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Je nach Vorhaben sind die Businessplan-Inhalte anhand der jeweiligen Adressaten-Bedurfnisse anzupassen und zu erganzen. In der folgenden Ubersicht finden Sie die wichtigsten Punkte, worauf es bei dem entsprechenden Businessplan ankommt. The University Writing? Businessplan fur die Existenzgrundung. The Universe Essay? Existenzgrunder sollten nicht nur fur die Kapitalbeschaffung den Businessplan schreiben. The University Writing Topics? In erster Linie schreibt der Grunder fur sich selbst. Of Critical Thinking? Der Businessplan dient der Mannschaft hinter dem unternehmerischen Vorhaben als zentrales Planungs- und Controllinginstrument.

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Businessplan fur den Grundungszuschuss. The University Center Research And Argument Topics? Die Bundesagentur fur Arbeit schaut zur Bewilligung auf Ihr Gesamtkonzept. Da der Grundungszuschuss eine Ermessensleistung Ihres Vermittlers ist, wird dieser die Erfolgsaussichten abwagen und anhand der Tragfahigkeit Ihrer Geschaftsidee entscheiden, ob er Sie in graduate admission essays format ein Angestelltenverhaltnis vermittelt oder die Selbstandigkeit fordert. Writing Paper? Ebenso wie der Bankberater ist der Vermittler von Ihrer personlichen, kaufmannischen und fachlichen Eignung zu uberzeugen. Incorporating? Achten Sie unbedingt auf die mit dem Grundungszuschuss verbundenen Fristen und Voraussetzungen. The University Writing Research Paper And Argument Topics? Bei einer offentlichen Institution gibt es keinen Verhandlungsspielraum. Letter From Birmingham Thesis? Die KfW Bank ist ein offentliches Forderinstitut. The University Center Research Paper And Argument Topics? Als solche gilt es in of an hour essay erster Instanz samtliche Formalitaten und burokratische Hurden zu erfullen. The University Writing Center? Prufen Sie genau die Voraussetzungen, Konditionen und Fristen der verschiedenen Fordermittel. Essay? Nur wenn diese passen, hat die Bewerbung um das ausgesuchte Fordermittel Aussicht auf Erfolg.

Der Businessplan fur die KfW Bank muss vor allem in the university topics sich schlussig sein, die Zugangsvoraussetzungen erfullen und die Maximalsummen nicht ubersteigen. Nicht zu vergessen, dass Sie aufgrund des Hausbankprinzips erst die Hurde bei Ihrer Geschaftsbank nehmen mussen. The Teaching Of Critical In Public? Damit spielt die Finanzplanung auch hier eine sehr wichtige Rolle. Writing Center And Argument? Businessplan fur Venture Capital oder eine Beteiligung. A Farewell Thesis Statement? Ein privater Investor, Venture-Capital-Gesellschaft oder Business Angel zeichnet sich durch sein Engagement uber Risikokapital aus. The University Writing Center Research Paper And Argument? Ihm ist die schnelle Steigerung des Unternehmenswertes wichtig, um nach einer gewissen Zeit seine Anteile gewinnbringend zu verkaufen. Essay? Daher achtet der Investor klassisch auf das Marktpotential. Research Paper? Er ist offen fur die Vision der Grunder und schaut sich das Team hinter der Geschaftsidee an.

Ihm ist ein erstklassiges Team mit einer zweitklassigen Idee lieber als umgekehrt. End To Thinking? Gehen Sie entsprechend auf die hinter dem Unternehmen stehenden Personen ein und lassen Sie auch die mogliche Exit Strategie anklingen. Writing Center? Hier konnen Sie sich einen Einblick in from jail einen von Businessplan.org kurzlich erstellten Businessplan verschaffen. Es handelt sich um die Grundung eines Hotels in writing center research and argument Osterreich mit einem Finanzierungsvolumen von ca. Of An? 3,2 Mio. Writing Center Paper? Euro: Beispiel-Businessplan zur Visualisierung unserer Leistungen. To Arms? pdf-Checkliste Das gehort in writing center paper einen Businessplan. The Story Hour Freedom? Als Existenzgrunder und fur den Unternehmensausbau benotigen Sie Kapital. The University Writing Center Research Paper And Argument? Fur die Kapitalbeschaffung benotigen Sie einen professionell erstellten Businessplan als Entscheidungsgrundlage fur die Bank, das Forderinstitut oder einen Investor. Jail Thesis? Der Businessplan ist die Ausformulierung der Geschaftsidee und Ihr Masterplan fur die Umsetzung dieser in writing center topics die Realitat. Statement? Der Businessplan dient Ihnen daruber hinaus als zentrales Planungs- und Controllinginstrument fur die interne Unternehmensfuhrung, zur Uberprufung des wirtschaftlichen Potentials des Geschaftskonzeptes sowie der Machbarkeit. Center Research? Das Unternehmenskonzept besteht aus einem Text- und einem Zahlenteil.

Je nach Vorhaben werden diese unterschiedlich gewichtet und weitere Inhalte erganzt. Die Unternehmensberatung Businessplan.org hat eine Checkliste zu Inhalten und Umfang eines Businessplans, die Mindestkapitel erstellt und bietet damit eine Orientierung fur Ihre Businessplan-Erstellung. Thinking In Public? Hier konnen Sie die Businessplan-Checkliste als pdf offnen: Businessplan.org – Wir unterstutzen Sie: Individuelles Angebot fur eine Businessplan-Erstellung anfordern: Strategische Unternehmenserweiterung eines Automobilzulieferers, Stuttgart. Paper Topics? Ubernahme eines Gesundheitszentrums, Berlin. The Universe Essay? Unternehmenserweiterung eines Onlineshops, Dusseldorf. Grundung eines familiengefuhrten Wellnesshotels, Lech. Center And Argument Topics? Grundung eines Restaurants mit deutsch-italienischer Kuche, Frankfurt. Edward R Murrow This Essay? Verkauf von Unternehmensanteilen eines IT-Unternehmens, Zurich.

Etablierung eines Bio-High-Tech-Unternehmens, Augsburg. The University Center Research Paper Topics? Eroffnung eines Indoor-Kinderspielplatzes, Dortmund.

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Resume CV : PGT Computer Science Teacher/Lecturer. Email : m_asim_ali AT yahoo.com. asim.sultani AT gmail.com , asim.sultani AT rediffmail.com. Passport No : H2888429 Valid upto : 2019. A computer professional in a techno-educational capacity with a highly analytical and writing and argument topics logical bent of mind, strong method orientation and work ethics adequately in tune with emerging IT industry's standard. Also having significant experience in acquainting common masses and letter from thesis school students up to XII level with the latest as well as the prescribed curriculum of research paper and argument Computer Science. A firm believer in team work, a team player with dedicated work, innovative and this essay unique ideas, fair for center and argument topics communication and essay conceptualization and center paper and argument topics ability to interact with others at all levels. 1. The Universe Essay! B.Sc. Writing Topics! (Physics, Chemistry and Maths) from Rohilkhand University. 1. DCA (Diploma in Computer Applications) from Awadh Computer Institute under Ministry of Human Resource and Development Govt. of India. 2. PGDCA (Post Graduate Diploma in edward r murrow, Computer Applications) from Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar. 3. M.Sc. (I.T.) from writing center research and argument topics Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar.

1. ASHOK HALL GIRLS RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL, MAJKHALI, RANIKHET ALMORA- 2006 – Till Date. (An ISO 9002 certified and ICSE Board Affiliated Sr. Sec. Statement! Girls School) (Owned by : Birla Education Society) Joined on 22 August 2006 and Working as PGT Computer Science Teacher responsibilities include imparting computer education to 10+2 level. 2. MANAS STHALI PUBLIC SCHOOL, BAREILLY- 1998 - 2006. ( A Co-ED. Sr. Center Research Paper Topics! Sec.

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Kind Attn Please : My wife is also a PRT teacher and capable of teaching Ev.St. and Hindi upto classes VI. Re: Resume CV : PGT Computer Science Teacher/Lecturer. , Single,25 years, 27th November, 1985. c/o Bidyut kr Kahali. B2-249/4,M.A.M.C. Township, Durgapur -713210. Email : baishali.envsc AT gmail.com. Qualifying Degree Year of r murrow Passing Division / Grade University/Board % of Marks Institute. M. Writing Center Research Paper And Argument Topics! Sc. Of An Essay! (Environmental Science) 2009 I The University of Burdwan, West Bengal 77.41 The University of Burdwan, West Bengal.

B.Ed 2010-11(pursuing) NA The University of Burdwan, West Bengal NA Vidyasagar Institute,Tamna,Purulia. B.Sc. (Hons.) in writing, Zoology 2007. I The University of Burdwan, West Bengal 61.25 Raniganj Girls College, Burdwan. Higher Secondary (10+ 2) 2004. II West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education 57.2 Bidhan Chandra Institution For Girls. Madhyamik (10) 2002.

I I.C.S.E 77.5 Carmel Convent High School,Durgapur. Read Write Speak. English Yes Yes Yes. Hindi Yes Yes Yes. Bengali Yes Yes Yes. Reading Story books, Music. Place- (BAISHALI KAHALI) Re: Resume CV : PGT Computer Science Teacher/Lecturer. To train the the universe essay, students with advanced resources and tools of Computer Skills and update myself as well that way. 3.Worked in K.V.No.1(Army) Jodhpur as a Computer Instructor,Taught VI – XII in 2009-10.

Clear in Concepts, Excellent Communication Skills, Extreme fluency in English, Calm, Confident, Cooperative, Social, Practical, Understanding and Honest in my work. Languages : VB, C, C++, RPG-IV, HTML,SQL,RPG/400,Java. OS : DOS, Microsoft Windows, Linux. Database : Foxpro , Oracle, DB2. Packages : MS Office, DTP. 1 M.Sc (CS) PLV College,Jodhpur MDS University,Ajmer 2007 67% I. 4 AISSE K.V.Fatehgarh CBSE 1998 64% I. 1. Writing Research Paper And Argument Topics! I have been working in All India Radio Stn, Jodhpur as a Compere and Announcer for 2. Years during my PG.

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my Hindi Compositions. 6. Recipient of ‘Best Composition Award’ by a Cultural Organization for writing center research paper and argument topics Women named. “ Sambhawana”, in Jodhpur at University level for one of my Hindi Compositions. E-mail : shahbaz83m AT yahoo.com. “APPLYING FOR THE SUBJECT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE” 1 year work experience in Kendriya Vidyalaya, Chirimiri as Computer Instructor in the session 2010-11. 2 months teaching experience in poetry into, Innovation Academy, Chirimiri in the session 2009-10. 4 months teaching experience in Regional Institute of Management Technology, Jabalpur in the university center research and argument topics, the session 2009-10. organization and to keep adding value to my professional and personal skills. - Able to teach in both English Hindi medium.

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o Secured Second Class with a percentage of 57.8% from Little Flowers’ Academy, MP Board of Secondary Education. - I have also done ASP.NET and C#.NET from research and argument “ORBIT IT CONSULTING PVT. LTD., HYDERABAD” JAN 2008. Platforms : WINDOWS XP/7. Programming : HTML, C/C++, ASP.NET. Database : MSACCESS 2000, SQL 2000/05.

1. Quotes Essays! Project title (MCA VIth Sem.) : ONLINE-AUCTION SHOP. Language : Asp.net with SQL server. Duration : 4 months (Jan to the university writing center research and argument Apr in 2008) (This major project training is letter from, with NESTOR SOFTWARE PVT. LTD. 2. The University Writing Research And Argument! Project title (MCA Vth Sem.) : ONLINE EXAMINATION.

Language : Asp.net with SQL server. Duration : 3 months (Aug to Oct in 2007) 3. Project title (BCA VIth Sem.) : COMMISION MANAGEMENT. Language : VB with MS Access. Duration : 4 months (Jan to letter from thesis Apr in the university writing research topics, 2005) - I have participated in Annual school level Exhibition. - I have participated in edward, Annual school level Sports.

- I have participated in many school level Quiz Competitions. CV for PGT teacher - Computer Science. Email : saxenarolii26784 AT gmail.com. Job Profile : Lecturer – Computer Science. Work Experience : More than 4.5 years of experience as a Multi-Skilled Trainer/PGT Computer Science Faculty member with specialization in Oracle Developer Technologies (SQL, PL/SQL), C,C++ Data Structures, Digital Electronics,Java(NetBeans). - Assistant Teacher (Computer Science Deptt.) Goodley Public School,New Delhi (Affiliated to the university research CBSE.) Duration : April 2010 to Sept 2011.

- Responsible for taking computer classes at secondary and senior secondary level(VIII – XII). - Class Teacher of to arms thesis statement XI standard. - Specialized in C,C++, Data Structures, RDBMS, Computer Architecture,Java, NetBeans. - Co-ordination of various computer activities/competitions at the university center research paper, intra-school and inter school level like “Computer Fest” at intra school level and “Edge” at inter school level. - Grooming students on various softwares like Photoshop,DreamWeaver,Macromedia Flash,MS-FrontPage,Adobe Illustrator etc. - Lecturer (Computer Science Deptt.)

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Email :bansal.gitika AT gmail.com. To make a distinctive contribution in a farewell to arms thesis statement, the broad functional area and services in writing and argument, a challenging assignment. - MCA from IGNOU(awarded the the universe essay, University Gold Medal) in 2010. - ‘O’ ‘A’ Level from center research paper topics DOEACC. - Higher Diploma in a farewell to arms statement, Software Engineering [HDSE] from APTECH, Bharatpur(Raj.).

- Master of Arts in paper and argument topics, English Literature from Rajasthan University, in how to write a philosophy essay, 2000. - Bachelor 0f Science from Rajasthan University, in 1997. - Operating Systems : DOS,WINDOWS,LINUX. - Networking : LAN(Local Area Network) - Packages : MS-OFFICE, DBMS, RDBMS, FOXPRO,ORACLE 9i. - Programming Languages : C, C++, JAVA, HTML, DHTML, JAVASCRIPT, D2K. - Fluent in Spoken Written English Hindi. - Working as Computer Science Teacher ( PGT) with AVB Public School, Patparganj Delhi since April 2011. - Worked as Maths and Computer teacher with St. Paul’s Girls Public School from July 2000 to April 2001.

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BCA IGNOU 2005 72.25% I. Standard Board Year Percentage Division. High School U.P. Board 2000 64.66% I. Intermediate U.P. Board 2002 68.60% I. (in English Sociology) Lucknow University 2006 66.55% I. Operating System : MS-DOS, Windows. Languages : C, C++, Java, VB 6.0, SQL.

Database : MS-Access, Oracle 8. 1. HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - BCA. 2. STUDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM - MCA. 3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM - MCA. [Projects developed on Vb6.0 as front end and SQL, Oracle as back end] Strength : Self-motivated, Positive, Perseverance and introduction Learning. Keen Interest : Administration, Teaching, Project Leader, Project Incharge.

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To fulfill my duties to edward r murrow this the best of my abilities. Technology : ASP.Net 3.5 with C#, DotNetNuke, JQuery. Operating Systems : MS-DOS 6.2, Windows '95, '98, Windows 2000, Windows 7. Application Packages : MSOffice 97, 2000, XP. Database Systems : MS-SQL 2005, Oracle 10G, MS-SQL 2008. M.C.A. Writing Center Research And Argument Topics! with 83% from Ajmer Institute of Technology, Ajmer affiliated from Rajasthan Technical University, Kota in 2010.

B.Sc. (Information Technology) with 75.48% from to arms statement Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati University, Ajmer in the university research paper and argument topics, 2007. Intermediate (Phy., Chem., Bio.) with 70.92% from Rajasthan Board in to arms statement, 2004. Matriculation with 70.67% from Rajasthan Board in center research and argument, 2002. Pearl Education Society. Experience : 1 Year from edward this 25th June 2012. Work Profile : Worked as a Lecturer for BBA, BCA, and PGDM Students. Work Profile : Worked as a Lecturer for engineering students. Work Profile : Worked as a developer in the university research and argument topics, a team. Project Name Intertec Website : Tools using Dotnetnuke framework 6.2, c#, SQL SERVER 2008, HTML, JavaScript, JQuery. Description : This website provides all the information about the solutions and services which is provided by this company in different countries.

Role Responsibilities Worked as Developer. Worked on site installation and skin creation. Created Board member, media, resources , contact us and user registration modules from scratch. Tools using Dotnetnuke framework 6.2, c#, SQL SERVER 2008, HTML, JavaScript, JQuery. Description : This website is and organization which provides the information to essay students and its clients about its facilities. Role Responsibilities Worked as Developer. Worked on site installation and skin creation. Created news with jquery, events, banner module from scratch. Worked on products and the university writing center and argument solutions and case studies module.

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Designation : IT trainee and of an hour freedom essay Software Engineer. Work Profile : Worked as a developer in a team. Project Name WNS Website : Tools using Dotnetnuke framework 5.2, VB.net, SQL SERVER 2005, HTML, JavaScript. Description : WNS. com site shows all the information which company provides. Role Responsibilities Worked as Developer in maintenance phase.

Worked on modules creation (Home page banner, News, Photo gallery). Tools using Dotnetnuke framework 5.6, VB.net, SQL SERVER 2005, HTML, JQuery. Description : This site is to shows information that what WNS organization doing for the needy peoples. Role Responsibilities Worked as Developer. Image gallery module implemented. Worked with designer and helped them to integrate skin and containers on the university center research paper this site. Tools using VB.net, SQL SERVER 2005, HTML, JavaScript. Description : This site runs on intranet of a philosophy WNS organization on the university center research which employees raise IT related issues which is takes care by edward r murrow i believe essay admin. Role Responsibilities Worked as Developer in maintenance phase. Worked on writing paper and argument topics emailer module. Tools using Dotnetnuke framework 5.6, VB.net SQL SERVER 2005, HTML.

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The Essentials: The 10 Greatest Jean-Pierre Melville Films. Aug 24, 2015 2:35 pm. When sifting through the catalogue of illustrious French filmmakers, the pioneers and precursors to the French New Wave, those creators of a new cinematic language, immediately pop out. Writing Topics. You know the ones; Jean Renoir, Jean-Luc Godard, Francois Truffaut, Robert Bresson , et al. Put them in a single room and somewhere in a shadowy corner, wearing a rain-slicked trench-coat, his eyes obscured by the brim of his fedora, sits Jean-Pierre Melville . Unlike many of the letter birmingham thesis, others, he didn’t go out of writing center research, his way to bend the how to essay introduction, rules of writing center paper, cinematic convention — he did it casually, like one of his gangsters.

Born Jean-Pierre Grumbach and adopting the moniker “Melville” after his favorite American author, he fought as part of the French Resistance during WWII, and started making independent films in the late ’40s after he was denied an assistant director’s license. His experience during the war, coupled with a high admiration for Hollywood gangster pictures of the ’30s and ’40s, fused together a filmmaking style that thrived most vividly in the universe essay the crime genre. Research Paper And Argument Topics. The same genre that would be redefined by films like “Le Samourai,” “The Army of Shadows ,” and r murrow this, “Le Cercle Rouge ” — the the university writing paper and argument topics, cornerstones of his lasting legacy. This debut feature is a farewell thesis a distant relative to the university topics, the atmospheric crime films that would ultimately carve his name among the greats, yet even so, “La Silence de la Mer” is vital in any conversation about edward, Melville. It’s a film that relies so heavily on narration, and is so spatially limited (taking place mostly in a single living room), that it should revokes its right to be cinematic but ends up being so regardless. This beautiful disregard for convention and center research paper and argument, tendency to go against the grain would go on to become part of Melville’s signature.

Moreover, the hour essay, film is a key introduction to the director as cynical humanist; it’s a story about a humble uncle ( Jean-Marie Robain ) and niece ( Nicole Stéphane ), who are forced to house German lieutenant Werner von Ebrennac (a towering Howard Vernon ) in 1941, choosing silence as their weapon of defiance. This leaves room for the university writing research paper and argument topics, the cordial and romantic Ebrennac to soliloquize on his love of write, French culture with charisma and intellectual grace, revealing himself as something of an anti-Nazi, and research, patriot with delusions of sympathetic grandeur. With incisive black-and-white cinematography from Henri Dacaë, angles that grow more immense with every cut, a grandfather clock that chips at the tension with every tick, and a softly pulverizing climax that contains all of letter from jail thesis, its power under the the university research paper and argument, surface, “La Silence de la Mer” was a bold introduction to a new, invigorating cinematic voice. A silent bond is formed, not only between the three principle characters, but between director and audience; a trust that, no matter how minimal the jail thesis, narrative or sparse the setting, cinema can within even the narrowest confines. If his first film has little relation to his gangster pics, “Les Enfants Terribles” is a complete stranger in Melville’s oeuvre, a deformed statue looming gloomily amongst his collection of the university research paper and argument topics, more refined sculpture. But, what compelling gloom! Written by legendary poet-filmmaker Jean Cocteau , the film closely follows the relationship between a sister, Elizabeth ( Nicole Stéphane , a ferocious performance that rotates about 540 degrees from her role in “La Silence de la Mer”) and her brother, Paul ( Edouard Dermithe , devoured by a farewell to arms statement his on-screen sister in more ways than one) as they move from their claustrophobic urban apartment and into a grotesquely lavish villa.

Along the way, they laugh in the face of decency and embroil two innocent friends, Gerard ( Jacques Bernard ) and the university center and argument topics, Agathe ( Renee Cosima ), in their debaucheries. Cocteau’s own exalted narration of this morbid world hangs over the entire picture like sweetly-scented poison, as gender (especially through Paul’s crush on schoolboy Dargelos, also portrayed by Cosima), death, innocence, and sibling rivalry are redefined through Melville’s lens and the universe, Cocteau’s fascinating imagination. Center Research Paper And Argument Topics. Melville’s go-to cinematographer Decaë does some of his finest work here, especially once the story shifts to the mansion, and Vivaldi is all abrasive magnificence on a philosophy introduction the soundtrack, at times almost too overwhelming. Topics. The characters’ personalities make it a tough watch, but “Les Enfants Terrible” remains an awe-inspiring collaboration between two enormous filmmakers, and an unforgettably poetic exorcism of the spirit of youth. This is the edward r murrow essay, grand opening of Jean-Pierre Melville’s seedy criminal underworld. Silver-haired gentleman and compulsive gambler, Bob Montagné ( Roger Duchesne ) is down on his luck and dangerously close to being completely broke. Writing Center And Argument. Together with a team of to arms thesis, thieves, including young Paulo ( Daniel Cauchy ), long-time chum Roger ( Andre Garet ), and center, foreign commandant McKimmie ( Howard Vernon ), he cooks up a plan to steal 800 million francs from the Deauville casino safe. The narration, by Melville himself this time, is sparse compared to the previous two major entries of his career, almost as a sign of of an hour freedom essay, things to come; it’s a world best left to speak for itself. “Bob le Flambeur” is the first taste we get of the university writing and argument, Hollywood’s influence on Melville’s stories; the mood evoked by America’s gangster pictures gets a sly and witty reinvention here, held together by Eddie Barclay and J o Boyer ‘s nostalgic saxophone (hugely pleasing to poetry into, the ear), Duchesne’s debonair portrayal of a criminal holding on to his reputation with stoicism, and the university paper, Melville’s compassionate modus operandi when it comes to criminals and their demimonde lifestyles. It’s something of a love-letter to the Montmartre district too, and interestingly enough has a romanticized conclusion (with one of the more brilliantly saucy final lines of the period) that seems perverse compared to a philosophy, the tragedies of the university center paper and argument, Melville’s later crime films. Remade into thesis, “ The Good Thief ” starring Nick Nolte, influencing the likes of “ Ocean’s 11 ” and Paul Thomas Anderson ‘s “ Hard Eight ,” ‘Bob’ is also assured of its place in and argument topics history for essay, being an essential precursor to the French New Wave, with its use of chic swipes and jump cuts leaving an indelible impression on a young Jean-Luc Godard.

Referring back perhaps to writing center and argument, “La Silence de la Mer” in terms of its intensely personal nature, this intimate picture really sees Jean-Pierre Melville bearing his soul. “Leon Morin, Priest” is set in a small nook of the French Alps, during German occupation, and tells the from jail thesis, story of Barny ( Emmanuelle Riva ), a widowed single mother with a carefree attitude towards pretty much everything. After baptizing her half-Jewish daughter as way of research paper and argument topics, protecting her from the Nazis, the atheist Barny decides to give a sort of mock-confession, a way to confirm her belief that churches are “living off false currency.” She walks into the booth of young Leon Morin ( Jean-Paul Belmondo ) and is knocked off her high horse by the handsome priest with his impregnable morals and wits quick enough to dodge every barb she throws at him and his church. Freedom. And so, “Leon Morin, Priest” examines a relationship that evolves into something complex, intimate, and life-changing for both (but, one gets the impression, especially Barny). It’s a cinematographically torpid picture, not unlike ‘La Silence,’ because of the long stretches of dialogue and single-room setting, and while Riva radiates in her role, Belmondo looks like he’s winging it after a hard night of partying half the time. The University Research. As their relationship grows, however, his performance sobers up, and by letter from birmingham jail the time the writing research paper and argument topics, climax creeps up on us, the birmingham thesis, emotional and psychological weight is almost too much to bear, and the university writing research topics, certainly unlike anything else in Melville’s career. Essay. The theological debates massage the center paper topics, intellect while the tension of forbidden love ignites emotions, and here the two collide to deliver the filmmaker’s most intensely provocative picture. When it comes to the story of an hour, the French master’s crime flicks, one could argue that “Bob Le Flambeur” and “ Two Men in Manhattan ” are a little rough around the narrative edges, and that it’s not until “Le Doulos” when Melville fully answered his true calling. And Argument Topics. A hardened criminal, in iconic trench-coat and fedora getup, walking under a shadowy pass-way and through the opening credits, confidently signals to anyone who’s watching that Jean-Pierre Melville is the boss of the underworld. Freshly released from prison, Maurice Faugel ( Serge Reggiani, nailing the the story freedom essay, casually cool demeanor) visits old friend Gilbert ( Rene Lefevre) , kills him, and steals his stash from a recent heist.

The plot unravels when Silien ( Jean-Paul Belmondo, criminally charming as usual) is introduced as another thief who is suspected of being a police informant (‘doulos’ is slang for center research and argument, ‘rat’), and how to a philosophy, a wounded Maurice goes into hiding after a bungled burglary ends with him killing a cop. Famously influencing Quentin Tarantino ‘s “ Reservoir Dogs ” when it comes to gangsters who love a good chat, “Le Doulos” has unpredictable violence lurking in every shadow, and finely-tuned characterization of the unwritten code of honor amongst thieves that Melville would go on to perfect in the university center research the late 60s and early 70s. It also contains one of the essay, more marvelous shots of research, Melville’s career; a clandestine super long-take of statement, a conversation in police headquarters, where the camera follows Jean Desailly ‘s Commissaire Clain as he attempts to turn Silien. It’s a technical highlight in a film full of uncompromising personalities and tragic plot twists, adding further proof that what we’re watching here is the university writing paper Melville’s first pulpy masterpiece of crime. Titled “Second Breath” or “Second Wind” in English, Melville’s ninth film is really more the story of essay, a desperate last gasp. But in writing another way, the name is how to essay introduction apt: as theorist Adrian Danks suggests in his excellent Criterion essay, “Le Deuxième Souffle,” Melville’s most commercially successful film to that point and yet one of his most underseen today, marks an the university writing paper and argument, interesting pivot point between the jail thesis, pulpy investigation into codes of masculinity and research paper and argument, criminality of earlier pictures like “Bob le Flambeur” and “Le Doulos,” and the terse, philosophically ambivalent atmospheres of his later crime films. In fact, without ever compromising its linearity, it feels like several films: a prison escape movie, a policier , an underworld crime flick, a heist movie and occasionally even a lovers-on-the-run narative all rolled into one seamless, evocative whole.

A wordless prison break sequence happens before and during the titles, as Gu ( Lino Ventura ) escapes jail in a series of shots so angular and the universe essay, asymmetric they’re almost abstract. Gu hides out, planning to skip the country with his nightclub owner girlfriend ( Christine Fabrega ) but needs a last big score — a platinum heist, shot with breathtaking precision and clarity — but that unravels when dogged cop Blot ( Paul Meurisse ) catches up to him. Melville attains a flawless lack of the university writing and argument, sentimentality: Gu may have an oddly noble code of to arms, loyalty — indeed it’s his fatal flaw — but he is a remorseless killer at the same time, not to mention a fool for the university writing paper, pride. To Arms Thesis. A neglected masterpiece, ‘Souffle’ was also Melville’s last film in black and white and the university paper topics, is stunning farewell to monochrome, featuring some of the most consummately, coolly beautiful shotmaking (DP: Marcel Combes ) of his career. It’s probable that of all the films here this is one you may not have seen: if so, what a treat you have in store. A celebration of how to write a philosophy introduction, style, cool and, above all, meticulous craft, “Le Samourai” is and argument topics still, after all these years, one of Melville’s definitive films. Thesis. It’s a coiled, immaculately controlled piece of juicy crime-movie storytelling that remains especially notable for its spartan narrative, unglamorous depiction of crime and its consequences, and the iconic, star-making performance from the university research, leading man Alain Delon, who plays the baby-faced killer Jef Costello.

Costello is an assassin for hire who lives in a single-room Paris apartment that is pretty much empty, save for the perpetually singing canary that sits in the story of an essay the corner. Over the course of the film, Costello arranges his murderous tasks with the painstaking thoroughness of writing center research topics, a Swiss watchmaker: there is no detail, however seemingly insignificant, that he has not considered. Costello creates an ironclad alibi, murders a nightclub owner and evades the pursuit of an overzealous police inspector (Francois Perier ) who wishes to see him brought to justice. How To A Philosophy. As a pure mood piece, “Le Samourai” is nothing short of intoxicating, like a dream with its own insistent and the university research and argument topics, bizarre logic — one you don’t want to wake up from. Incorporating Poetry Essays. It is uncluttered, bereft of unnecessary exposition, as lean and dangerous and unsentimental as its hero. Melville’s crime classic has gone on to influence countless other films, including Jim Jarmusch ’s loving hip-hop pastiche “ Ghost Dog: Way of the Samurai, ” Nicolas Winding Refn ’s gory neo-noir “ Drive ” and center, practically every movie Michael Mann has ever made about a tortured badass who must adhere to a code of duty. A Farewell To Arms Thesis. And yet few of these subsequent films, as great as some of them are, can capture the majesty of this picture, which sees Melville operating at the peak of his powers.

This is sinuous, powerful, crime storytelling: as sharp as the edge of center paper, a switchblade, and incorporating poetry essays, just as deadly. The final installment of his French occupation triptych (which includes “Le Silence De La Mer” and “Léon Morin, Priest”), Melville’s “Army Of Shadows,” belatedly released in the U.S. 37 years after the fact, is his most personal work: a masterpiece about fatalism. Fictionalized, but based on a true account of underground French resistance fighters in Nazi-occupied France, it is an excruciatingly tense yet superbly minimalist film. Rigorous, economical, and cloaked in cinematographer Pierre Lhomme’ s gorgeously bleak penumbra of desaturated blues, browns and shades of grayanticipating the groundbreaking detached, fascistic look of “ The Conformist ” by a year it is also exquisitely crafted: elegance juxtaposed with brutality. But if Melville is often considered emotionally detached based on the cool, aloof gangsters of his crime films, the center paper and argument, heartbreaking “Army Of Shadows” provides massive contrast. Led by a who’s-who of essays, contemporary French actors, many of writing center research paper topics, them returning for Melville Lino Ventura, Simone Signoret, Paul Meurisse, Jean-Pierre Cassel (even Serge Reggiani gets a little cameo)‘Shadows’ centers on Philippe Gerbier (Ventura), the intrepid head of a French resistance chapter who makes a daring escape, and then with his group, moves between safe houses, murders informers and tries to evade capture. One by essay one their members are captured, tortured and killed, and while they try to keep moving forward, underneath their stoic mien is the toll that resistance takes on the university research their dignity.

An overwhelmingly humanist film about of an hour, brotherhood, struggle, loyalty and betrayal, “Army Of Shadows” is both profound and tragic. And while it must be near-unbearably sad for those who came of the university writing center research paper, age during this era (as Melville did), its startling bookending gives it universal, historical resonance: opening with a beautiful Arc de Triomphe shot interrupted by a farewell to arms statement German soldiers goose-stepping by, its final sequence details in somber text the the university writing research paper and argument, cruel fates of this, each of its players. Beginning with a made-up Buddha quote about the writing research paper and argument topics, inevitable meeting of men in a red circle, Melville’s penultimate feature film has the power to outlive his entire filmography as his magnum opus partly because of poetry quotes essays, its anti-spiritual introspection, and its probing exploration of the psyche of the criminal mind. The University Research Paper Topics. “Le Cercle Rouge” brings together legends of the French screen Alain Delon and Yves Montand, with the irreplaceable Gian Maria Volonte as the escapee Vogel, and poetry into essays, Andre Bourvil as the inspector who is hunting them, in center research topics a story about a jewelry heist. One last job for fresh-out-of-jail Corey (Delon), a chance of to arms thesis statement, starting over center research paper and argument topics fresh for incorporating poetry quotes essays, Vogel, and a rehabilitating exercise for the university research and argument topics, the alcoholic ex-corrupt cop Jansen (Montand); the half-hour-long, wordless, and eternally intense heist has now become the stuff of legend, mandatory viewing for anyone interested in witnessing the purest cinematic distillation of the crime genre. The Universe. Together with long-time DP Henri Decaë, and editor Marie-Sophie Dubus, Melville’s original screenplay and meticulous direction — nurtured to writing, perfection by of an hour freedom 1970 — converge in “Le Cercle Rouge” to create an the university center research, existentialist picture with the desolate vibes of the story freedom, a spaghetti western and a cynical anarchist’s eye for man’s baser instincts. It succeeds as a masterful film in any of the genres it melds (and deserves a top 5 slot on the university and argument topics all-time crime film lists), a lot due to its symphonic shot compositions — think of the story of an hour essay, that magisterial pull-back shot early on the university writing center and argument topics from the incorporating poetry, window of the paper and argument, train. Write A Philosophy Introduction. But Melville also effortlessly employs symbolism and the university center research paper, procedural detail in the compassionate characterization of his anti-heroes here.

The theory that “all men are criminals” resonates long after the unforgettable climax, but the bonds of letter jail thesis, brotherhood forged between Melville’s crooks is an all-too compelling reminder of the research paper topics, humanity that resides within each criminal. As far as fond farewells go, “Un Flic” is an interesting one. On one hand, for such a usually clinically neat filmmaker, it’s a little messy: simultaneously overplotted and half-baked, filled with technical inconsistencies and showy shots that call attention to themselves. It’s not without the heart-stopping set pieces and formal invention that its director is famous for, but it’s also a bit more ragged around the edges than we are used to from such a polished filmmaker. And yet, in spite of the universe essay, all this, “Un Flic” is as good a distillation as any of the motifs and preoccupations that have defined Melville’s work from practically his first film. The final entry in the director’s gangster trilogy which also included “Le Samourai” and “Le Cercle Rouge” “Un Flic”, or “The Cop”, casts ‘Samourai”s Alain Delon once again, but this time, flips the archetype for which the actor had become known for on its head; this go-round, Delon plays the cop of the title. Center And Argument Topics. As weathered lawman Edouard Coleman, Delon seems somehow harder, and even fiercer than he was in the film that made him famous; no matter how you feel about the film itself, it’s hard to essay, take your eyes off him. The film’s narrative consists of the writing research paper topics, cop’s dogged pursuit of a notorious thief ( Richard Crenna , or Colonel Trautman from “First Blood ”) whom he knows all too intimately. Write A Philosophy Essay. Catherine Deneuve also gives a quiet, touching performance as Coleman’s sort-of girlfriend who finds herself torn between two very different men. The film’s shows us the grey, cold, depleted flipside to some of Melville’s more lively depictions of urban life and while overall it may certainly be more uneven than, “Army of Shadows” it’s also an essential piece of viewing for anyone who professes to be a Melville fan. Melville made three other full-length features apart from the the university writing center and argument, films we’ve covered; 1953’s little-seen and almost entirely forgotten “ When You Read This Letter ,” 1959’s somewhat stodgy “Two Men In Manhattan ” and 1963’s “ Magnet of the universe, Doom ” that saw him re-team with Jean-Paul Belmondo but not quite as successfully as in their other two outings.

We’ve done our best to convince you of the university research and argument topics, this director’s formidable powers and highly influential films, but now it’s up to you, Playlist readers, to edward r murrow this essay, continue and the university writing center topics, add to the conversation. What are your favourite Melville films? Which moments define his cinema for you? Are the three features we skipped more worthy of incorporating into essays, essential status than any of the 10 we chose? You know where to sound off. –with Jessica Kiang, Nicholas Laskin and the university research paper, Rodrigo Perez. Get the latest IndieWire alerts and newsletters delivered directly to your inbox. Kyra Sedgwick on the Guilt Faced By Working Mothers, and How That Plays Into ‘Ten Days In The Valley’ — Turn It On Podcast.

Sedgwick executive produces and the story hour freedom essay, stars in the new 10-episode ABC thriller, which centers on a missing girl. Why ‘mother!’ Was a Box Office Flop, But Deserves Your Respect — IndieWire’s Movie Podcast. Plus: Why the the university center paper, latest foreign language Oscar submissions might be frontrunners in the category. What To Watch This Fall: IndieWire’s TV Team Gives Its Picks For New and how to write introduction, Returning Shows — Turn It On Podcast. The fall TV season officially launches next Monday, Sept. 25, and the university writing center research and argument topics, we have a few picks to add to your DVR or streaming queue. The 10 Returning Shows Left in 2017 You Need to Know About. Be it a make-or-break sophomore season or the final countdown, these returning shows can’t be missed. ‘Twin Peaks: The Return’: Even David Lynch’s Cinematographer Can’t Explain What It All Means. Lynch’s longtime DP Peter Deming talks about his 20-year collaboration with the director and shooting all 18 episodes of “Twin Peak: The Return.” 25 Films With the Best Cinematography of the 21st Century.

IndieWire's staff digs through 17 years of cinematic images to a farewell to arms, find the best films shot by the university writing center research paper and argument topics masters of the craft. Kingsman Vs. James Bond: Matthew Vaughn Created a Bizarre Vaginal Tracking Device Scene To Prove the Difference. I like to push boundaries, said Vaughn. I'm not interested in homogenized, bland cinema, the sort of movies made-by-committee in Hollywood. S.H.I.E.L.D.: Natalia Cordova-Buckley Promoted to Series Regular

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about men essay unalterably predetermined from writing paper and argument, eternity. In Of Mice and Men fate is letter birmingham jail thesis basically the key feature of the novella. The title of the paper topics story, Of Mice and Men comes from an old Robert Burns poem called ‘To a Mouse’. There is a farewell a quote in the university, the poem that Steinbeck uses for the title of the novella and it works very well to describe what happens in the story: “Buy, Mousie, thou art no thy lane, In proving foresight may be vain; The best-laid schemes o’ mice an’ men Gang aft agley, [often go astray] guys in the world. They got no family.

They don’t belong no place” (Of Mice and Men). Here I think that George understand and write, values the companionship that Lennie provides him. “With us it ain’t like that” (Of Mice and Men). George is letting Lennie know that they are not like other guys. They belong together and they are a family. “We got a future. We got somebody to talk to that gives a damn about us” (Of Mice and Men). Here George lets Lennie know that he could count of paper topics, him and that he.

Essay on Loneliness in of Mice and Men. to have someone to the universe, talk to. Curly’s wife is the only woman on research and argument topics the ranch and write, her sexuality isolates her from the rest. She is considered a threat and trouble to the rest of the men as she is referred to as “jailbait” and this causes the workers to research paper and argument topics, avoid her. This is the how to write a philosophy introduction root of her isolation so she attempts to manipulate men out of her being bored and lonely, to the university center paper, get attention. Although with Lennie on the other hand, Curley's wife sees him as someone who she can finally share her feelings with, like. character who seems to be at peace with himself. The other character often look to slim for advice. SUMMARY OF MICE AND MEN ? SECTION 1 The story opens with the description of a riverbed in thesis statement, ruled California, a beautiful, wooded area at writing, the base of to arms thesis, ‘’golden foothill slopes”. A path runs to the river, used by boys going swimming and center research and argument, riffraff coming down from the highway. Two men walk along the path. The first, George, is small, wiry, and sharp featured, while his companion, lennie, is large. of it close to the back of Lennie’s head.

The hand shook violently, but his face set and a philosophy essay introduction, his hand steadied. He pulled the trigger” (Steinbeck 106). Steinbeck wanted it this way to the university writing research paper, show the edward this essay dream that they shared was now shattered (Stage). Of Mice and Men is often considered to be a great realist and naturalist book. It blends together the the university writing center topics views of social criticism with an ill fate that will inevitably cause a downfall. Many views of this book are of from birmingham, their. You gotta get him out.”’ (44) Candy’s dog is seen as an old, good-for-nothing dog. The men do not realize that the significance of the dog’s existence is that Candy has a sense of companionship with the the university writing center research paper dog.

The true meaning of how to write, relationships is companionship. George could have been well off without Lennie, but still continues to the university research and argument topics, care and a farewell, support him. They have one another to talk to, be with, and look after. Center Research! ‘With us it ain’t like that. We got a future. We got somebody to talk to that gives. wherever he goes he will not be accepted as a normal member of society.

Plus the fact that he has a crooked back and is of a relatively old age will also hold him back. Even though he was raised and brought up and is from the same area as the edward i believe essay other ranch men, due to segregation, he will never truly feel free. George Lennie George and the university center research paper and argument topics, Lennie are able to do whatever they want and work anywhere without having to worry about a farewell thesis statement bills and taxes etc… The farm which George continually describes to Lennie. and disappointments in the university writing topics, life. How To Write! Human beings, the book suggests, are at research paper, their best when they have someone else to look to for guidance and protection. George reminds Lennie that they are extremely lucky to have each other since most men do not enjoy this comfort, especially men like George and Lennie, who exist on the margins of society. Their bond is made to seem especially rare and precious since the majority of the essay world does not understand or appreciate it. S’pose they was a carnival or a circus come. has made him cynical. Whenever the American Dream (i.e. the hope of all ranchers that one day they will have independence, land for themselves and be answerable to no-one) is mentioned he dismisses it.

He says scornfully (p. Writing Research Paper Topics! 78) I seen hundreds of men come by on the road an' on the ranches with their bindles on their backs an' that same damn thing in their heads. Hundreds of them. They come, an' they quit an' go on. An' never a god-damn one of 'em gets it. This stark realism gives us an impression. a lonely life. This dialogue is significant because it shows how George and Lennie are lonely and that even though they travel and meet new people they still possess some kind of loneliness.

Even though George was surrounded by many of the men, he sat quietly by himself at on the table all alone. “George cut the cards and began turning them over, looking at each one and throwing it down in a pile” (27). A Farewell To Arms Statement! George is occupying his time by sitting alone at the table and center paper topics, organizing cards. How To Write Essay Introduction! George’s. him. His distance from others is accentuated by the fact that he is in pain much of the center paper and argument topics time because of his spinal injury. Crooks' deformed back has also deprived him of working with the other men, thereby denying him his last opportunity for personal contact with them.

Crooks interacts with the other men when they play ‘horseshoes’, in which Crooks is the best player, but that is his only chance of even making acquaintances. How To Write A Philosophy Essay! I believe that Crooks would like to research, make human contact, but would rather. farm after his whole incident with his hand. It just gives him a hard time on the farm. Crooks’ is a black man who is r murrow i believe essay kind of disrespected. He got his name for the crook in his back.

He was disrespected because he was isolated from all the center research other men since he was a different color than them. He is a very hard worker and letter from jail, even if he is physically disabled he never stops trying and never gives up. If anyone would take the time to center paper and argument, get to i believe, know Crooks’ they would understand that he is a great guy and. Dream is the prototype American dream. He wants to own a farm, something he can call his own, where he can relax. However, he’s being realistic, and doesn’t let himself to the university research paper, be carried away, dreaming about it. When George and Lennie got to know the letter jail thesis men that George and Lennie worked with, they unfolded their dreams one by one.

The only person we see in the university center paper and argument, the whole of the book with fulfilled wishes is the boss. He owns the ranch and he has people working for him, he’s in control. His son, on r murrow this i believe the other. other men. Once again Candy is talking about his feelings about Curley's wife, stating in a discreet way that she is writing research and argument topics a tramp. She asks what happened to Curley's hand because she noticed that it was broken.

Candy tells her that Curley had an accident with a machine, but she doesn't believe him. As she was leaving, she asks Lennie why he has the bruises on his face, and he said that Curley got his hand hurt in a machine. Again, she is told to get out of the room by Crooks because all the letter from thesis men know that. let her speak to any of the men on the ranch, which leads her into being lonely. Even though Curley's wife is mentioned frequently, we never know what her name is. This just shows how people do not care for others, leading to loneliness. I think all the men do not consider her as a normal human being, but and object. None of the men are to scared to talk to her in case Curley becomes jealous and wants to writing and argument topics, start a fight. She has no female friends on the ranch, so the men are her only option, but they. Curley’s wife, and he tells George.

They know that Curley will kill Lennie if he finds him first. George tells the men that Lennie went south because they came from the how to write a philosophy essay north. George goes into the woods with the others. He finds Lennie first and makes him feel comforted and hopeful. Lennie asks him to tell the story of their future farm and George begins to talk. The University Center And Argument Topics! The noises of the men in the woods come closer and George tells Lennie to take off his hat and the story of an hour freedom, look across the river while he describes. hide, as George had told him. The University Center! Candy finds the body and the universe, tells George. They tell the other men – Curley wants revenge. Chapter 6 – Lennie hides in the brush by the pool. He dreams of his Aunt Clara and the rabbits he will tend when he and George get their land.

George finds Lennie and writing research paper, talks reassuringly to him about the little place they will have together – then shoots him with Carlson’s gun. When the other men find George, they assume he shot Lennie in self-defence. Only Slim understands what George. The Bridge Between Mice and Men Essay. was completed and that in a matter of seconds all was lost. Burn’s sympathizes with the mouse in how to a philosophy essay introduction, the last two stanzas “you are not alone.” He makes the famous quote “the best-laid schemes o’ mice an’ men gang aft agley,” the best laid schemes of mice and men alike go often astray. By putting mice and men in the same group he can “proceed to speak of us which now means all mortal creatures” (Sibbald), he is again comparing the components of the mouse’s situation to his own life. He says that. stage setting. After the main action in the scene, the focus pulls away from the action, preparing the the university center paper and argument reader for the next scene.

In the first chapter, for example, when the characters settle down to poetry, sleep for the night, the focus pulls away from the men to writing center research paper and argument, the dimming coal of their campfire, to the hills, and finally to freedom, the sycamore leaves that whispered in the university center paper, the little night breeze.Steinbeck is a master of description, and one of his many passions was the California landscape. The setting in this. A Philosophy Essay! Of Mice and Men by the university writing center topics John Steinbeck Essay. Crooks’ loneliness because he is telling Lennie how bad it is to be alone. The other quote is edward r murrow “Come on in and set a while.” (pg. 69) This shows Crooks’ loneliness because he wanted to spend time with someone. George is one last character in Of Mice and writing center research paper and argument topics, Men that is used in a symbolic way.

He shows fidelity with the quotes, “It ain’t so funny, him an’ me goin’ aroun’ together,” George said at last. “Him and me was both born in Auburn. I knowed his Aunt Clara. She took him when he was a baby and raised. Of Mice and Men by the story of an hour essay John Steinbeck Essay. dream of being reunited with his loved ones. The setting Of Mice and Men took place during the Great Depression in the US, where high unemployment, poverty, low profits, deflation and and argument, lost opportunities for economic growth and personal advancement struck the population. Many were forced to live a hand to mouth existence, and lost hope in becoming more than what they are.

Of Mice and Men emphasizes the loneliness and powerlessness of the story hour essay, men during the Great Depression through two characters, Candy and. Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay. from this period was East of Eden. Eventually John and paper and argument topics, Elaine settled down in New York City, where he died of heart disease on incorporating poetry into essays the 20th of December 1968. (Shillinglaw) John Steinbeck won many literature awards for his work during his lifetime. Of Mice and Men texts and Broadway play were both received well by the critics and audience, making John Steinbeck a household name in the 1930’s. The Broadway adaptation even won the “best play” award from. Essay on Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck. pretends to be looking for him, but in reality, she is trying to get away from him. Curley’s Wife then runs off in writing research and argument topics, the ranch to find someone to talk to, which she is how to write usually unsuccessful with. Curley’s Wife is a big part of the Feminist Lens in Of Mice and Men. A quote that helps support this is, “Ain’t I got a right to talk to nobody? Whatta they think I am, anyway? You’re a nice guy.

I don’t know why I can’t talk to you. I ain’t doing no harm to you.”(Steinbeck, 87). Curley’s Wife is known as the. Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay. The University Research Topics! Curley's wife to death by accident, the only choice for Lennie is to either die or be tortured and the story freedom, locked up. But the sadest thing about it all, is that Lennie doesn't even understand anything that is going on writing center paper around him. While the other men at the ranch are hunting him down to kill him, all he is thinking about is tending the rabbits with. Essay about Geroge: of Mice and Men. the other men except for Lennie, who’s in the barn petting and eventually killing Curley’s wife. George finds out from Candy what Lennie has done. George is conflicted about a farewell thesis what to do with Lennie (who has run off to the university writing center paper and argument, their hiding spot by the river). He doesn’t want to to arms, have Lennie locked up like an animal, but he doesn’t want Curley to shoot Lennie in the guts, either.

George and Candy realize that the dream of the farm is center research paper topics over. George secretly steals Carlson’s gun and tells the men that Lennie. R Murrow This I Believe! Essay on center paper topics Of Mice and Men, by quotes into essays John Steinbeck. little piece of lan.” (Pg 73). His pessimism about the world is summed up and this shows that he has no hope for the future. Curley's wife is the only female on the ranch and the university writing center paper topics, is controlled by her husband, who does not let her speak to essay, any of the men, which leads her into being lonely. You never witness the distinct couple together; they are always searching for each other, this proves he ignores her and goes out always leaving her behind. Even though Curley's wife is mentioned frequently, we never. mice and men - role of women Essay. got ran out of the town, leaving their jobs. This portrayal, by association, implies the author’s idea, or the idea he wants to present, of women in general, and how they have no place in his idealized world structured around the writing research brotherly bonds of men.

In this time period, contrary to the book’s ideals of essay, women, they were actually revered for their roles as homemakers, because they had to keep their families well and together in writing research paper, the midst of the Great Depression in the USA. The majority of women. Comparing The Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and of an, Men by John Steinbeck. The University Center Research And Argument! it an' listen to the rain comin' down on the roof. (mice, pg.14) Little by little George gave up everything that mattered to him to ensure the safety and happiness of Lennie. How To Essay! George exposed himself and acted as a shield to protect him. You do bad things and I got to get you out. You crazy son-of-a- bitch. Center! You keep me in hot water all the essay time. (mice, pg.11) When George kills Lennie in the conclusion of Of Mice and Men, he also loses a part of himself. He ended Lennie's life.

A Comparison of The Harvest Gypsies and Of Mice and Men Essay. dollar a day. (30) From both families described in the university writing center research, the above quotes, one can see the top wage was $400 a year and low wage was $150 a year. Although the families made money, it didn't compare to the wages of George and Lennie in Of Mice and Men. These two men could earn. John Steinbeck#x27;s Of Mice and Men and Tortilla Flat Essay. than they care about a steady job or material possessions” (2). Through the loyalty and kindness shared between its neighbors, this town truly displays a great sense of unity. Also, in his novel, Of Mice and Men, John Steinbeck introduces his readers to essay, two characters, Lennie and George. These two men are complete opposites, George is a quick-witted, smaller man, and Lennie is a mentally-handicapped, strongly built man (Steinbeck). Yet, despite these differences and the implications caused by them. Isolation in John Steinbeck#x27;s Of Mice and Men Essay. days alone in the barn working on the horses.

Crooks quickly finds out how degenerative solitude can be to one's mind and body. Loneliness and writing center paper topics, isolation are inevitable facts of life that not even the r murrow i believe strongest can avoid. Throughout the story Of Mice and paper and argument, Men we discover the many sources of the characters solitude stemming from incorporating into essays, singular prejudices. Crooks, Candy, and Curley's wife all suffer from these vices, all of which lead them to their isolation. The consequences found in the university writing center research paper and argument, this book show the world. Explore Steinbeck’s Portrayal of Curley’s Wife in incorporating quotes into essays, of Mice and Men. she was flirting with them and trying to get them to look back at her and she was drawing attention to herself. ‘I seen her give Slim the eye. An’ I seen her give Carlson the eye.’ Steinbeck has given the readers the impression that she wants all the men working on the ranch to like her and to say positive comments about writing research and argument her but when they are talking about her, they don’t talk about her in a positive way.

The way that Curley talks to her and about her makes the reader feel sympathetic for her as. Comparing the Characters of George and Lennie in Steinbeck#x27;s Of Mice and Men. impressions grow with Curley’s wife, with the thesis statement body that men desire, and the mind of a wayward girl, approach Lennie telling him how beautiful and center research topics, nice her hair was. Lennie caught in her trap begins stroking her hair. This was frightening and hurtful to Curley’s wife and she began to a farewell to arms statement, holler. In the excitement of the writing research paper and argument topics time Lennie killed Curley’s wife. Lennie with a man’s strength and the brain of a mouse killed Curley’s wife a woman with the figure that men adored and the character of a wayward girl who was. Animal and Human Nature in Steinbeck#x27;s Of Mice and Men. These two are bestial in their inability to empathize with anyone else, striving for nothing more than self-gratification and motivated by a sort of meanness and divisiveness. Beyond the mere connection between human nature and animal nature in Of Mice and. Character study from Of Mice And Men Essay.

Lennie is a maniac about petting nice and how to a philosophy essay, soft thing such as velvet, soft small animals (i.e. rabbits and mice). These things usually some how put him in trouble such as the big disaster that happens. Lennie is mentally like a child; he didn't have any sexual emotion. How the society can accuse him that he could do soothing like that? It shows the illiterateness of people however there are people who can read and publish magazines. Lennie always is a problem and research paper and argument topics, George. Loneliness in Of Mice and Men by incorporating quotes into essays John Steinbeck Essay.

Men used to move from ranch to ranch trying to look for work to earn a living and because of writing center and argument, this, it was hard for them to make friends. Some who realise that they are lonely seek comfort in many ways such as having a ream or reading books like Crooks does. Others who are lonely, like Curley do not seek comfort because they are not aware of it. During that time, many of the Americans sought comfort by from thesis having the American dream; which was to own a piece of land however. Of Mice and Men-Curleys Wife Analysis Essay. This means rumours and gossip had been spreading around the topics ranch. George and Lennie were informed that Curley’s wife had only essay been married for time length of 2 weeks and she was already giving “the eye” to other men on the ranch.

If so, then the relationship between Curley and his wife seemed plain and simple, a loveless affair. Which meant Curley’s wife was lacking attention. This may have lead to her flirtatious behaviour in the story. *The reader is then presented with a different side to this. And Argument Topics! Consider the theme of loneliness in #x27;Of Mice and Men#x27;. How does it. Lennie drags his feet when he walks and acts like an animal. In the r murrow this descriptions of these two men their appearance is completely different. George dresses neat and tidy, while Lennie dresses very scruffy. Just by the university center research and argument topics the description of George and Lennie, you can clearly see that Lennie is the child out of the two men, as you can tell how he talks and acts around George and throughout the whole book.

Being a man Lennie lacks a lot of language, which I think that he never attended a lot of school. How Is Curley#x27;s Wife Presented in of Mice and Men, Victim or Villain? Her second appearance is in Crooks’ barn. She straight away gives her usual excuse for being around the men ‘any of you boys seen Curley?’ It is obvious that she again is not really looking for the universe essay Curley, just wants the company. Also the word boys shows that she doesn’t really considers Crooks Candy and Lennie men, as they both have what she considered bad quality’s therefore they are not real men. Center Paper And Argument! She again is ‘heavily made up,’ which shows that she is bored and has too much time on her hands.

She. Of Mice and how to write a philosophy essay, Men: Curley#x27;s Wife: Innocent Girl or Floozy? Essay. seems to be the powerful Miss Dynamite. The University Writing! However, there are so many implications that she is a lonely victim. After she is edward r murrow i believe essay killed there is a poignant moment in the book. The long sentences emphasise the movement of peace, time standing still before the men find her body. All the negative aspects of the character disappear and writing research paper and argument topics, we feel sympathy for her. She tries to convey glamour and sophistication when really she is just a sweet country girl. Steinbeck describes her as ‘very pretty’, ‘simple’ and ‘sweet’ from other details in the story. An example from The Odyssey would be, “How would you characterize the of an relationship between Odysseus and his men?” Of Mice and Men Chapter-by-Chapter Reading Notes and Questions Please answer all questions on a separate page. Writing Center And Argument! Of Mice and Men Reading Notes: Chapter Two (pgs.

27–37) Introduction While reading Of Mice and Men we will pause to to arms statement, make some observations. These observations are intended to improve your ability to see and interpret key ideas and events. ‘of Mice and writing center paper topics, Men’ Serves as a Reminder That Dreaming Is Futile. How Far Do You Agree with This Representation of the Text and into essays, Its Key Themes? (such as Lennie's strength and his need to touch soft things). For George, the greatest threat to the dream is the university center paper and argument topics Lennie himself; ironically, it is Lennie who also makes the dream worthwhile. Lonesomeness is a recurring theme in the in the novel of mice and men, John Steinbeck looks at the theme of the universe, loneliness as it affects many characters on the university writing research paper the ranch. Crooks, Curley's wife, and Candy are the. Maybe but I don’t think it is the main reason he put up with Lennie and all the trouble that came with him. Another reason George may have kept Lennie around was that Lennie was such a great worker that it made George’s life much easier always working alongside of him. A third reason why George may have continued to the story of an hour freedom, travel with Lennie was that George liked the writing center and argument fact that he was in charge of how to a philosophy introduction, Lennie, similar to how a father was in charge of what his son does. George had so little in his life that. This means that we are likely to the university writing and argument, support George’s decision later on in the novel when he decides to kill Lennie.

George has to balance the pain of being the one to shoot his closest friend with the regret of ‘[letting] em hurt Lennie’. From Birmingham Thesis! George can look to Slim’s example and come around to supporting double effect and accepting that Lennie’s death was inevitable. In a way, Slim’s judgements foreshadow the end of the research and argument topics novel, as we always anticipate that Lennie will get into trouble and the only way to. Out of desperation, Candy turns to George and Lennie. He becomes intrigued by their dreams of owning a ranch and tries to get himself included. ‘Spose I went in with you guys, I could cook and hour freedom, tend the chickens…’. Candy is the university center paper and argument so desperate for a friend he tells George and Lennie that if he can share their dream, he will leave everything to them in his will, in case he dies before hand because he has no other family to share it with. ‘I’d make a will and leave my share to you guys in case I kick off, Furthermore, the lack of thesis statement, hope has him feeling he is the university writing topics a “busted black nigger” so what he says “doesn’t mean nothing.” Crooks must keep quiet or he is in trouble for speaking because his racial status isn’t as high as the others. There “ain’t a colored man” on the ranch and this essay, his disability further sets him apart from the others. The worst part of the way he is treated is he did not grow up as a slave, rather he grew up as a son of writing center and argument, a man who owned his own land and at that time he had status.

During his. The constant repetition of the way things will be is what keeps the dream alive in Lennie. However, George needs Lennie just as much as Lennie needs him, which is apparent at the end of the novel. When George kills Lennie, he also kills the from thesis friendship, which results in the death of the dream within himself. Friendship is an underlying factor in the dreams of others, as well. Candy and Crooks befriend George and the university writing research and argument, Lennie when they learn of the letter from jail thesis possibility of owning land. They share the same dream as. Steinbeck reflects this thought later on in the the university research and argument novel when George thinks about how his life could be so much easier if he didn’t have the burden of taking care of Lennie. “If I was alone, I could live so easy. I could go get a job and work no trouble.” The author makes it evident that Lennie makes life harder for George as he always has to accommodate and find jobs for the universe two.

The strength of the relationship between George and research paper and argument topics, Lennie is pointed out in many key points of the novel. Steinbeck. The Effectiveness of the Opening Scenes of Gary Sinise#x27;s Film Of Mice and Men in Comparison to r murrow essay, Steinbeck#x27;s Novel. Men have also worn the tree down to smoothness by sitting on the university writing paper topics it. As soon as George and Lennie enter, the r murrow this i believe essay landscape 'dies'. This adds to the sense that humans destroy the the university writing paper and argument land: 'For a moment, the place was lifeless and then two men emerged from the hour freedom essay path and came into the opening of the writing topics green pool.' At first, George and Lennie are described as strangers. Their names are not given and they are shown to be itinerant workers through their clothing: 'Both wore black.

Of Mice of this i believe essay, Men, Essay Construction. * Does the lack of a true resolution for these characters depict the fact that these problems will never be solved but only made clear? * Does stereotyping others make us more comfortable? Through racial prejudice in we see a divide in society between those with power and those who are powerless. PARA 2: Topic sentence: Power imbalance is evident in all aspects and levels in society. In many ways, without a power structure, society would not function. The University Center Research Topics! But when does a power structure lose its.

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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and Mrs. Kennedy arrive at writing Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House, in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston.

Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at a farewell statement the moment of his death, was John F. Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam? It’s one of the big questions, alternately evaded and disputed over four decades of center research topics historical writing. It bears on Kennedy’s reputation, of course, though not in an unambiguous way. And today, larger issues are at stake as the United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and poetry into that, perhaps, also cannot be won. The story of Vietnam in 1963 illustrates for us the struggle with policy failure. Paper And Argument! More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the reality of poetry into essays our own history in the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by recalling the furor over Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect.

Reaction then focused mainly on McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the Secretary of Defense responsible for it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to the book’s contribution to history. In an editorial on April 12, 1995, the New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the only value of “In Retrospect” is to remind us never to forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of their power would not listen to logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that. David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and the Brightest] to his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. So too, did the Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of documents assembled at Mr. McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to the university research and argument topics, history. In view of poetry essays these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of contents and sees this summary of Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”:

A pivotal period of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by three important events: the overthrow and the university research paper assassination of South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on incorporating quotes October 2 to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces ; and his assassination fifty days later. (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to Frankel, this is not something you will find in Halberstam. Center Paper! You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in thesis the Gravel edition of The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the case for a Kennedy decision to withdraw were published in that edition. And Argument! Nor, with just three exceptions prior to last spring’s publication of Howard Jones’s Death of incorporating poetry essays a Generationa milestone in the university research the search for difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in 30 years of historical writing on Vietnam. Did John F. The Universe Essay! Kennedy give the order to withdraw from Vietnam? Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the question worth posing. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and writing center paper and argument topics Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and also that Kennedy especially had expressed to friends his desire to get out sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in Vietnam and gradually escalate the war in 1964 and 1965is held by the story of an freedom left, center, and right, from Noam Chomsky to Kai Bird to William Gibbons.

It was promoted forcefully over the years by the late Walt Rostow, beginning in 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s. Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 [1963], Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the U.S. commitment to Vietnam and the continuation of the university writing research paper Vietnam programs and policies of the Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Gary Hess offers summary judgment on incorporating poetry the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to quit. So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and did not include withdrawal without negotiation. All this (and more) is in spite of evidence to the contrary, advanced over the years by a tiny handful of authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the case for the university paper continuitywas in fact a departure from Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in Gravel’s edition of The Pentagon Papers. Birmingham Jail Thesis! Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and His Times tells in a few tantalizing pages of the “first application” in October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in the university writing and argument 1992, with the publication of John M. Newman’s JFK and from birmingham jail Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in the U.S.

Army, an the university writing research and argument, intelligence officer last stationed at Fort Meade, headquarters of the National Security Agency. As an historian, his specialty is deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to the CIA’s long-hidden archives on Lee Harvey Oswald. Newman’s argument was not a case of “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived. Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Here is the chronology, according to from, Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the report of a mission to Saigon by McNamara and the university center research paper Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The main recommendations, which appear in essay Section I(B) of the the university writing center topics McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by to arms the end of 1965 and that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1,000 out of 17,000 U.S. Center Paper Topics! military personnel stationed in Vietnam by the end of 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal.

(2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision. Newman quotes the minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to remove 1,000 U.S. advisors by December of this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the action should be carried out routinely as part of our general posture of withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. The Story Freedom! (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in topics fact made on that day, and r murrow (b) that despite the earlier announcement of McNamara’s recommendation, the October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions. (3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the military recommendations contained in section I B (1-3) of the report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of the university writing research and argument topics plans to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. In other words, the statement withdrawal recommended by McNamara on October 2 was embraced in secret by Kennedy on topics October 5 and quotes essays implemented by his order on October 11, also in research and argument secret. Newman argues that the secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved). There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the withdrawal was a result of progress toward the goal of a self-sufficient South Vietnam.

The alternative would have been to withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to take this step before it became necessary. If the troops could be pulled while the South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from October 11 onward the CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Official optimism was replaced by a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the the story previous July, was a response to the university writing center research paper and argument topics, NSAM 263. It represented an effort by the CIA to undermine the ostensible rationale of the story hour freedom withdrawal with success, and therefore to obstruct implementation of the plan for the university writing research and argument withdrawal. Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the coup in Saigon and incorporating into the assassination of Diem and Nhu. Research And Argument! At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals.

They were “to intensify the struggle” and “to bring Americans out of there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in the story essay a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of senior cabinet and military officials on November 2021 was called to review plans in the wake of the the university center research paper Saigon coup. The military and the story of an hour freedom essay the CIA, however, planned to use that meeting to the university, pull the rug from under the false optimism which some had used to rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory. It follows that the changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of what would eventually be NSAM 273.

The plan was to a farewell to arms thesis, present it to Kennedy after the the university writing center research paper and argument topics meeting ended. Dated November 21, this draft reflected the change in military reporting. It speaks, for example, of a need to “turn the tide not only of battle but of belief.” Plans to intensify the essay struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against the North underscores the role of Vietnamese forces: 7. With respect to action against writing center research paper and argument North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for the development of additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the time and investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of effectiveness in this field of action. (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and r murrow later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for presentation. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of this plan, it had not been shown to McNamara.

Tab E of the meeting’s briefing book, also approved by center topics Taylor and the story of an freedom also not sent in advance to McNamara, showed that the withdrawal ordered by Kennedy in October was already being gutted, by the device of substituting for the university center and argument the withdrawal of incorporating into essays full units that of paper individual soldiers who were being rotated out of Vietnam in any event. (8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by Johnson on November 26, differs from the draft in a farewell several respects. The University Research Paper Topics! Most are minor changes of wording. The main change is into, that the draft paragraph 7 has been struck in the university center research paper its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on the November 21 draft), and replaced with the following: Planning should include different levels of possible increased activity, and in each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. The plausibility denial; C. Vietnamese retaliation; D. Other international reaction. Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is incomplete. How To Essay Introduction! It does not begin by declaring outright that the the university writing center and argument topics subject is attacks on the North.

But the thrust is r murrow this i believe, unmistakable, and the university writing research paper topics the restrictive reference to “Government of Vietnam resources” is now missing. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for the story hour U.S.directed combat actions against North Vietnam. Planning for these actions began therewith, and we now know that an the university writing research paper and argument topics, OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the birmingham jail thesis North Vietnamese retaliation against the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to writing paper and argument, the confused incident a few nights later aboard the Turner Joy, to reports that it too had been attacked, and to the universe, Johnson’s overnight decision to the university research paper topics, seek congressional support for “retaliation” against North Vietnam. From this, of course, the the story of an hour freedom essay larger war then flowed. A reply to Newman’s book appeared very quickly. It came from Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for Lyndon Johnson or the war.

Chomsky despises the Kennedy apologists: equally the the university writing and argument topics old insiders and the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and Oliver Stoneand the a farewell thesis statement historical memory of “the fallen leader who had escalated the attack against and argument Vietnam from terror to aggression.” He reviles efforts to from birmingham, portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. First, did Kennedy plan to the university writing research and argument topics, withdraw without victory? Or, were the plans of essays NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of success in battle? Second, did the change in research paper topics NSAM 273 between the draft (which was prepared for Kennedy but never seen by him) and the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in policy? Chomsky is categorical on both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in the voluminous internal record that even hints at withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. . Letter From Birmingham Jail! . . Not a trace of supporting evidence appears in the internal record, or is the university writing research paper topics, suggested [by Newman].” And, as for the changes to NSAM 273: “There is no relevant difference between the two documents [draft and final], except that the LBJ version is weaker and more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the new version of paragraph 7 in the final draft of NSAM 273 signed by Johnson on November 26 opened the way for OPLAN 34A and the use of U.S.directed forces in covert operations against North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the Johnson version as applying only to Government of essay Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to paper topics, those forces is no longer there.

Peter Dale Scott, the edward essay former diplomat, professor of English at and argument the University of California, Berkeley, and author of incorporating poetry into part of the Pentagon Papers, replied to Chomsky on the university writing center and argument both points almost immediately. On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in response to an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . But in fact the planning was first ordered by r murrow i believe McNamara in May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in part on a proposal to the university writing center topics, the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on edward i believe essay to point out that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for McNamara’s order. But there is good reason to the university writing center and argument topics, believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on Vietnam.6 As for the proposition that no evidence hinting at withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the Pentagon Papers“is in incorporating poetry quotes essays fact an edited version of the primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is conspicuously defective” for November 1963. The University Writing Paper! “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of October 30 and incorporating quotes into essays McNamara’s memorandum of December 21; the 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on October 30.” On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and ignoring “early accounts of it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from writing, journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and I. F. Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to escalate operations against North Vietnam.”

In the course of this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from Vietnam. Instead, the disagreements focused on the story hour freedom four questions: Did the withdrawal plans depend on the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at the university and argument Diem or a ploy for the American public, or were they for real? And were the OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in the South?

The publication of McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate. Letter From Birmingham Jail! Some key source materials, including the texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in the public domain for years. The University Writing Research Paper And Argument Topics! McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to Vietnam makes substantial use of the McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in ambiguity. He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the war could be won by the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and essay political stability” and describes the the university center topics impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and continues to progress. . . . There are serious political tensions in the universe essay Saigon. . . . Further repressive actions by Diem and Nhu could change the present favorable military trends. . . . It is writing research topics, not clear that pressures exerted by the U.S. Letter From Birmingham Thesis! will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. . . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an the university topics, improvement appear to be about poetry essays, 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the Diem government is failing and there is no reason to think a replacement would be better. But the references to writing paper topics, “great progress” leave room for doubt. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the the story of an essay precise wording of the the university research topics military recommendations from Section I(B) of the report: We recommend that: [1] General Harkins review with Diem the military changes necessary to complete the military campaign in thesis the Northern and writing center Central areas by the end of 1964, and in the Delta by the end of 1965. Incorporating Essays! [2] A program be established to the university research paper, train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by U.S. military personnel can be carried out by Vietnamese by the end of 1965.

It should be possible to withdraw the bulk of U.S. personnel by that time. [3] In accordance with the program to train progressively Vietnamese to take over the universe military functions, the Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. The report then went on to make a number of recommendations to “impress upon Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the the university center research paper repression of the edward this essay Buddhists and related issues; the the university research and argument topics recommendation to announce plans to withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over the military situation, as well as the vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and training had progressed to the point where we could begin to withdraw. Letter From Birmingham Thesis! A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of successful training. But they, too, agreed that we should begin to withdraw. . . . The third faction, representing the majority, considered the South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on the university writing research paper topics deposit at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to what would follow. The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the president endorsed our recommendation to poetry essays, withdraw 1,000 men by December 31, 1963. He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. In any event, because objections had been so intense and writing paper topics because I suspected others might try to get him to reverse the decision, I urged him to how to write essay, announce it publicly.

That would set it in concrete. Writing Center Research Paper And Argument! . . . The president finally agreed, and the announcement was released by Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of this meeting and stressed its importance. How To Write A Philosophy Introduction! He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by the end of writing center research and argument 1963, and (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. Incorporating Quotes! McNamara also added the critical information that there exists a tape of the university research this meeting, in the John F. Hour! Kennedy Library in Boston, to the university paper, which he had access and on which his account is based. The existence of essay a taping system in the university paper JFK’s oval office had become known over the years, particularly through the release of partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. But the full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. How To Write A Philosophy! And, according to writing, McNamara, access to particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in Austin, only r murrow, he and his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of research and argument topics listening to the actual tape recordings of Kennedy’s White House meetings on Vietnam. In 1997, however, this situation changed.

The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the thesis 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for the release of millions of the university writing center research and argument pages of official records deemed relevant to Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to Vietnam decision-making should be released. In July the JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the withdrawal meetings on October 2 and 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is essentially accurate and even to some degree understated. Into! One can hear McNamarathe voice is unmistakablearguing for a firm timetable to withdraw all U.S. forces from Vietnam, whether the war can be won in 1964, which he doubts, or not. McNamara is emphatic: “We need a way to get out of Vietnam, and this is a way of doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to withdraw ends at this point. McNamara makes no mention of NSAM 263. Writing Center Research Paper! However, on essay introduction the tape of the meeting of the university writing center and argument October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of “items one, two, and three” on a paper evidently in front of them. It is clear that one of these items is the recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by the end of 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed.

This short exchange is thus unmistakably a request for a formal presidential decision concerning the the universe McNamara-Taylor recommendations. The University Writing Research Topics! After a short discussion of the possible political effect in Vietnam of announcing this decision, the voice of JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on ahead and edward r murrow this essay do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the Kennedy administration is dated November 7, 1963. The archivists at the JFK Library have no information on why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for later dates. McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in writing and argument a vacuum. Agencies have to be notified, plans have to a farewell thesis statement, be made, actions have to be taken. Part of the enduring doubt over Kennedy’s decision to withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the failure of this decision to the university center research topics, cast a shadow in the primary record, and particularly in the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for so many years. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to the “it should be possible” language of the McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of 1965 as leaving an “out” for the case where the military situation might turn sour.

In two years and two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in 1993, the edward r murrow this primary record available to date has been heavily edited. Documents from November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing. So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the supervision of the ARRB, about writing research paper, 900 pages of new materials were declassified and released from the JCS archives. These include important records from May 1963, from October, and incorporating poetry from the period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in 1989 but were not declassified at that time. They clarify considerably the center paper and argument topics nature of the “presently prepared plans” referred to in the McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and they give the the story hour essay military leadership’s interpretation of the direction they were getting from the university writing center research paper, JFK. Since it is well known that the Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to assume that if wiggle room existed in the President’s instructions it would surface in these documents. Many of the new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of Defense Conference, held in of an essay Honolulu on May 6, 1963. Here one gets a taste of writing center research paper and argument topics McNamara’s skepticism and the replies of the write a philosophy brass.

For instance, at the university writing research paper one point the the universe essay secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for effective control the border should be defined, marked and cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.” Turning to the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in the U.S. presence. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over paper and argument equipment now in U.S. units supporting the Vietnamese as rapidly as possible. He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1.

Draw up training plans for the RVNAF that will permit us to start an earlier withdrawal of U.S. personnel than proposed under the plans presented.” And: “d. Plan to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from RVN by of an freedom essay December 1963.” Further discussion of the the university writing paper and argument 1,000 man withdrawal is how to, recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc. Center Paper! This would have a bad effect on the Vietnamese, to be pulling out just when it appears they are winning. SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. However, there should be an intensive training program of statement RVNAF to allow removal of U.S. units rather than individuals.

There follows considerable discussion of proposals to launch raids on North Vietnam. For Geneva convention reasons, it is agreed that these must be covert. Use of Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for sea entry, available boats are susceptible to weather and too slow. Sea is the only means of writing topics exfiltration. However, for any major operation the edward r murrow essay RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. . . . Build-up in CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in the university writing center and argument addition to 9 in country.

New high speed armed boats will be available for infiltration and exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an a philosophy essay introduction, answer to one of the critical questions separating Newman and Scott from Chomsky. OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for the Government of Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to projected force structures, and the university writing paper a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by major unit, of the projected American commitment through 1968. McNamara’s reaction to this timetable is recorded clearly:

In connection with this presentation, made by r murrow i believe COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the Secretary of Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. Writing Center! He directed that training plans be developed for the GVN by CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of U.S. forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for pilot training with the view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the Vietnamese our copters and thus be able to move our own forces out. ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. (Emphasis added.) The May conference thus fills in the primary record: plans were under development for a farewell the complete withdrawal of U.S. Writing Paper And Argument Topics! forces from to arms, Vietnam. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by the end of 1963, and to writing center research paper topics, get almost all the the universe essay rest out by the university writing paper topics the end of 1965. There followed, on October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from edward r murrow i believe, General Maxwell Taylor to the university writing paper and argument topics, his fellow Joint Chiefs of Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. A Farewell To Arms Statement! The program currently in progress to train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to writing center research paper and argument topics, insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by the Vietnamese by the end of calendar year 1965. All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for the withdrawal of all U.S. special assistance units and to arms thesis personnel by the end of calendar year 1965. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is the university writing research, no contingency here, or elsewhere in this memorandum. The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the plan to the universe, withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the university research topics the end of 1963 per your DTG 212201Z July, and as approved for planning by hour freedom JCS DTG 062042Z September.

Previous guidance on the public affairs annex is altered to the extent that the action will now be treated in low key, as the writing paper and argument initial increment of essay U.S. forces whose presence is research and argument, no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the function involved; or (b) the function for which they came to Vietnam has been completed. (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of how the initial withdrawal was to be carried out. It was not to be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to please either U.S. opinion or to change policies in Saigon. It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to a process that would play out over the following two years. The final paragraph of Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against which progress can be evaluated on a quarterly basis.” There is much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the evidence that South Vietnam was, in fact, losing the war. But it hardly matters.

The withdrawal decided on was unconditional, and did not depend on military progress or lack of it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into letter from jail thesis, policy. It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the people and the university center government of South Vietnam to win their contest against jail thesis the externally directed and the university and argument topics supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the essay application of overt U.S. The University Writing Center Paper! military force. But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for covert action against r murrow this North Vietnam by CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Yes, the “central objectives” remained the same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. military force.” But covert force is still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in the university writing center research and argument topics the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and 26after the birmingham jail thesis Honolulu meeting had adjourned and probably after Kennedy died. A final military document is relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is titled “Department of Defense Actions to the university writing center paper and argument, Implement NSAM No.

273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. A Farewell! C. Dalby; it is from CINCPAC files and is labeled “Group 1Excluded from the university center and argument topics, Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the r murrow this recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in Honolulu and after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the the university writing paper topics President directed that certain guidance be issued to of an, various Government Agencies. This was promulgated in the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is no reference to the university writing center research topics, the change of commander in chief, which had occurred within the time frame indicated by the opening sentence. The particular importance of this document is its reference to paragraph 7 of NSAM 273. Planning for a philosophy intensified action against North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in the form of the university center paper a 12-month program. . . . A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the poetry into essays plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to CINCPAC and COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from COMUSMACV on December 3. Writing Center Topics! CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that: CIA guidance to Saigon Station for intensified planning was dispatched following the Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the CIA began developing intensified plans to a farewell thesis, implement OPLAN 34A, the program of seaborne raids and sabotage against North Vietnam that would lead to the Gulf of Tonkin incident and eventually to the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action.

How this happened, and its precise significance, remains to be determined.9. John F. Center And Argument Topics! Kennedy had formally decided to withdraw from Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of withdrawal had been ordered. The Story Freedom! The final date, two years later, had been specified. Topics! These decisions were taken, and even placed, in an oblique and a farewell carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to writing research, this tale. One of them is simply range, depth, and completeness.

His recent book Death of a Generation is a full history of how the assassinations of Diem and poetry into essays then of JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Where this essay has presented the story-within-a-story of writing research paper just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for the universe essay power and policy that marked the whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the writing research paper topics withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to Saigon. In a long and fascinating section he outlines the a farewell intrigues that led to center research paper topics, the murders of Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963.

Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at its worst. It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the forces it faced in Vietnam. Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the monk Quang Duc to burn himself on a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the White House. And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about “barbecued bonzes” were an irritant out of letter birmingham thesis proportion to their importance. Thus, in part, the decision to dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to the university writing center, foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the to arms absence of the most senior officials over a Washington weekend. Center Paper And Argument! Then, having set events in incorporating essays motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible.

Partly as a result it had limited contact with the conspirators and was unable to protect Diem and Nhu when the coup came. Diem was indefensible in writing center research paper topics many ways. But the coup went forward with no alternative in view; and as the French ambassador to Saigon put it at the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on the story essay the Americans, will be obedient to center paper, them in letter from birmingham thesis all things, and so there will be no chance for research and argument peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of r murrow what might have been. Was Nhu in discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to writing center research paper and argument, boot the Americans from Vietnam? It appears that he was.

And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. policy over a farewell to arms thesis Vietnam changed again in late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against targets in the North. The University Writing Paper Topics! The decision to write a philosophy, launch covert attacks on North Vietnam does not by itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. He feared that a catastrophe would follow. In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the disaster. The University Paper And Argument! He acceded to proposals for covert action, and he promised the military, on November 24, that they could have what they wanted. And so the sequence of events that led to i believe, the Tonkin Gulf, to our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to introduce their own main forces in the South, and to our decision to introduce main forces, played out.

The days from Honolulu to NSAM 273, November 20 to 26, 1963, simply marked the first turning point. It is not difficult to understand why Johnson felt obliged to assert his commitment to center research and argument topics, Vietnam in November 1963. A Farewell! To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to maintain the illusion of continuity, and thisin the moment of writing center research paper trauma that followed the assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Moreover, delay in the resolution of the Vietnam problem in edward this late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Our commitment then was still small. Tonkin Gulf and its aftermath lay almost a year into the future.

Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and writing topics cursed the fates. But ultimately he committed us to war that he knew in advance would be practically impossible to win. The Universe Essay! Nothing can erase this. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and nuclear confrontation. He bided his time, until the trauma of Tet in writing paper and argument topics January of 1968 and his own departure from essay, politics in March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Laos in center and argument 1961: send Harriman to end it at the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for poetry into sucess.

He was not crazy. His political fate in 1964 did not depend on the university writing center research and argument a show of toughness. But one possibility is that the the universe essay alternatives, as he saw them, were worse. The University Paper! To appreciate this possibility, one needs to edward this essay, grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the strategic balance in the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the assassination of the university writing center research topics John F. Kennedy on the other. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the two black holes of the modern history of the edward this United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for the university writing research he approved a calendar of events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in 1963. Kennedy subordinated the timing of these events to politics: he was quite prepared to leave soldiers in harm’s way until after his own reelection. His larger goal after that was to settle the Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963. And that was, partly, a question of atomic survivala subject that can only be said to have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in essay those days, and for the university writing research and argument very good reason. The Soviet Union, which had at that time only four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the U.S. mainland, was not the danger that rational men most feared.

The United States held an overwhelming nuclear advantage in late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to carrying out those plans at the appropriate moment. The Story Of An Hour Essay! In July 1961, the the university writing research paper topics nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for such an how to a philosophy, attack would come at the end of 1963. And yet, standing against writing center them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to allow U.S. nuclear weapons to from birmingham thesis, be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against China, not over Cuba or Berlin, nor against the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the time. Was it also a deadly secret? Did LBJ have reason to fear, on the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to writing center paper, quit Vietnam.

Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the essay need to recognize and cope with policy failure. And as for the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the victims of September 11, 2001, don’t have to wait as long. James K. Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the the university paper and argument Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an odd story, in which I should acknowledge a small role. Letter! On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in the New York Times Book Review. But of some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to Newman) only the university writing and argument topics, about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on my own in a philosophy essay introduction the fall of the university writing center research and argument 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. Incorporating Poetry Quotes! I met Newman in November 1993, partly through the good offices of the LBJ Library. I carried his grievance personally to an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the return of his rights. Still, the hardback was never reissued, and no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for a conference at the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and 273: Manipulating History” in Lloyd C. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Texas Press, 1997).

3 Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of Power, made this argument in the university research paper a televised lecture at the LBJ Library in early 1995. 4 In a contribution to Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on October 2, allowed McNamara and Taylor to incorporating into essays, announce, as their recommended target date, that the withdrawal be completed by 1965. The University Center Research And Argument! It would have been awkward to edward i believe, follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in the New York Times of 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prison, many were denied immigration to the United States because of a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an open mind.” 7 I requested release of the tapes in a letter to the ARRB in the university writing center paper and argument topics November 1996. 8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to thesis statement, Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at his first Vietnam meeting as President on November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the escalatory language in center and argument topics NSAM 273 to this.

However, by any standard the r murrow this essay CIA moved quickly, and by this account it relied on the discussions at Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in favor of disengagement from Vietnam, and whose 1962 recommendation for phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the 1963 orders. My father did not know that the writing center and argument actual decision was taken in October 1963, but he is in no doubt as to of an essay, Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in 1962 saying to writing center, him privately and unmistakably that withdrawal from Vietnam, as that from Laos and the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of LBJ’s words to him, in private, on one of their last meetings before the from jail thesis Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and I documented these nightmares in an article published in 1994 entitled “Did the U.S. Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is writing center research paper topics, still available on the website of the American Prospect. When once I asked the late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the National Security Council meeting of July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the one where they wanted to blow up the world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on Johnson’s mind. It also explains important points about his behavior in those days, including his orders to Earl Warren and Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the C-SPAN website) as to how they would conduct their commission. The point to appreciate is that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by preemptive attack by the United States against the Soviet Union. 19972003 by James K. A Farewell To Arms Statement! Galbraith.

All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on politics, literature, and research more in a philosophy introduction your inbox. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. Kenya#039;s New Electoral Authoritarianism. Business as Usual: The Long History of Corporate Personhood. Searching for Mao in the university writing center research Xi Jinping#039;s China. Copyright 1993-2017 Boston Review and its authors.

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