you'll want to find out if the professor wants a report or a paper . In other words, is how long an essay, your professor looking for information or argument ? Chances are she'll want you to make an argument. It will be up to moment essay you to narrow your topic and to make sure that it's appropriately academic. As you think about a topic, ask yourself the following questions: Have you formed an how long should a paragraph be in an essay, intellectual question? In other words, have you constructed a question that will require a complex, thoughtful answer? Is the moment, question provocative? Startling? Controversial? Fresh?

Will you be able to answer this question adequately in a few pages? Or is the question impossibly broad? If the question seems broad, how might you narrow it? Does your question address both text and context? In other words, have you considered the historical and should a paragraph be in, cultural circumstances that influenced this text? Have you considered what other scholars have said about it? Will your reader care about this question?

Or will she say, So what? For more advice on this matter, consult Coming Up With Your Topic elsewhere in this Web site. When writing an academic paper, you must not only consider what you want to say, you must also consider to whom you are saying it. In other words, it's important to determine not only buy personal narrative essay, what you think about a topic, but also what your audience is be in an essay, likely to think. What are your audience's biases? Values? Expectations? Knowledge? To whom are you writing, and for what purpose?

When you begin to answer all of an embarrassing these questions, you have started to reckon with what has been called the rhetorical stance. Rhetorical stance refers to the position you take as a writer in terms of the how long a paragraph be in, subject and the reader of soldiers in africa essay your paper. Let's first consider your relationship to your topic. When you write a paper, you take a stand on a topic. You determine whether you are for or against, passionate or cool-headed. You determine whether you are going to view this topic through a particular perspective (feminist, for example), or whether you are going to make a more general response. Should Be In. You also determine whether you are going to analyze your topic through the lens of a particular discipline - history, for example. Your stance on value essay, the topic depends on the many decisions you have made in the reading and thinking processes. In order to make sure that your stance on a topic is appropriately analytical, you might want to ask yourself some questions.

Begin by asking why you've taken this particular stance. Why did you find some elements of the text more important than others? Does this prioritizing reflect some bias or preconception on your part? If you dismissed part of a text as boring or unimportant, why did you do so? Do you have personal issues or experiences that lead you to how long should a paragraph be impatient with certain claims? Is there any part of writing tips your response to the text that might cause your reader to discount your paper as biased or un-critical? If so, you might want to reconsider your position on your topic. Your position on a topic does not by itself determine your rhetorical stance. You must also consider your reader. In the college classroom, the audience is usually the professor or your classmates - although occasionally your professor will instruct you to should a paragraph be in write for a more particular or more general audience.

No matter who your reader is, you will want to consider him carefully before you start to write. What do you know about your reader and value, his stance towards your topic? What is he likely to know about the topic? What biases is how long be in an essay, he likely to have? Moreover, what effect do you hope to have on the reader?

Is your aim to be controversial? Informative? Entertaining? Will the reader appreciate or resent your intention? Once you have determined who your reader is, you will want to consider how you might best reach him. If, for an embarrassing moment, example, you are an authority on a subject and you are writing to readers who know little or nothing about it, then you'll want to should a paragraph be in take an value of solitude, informative stance. If you aren't yet confident about a topic, and you have more questions than answers, you might want to take an inquisitive stance. In any case, when you are deciding on a rhetorical stance, choose one that allows you to be sincere. You don't want to take an authoritative stance on a subject if you aren't confident about how long should an essay what you are saying. On the other hand, you can't avoid taking a position on a subject: nothing is child soldiers in africa essay, worse than reading a paper in which the writer has refused to how long should an essay take a stance.

What if you are of moment two minds on should be in, a subject? Declare that to the reader. Make ambivalence your clear rhetorical stance. Finally, don't write simply to please your professor. Though some professors find it flattering to discover that all of an embarrassing essay their students share their positions on be in an essay, a subject, most of us are hoping that your argument will engage us by telling us something new about your topic - even if that something new is simply a fresh emphasis on a minor detail. Moreover, it is impossible for you to replicate the ideal paper that exists in your professor's head.

When you try, you risk having your analysis compared to your professor's. Do you really want that to of solitude essay happen? In high school you might have been taught various strategies for structuring your papers. Some of you might have been raised on the five paragraph theme, in be in which you introduce your topic, come up with three supporting points, and then conclude by soldiers, repeating what you've already said. Others of be in you might have been told that the child essay, best structure for a paper is the hour-glass model, in which you begin with a general statement, make observations that are increasingly specific, and how long should a paragraph be in, then conclude with a statement that is once again general. When you are writing papers in college, you will require structures that will support ideas that are more complex than the ones you considered in high school. Your professors might offer you several models for structuring your paper. They might tell you to order your information chronologically or spatially, depending on soldiers essay, whether you are writing a paper for a history class or a course in art history. Or they may provide you with different models for argument: compare and contrast, cause and effect, and so on.

But remember: the structure for your argument will in the end be determined by the content itself. No prefab model exists that will provide adequate structure for the academic argument. (For more detailed advice on various ways to structure your paper, see Writing: Considering Structure and Organization.) When creating an informed argument, you will want to rely on several organizational strategies, but you will want to keep some general advice in mind. Your introduction should accomplish two things: it should declare your argument, and it should place your argument within the larger, ongoing conversation about your topic. Often writers will do the latter before they do the former. That is, they will begin by how long a paragraph, summarizing what other scholars have said about their topic, and then they will declare what they are adding to value essay the conversation. Even when your paper is not a research paper you will be expected to a paragraph be in an essay introduce your argument as if into a larger conversation. Place your argument for your reader by naming the text, the essay, author, the issues it raises, and your take on these issues. How Long Be In An Essay. (For more specific advice on writing a good introduction, see Introductions and Conclusions.) Probably you were taught in high school that every paper must have a declared thesis, and that this sentence should appear at the end of the introduction. While this advice is day essay, sound, a thesis is sometimes implied rather than declared in a text, and it can appear almost anywhere - if the writer is skillful.

Whether your thesis appears at the end of the introduction or the end of how long should a paragraph your paper, it must make an arguable claim - that is, it should declare something that is interesting and debatable. Because your thesis is arguably the most important sentence in your paper, you will want to read more about it in Developing Your Thesis. Because every thesis presents an arguable point, you as a writer are obligated to acknowledge in your paper the other side(s) of an poetry tips, argument. How Long Should A Paragraph An Essay. Consider what your opponents might say against your argument. Then determine where and how you want to deal with the opposition.

Do you want to dismiss the opposition in the first paragraph? Do you want to list each opposing argument and view a research paper, rebut them one by one? Your decisions will determine how you structure your paper. Every convincing argument must have support. Your argument's support will be organized in your paper's paragraphs. These paragraphs must each declare a point, usually formed as that paragraph's topic sentence, or claim.

A topic sentence or claim is like a thesis sentence - except that instead of announcing the how long a paragraph an essay, argument of the training day essay, entire paper, it announces the argument of that particular paragraph. In this way, the topic sentence controls the paper's evidence. The topic sentence is more flexible than the thesis in that it can more readily appear in different places within the how long be in, paragraph. Most often, however, it appears at or near the beginning. For more information on structuring paragraphs, see Writing: Considering Structure and Organization. Writing a good conclusion is difficult. You will want to sum up, but you will want to do more than say what you have already said. You will want to leave the child soldiers in africa essay, reader with something to should a paragraph think about, but you will want to an embarrassing moment avoid preaching. You might want to how long should a paragraph be in point to a new idea or question, but you risk confusing the reader by introducing something that he finds irrelevant. Writing conclusions is, in part, a matter of finding the proper balance. For more instruction on essay, how to write a good conclusion, see Introductions and Conclusions.

OK: you think you understand what's required of you in an academic paper. You need to be analytical. Critical. You need to create an informed argument. You need to consider your relationship to your topic and to how long should a paragraph an essay your reader. But what about the an embarrassing essay, matter of finding an appropriate academic tone and how long a paragraph be in an essay, style? The tone and essay writing tips, style of academic writing might at first seem intimidating.

But they needn't be. Professors want students to write clearly and intelligently on matters that they, the should be in, students, care about. What professors DON'T want is imitation scholarship - that is, exalted gibberish that no one cares about. If the student didn't care to write the paper, the poetry writing, professor probably won't care to read it. The tone of an academic paper, then, must be inviting to be in the reader, even while it maintains an moment essay, appropriate academic style. Remember: professors are human beings, capable of boredom, laughter, irritation, and awe.

Understand that you are writing to a person who is how long an essay, delighted when you make your point clearly, concisely, and persuasively. Understand, too, that she is essay, less delighted when you have inflated your prose, pumped up your page count, or tried to how long should be in an essay impress her by of solitude, using terms that you didn't take the time to understand. In short, then, good academic writing follows the how long be in an essay, rules of good writing. If you'd like to know more about how to improve your academic style, please see Attending to Style, elsewhere in this Web site. But before you do, consider some of the following tips, designed to make the process of writing an academic paper go more smoothly: Rely on evidence over feeling. You may be very passionate about child in africa a subject, but that's no excuse to allow rhetoric alone to carry the ball. Even if you have constructed some very pretty phrases to argue against should an essay genetic engineering, they won't mean much to your professor unless you back those pretty phrases with facts. Watch your personal pronouns.

Students often wonder if it's OK to use the paper, pronouns I and be in, you in day essay a paper. How Long Should A Paragraph Be In. In fact, it is OK - provided you use them understanding their effect. For example, overusing the I might make the reader feel that your paper is value essay, overly subjective. In fact, when a writer too often invokes himself in the first person, he may be doing so to an essay avoid offering proof: It's my own personal opinion, and I have a right to it. I don't have to defend it. But of day essay course, he does. As to how long should a paragraph be in an essay using the in africa, pronoun you: Do you really want to aim a remark directly at the reader?

Doing so draws the reader closer to the text and invites a more subjective (and sometimes more intensely critical) response. If this kind of response is what you want, then by all means employ the you. However, you should also remember that certain academic disciplines (the sciences, for example) would frown on how long a paragraph an essay, the use of poetry writing these pronouns. When in doubt, ask. Watch your gendered pronouns. When you write, you'll want to make sure that you don't do anything to make your readers feel excluded. If you use he and him all the should a paragraph an essay, time, you are excluding half of your potential readership. We'll acknowledge that the he/she solution is a bit cumbersome in narrative writing. However, you might solve the problem as we have done in this document: by alternating he and she throughout. Other writers advocate always using she instead of he as a way of acknowledging a long-standing exclusion of how long be in an essay women from texts. Whatever decision you make in an embarrassing moment the end, be sensitive to its effect on your readers.

Be aware of discipline-specific differences. How Long Should A Paragraph. Each of the a research, academic disciplines has its own way of constructing knowledge, of organizing that knowledge, of using evidence, and of communicating within the field. These differences, which run very deep, also express themselves in how long be in an essay terms of tone and style. Poetry Essay. If you need more information about discipline-specific issues, talk to your professor. Read deeply in the discipline with the should be in an essay, aim of trying to understand how people working within this discipline are constructing knowledge. And for matters regarding style, citation, and so forth, check out poetry essay tips, a relevant style manual, such as the MLA or APA style sheets. Avoid mechanical errors. No matter what audience you're writing for, you'll want to produce text that is error-free.

Errors in grammar and style slow your reader down. Sometimes they even obscure your meaning. Always proofread your text before passing it on to your reader. A Paragraph. If you find that you are making a lot of errors and want help with grammar and style, consult a handbook or see Attending to essay Grammar and Attending to how long be in an essay Style elsewhere in this Web site. Training Day Essay. You might also contact RWIT for help.

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and should a paragraph an essay, easier. Poetry Essay Tips? Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay.

To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and an essay, evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to day essay develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and should, not become addicted? What causes people to in africa essay rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love?

What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares?

Why do some marriages last for how long be in an essay, a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and writing tips, others extroverts? Why is how long should methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't?

Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide?

Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)?

Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys?

Why do adolescents need to moment essay establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and should an essay, happier lives?

Why are pets good for value, kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by should a paragraph be in an essay purring and kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in of solitude essay, boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and a paragraph an essay, bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs?

Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an view, advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered?

Why is should a paragraph an essay nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to buy personal essay light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against should a paragraph an essay, the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)?

Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of value AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and a paragraph be in, hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in view a research, the Middle East which resulted in an essay, the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the view paper, Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in how long should, the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. Poetry Essay? government shut down of 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to how long be in an essay the rest of the world?

Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and an embarrassing, away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in how long should be in, American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is China going to essay ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election?

Why have the how long should a paragraph be in an essay, police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is buy personal essay Twitter the how long a paragraph be in an essay, medium of buy personal essay choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution?

What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of how long be in an essay Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is English the main language used around the of solitude essay, world in business and a paragraph be in, science?

Why does India have a caste system? Why are the essay, Chinese still interested in religion after years of how long a paragraph an essay atheist communism? What caused the a research paper, great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by most of the rest of the how long a paragraph an essay, world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)?

Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for training, the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in how long should a paragraph, the topic and essay, describing the situation or effect. See the chart for easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of how long should a paragraph be in what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay.

Body: Be careful to tips write the how long a paragraph be in, reasons in buy personal narrative essay, parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in watching and talking with other people about the experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in how long should a paragraph be in an essay, seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of child soldiers Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of how long should a paragraph an essay your essay. Gather evidence from your own observations and from research. Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in buy personal narrative, the chart below. How Long A Paragraph Be In An Essay? Easy Introductions and Conclusions.

100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 6. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by view Virginia Kearney 108. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from how long should a paragraph an essay United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about writing. Please look at my How to soldiers in africa essay Write a Cause Essay for introduction and a paragraph, conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics.

Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and essay, helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. How Long Should? Really you have some excellent and an embarrassing, breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to should find the answers. Paper? I hope you will also shed some light on should a paragraph an essay the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the view paper, introductory and concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of others. Hoping to have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you!

Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from how long should be in an essay Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful. Training Day Essay? I love all these questions and how long should be in, essay topics, thanks. View A Research Paper? Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. How Long Should A Paragraph Be In An Essay? Another great post for teachers and students! I always learn to much from your sharing. Thank you!

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions. Moment Essay? That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from how long should a paragraph Japan. Of Solitude? Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. A Paragraph Be In An Essay? Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and training day essay, respective owners.

Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of how long be in HubPages, Inc. HubPages and paper, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. A Paragraph An Essay? Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Leadership Styles And Productivity. There have been as many definitions of Leadership as many have tried to define it. The sheer complexity of the should a paragraph, concept can be understood by the magnitude of the writing, number of research articles available on be in an essay the internet today. There has been none universally accepted definition however though there are a few definitions which are most sought after. According to Bass (1990), 'Leadership is an interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves as structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and buy personal narrative expectations of the members. Be In? Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of the other in the group. Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of leadership (pp. 19-20)'. Pfinffner and Preshtus define leadership as 'a kind of moral spirit and essay responsibility in the leader, which is led to unifying the efforts of the how long should be in an essay, employees in order to achieve goals which exceed personal interests' (Hamadat, 2006: 16).

Leadership can be explained as the ability of an individual to have power that focuses on how to establish directions by view adapting forces (Go et al., 1996). From an organisational perspective, Schermerhorn (1999) believed that leading is a process used to motivate and to should a paragraph an essay influence others to work hard in order to view realize and support organisational goals, while Hersey et al. (2001) believed that leadership influences individuals' behaviour based on both individuals' and organisational goals. Robbins (2001) defined leadership as the ability of an individual to influence the behaviour of a group to achieve organisational goals. Most, if not all definitions are circumferenced around two aspects of Leadership, one being the traits that the leaders elicit and other happens to a paragraph be the organisational or group goals as the situation may be which clearly exemplifies the moment essay, fact that leadership has a significant influence on the results achieved by the group or the organisation. However, it is important to understand that situations and contexts vary in varied organisations and one kind of leadership may not work effectively in all the situations. Hence, it is important for organisations and the Leaders themselves to understand the expectations of the subordinates and then try to how long should be in an essay accommodate the same in their style of Leadership.

Before we delve deeper into the relationship of Subordinate Performance and Leadership Styles, it is important to understand the different kinds of an embarrassing essay Leadership styles. One of the early work done by how long a paragraph Kurt Lewin in 1939 along with a group of researchers identified three types of Leadership Styles ' Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez 'fair. Most of the researches have been focussed of the first two styles since the third style is considered as lack of any specific leadership style which plays a dominant part only when the subordinates are motivated and knowledgeable at the given tasks. With the context in child essay, place of an Indian manufacturing company where the how long should be in, workmen are more or less at the mercy of their supervisors in decision making the study takes only the former styles of leadership to assess the relationship of view a research productivity and leadership style. 2.1.1 Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership. There has been lot of discussion about Hitler regarding their leading style which necessarily involved a lot of close supervision, maintaining legitimate power (Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy). Hitler projected a personalized charismatic leadership, a style that is 'exploitative, non-egalitarian, and self-aggrandizing' (Choi). He was extremely focused on his personal control, insisting that the how long should an essay, 'ultimate authority rested with him and extended downward' (BBC). Hitler was known for essay heavily critiquing those who reported to be in an essay him and became angry and frustrated with mistakes.

He did not trust others, particularly the generals who reported to him during the Second World War. Without establishing a two-way relationship, Hitler could not, and would not, rely on the opinions of others, resorting to his instincts and opinions (Geoffrey). Moment Essay? This kind of a paragraph leadership falls well within the boundaries of Authoritarian Leadership. Autocratic leadership has four major characteristics: ' The leader makes all important decisions. ' The leader is primarily concerned with task accomplishment and not the subordinates satisfaction or well being.

' The leader maintains a considerable social distance from the subordinates. ' The leader employs punishment as a means of motivation rather than rewards. Looking at child essay the psychological perspectives of the above mentioned style of leadership tests reveal that Autocratic Leaders score high on how long should be in an essay Abasement, Aggression and Achievement. However they score low on Intraception, Nurturance and Social Values. With respect to the organisational perspective, it is imperative to understand that there is no certain answer to which leadership style will produce the best results in an organisation. It largely depends on the organisational culture and the kind of task at hand for the leader.

For example, in a war, the leaders are required to make quick decisions and don't have all the time for a democratic process, which puts forward the argument that has been made above. Autocratic leadership can bring about exceptional results by more accurate decision making when the leader has good subject expertise and soldiers essay can improve the productivity, however only should be in when the leader is around. It is also suitable in essay, situations where the workforce is new and how long should an essay untrained or where economies of scale is being tried to be achieved which leaves little time for training day essay a democratic process to be followed in decision making. This style of leadership though most common has started to lose its shine in a paragraph an essay, the present context over writing the democratic form of leadership. However, many still have bat in favour of this kind of leadership citing that it is the context which determines which kind of leadership will be effective and not the absolute style per how long should be in, se.

2.1.2 Democratic Leadership. Kurt Lewin and his colleagues presented what has become the classic formulation of democratic leadership (Lewin Lippitt, 1938; Lewin, Lippitt, White, 1939; White Lippitt, 1960). They distinguished democratic leadership from autocratic and laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic leaders relied upon group decision making, active member involvement, honest praise and criticism, and a degree of comradeship. By contrast, leaders using the other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Unfortunately. Lewin and essay his colleagues never developed the definition beyond this rough sketch, leading some critics to find undemocratic implications in their ostensibly democratic model of should a paragraph leadership. Despite this lack of conceptual precision, Lewin and others have identified the central element of the term: democratic leadership is writing tips behaviour that influences people in a manner consistent with and/or conducive to basic democratic principles and processes, such as self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation (Dahl, 1989; Fishkin, 1991). Democratic leadership has three major characteristics: ' Distributing responsibility within the subordinates ' According to Krech et al. (1962) 'The democratic leader seeks to evoke maximum involvement and how long a paragraph an essay the participation of every member in the group activities and in the determination of objectives. In organisational settings it is imperative for child soldiers essay leaders to delegate tasks and decision making within their subordinates since it helps in building a pool of future leaders for the organisation. Nagel (1987), argues that to avoid the free riding issues, democratic leader should not only ask subordinates to take on responsibility, rather be demanding in reminding them of how long a paragraph be in an essay their collective responsibilities. ' Empowering the members ' Democratic leadership can augment members' skills by setting high but reasonable standards and asking members to challenge themselves (Tead, 1935).

Members' abilities may develop through taking on new responsibilities, but leaders can also play a direct role by offering instruction or suggestions, particularly when asked to do so (Busch, 1934; Lewin et al., 1939). Good leaders can expand their ranks by becoming 'role models' to change novices from 'followers' to leaders (Baker, 1982, p. View? 325). This has particularly significant implication since shortage of talent pool is an important concern for organisations in be in, the today's era. The organisations are looking at drawing leaders from the of solitude, available talent pool from within the organisation first and then resorting to lateral hire. The organisation which has leaders who in turn can create leaders are thriving in a paragraph be in an essay, the cut throat competition and narrowed margins. ' Aiding the subordinates in their deliberations ' Its' not enough for a leader to only delegate and empower subordinates but has to take the relationship to the next level through appropriate deliberation methodology. Democratic leaders must distribute responsibility appropriately and empower other group members, but they must devote the bulk of writing tips their time and energy to ensuring productive and democratic decision making. How Long Be In An Essay? Democratic leadership aids the child soldiers in africa, deliberative process through constructive participation, facilitation, and the maintenance of how long an essay healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. Having talked about the facets of democratic leadership, it has be borne in child soldiers, mind that the style of a paragraph leadership cannot by any means be categorized as the better of the two leadership styles i.e.

Autocratic and Democratic. Though the positives are there with democratic leadership, still previous writings on democracy and democratic leadership suggest that people often reject this form of leadership for at least four reasons. First, some people oppose a democratic leadership structure because it directly threatens their undemocratic authority. Moving toward democracy would strip them of some of their status, power, and, in some cases, wealth (Slater Bennis, 1990). Second, some people have authoritarian values and are not easily swayed from a strong belief in the justness and efficiency of powerful, directive authorities (Bell, 1950; Lassey 1971; Tead, 1935). Third, most people have, to some degree, an of solitude unconscious or conscious desire for a hero, a charismatic figure capable of solving our problems and sweeping away our confusion (Abse Jessner, 1962; Smith, 1926). Finally, some reject the notion of democratic leadership for the opposite reason, having no faith whatsoever in leaders of any kind and no belief in their necessity (Nagel, 1987; Tead, 1935)

However, Lippitt (1983) identifies a number of promising trends in the 1970s and early 1980s that are probably still present today: expectations of shared power and responsibility are increasing; there is a greater degree of collaboration and communication; and how long should a paragraph people have an increasing awareness of the need for organizational openness and flexibility. With the baby boomers towards the end of the tenure and entrance of a research Gen Y, who thrive in responsibilities and accountabilities, into the workforce democratic leadership could be more widespread than what the present situation unveils. Thus it is clearly evident from the should a paragraph, above discussion that there is contextual effect to child essay which kind of leadership style will suit a given situation and will be effective. It depends on many factors all of which hasn't been unearthed yet, however a few common factors affecting leadership effectiveness are the organisational culture, the time frame available for decision making for an essay the leader, the task itself, the capabilities of the subordinates and of course not to miss out the country in which the organisation operates. The study will now aim to understand Global and Indian manufacturing outlook which significantly is a reason for organisations employing productivity up scaling drives and at arriving at essay a definition of Productivity. With so much available on the term today with each organisation defining productivity in its own way it becomes really important to how long should a paragraph be in have a clear understanding of the definition and factors involved in the term 'Productivity'. 2.2 Manufacturing Outlook ' Global and essay Indian context. The global manufacturing sector has undergone a boisterous decade: large developing economies leaped into the first tier of manufacturing nations, a severe recession choked off demand, and manufacturing employment fell at an accelerated rate in advanced economies. Still, manufacturing remains critically important to both the developing and the advanced world. In the should a paragraph be in, former, it continues to provide a pathway from subsistence agriculture to rising incomes and living standards. In the day essay, latter, it remains a vital source of innovation and competitiveness, making outsized contributions to research and development, exports, and productivity growth.

But the manufacturing sector has changed'bringing both opportunities and challenges'and neither business leaders nor policy makers can rely on old responses in the new manufacturing environment. Amidst the should, volatility and uncertainty in the manufacturing sector, its role in day essay, the world economy has continued to progress. According to a research by Mc Kinsey and should be in Co., the next decade and day essay half will see the should a paragraph an essay, entry of approximately 1.8 billion consumers which will lead to worldwide consumption of close to $ 64 trillion. Developed economies will remain major consumers, however the share of value developing economies will rise which will enhance the living standards of the residents. The GDP share of manufacturing in the Indian economy is poised to grow from 16% to how long an essay 25% by 2022 according to India's national manufacturing policy release. Essay? Globally the manufacturing output is growing at about 2.7% annually in developed economies in contrast to 7.4% in the developed economies (2002-2007). When economies industrialize, manufacturing employment and output both rise rapidly, but once manufacturing's share of GDP peaks at 20 to a paragraph an essay 35 percent of GDP, it falls in an inverted U pattern, along with its share of employment. The reason is that as wages rise, consumers have more money to spend on services, and that sector's growth accelerates, making it more important than manufacturing as a source of growth and child soldiers essay employment. A Paragraph Be In? The focus then shifts from mere output to essay writing the efficiency, utilization of resources and cost aspect of production which the impacts the hiring plans for the industry as well. For example manufacturing share of US employment declined from 25% in 1950 to about 9% in 2008.

The figure below depicts how the share of manufacturing follows the inverted U shape as the an essay, economy matures. However, the situation in developing economies is far from the above mentioned point and can be safely assumed that the outlook of manufacturing looks positive in writing, a global context with the developing economies leading the way. In FY13, India's manufacturing sector grew slower than the rest of the economy, with GDP growth itself having slowed down. Concerns regarding the stability of some of the should a paragraph, Eurozone economies, sluggish growth in the US and the slowdown in key emerging economies have affected the Indian manufacturing sector's view of the narrative, global economy. The manufacturing sector has been moving at a slower pace than the overall economy for how long an essay some time now. As a result, the paper, sector's contribution to how long should GDP has declined marginally from 16.1 to 15.2% in the five years till March 2013. Growth rate in manufacturing reduced from 9.7% in buy personal, 2010-11 to 2.7% in 2011-12 and 1% in 2012-13. In FY13, only 3.3% of the country's growth was generated by how long be in manufacturing as opposed to 83% contributed by services, according to soldiers in africa The Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and should be in Programme Implementation. A research conducted by PWC indicates that the India, China and the other developing economies will fare better than the rest of the world in regards to the growth of manufacturing industry. However, there will be concerns arising out of lack of domestic demand, increasing pricing pressure, interest rates and achieving cost efficiency primarily because of increase in wages. The global economic slowdown, slow growth rates except a few Asian countries and the persistent Euro Zone instability has continued to bother the manufacturing companies' across the globe.

The outlook for the manufacturing companies has not been great in the last half a decade and the volatility that the past has witnessed is there to stay. Along with that the increase in competition and consequently its impact on pricing strategies of the organisations have put even more pressure on the manufacturing companies to focus a lot on the output vis ' a ' vis costs. With the enhancement in technology and e ' commerce becoming more and more prevalent the customers have a wider range of options to choose from and with this competitive pricing becomes even more important to capture and buy personal narrative essay sustain customer base. Mobile phone industry is a perfect example of the same. With the foray of low cost manufacturers like Micromax and Karbonn in the mobile industry, the pressure on bigger players like Samsung, Sony, Nokia etc. to should be in remain competitive with their pricing grows. No player in the industry can boast of being the monopolistic company like Nokia once had in the mobile phone industry. The above discussion unveils a harsh reality for manufacturing companies across the globe i.e. to monitor their costs and improve their output for the similar costs that they did earlier. View A Research? Achieving better capacity utilization will also be at the back of the mind of the manufacturing community. The culmination of cost efficiency, capacity utilization, improving output at the same input resources and various other parameters including financial aspects collectively give rise to the term called 'Productivity' which the study tries to define in the manufacturing setup in the Indian context.

Productivity has normally been defined as the a paragraph be in, ratio of output available at disposal of the a research, organisation to the input resources that is expended. Productivity is the relationship between the quantity of output and the quantity of input used to how long should be in generate that output. Of Solitude Essay? It is basically a measure of the effectiveness and efficiency of your organisation in generating output with the resources available. Productivity = Output / Input. As it is evident that there are two variable involved in how long should be in, the determination of productivity. Output can be measured in either physical quantity like number of units produced or in financial value like revenue, value added etc. The input can be measured in of solitude essay, human resources (number of hours worked, number of should a paragraph be in an essay labour engaged or the labour cost) or capital deployed to achieve the value essay, output. Various Metrics that are used to measure productivity at how long be in the organisational are profitability, value added, revenue generated, return on capital employed (ROI / ROCE), organisational growth rate etc.

The measures can be single factor or multifactor basis the need of the organisation and the industry it operates in. At the operational level the commonly used metrics of productivity measurement are labour productivity, capacity utilisation etc. In manufacturing companies across the globe the concept of OEE (overall equipment efficiency) / OLE (overall line efficiency) has been commonly used apart from the former productivity measures. In fact, the entire operations can be broken down into an embarrassing moment, smaller elements like production, purchase, maintenance and allied and their productivity is being measured on an individual basis e.g. How Long Should Be In? delivery lead time, production compliance, maintenance cost etc. Value Essay? This gives the organisation required control over the processes and more specifically the operations managers to how long be in have a closer look at training day essay the gaps in the system and take short interval controls. For the purpose of the study two productivity measures were analysed, one being OEE (overall equipment efficiency) and should be in an essay the other being Labour Productivity. 2.3.1 OEE (Overall equipment efficiency) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a way to monitor and improve the efficiency of a manufacturing process. Developed in the mid 1990's, OEE has become an tips accepted management tool to measure and evaluate plant floor productivity. The analysis of OEE starts with Plant Operating Time, a measure of the time available for equipment operation.

For a plant which is in continuous operation will thus have at least 720 hours for operation in a month under the premise that the month consists of 30 days. How Long Should A Paragraph Be In An Essay? For e.g. Steel making, glass making are continuous processes since the furnace cannot be shut down for moment any reason whatsoever as it will take long hours to reach the temperature that is required for the processing. An Essay? However the same is not true for many other industry like automotive, textile and many others which can have a break in the operations. From the Plant Operating Time, downtime which are planned by the unit (Planned Shutdown) is deducted to arrive at poetry Planned Production time. Planned Shutdown can be taken due to various reasons ' lack of demand of the product, strike, lockout and many others. Planned Production time is be in an essay where OEE initiates since the other mentioned items are majorly out of the control of the value of solitude, unit manager. From the Planned Production time three losses inherent in any product manufacturing are reduced to arrive at the Fully Productive Time where value is added during the process in a manufacturing operation.

The three losses are Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss which are categorized as Availability, Performance and Quality. Graphically OEE can be represented as (Illustrative): Fig 3. The table below shows the three losses and should their definitions. The productive time shown above is the view a research paper, final output that organisations want and try to increase the same through various productivity improvement methods. Availability It is the ratio of a paragraph be in an essay Operating Time to training day essay Planned Production Time (Operating Time is a paragraph be in an essay Planned Production Time less Down Time Loss) Performance It is the ratio of Net Operating Time to Operating Time (Net Operating Time is Operating Time less Speed Loss). It is also calculated as the ratio of Actual Production to Plant Production Capacity. Quality It is the ratio of training day essay Fully Productive Time to Net Operating Time (Fully Productive Time is Net Operating Time less Quality Loss). This is also calculated as the ratio Quality Production to Total Production.

OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality. For example, if all three contributing factors are 90.0%, the OEE would be 72.9% where as if all the factors are at 80%, the OEE would be 51.2%. This illustration clearly shows that in individual parameters, plant may be performing well (80% is considered a good number) while when combined together in the form of OEE, the how long be in, performance would be considered gloomy. Worldwide studies indicate that the average OEE rate in manufacturing plants is 60% while in world class manufacturing plants Availability factor is 90%, Performance is 95% and Quality is 99.9% thus making OEE to close to 85%. OEE is an effective tool to benchmark, analyse, and improve the production process.

The OEE tool gives the managers the a research, ability to measure machines for productivity improvements. OEE not only measures these inefficiencies but also groups them into categories which helps managers in analysing the a paragraph be in, machine and get a clear picture of the entire manufacturing process. A truly comprehensive OEE solution provides machine operators and production managers with continual line notification and control so that actions can be taken to prevent events that can result in downtime, slower cycle speeds, and poor product quality. It's a complete manager's tool to assess and reassess the manufacturing processes or parts of buy personal narrative essay it and how long take corrective actions in day essay, order to improve productivity and help the how long, organisation remain sustainable in the ever increasing competitive environment. 2.3.2 Labour Productivity.

It is one of the popularly used metric for assessing the productivity of a plant in a manufacturing company. Of Solitude? Technically, it is calculated as the ratio of Production in units to the number of labour deployed for the achievement of the output. There are a few variants of the how long be in, same as well where the soldiers, numerator remains the same however the denominator may vary as number of labour, total hours deployed by labour or the cost of wages of the labour engaged in the manufacturing process. As a formula, Labour Productivity = Quantity of how long Output in Units / Number of Labour deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of day essay Output in Units / Number of Man-hours deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Wages for how long should a paragraph the number of labour deployed for the same output.

With different versions available at child essay perusal, different companies use any or a combination of labour productivity metrics to assess their plant performance. While any one of the how long should an essay, productivity measures should suffice the understanding of value of solitude essay plants performance, still organisations are carefully choosing a set of indicators of productivity to how long should a paragraph be in an essay assess their performance vis-??-vis competition. One of the buy personal, reason can be that having multiple measures allows the managers to have an eye on the detailed performance of subsystems of the entire system and plan accordingly. Having defined all the elements of the relationship which the study aims at establishing, it becomes imperative to look at what the earlier researches have established between the illustrated variables. 2.4 Productivity and Leadership style. The supervisor behaviour (leadership style) is one of the a paragraph be in an essay, key factors which impacts the performance of the frontline employees in the organisation. Quite some research has been done on the performance and leadership and the inter-linkages between the two. Numerous studies have demonstrated that such effective leadership behaviour is associated with the quality of poetry essay tips work of should subordinates in service organizations (Bettencourt Brown, 1997; Deluga, 1994; Pillai, Schriesheim, Williams, 1999; Podsakoffet al., 1990; Schaubroeck Fink, 1998). Leaders who develop a good relationship with their subordinates will in turn influence the level of narrative discretionary behaviour of these subordinates (e.g. Settoon, Bennett, Liden, 1996).

In a field experiment, Lam and Schaubroeck (2000) found that using credible and influential people as service quality leaders could enhance the positive attitudes of bank tellers towards service quality initiatives, which result in a more favourable customer rating of service. MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and Rich (2001) found that transformational leaders could alter the service behaviour of frontline salespeople. A Paragraph Be In An Essay? Not only does effective leadership behaviour affect individual service quality, it also enhances team service quality. However, specific relationship between productivity measures of buy personal narrative workmen and how long should a paragraph supervisor's leadership in the Indian manufacturing context with the blue ' collar workmen hasn't received the requisite attention of the academicia which this study is day essay trying to aim at. Sauer (2011) confirms the importance of leadership and its effect on the performance of employees. Sauer's study explained the importance of leadership behaviour and how the how long should an essay, leader's performance style will affect the buy personal essay, organization. Danish et al. (2011) discussed the effect of leadership and a manager's style, showing that these had a significant effect on how long a paragraph be in an essay the administration and its effectiveness. According to a research done of 511 frontline service providers in training, 6 service organisations by Harry et al., the leadership style of the supervisor plays a dominant role in producing better service quality, which is the output in this case, when the work environment and organisation culture are not conducive for better efficiency. The leadership style used for how long a paragraph be in an essay the study were task oriented, people oriented and ethically oriented. However, in organisations where the child in africa, work culture is good, leadership fails to how long a paragraph make an impact.

An alternate viewpoint can be that leadership plays a key role in value of solitude essay, creating the should a paragraph be in, kind of environment where performance can be better (Dickson, Smith, Grojean, Ehrhart, 2001; Koeneet al., 2002; Litwin Stringer, 1968). Hence, the frontline employees may not be able to gauge the importance of leadership. The situation was worse when both work culture and supervisor leadership were lacking which is buy personal a clear indication that each factor present in how long should a paragraph be in, a positive way nullifies the negative effect of the other factor. In short, the study aims to examine the relative contribution of service climate and effective leadership behaviour to employee service quality, and the interaction effect of these two independent variables on the service quality. Johannes et al., in their study of an embarrassing 161 pairs of supervisor-subordinate pair in 24 companies of an essay Germany revealed that transformational leadership related more strongly and positively to innovation for subordinates low in organization-based self-esteem. When subordinates were low in self-presentation propensity, active-corrective transactional leadership was negatively, and transformational leadership was positively associated with task performance.

This research again testifies the fact that leadership is a significantly affecting variable in subordinate's performance. This research also has interpretation on essay tips psychological aspects of the subordinates' i.e. self-esteem and self-presentation. It also testifies the fact that different demographics of employees may want different kind of leadership to be effective and efficient in their task performance. This adds another dimension to the leadership performance relationship. A study conducted by Heba et al. among 320 heads of instructional departments from how long be in an essay randomly selected schools show that the principals' leadership style has a significant impact on the teacher's motivation to achieve the desired task goals. Transformational leadership exhibited a positive correlation with the teacher's achievement motivation which is connected to performance excellence. Another research in the same area by Onne Janssen illustrates that when supervisors are perceived to be supportive of risk taking fosters innovation and the supervisors who are perceived as not supportive hinder the employees from carrying out innovative work in their task area or otherwise. Buy Personal Narrative Essay? The survey of 170 employees in a Dutch company reveals that when employees perceive that their supervisors respond to employee innovation in a supportive and respectful manner, they feel stimulated to use their influence to persuade their subordinates and other actors to support the development and should a paragraph be in realization of their new ideas. LMX (Leader Member Exchange) embodies the relationship between a leader (Supervisor) and follower (Subordinate) and was initially conceptualized by Graen and colleagues (Dansereauetal.1973, Graen 1976, Graen and Cashman, 1975). According to LMX theory the leader ' follower relation falls on a continuum where one of the ends is developed relationship i.e. high involvement and on the other end is exchange ' based relationship which has low involvement.

The managers should be able to understand these aspects of leadership since they have a significant impact on child in africa the employee behaviours and consequently productivity and performance. How Long Be In An Essay? However, Hofstede showed that high involvement / low involvement is also a characteristic of culture of the country which he defined as power distance. A research on 577 employees in 3 wood manufacturing companies in Pennsylvania illustrates that employees who are led by narrative supportive leader display better organisational commitment, job satisfaction and have higher performance that the peers who have no supportive leader. Also, the intention to quit the should be in, organisation was far lesser which has cost and productivity implications in the longer run as well. Another study on the same lines was done by Shahabuddin et al. on 80 employees working with IT in real estate and housing development industry in an embarrassing moment, Bangladesh. The study reveals that leadership indeed has a role to play in job satisfaction of the employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and how long should a paragraph be in an essay performance on the job. It was found that supervisors who engaged in positive motivational behaviours tend to have more satisfied subordinates and better performance from their group members.

Through their education, training, and experience, managers develop their personal leadership style (Hersey et al., 2001). This leadership style is training a fundamental concern of managers and researchers (Wood, 1994) due to its effect on subordinates deliver more productive work when the leader have specific leadership styles (Mullins, 1998). If managers adopt their subordinates' preferred style giving employees the a paragraph an essay, respect and fair treatment they deserve, then this is seen to lead to job satisfaction, which in will affect the functioning of the of solitude, organisation (Spector, 1997). Satisfied employees are absent less, show less job stress, stay at work longer, and how long make positive contributions to value of solitude essay their organisations (Griffin, 2002). Furthermore, Yousef (2000) showed that leadership behaviour was positively related to job satisfaction and therefore managers needed to adopt appropriate leadership behaviour in order to improve it. How Long Be In? Leadership style affects a range of factors such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intention, and stress (Chen and Silverthorne, 2005) and so contribute to organisational success (Rad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). A study of 220 Jonardian resort hotel employees consisting of 110 subordinates and 110 managers could not refute the possibility of a relationship between job satisfaction and leadership style of training managers.

However, job satisfaction was found to how long be a function of demographical factors as well. A Research Paper? The study also revealed that democratic leadership was most prevalent which again has been reinforced by another study conducted on 300 employees across manufacturing and service organisations in the public and be in private setup. This study shows that participatory and altruistic management style were the most desirable among various management styles. Few key findings of the exploratory study are: ' Management styles vary from culture to culture and within the specific culture from poetry writing tips industry to industry. ' Participative management style is difficult to practice as sharing of how long a paragraph power is not easy for managers. ' Excessive altruism in business organizations may negatively affect organizational effectiveness. ' A strong positive relationship between the management styles and the effectiveness of human resources in terms of their 'Productivity' and moment essay 'Adaptability' The various researches studies in varied industries and countries show a definite correlation between leadership and performance and/ or job satisfaction; many a times mediated by other factors like organisational culture, work environment etc. The correlation holds true for how long a paragraph most of the industries and work settings whether it be a service industry or a manufacturing industry, same with public and in africa essay private sectors as well. How Long Should An Essay? However, the studies need to soldiers be furthered for how long a paragraph the blue collar employees who have a major role to play in the manufacturing setups since they are the ones responsible for generating the primary product of the company.

Their motivation, needs and job satisfaction needs to training be taken care of their supervisors if they have to extract the maximum productivity out of them. The productivity and leadership relation is also affected by the country's culture wherein different countries respond differently to leadership styles. Meade (1967) noticed that morale, productivity and quality of product were superior in the groups which had authoritarian leadership, these results being opposite from those reported by Lippitt and White (1943) and Lippitt (1940) who used a similar sample of boys in an American setting. This can be the output of the how long a paragraph be in an essay, kind of culture the sample was exposed to in their upbringing. While American children learn democratic practices at an early age, Indian are subjected to hierarchy and authority right from the beginning of their life and hence they get used to it as they grow. Another study by value essay Meade (1967) established that Chinese college students demonstrated more group cohesion in how long an essay, decision making in value of solitude, presence of be in an essay authoritarian leadership than they did to democratic leadership, while Chinese ' American demonstrated a balanced result to both authoritarian and democratic leadership. The studies in general have shown positive results in presence of leadership which has a human element imbibed in it rather to of solitude essay task orientation. Hence, participative, transformational and democratic leadership emerge to be favoured for job satisfaction and engagement of employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and better performance. A study by Robert et al. discloses negative effects of close and punitive supervision style. The study of 24 groups of 4 females each in the age group 17-19 under controlled environment reveals substantial increase in aggressive feelings toward the supervisor and in indirect aggression toward the supervisor through lowered productivity, an insignificant increase in verbal aggression toward the supervisor, and an increase of borderline significance in aggressive feelings toward co-workers in how long should a paragraph, case of close supervision. When subjected to punitive supervision the test group displayed significant increase in indirect aggression through lowered productivity and in verbal aggression.

This kind of situation won't be favourable for view a research the business when every organisation is vying for enhanced productivity and cohesiveness in group activities within and outside of the how long should a paragraph, organisation. The study having established the fact that there is a relationship between leadership style and poetry writing tips productivity of employees, aims to find out the should a paragraph an essay, most appropriate style of leadership for higher productivity of workmen in a manufacturing industry. It feels that democratic leadership style would fare better than authoritarian style since everyone would want to have a say in the decision making process which consequently affects them in child in africa, one way or the other. As many manufacturing organisations these days are practicing TPM, Lean, Quality Circles, 5S and Six Sigma concepts to how long an essay improve productivity all of which in some way or the other lead to added responsibilities for the workmen and more say in the technical decision making of the plant. Organisations have realised that for buy personal narrative growth to be sustainable it has to be collaborative effort of each small unit in how long should a paragraph an essay, the organisation and not just top down approach.

However, with the view, education level, skill sets and imbibed Indian culture which is predominantly authoritarian it remains to be seen if democratic leadership is correct approach for the workmen and should an essay not authoritarian/ autocratic leadership and vice versa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in training day essay, your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by should an essay a student in in africa essay, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of should a paragraph an essay this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Leadership Styles And Productivity . Training? Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/business/leadership-styles-productivity.php [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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