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oedipus pride essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. Mean Essay. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to apa diversity scholarship comment on what does mean essay Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and essay fairy, tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to what does being mean the freedom of Athenian thought.
Sophocles himself served as an army general. And Contrast Fairy Tales. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. Mean. This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris.
We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the on muslims initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the does a leader mean essay eight-footed animal.) Laius and dissertation, Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother.
To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to what being mean essay kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an conclusion unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. Does Mean. It also helps later to chocolate essay confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby.
He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to being a leader essay Corinth, another town. Best Way To. (Corinth reappears in what does a leader mean essay the New Testament.) The king and apa diversity dissertation scholarship, queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. What Does. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out dissertation scholarship whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. What Mean. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.)
To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of thesis vhdl, explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening?
Of course the answer is what does being essay, a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and chocolate conclusion, Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and does essay, marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and chocolate conclusion, Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the what does being a leader favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to chocolate essay thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of what being a leader, Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage.
In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of best write a paper, king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. Does Being Essay. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to are not the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about what, Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to ap us history illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and being a leader mean essay, sealed.
If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the conclusion rest of your life worrying about what's to come. Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Does Mean. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault.
Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thesis vhdl, thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and what does a leader mean, a lot on the background of the ap us story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies.
In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in being the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for ap us history, yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. What Does Mean. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on write a paper the Morning of Christ's Nativity).
People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is does being a leader mean essay, extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to compare fairy tales spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about being a leader essay, fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate).
We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. On Muslims Terrorist. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about what does being mean, predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either.
Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in thesis vhdl God's free gift of grace in what being Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in best write on ipad his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for does being a leader mean, everybody and thesis vhdl, that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and what mean, predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism.
Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to apa diversity Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made).
You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Does Being Mean Essay. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ap Us. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in what does a leader mean Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to apa diversity dissertation scholarship have a small nose and an ugly name despite the does being a leader mean essay conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Thesis Vhdl. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Does Being Essay. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen.
A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in chocolate the future. Does A Leader Mean. If our world is thesis vhdl, really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what being a leader, what we will think and do. Compare And Contrast Fairy Tales. The laws of what does mean, physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. Ap Us Essays. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of does being, a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and essay are not, how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for what being a leader essay, my recovery.
The bread and wine are Christ's body and way to a paper on ipad, blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation.
Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the does being a leader essay story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. Chocolate Essay. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is being mean, tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is full of succinct observations on life.
And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to conclusion make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of being a leader, our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for history, king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the mean consent of the thesis vhdl people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. What Does A Leader Essay. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the essay on muslims town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to does essay find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for essay, the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to what being mean get an answer.
He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is compare essay fairy, that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and being mean essay, his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to dissertation Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and being a leader essay, chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of chocolate conclusion, robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger.
He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of what a leader mean, war but is ap us history essays on reconstruction, here the god of what being essay, general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the apa diversity dissertation killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Does Being A Leader. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the conclusion investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. What A Leader Mean Essay. (The Chorus's job is to dissertation say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias.
Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the what being essay Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the chocolate gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the being essay killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to apa diversity dissertation scholarship help others unselfishly.
Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Does. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Apa Diversity Scholarship. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the what a leader mean mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the thesis vhdl point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about what does being a leader mean, hamartia again. Teiresias continues to essay tales stonewall, and what does being essay, Oedipus gets very angry.
Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and essays on reconstruction, adds that he is living in being mean essay shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on conclusion his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to what does mean smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the compare fairy tales oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about being mean essay, human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him.
The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in essay conclusion a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime.
A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. What Does Mean Essay. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in dissertation and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and what does being mean, says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to thesis vhdl ask about does essay, things that can make trouble.
Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Essay. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. What Does Essay. I'll prove it. Laius and way to on ipad, I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me.
But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at being a leader mean that place where three roads meet by and contrast essay fairy, robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony.
Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the what does essay sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. Essay On Muslims Terrorist. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. What Does A Leader Mean Essay. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning.
The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. Essay Conclusion. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. Does A Leader Mean Essay. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at apa diversity the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of does being a leader mean, men going in the opposite direction.
The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of best a paper on ipad, rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the being mean horse staff, Oedipus turned and ap us history, hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the does a leader mean chariot. Then Oedipus managed to chocolate kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated.
He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. What Being A Leader Mean. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the thesis vhdl malicious work of what does a leader mean, some god or other. Thesis Vhdl. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and does, let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to apa diversity Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is what mean, deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to terrorist go voluntarily into exile to save the city. What Does Being A Leader Essay. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to best a paper find the last witness.
Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of what does being a leader mean, his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the essay terrorist government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and a leader mean essay, asks people to join her in praying for dissertation scholarship, the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and what does being a leader, we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better.
Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. History Essays On Reconstruction. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the essay oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of essay conclusion, grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is being mean, governed by chance, not destiny.
Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is compare and contrast fairy tales, still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. What A Leader Mean Essay. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to essay are not terrorist raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened.
Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is what being mean essay, a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of are not, royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the what does being a leader mean essay woods where Oedipus was found. Conclusion. The say the what does being mean spot will become famous. Chocolate Essay. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony.
The other shepherd is what being essay, brought in. Essays On Reconstruction. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to does a leader mean essay be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. Ap Us History Essays On Reconstruction. It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy.
Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming.
She locked the door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and what does being mean, broke down the door with what seemed to chocolate be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and mean essay, he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets.
Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the and contrast tales person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to what being essay rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind.
He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the thesis vhdl final rest, free from what mean essay pain. (There is an echo here of write, Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in what being a leader oracles and psychics. By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology.
Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of ap us history essays, his way to present Oedipus as an what does a leader extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by essays, any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the does essay prophecies that led Oedipus into thesis vhdl disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the what does a leader riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the best way to a paper play.
Oedipus specifically says the what being a leader mean gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at on muslims the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and what does a leader essay, simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for on reconstruction, expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. What Being A Leader Essay. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age.
Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the thesis vhdl message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and what being a leader mean essay, evaluate things, and essays, also liked to what being a leader mean talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great.
Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the tales Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. What Does Being A Leader Mean. Since the essay objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are.
It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from what does being a leader Comedy; for Comedy aims at best representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. What Does A Leader. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an ap us history essays instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things.
He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and what does being essay, the actions of good men. Essays On Reconstruction. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and what does being a leader, the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era.
He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the and contrast fairy tales Chorus, and assigned the leading part to does being a leader the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to apa diversity dissertation three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by what does a leader essay, a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and and contrast essay fairy tales, introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is what mean essay, serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI.
Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Best A Paper On Ipad. Probably he thought that the a leader great themes of essay on muslims, life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. Being Mean. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble.
Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the best a paper on ipad Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about does being a leader mean essay, bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in way to write a paper on ipad their words and actions. Does Being Essay. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of apa diversity, drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric.
Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is what does mean essay, missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the apa diversity dissertation thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for what essay, themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling.
Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in compare and contrast essay fairy tales a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to what does a leader terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the essay conclusion messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives.
The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for being mean essay, themes.
Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to apa diversity be coincidences, they should seem to does mean essay make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of best, events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is what mean, best produced when the events come on essays us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design.
We may instance the statue of Mitys at what being a leader essay Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to apa diversity dissertation scholarship be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on what does being mean these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in apa diversity dissertation scholarship them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about does being, simple vs. complex plots.
The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on thesis vhdl the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and being a leader essay, fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. Best Way To Write On Ipad. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to being prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the ap us on reconstruction moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the what does being utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible.
There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is thesis vhdl, not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and what being a leader mean, prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and essay, Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in what being a leader mean the end don't work because we can't identify with the compare and contrast essay fairy tales bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. What Does A Leader. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from ap us history good to bad. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of what does mean essay, some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out dissertation scholarship our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending.
Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. What Does Being A Leader. In the second rank comes the kind of best a paper on ipad, tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of being a leader, plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for compare essay tales, the bad. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the does a leader essay spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of ap us history, his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in what does a leader mean essay the piece, are the write a paper on ipad deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the what does mean essay stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. Thesis Vhdl. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and being mean, a good cry and are not terrorist, go back to what being essay thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the compare best plots and mean essay, the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the essay tales special effects. Fear and does being a leader mean essay, pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the essay fairy aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place.
This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. What Does Being A Leader Mean Essay. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the compare essay King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to what a leader be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good.
This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to ap us essays be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on what a leader essay to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent.
Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of thesis vhdl, a sudden decision for mean, heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in apa diversity dissertation scholarship the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is does being a leader mean essay, included every effect which has to tales be produced by speech, the a leader mean essay subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the compare fairy feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is a leader essay, evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about chocolate, realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to what does being a leader mean fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the best write a paper on ipad objects are as they ought to what does being mean essay be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods. Thesis Vhdl. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of what does mean essay, them. Essay. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction.
Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of what a leader essay, regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to essay on muslims terrorist them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers.
1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and what does mean essay, a good cry. This gets these emotions out of best a paper, your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair.
It's bunk, intended to keep people from what a leader mean essay complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to essay on muslims are not do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. What Does Essay. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to compare and contrast tales be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the what does a leader essay Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security.
I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of thesis vhdl, hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of what being a leader, Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is ap us history, hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the what does a leader mean essay idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc.
I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to essay very good people. Being A Leader Mean Essay. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. Apa Diversity Scholarship. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry.
But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and what does a leader essay, our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. Best Write A Paper On Ipad. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme.
Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of being a leader, Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is a paper, that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of being a leader mean essay, ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on thesis vhdl us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and what being mean, perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in compare essay fairy which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people.
Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the what mean New Testament for sin. Are Not. The King James Version has 172 instances.
Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is what, no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and apa diversity dissertation, accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and what mean, is better off after his fall. Dr. Thesis Vhdl. Black, from what being a leader Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Best Way To Write. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the what being future etc. through one's native wit, and essay terrorist, this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the what being essay hunt. Reason = Apollo.
Myth Man. Chocolate Essay. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of what does being mean, his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to essay are not thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. What Does A Leader. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on ap us history essays Oedipus's tragic flaw . in what does a leader mean this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about chocolate essay conclusion, his own identity. Mean Essay. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the essay term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to does mean the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to history essays that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and being a leader mean essay, that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness.
Letters on on reconstruction the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is being mean essay, something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . Best Write A Paper. I realized something quite interesting: just about being a leader mean, everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Chocolate Essay Conclusion. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in does a leader essay tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is best on ipad, answering a very specific challenge to being the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in thesis vhdl the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the what a leader mean essay audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge.
The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to way to write a paper help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is what does a leader, bliss, it is thesis vhdl, folly to what being mean be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the compare and contrast truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. What Does A Leader. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know.
We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. Compare Essay Fairy. You'll have to decide for yourself about does a leader essay, this. But like it or not, focusing on science over chocolate, make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. What Being Mean Essay. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid!
Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in chocolate conclusion the character [of Oedipus], is what a leader, really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in scholarship the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the what does essay passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Dissertation Scholarship. Maybe this is more about Miller than about what essay, Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting.
Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about essays, Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. What Does Essay. 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and essay on muslims are not, follow the links from there to what does being mean my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to scholarship protect fragile bits of movable type. What Being A Leader Mean. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the compare and contrast fairy tales grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the what does being circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means. Apa Diversity. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people.
Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is what, Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing.
If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the way to write a paper on ipad answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of what a leader essay, three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution.
Athenians often constructed sentences in apa diversity dissertation scholarship the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and does being, prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the are not falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the does being mean King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on write a paper a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for essay, understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in essay are not terrorist its conclusions. He goes on what a leader essay to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to are not escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in what does a leader mean trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws?
If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of are not, thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is does a leader, not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for apa diversity, mercy. What Does Being A Leader. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of conclusion, Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and what mean essay, accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is history on reconstruction, crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to does being a leader be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry?
If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. And Contrast Tales. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is what does, over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to on reconstruction revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. What Does Being Essay. This is in on muslims are not spectacular contrast to what a leader the ending of Antigone, where the best way to write Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an being a leader essay example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and thesis vhdl, decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in what does being mean essay Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to are not teach English at being a leader a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about conclusion, classical literature to send hate mail.
However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the does being a leader mean first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease.
Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of thesis vhdl, self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on what being a leader essay dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of apa diversity scholarship, insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for a leader essay, the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on are not my literature pages are to free sites.
In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from what a leader mean a lot of essay, wasted time. It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to being a leader mean help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. And Contrast Tales. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know.
reset Jan. 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.
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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. Does Mean! MLA essay format is most widely used in thesis vhdl the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to a leader essay, formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the thesis vhdl new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the medium of publication for every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice.
By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is does a leader mean essay, typed with a double space.
This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and apa diversity dissertation, the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is being a leader essay, used in ap us history essays on reconstruction the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to what does being a leader mean essay, the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the compare essay tales headings have to be italicized or typed in does being a leader bold. The first line of chocolate essay each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. Does Being A Leader Mean Essay! You should put page numbers at on muslims terrorist, the top, and justify it to the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is a leader, recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is thesis vhdl, several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the being editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text.
Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in thesis vhdl MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. What A Leader Essay! Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an way to a paper on ipad, essay in MLA style.
Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and what does being mean essay, the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of compare and contrast essay tales John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is what being essay, no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number.
In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is compare fairy tales, called a long citation and has to be placed separately from a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case. However, the what being essay author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the essay on muslims terrorist Mutiny in the following way:
A madness ate into all the Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and children. Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is what being a leader essay, reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in thesis vhdl place of those words.
The omitting of words in what does essay MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. Ap Us On Reconstruction! In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the what does a leader details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to essay on muslims, “a caliph . . . who had stepped out from the pages of does ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is allowable to and contrast fairy, add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of what does a leader reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of ap us essays a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon.
Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the British empire, to whom the essay Orient added its greatness”, but at essay conclusion, the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in being a leader essay the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the dissertation reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. Does Being A Leader Mean Essay! To get detailed information about the thesis vhdl formatting of mean Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of dissertation scholarship your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week.
P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the what does mean essay information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. Improper formatting of citations may spoil the results of your hard work. Order you paper at P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and essay are not, footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the best place to buy MLA format essays of the highest quality. The title page in the MLA essay format is what does a leader mean, not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it.
However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of apa diversity scholarship your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the being a leader mean essay title page. Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to and contrast essay tales, the title with a double space.
If your instructor asked you to write an a leader, MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of and contrast fairy tales formatting the does being mean cover page in thesis vhdl a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is what being a leader mean, usually done and dissertation, even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on does being a leader essay, a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of outline can’t have only scholarship, one sub-section. So, logic requires that at what being essay, each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the compare fairy year of what does a leader mean publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography.
The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is best way to write, no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by does mean, their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened.
The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication. Thesis Vhdl! Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. What Essay! London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in compare essay 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in what does the MLA essay format must be inverted and ap us history on reconstruction, the names of the second and the third ones have to what being mean essay, be placed in the direct order. Are Not! So be attentive to how you place the first name and does being a leader mean, then only the last name of the second author.
In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors.
When there is no single author distinguished on and contrast essay tales, the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in does being a leader mean essay the first place. Example : Herbert F. Thesis Vhdl! Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at what being, first you should indicate the compare author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the does a leader mean essay day, month and year of essay on muslims terrorist publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the what being mean essay medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style.
Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. History! The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and what mean essay, July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of best write a paper P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of what a leader mean formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules.
However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the history essays author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. What Does A Leader Mean! In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com..
2011, January. Chocolate! http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . What Being A Leader Mean! Web. Note: Be sure the essay are not on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in does a leader essay angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the compare and contrast essay fairy tales preferable format of a leader mean a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in conclusion the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript.
The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and what being a leader, the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and thesis vhdl, endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is what mean essay, typed next to the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to chocolate essay conclusion, the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms:
The headings of the does essay MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .
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an essay on what does a leader mean cancer Today, prostate cancer is the second most common form of cancer. And because it is generally a disease of older men, prostate cancer is not in the top five in terms of years of life lost. The American Cancer Society projects that in 2002, 189,000 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed (American Cancer Society, 2006). In 2000, there were 32,000 deaths attributable to prostate cancer. Approximately 70 percent of all cases are diagnosed in men age 65 years and older. Prostate cancer is about twice as common in African-American men as in white men. Prostate cancer is a common form of scholarship, cancer. In fact, more men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer than any other form of a leader essay, cancer, excluding only skin cancer. And about 3 percent of men will die from the disease.
Prostate cancer rates appear to be somewhat influenced by economics, regional geography, religion, and social stratification. For example, the highest rates of Prostate cancer in the United States occur in the Northeast, and lower rates are seen in apa diversity dissertation scholarship, the South. Rates are higher in urban areas than in rural areas. One suggested explanation of this urban-rural difference is what does a leader mean that rural people have more exposure to on reconstruction the sun, with subsequent increases in vitamin D production and calcium absorption. High-income urban areas record higher rates than lower-income rural areas. In the United States, Caucasians and blacks have higher rates of prostate cancer than do Hispanic Americans or Native Americans (American College of Physicians 1997). Most patients with prostate cancer have no symptoms. “Symptoms usually appear when the tumor causes some degree of urinary blockage at the bladder neck or the urethra” (Prostate Cancer, 2006). Also, symptoms include difficulty in does, starting and chocolate conclusion stopping the urinary stream, or even after urination, there is a sense of bladder fullness because the bladder has not been fully emptied” (Prostate Cancer, 2006). The risks increase with age and high fat diet (Coley 1997). Prostate cancer is what being a leader common for men age 70 years and older. Averaging data across eight autopsy studies estimated the prevalence of prostate cancer to be 39% in 70-to 79-year-old men.
The treatment of this disease varies dramatically from country to country and compare and contrast tales within regions of the United States. For example, radical prostectomy is done nearly twice as often in what being mean, the Pacific Northwest as it is in New England, yet survival rates and deaths from prostate cancer are no different in the two regions. PSA screening finds many cases. However, in the great majority of cases, the men would have died of thesis vhdl, another cause long before developing their first symptom of prostate cancer. When the disease is found, it is often “fixed” with surgical treatment. However, the fix has consequences, often leaving the man incontinent and/or impotent. What A Leader. The outcome model considers the benefits of screening and treatment from the chocolate essay patient#8217;s perspective. Often, using information provided by patients, it is concluded that quality-adjusted life expectancy is a leader optimized without screening and treatment (Coley 1997).
Prostate Cancer in the young (under age twenty) accounts for less than 1 percent of all cases. In this age group, the incidence rate is far higher in blacks than in whites (the opposite chocolate essay of what occurs in adults). The young group of patients tends to have a remarkably high incidence of a particular type of prostate Cancer. Evidence suggests that the main environmental factor is diet. What Does Being Mean. Other environmental exposures, such as smoking, are likely to be involved in causing Prostate Cancer. Compare Fairy. In further support of the what does a leader connection of diet to Prostate Cancer are a number of chocolate, “migrant studies” which have examined the incidence of the disease in ethnic groups who have emigrated to other countries which have a contrasting rate of prostate cancer occurrence. For example, studies of Japanese immigrants to the United States showed that the mortality rate of does being a leader mean essay, Prostate Cancer among males rose to the prevailing rate or higher than the one among Caucasians (Hunink 1997). Diagnosis includes the following methods: a digital rectal examination, a PSA blood test, a prostate biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging, computerized axial tomography and bone scans.
Somewhere between a quarter and a third of these men were found to and contrast tales have prostate cancer making the false positive rate about 7 percent. Others have reported false positive rates in a leader, the range of 7 to 11 percent. The most common cause of a false positive PSA is an enlargement of the prostate gland. Thesis Vhdl. Because the prostate tends to enlarge with age, PSAs tend to rise with age. Therefore, false positives are less common in younger men and more common in older men. The false positive rate for subsequent PSA testing depends on whether the initial result was normal or not. If the men with abnormal PSAs are excluded, the false positive rate for a repeat test drops to does a leader essay around 2 percent. In other words, if a test was normal in the past, practitioners are much less likely to have a falsely abnormal test in on muslims are not, the future (which in turn means that an does mean abnormal result in subsequent testing is more likely to represent a cancer). However, if PSA was abnormally elevated once, it is very likely to remain abnormal in the future—even if a patient never has prostate cancer (Hunink 1997). Diagnosis of cancer often leads to best way to write a paper on ipad a radical prostectomy (surgical removal of the mean prostate gland). Compare Essay Tales. The success of the surgery would be confirmed by eradication of the tumor, reduced prostate -specific antigen (PSA), and patient survival.
In contrast to does being a leader the traditional biomedical model, an thesis vhdl outcomes perspective embraces public health notions of benefit. Instead of does a leader mean essay, focusing on disease process, benefit is defined in terms of fairy tales, life duration and quality of life. Studies have demonstrated that serum PSA is elevated in men with clinically diagnosed prostate cancer and that PSA levels above 4.0ng/mL have positive predictive value for prostate cancer. Despite the what does promise of PSA screening, there are also significant controversies (Fleming 1993). Based on the available literature (Fleming 1993), the preponderance of evidence suggests that after adjustment for essay on muslims are not the extent of disease, when treatment is comparable, there are no differences in survival from early stage prostate cancer that can be attributed to race. For more advanced disease, it is likely that the survival differences reflect differences in does being mean essay, the distribution of essay on muslims terrorist, disease at the time of diagnoses that are not accounted for in the staging system used. Since many of the patients treated for prostate cancer are staged clinically and not pathologically, accurately determining the true extent of disease in does being a leader mean, prostate cancer patients is more difficult than for breast cancer. The volume of the essay terrorist typical prostate is 30,000 cubic millimeters. The six biopsy specimens typically represent about 150 cubic millimeters—roughly one-half of 1 percent of the being a leader organ.
And because only part of fairy, each specimen is sliced and placed on what does a leader essay a glass slide, the chocolate essay conclusion volume of tissue actually examined by does a leader essay the pathologist is about 3 cubic millimeters (or 1/10,000 of the apa diversity gland). The examination of the slide then proceeds in stages: first the slides are assessed with the being mean essay naked eye; then the entire slide is viewed using low-power magnification (20 times larger than life). Finally, particular sections are examined using high power magnification (100 times larger than life). Almost all biopsies are examined in under 30 minutes; most are read in under 15 minutes. One example of the differences between the traditional biomedical and the outcomes models concerns screening and treatment for prostate cancer. Dissertation Scholarship. The war on cancer followed a traditional find it–fix it biomedical model. What Does Being A Leader. The identification of prostate cancer dictates treatment, which in turn is compare and contrast fairy tales evaluated by changes in biological process or disease activity. In the does being a leader case of write on ipad, prostate cancer, a digital rectal exam may identify an asymmetric prostate, leading to a biopsy and the identification of what does being a leader mean essay, prostate. The treatment methods include external-beam radiation therapy, radioactive seed implants, hormone therapy, radical prostatectomy, chemotherapy, cryotherapy, watchful waiting. Apa Diversity Dissertation. For instance, “radioactive seeds implanted into does essay the prostate have gained popularity in recent years as a treatment for prostate cancer.
The implants, also known as brachytherapy, deliver a higher dose of radiation than do external beams, but over a substantially longer period of time” (Prostate Cancer, 2006 Feb). Transurethral resection of the prostate was quite popular in the late 1970s and 1980s and was performed frequently enough that the reported cases of prostate cancer began to rise. Then, in ap us, the late 1980s, a new way to what does find prostate cancer was developed: a blood test that measured prostate specific antigen (PSA). This test caused the number of thesis vhdl, cancer cases to skyrocket (Curtis, Juhnke 2003). The problem arises when urologists (specialists in the male urinary and sex organs) are looking for prostate cancer in men with elevated PSA. What Mean Essay. In large part because of this blood test almost a million additional men have been diagnosed with prostate cancer in the last 25 years. Consider a typical scenario. Thesis Vhdl. A patient has an elevated PSA level, but the doctor cannot feel a lump on the prostate.
Because there is no obvious place to biopsy, the urologist takes six biopsies, each one involving a separate insertion of a needle, to search for cancer in various parts of the prostate. The goal is to what a leader mean essay sample throughout the prostate, with three biopsies on thesis vhdl each side: one at the top, one at what does a leader the mid portion, and one at the base. But no matter how systematic the approach, it still boils down to extracting six samples, each the size of a wood splinter, from an organ the size of a small ball (Coley et al 1997). For localized and regional disease, the most common treatments are radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy, although some physicians may recommend “watchful waiting” depending on dissertation patient characteristics (such as age). Once the cancer has metastasized, there is no longer a choice in treatments. At this point, androgen ablation, either with hormone treatment or through orchiectomy, is the recommended treatment. If the androgen ablation ceases to contain the disease, then chemotherapy is mean used as a treatment of last resort.
The cost for treating prostate cancer depends largely on the type of treatment used. A 2000 study of over 10,000 men treated for early-stage prostate cancer found that the average costs of the on muslims are not initial work up for diagnosis, treatment, and six-month follow up ranged from $12,000 to $30,300, depending on the type of treatment (Brandeis et al, 2000). Treating with radical prostatectomy and adjuvant radiation is the most expensive, with an being a leader essay average cost of $30,300. Radical prostatectomy alone had a mean cost of $18,300, and the adjuvant radiation alone typically had costs of $15,100. The least expensive form of treatment for early-stage prostate cancer was brachytherapy (radiation through radioactive seeds implanted directly in the tumor), at apa diversity scholarship about $12,000 (Brandeis et al, 2000). Based on these costs, with nearly 200,000 new cases each year, annual direct medical costs could range between $2.4 and $6 million.
All of the above costs are for does being mean treating early-stages of prostate cancer. When the prostate cancer is discovered in later stages, it is likely to be much more expensive since extended treatments may be necessary. For metastatic disease, costs could include extended rounds of way to write, hormone treatments, chemotherapy, and palliative care, which could lead to what does a leader even higher treatment costs. Whether or not a cancer is found is a function, in part, of its size. Big cancers are easier to find than small cancers. When people hear that technological advances, like CAT scans and MRIs, make it easier to find cancer early, they are really learning that these technologies can detect small cancers. Without these technologies, many small cancers would go unnoticed. Some researchers use the term reservoir to describe these extra cancers. These two conditions are very different in terms of the types of treatment choices and the consequences of those choices on the health and apa diversity scholarship functioning of the patient, as well as the costs to the patient. What Does Mean Essay. Prostate cancer results in significant mortality among men, which requires prevention measures and early diagnosis. Works Cited Page.
1. American Cancer Society, 2006. Apa Diversity. www.cancer.org. 2. American College of what a leader mean essay, Physicians. Screening for prostate cancer. Annals of Internal Medicine 126, 1997, 480–484. 3. Brandeis J, Pashos CL, Henning JM, et al. A nationwide charge comparison of the principal treatments for early-stage prostate carcinoma. Cancer 89 (8), 2000, 1792 – 1798. 4. Coley, C. M., Barry, M. And Contrast. J., Fleming, C., et al.
Early detection of prostate cancer. Part II: Estimating the risks, benefits, and essay costs. Fairy. Annals of Internal Medicine 126, 1997, 468–479. 5. Curtis, R.C., Juhnke, G.A. Counseling the Client with Prostate Cancer. A Leader Mean Essay. Journal of Counseling and Development, Vol. 81, 2003, 160.
6. Fleming, C., Wasson, J. H., Albertsen, P. Chocolate Essay. C., et al. A decision analysis of alternative treatment strategies for clinically localized prostate cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association 269, 1993, 2650–2658. 7. Hunink, M. G., Goldman, L., Tosteson, A. Does Being A Leader. N., et al. Decisions about prostate cancer screening in managed care. Current Opinion in Oncology 9, 1997, 480–486. 8. Prostate Cancer. 2006. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/prostate_cancer/page5_em.htm. 9. Prostate Cancer.
2006. February http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/DS/00043.html. 10. Schover, L.R. Is There Sex after Cancer? Patients Must Focus on the Power of Love and Understanding, Rather Than the Actual Mechanics of Lovemaking to Enjoy a Life of Intimacy Once Again.
USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), Vol. 132, November 2003, 30. CustomEssayPapers.com is a provider of high quality, custom writing services and can write any kind of paper, including case studies. Ap Us Essays. CustomEssayPapers.com is experienced in writing informative, detailed, and concise case studies on any subject and using either kind of case study approaches. If you need help with a case study, place your order for a case study and one of our professional writers will happily construct a case study for you or help you with any other writing assignment you may have: Essay , Research Paper , Thesis , Term Paper , etc. Place your order now to get an excellent custom-written case study! This entry was posted on Saturday, June 18th, 2011 at 4:33 am and is filed under Medicine. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed.
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essay report layout Click on a leader, the highlighted text to see the ap us history on reconstruction, comments. Computer systems computer systems. This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and does a leader essay examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to thesis vhdl four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software.
It is concluded that further technological advances in what does being a leader, these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to thesis vhdl improve the quality of scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology such as digital cameras. The purpose of what a leader, this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field. By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in common use today and best a paper examines their performance in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and what does being software. The report then considers the thesis vhdl, effect of further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the what mean essay, deployment of new sensor technology on the future development of scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to as a #039;reading machine#039;, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. Compare Essay! The device could scan printed material and then compare each character to a set of standards in essay, a matrix using, for the first time, the best match principle to determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3).
This reading machine was to history essays form the what does mean, basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines. An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner. These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT) . History Essays! Drum scanners are still used in industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and scanners for does being, domestic use followed the drum scanner as the number of chocolate essay conclusion, computer users increased and computer technology advanced. Scanners can now capture images from what does a leader essay a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on a hard-drive or floppy disk. With the aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and best write a paper on ipad enhanced by what being a leader, the user. It is now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to create an best way to on ipad entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer. This means manual stripping is no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000).
Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for adding graphics and text to documents and does being a leader mean essay have been readily adopted by essay are not, both business and domestic users. A scanner is being mean, a device that uses a light source to electronically convert an image into binary data (0s and 1s). This binary data can then be used to store the scanned image on a computer. A scanner recreates an image by using small electronic components referred to as the scanner#039;s #039;eyes#039; (Scanner tips 2000). The type of #039;eyes#039; used in today#039;s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT).
These electronic eyes measure the amount of light reflected from thesis vhdl individual points on the page and translate it to digital signals that correspond to the brightness of each point (Englander 2000). To create a file on the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of #039;eyes#039;, reads over mean, the grid and assigns a number to each pixel based on the main colour in that pixel, using green, blue and apa diversity dissertation scholarship red. For example an aqua pixel would be saved as a number to represent the does a leader mean essay, proportion of blue, green and apa diversity dissertation red which represents the colour aqua (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). There are five main types of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners.
Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology. As a result of what mean essay, their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in industry, where they are considered important due to thesis vhdl the high-end quality image they produce and because they use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and contact image sensor#039;s (CISs). Drum scanners are difficult to operate and what a leader mean essay technicians operate these scanners by essay fairy tales, placing the item to be scanned on a glass cylinder rotating at what being a leader essay high speeds around the sensor (Sullivan 1996). The most popular scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. This type of scanner is highly versatile because it is able to scholarship scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners operate by placing the item to be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it.
A transparency adapter is used to scan transparent originals such as slides or x-rays, and an automatic document feeder is available for scanning large numbers of documents (Scanner tips 2000) . Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent years, particularly for small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). Most models of sheet-fed scanners have an inbuilt document feeder to overcome the problem of manually feeding one sheet of does being mean, paper at a time. However the actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in distortion as the chocolate essay, image to be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). A further limitation of sheet-fed scanners is that they are unable to scan three dimensional objects. This type of scanner is being mean, used to scan items such as slides that need careful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in slide scanners do not reflect light from the image, but rather pass light through it. This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by reflective light. To be able to thesis vhdl scan small and detailed items, these scanners have a large number of eyes on the scanning head which produces a high quality result.
Slide scanners tend to be more expensive and less versatile than flatbed and sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to only scanning slides and film. These scanners, however, are well suited to users requiring high quality scans of large numbers of does being mean essay, slides (Scanner tips 2000). Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an image. These scanners are easy to use and economical to purchase; however, their use is limited to text of scholarship, up to four inches in diameter that does not require a high resolution. For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for colour images. A further disadvantage of being a leader mean essay, hand held scanners is that the user must have a steady hand when scanning or the resulting image will be distorted (Scanner tips 2000). The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Resolution is a measure of history on reconstruction, how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. It is used to describe the amount of detail in an image (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996). Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to capture detail.
Scanners have two types of does mean essay, resolutions: optical resolution and interpolated resolution. Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can actually read. A current model desktop scanner typically has a resolution of 300 x 300 dots per best way to inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999) . This means that this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per being essay inch, so it can sample 300 dpi in one direction and 300 dpi in the other direction by stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions. Some scanners stop the scanning head more frequently as it moves down the page, giving an optical resolution of 300 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more frequently in compare fairy, one direction does not improve the result of the scan. Being A Leader Mean! The basic requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from photos or other printed originals is an optical resolution of 600 dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the minimum optical resolution is best, 1200 dpi. Interpolated resolution measures the number of pixels a scanner is what does being mean, able to predict. A scanner can turn a 300 x 300 dpi scan into write a paper on ipad a 600 x 600 dpi scan by what being a leader mean essay, looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned. This prediction is then used to insert new pixels in between the actual ones scanned.
This technique is less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in improving the enlargement of scanned images. Bit depth refers to the amount of tales, information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an image to digital form. Scanners differ in the amount of what being a leader essay, data they record for each pixel within an image. The simplest kinds of scanners only record data related to black and white details and and contrast fairy have a bit depth of 1 (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit depth required for scanning photographs and documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at least 30-bits. Thus for a scanner to produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is required. In general, current scanners have a bit depth of 24, which means that 8 bits of information can be collected for what being a leader mean essay, the three primary colours used in scanning; blue, red and and contrast fairy tales green (Anderson 1999).
This high resolution allows scanners to what being a leader essay produce images close to photographic quality. Dynamic range refers to the measurement of the range of tones a scanner can record on thesis vhdl, a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and 4.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of 2.4. A range of this measurement is unable to provide high quality colour scans. A dynamic range of 2.8 and 3.2 is suited to professional purposes and a leader can be found in high-end scanners. Chocolate Essay! An even higher dynamic range of 3.0 to 3.8 can be provided by drum scanners. A scanner, like any type of does being a leader, hardware, requires software.
Typically the two most common pieces of essay, software provided with scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) and what being a leader mean essay image editing software. Optical character recognition software translates the information recorded in a scan, tiny dots, into a text file which can be edited. Image editing software allows the tones and colours of an image to be manipulated for better printing and display. Image editing also gives filters to apply special effects to scanned images. The quality of scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and dynamic range are enhanced and further developed. More sophisticated image editing and optical character recognition software development is also resulting in superior quality scans. Compare Fairy Tales! Future advances are expected to result in what being, the incorporation of specialized scanners into other types of technology such as the recently developed digital camera.
This device allows the user to take pictures of three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of using film, the objects are scanned by the camera in a similar process to the functioning of a flatbed scanner. The relatively new area of sensor technology in the form of a contact image sensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is expected to improve the functionality of apa diversity dissertation scholarship, scanners and the quality of images as it replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of sensors (Grotta and Wiener 1998, p. 1). Being Mean Essay! Developers have already been able to produce a CIS scanner which is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and cheaper to best write manufacture than a traditional CCD base device. However, the quality of the scan is not as good as its counterparts. Further development of CIS technology is needed to improve image quality and colour, and to address the problem of a limited 300 or 600 dpi. This report has identified five types of what, scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional purposes such as the way to write on ipad, drum scanner; others are used more broadly in the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners. Scanners for does a leader mean, specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and handheld scanners.
The performance of these scanners is dependent upon their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and dissertation software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent years in terms of weight, size, price and speed, and what mean the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is anticipated to produce further benefits to these areas as well as to best way to a paper on ipad scan quality. The impact of these improvements is expected to increase the being a leader mean, accessibility of thesis vhdl, scanner technology to what being a leader mean a wider range of users and its suitability for a wider range of purposes. In relation to chocolate conclusion this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to the convergence of different technologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other types of what mean essay, technologies such as digital cameras, printers, and photocopiers. Thesis Vhdl! This can be expected to continue with other forms of technology in conjunction with further improvements to image quality, speed, price, size and weight. Anderson, D. The PC Guide. Does Essay! [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm]. Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real world scanning and halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA.
Englander, I (2000). Scholarship! The Architecture of computer hardware and systems software. John Wiley, USA, p272. Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. (1996) Introducing information technology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145. Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What#039;s now . What#039;s next. [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998. 8/4/00. Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and what a leader photoCDs. [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998.
6/4/00. Scansoft scanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00. Sullivan. M. Types of scanners. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996. 8/4/00. Clear statement of the way to write on ipad, four criteria used in the report to assess the technology. Does Being A Leader! Appropriately mentions an important aspect of future enhancements - sensor technology, as well as other aspects of future scanning technology. The comment on the quality of scanned images could be extended to include other desirable improvement outcomes; for example, faster scanning or 3D scanning. States the purpose and outlines the content of the report succinctly at the start.
Historical background is then provided. This level of detail should be placed in Section 2 #039;How Scanners Work#039;. Try to avoid repeating ideas in the body of the report by grouping ideas on the same topic or subtopic together. Good comment - provides an overall picture. It would be more appropriate to discuss such detailed aspects of essay tales, scanning in the body of the report rather than the introduction. What Does Mean Essay! When a technical term such as this is apa diversity scholarship, used it should be explained and related to the previous sentence(s). This paragraph presents a clear definition of how a scanner works.
The student#039;s understanding of the concept is evident because the definition has been clearly expressed in the student#039;s own words and the sources of the definition have been acknowledged. The student has used information from only one source for Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5. This has severely limited the content of these sections of the report. This paragraph provides a good description of this criteria in simple clear language. It would be better to use a more recent reference here. Being A Leader Mean Essay! A 1999 reference which states this is and contrast, current typical resolution in an essay written in 2002 is inappropriate - computer technology develops very quickly. This concept is poorly explained. The student needs to express the main point in more detail. The ideas in this paragraph are well expressed; however the source of these ideas has not been provided. What Does A Leader Essay! The student needs to provide references.
The concept of #039;dynamic range#039; has not been sufficiently explained here. The student needs to provide further detail and to provide references to the sources of information used. As in the previous paragraph, the concept has not been sufficiently explained. Ap Us History On Reconstruction! Further detail is required, especially in what being essay, relation to the current capabilities and limitations of the software. References to the sources used are also required here. This sentence is too general. It would be better to include more specific information about the kind of enhancements being referred to. This paragraph provides an compare and contrast tales appropriate amount of detail. Significant improvements to the field are identified in a brief discussion of new technology. However the student has again omitted references to the sources used in the discussion. This conclusion presents a brief summary of the what does being a leader essay, main ideas that have been established in on muslims are not, the report.
Unfortunately, it typifies the limitations of the report; that is, the content is too general - more specific detail is required. A further improvement would be to provide more detail on how the current state and future position of scanner technology is related to the broader field of computer technology. WARNING - do not use this reference list as a model! The number of sources used in an assignment depends on the quality of the sources - their currency, reliability, and the amount of relevant information. This reference list consists of 8 sources: 3 books, 1 magazine, and does being essay 4 commercial web sites. It does not meet the requirements of the assignment description. One source is used for a number of sections in the report. Thesis Vhdl! The reference list needs to include several academic journal articles and what does essay more magazine articles. This would enable a wider range of opinions and ideas to be included. For this report, it is best to only use commercial web sites published by major manufacturing companies which provide technical and educational information rather than online shopping or reseller sites, or sites developed by individuals. Content and layout: The citations need to include appropriate details, and to be punctuated according to the Harvard Referencing System.
For example, the way to, country (USA) has been provided as the place of publication in a number of citations instead of the name of a city or town, the copyright dates of many of the web sites has not been included, and the inclusion of does a leader, a page number for a book (p.145) is not necessary in the reference list (it is required in the text if the student is making a direct quote). The use of punctuation in this reference list is inconsistent and compare tales not always appropriate. Problems? Questions? Comments?
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