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Automating Word Tables for Data Insertion and Extraction. This content is & theses, outdated and is no longer being maintained. It is thesis review, provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies. This page may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to sites or pages that no longer exist. Summary: Learn how to automate the creation and formatting of dissertation & theses tables in Word.

Get information about optimizing performance, populating a table with data, formatting table structure, linking table data, and study thesis, extracting data from & theses, a table. Essay About Devices! (25 printed pages) Cindy Meister, Word MVP. Applies to: Microsoft Office Word 2003, Microsoft Word 2002, Microsoft Word 2000, Microsoft Word 97. Dissertation & Theses! You can look at the world as split into applications that store data (databases) and applications that present information, such as Microsoft Office Word 2003 and Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2003. Essay Prompt! Increasingly, the dissertation, end user demands to display database content in documents and presentations. Of Essay Concerning! While Word does provide some tools for displaying tables from databases in its documents, these are somewhat rudimentary, they require a basic understanding of how the database is dissertation, built, and analysis concerning human understanding, using them involves a number of dissertation steps. In addition, there may also be security and ozick essays, access issues involved, requiring additional layers of protection. Dissertation! The developer is therefore increasingly confronted with the task of transferring data into about electronic, Word, whether in & theses, the form of romulus essay tables, or as part of the dissertation & theses, document text. This article considers some of the major aspects of using the Word object model to devices, work with tables.

One of the dissertation & theses, bigger mysteries for thesis developers unfamiliar with the & theses, Word object model is determining the most appropriate method to essay about electronic, automate the creation and formatting of tables in dissertation, Word. The task has a number of aspects. In this article, I discuss: Optimizing performance when working with tables. Aquifer Thesis! Populating a table with data. Dissertation & Theses! Formatting the thesis, table structure and data. Dissertation & Theses! Linking table data in review, from another application. Extracting data from dissertation, a Word table.

I will show you the about devices, code, with samples in classic Microsoft Visual Basic and C#. Dissertation & Theses! (From these two languages, the syntax for Microsoft Visual Basic .NET can also be derived.) I will also discuss some of the idiosyncrasies of the ozick essays, Word object model, and & theses, why particular techniques may be better to beowulf, use, rather than other, more obvious, approaches. You can download the dissertation, sample projects as *.bas and *.cs files for Word Visual Basic for dissertation databases Applications, Visual Basic 6.0, and C#. The code generates a document in dissertation, Word with tables created and aquifer study, formatted using the methods discussed in this article. Table functionality has changed to a greater or lesser extent in every version of Word since Microsoft Word 97. Dissertation! Tables in dissertation databases, Microsoft Word 2000 acquired HTML (Web) table characteristics; among other things, columns can resize automatically to fit cell content and you can size them as a percentage of the whole. Dissertation & Theses! Microsoft Word 2002 tables gained the romulus memoir essay, ability to support text wrapping around the & theses, table, as well as within table cells. In Word 2003, tables formatted with text wrapping can be set to break to the next page (this was not possible in Word 2002). Analysis Understanding! So, if you are programming for multiple versions of Word, you need to be aware that Word 97, Word 2000, Word 2002, and Word 2003 can differ significantly, depending on what you want to & theses, do. Do not assume that what you develop in ozick essays, one version works in other versions; be sure to install all versions and test your code with each of them. Improving Performance When Automating Tables.

Performance is & theses, often an beowulf essay prompt, issue when automating Word, especially when creating tables. Working with tables in & theses, Word 2000 or later versions can be slow, mostly due to the new Web capabilities mentioned above. Word has to do a lot of romulus memoir work in the background to calculate the dissertation, page layout. One way to speed things up: Do not automate Word at romulus my father, all when creating a document. & Theses! Write an ozick essays, RTF, HTML, or, for Word 2003, an XML file. To learn more about RTF, see the Rich Text Format (RTF) Specification, version 1.6 . & Theses! To learn more about XML files, see the article What You Can Do with Word XML . Find information about aquifer study thesis, all three file formats in the Microsoft Knowledge Base article Information About How to Extract Office File Formats and Schemas. If you do automate Word, move things along more swiftly by building the table in the view state requiring the fewest resources: the Normal view. The Normal view is optimized for & theses performance, and 1965 1980, is not what you see is what you get (WYSIWYG). For things that require exact page layout, such as positioning graphics with text flow formatting, you need to be in & theses, the Print Layout view. But Normal view is optimal for dumping in and formatting large quantities of text and analysis of essay concerning, tables.

In addition, you can restrict screen updating and suppress automatic pagination in Normal view, speeding execution even more. When creating a table, ensure that it behaves as tables did in Word 97, before the addition of the dissertation, new Web features. You can later enable or set any of the newer features, but while creating the table it is databases, advisable to turn them off by setting the DefaultTableBehavior to wdWord8TableBehavior , as shown in the following code sample. Remember that a Word table may contain a maximum of 64 columns. Dissertation! The Tables.Add method shown here is the electronic, same in dissertation, Word 2000, 2002, and 2003; the last two arguments are not used or allowed in Word 97; code containing them does not compile for Word 97. The VBA documentation is a more complete source of information available on thesis the Word object model—but test the dissertation, assumptions, as it is not entirely error free. For example, the information about the AutoFitBehavior argument says Sets the ozick essays, AutoFit rules for & theses how Word sizes tables.

Can be one of the following WdAutoFitBehavior constants: wdAutoFitContent , wdAutoFitFixed , or wdAutoFitWindow . Prompt! If DefaultTableBehavior is & theses, set to ozick essays, wdWord8TableBehavior , this argument is dissertation, ignored. However, testing Tables.Add as in the sample code and then again using wdAutoFitWindow reveals that the romulus, argument is dissertation & theses, not ignored completely. When you use wdAutoFitWindow the table resizes to exactly fit within the romulus my father memoir essay, document's left and right margins if these are changed. wdAutoFitContent , however, does not come into effect if you set wdWord8TableBehavior as the DefaultTableBehavior . Dissertation & Theses! Word can lay out the page faster when you use wdAutoFitFixed . Even if you use all of the thesis review, possible performance optimization techniques, you find that very long tables slow things down in Word. In this case, you may want to consider breaking the & theses, table into multiple, smaller tables. Aquifer Thesis! Usually, when I insert a table into dissertation, Word through automation I intend to fill that table with data. Intuitively, most developers insert a table with one or two rows and 1965 essay, the requisite number of columns, and then proceed to dissertation, add rows, one after the other, as needed. Aquifer Study Thesis! Only when they test with a large number of dissertation & theses records do they notice that this process is databases, slow.

Next, they attempt to dissertation & theses, determine the number of romulus my father memoir essay rows required, create the table with all the rows, then loop through cell by cell to fill in the data. Unfortunately, this is dissertation & theses, not significantly faster. Aquifer! The following code demonstrates these two techniques. Be careful when inserting objects into dissertation & theses, a cell range. Romulus My Father! The Word object model allows you to assign things to Table.Cell(index, index).Range , just as to any other range.

But if you do not collapse the dissertation, range to doctoral dissertation databases, the cell's starting point ( Direction:=wdCollapseStart ) you may insert objects (such as pictures) into the table structure, rather than into dissertation, the cell that you intended. Note that the Text property is the default for ozick essays the Range property; assigning a string to dissertation & theses, a cell's Range property is allowed in the classic Visual Basic languages (and Visual Basic .NET if Option Strict is beowulf, not on). This does not damage the & theses, table structure because the string is assigned to the Text property, behind the ozick essays, scenes. Dissertation & Theses! Also be aware, when working with arrays and data tables that writing to the cell index zero ( tbl.Cell(0,0).Range.Text ) damages the table structure and crashes Word. The first cell in thesis, a Word table is index 1, 1. The most efficient way to dissertation, create a table of data in a Word document is to concatenate the 1980, data into & theses, a delimited string, assign it to 1965 recollected, a document range, and dissertation & theses, then convert the range to doctoral dissertation, a table.

The samples below use a tab character as the field delimiter, but you may use any character. Dissertation & Theses! The record delimiter, however, must be ANSI 13 (a carriage return). Essay About! Place the content of each field within a pair of single or double quotes if the field or record delimiter could be part of the dissertation, field data. 1965! You can find a code example for Visual Basic .NET, using data from dissertation & theses, a Web service in the article Working with ADO.NET Datasets in study thesis, Microsoft Office . Formatting Tables Programmatically in Word. & Theses! In order to apply formatting, you must specify to my father memoir essay, what you are applying it.

As with filling a table with data, it is faster to dissertation, apply formatting to ranges or groups of cells, rather than to process formatting cell-by-cell. You can assign an thesis literature, entire table to a range, as well as entire rows; multiple, contiguous rows; or multiple, contiguous cells within a row. & Theses! To work with an entire column, multiple, contiguous columns, or a contiguous set of thesis cells within the & theses, table that do not extend across entire rows, you must first select the doctoral dissertation databases, columns or cells, then apply formatting to the selection. You cannot assign columns and blocks of cells to a range because the dissertation, information is not contiguous within the document's text flow. My Father Essay! Example to & theses, select a group of cells within a table: Example to analysis concerning understanding, select a set of dissertation & theses columns: You can apply several types of study thesis formatting to tables: direct formatting, character and dissertation, paragraph styles, table AutoFormats, and—in Word 2002 or Word 2003—table styles (custom table AutoFormats). Styles are usually preferable to direct formatting for a number of essay electronic reasons: Efficiency . When you apply formatting with a style, you apply multiple attributes in a single step.

You type less code, it executes more quickly, and you are less likely to encounter the dissertation & theses, infamous Out of essay devices memory message that appears in dissertation & theses, the Word window—and stops code execution until the user dismisses it. Word tracks editing actions taken in a document to support the Edit/Undo functionality. Word tracks this information in 1980 recollected, temp and & theses, scratch files, which have a limited size. When the amount of information exceeds the of essay concerning, available space allotted by & theses Word, the dissertation, Out of & theses memory message appears. In addition to streamlining the 1965 1980, amount of information Word tracks by & theses using styles, three more actions may help you avoid this error message: 1. 1965 Recollected! Make sure AllowFastSaves is turned off. Dissertation & Theses! (This out-dated feature that is retained for compatibility reasons is no longer necessary with modern computers.) 2. Execute Document.UndoClear to clear the Undo list. 3. Of Essay Concerning Human! Allow Word to perform clean-up by periodically saving the file to dissertation & theses, disk. Consistency and uniformity . Consistent formatting of all items of the memoir essay, same type is very important in reports and dissertation & theses, other large documents. It is essay electronic, much easier to dissertation, keep track of formatting when you use styles rather than many separate formatting commands. Maintenance . If the document you produce is saved, edited, and re-used, it is more efficient to work with styles. Essay Recollected! For example, if you want to change the dissertation & theses, color of all table headings from understanding, black to dissertation, blue, you can adjust the style definition, and all the table headings change. If you do not use styles, you must find, select, and apply the required formatting to each table heading.

The person designing the Word document should make the aquifer, decision to use paragraph and dissertation, character styles, or AutoFormats and memoir essay, table styles, or a combination. & Theses! Normally, you can achieve finer control of 1965 text formatting with paragraph and character styles. & Theses! AutoFormat and review, table styles provide a quick way to apply table-specific formatting (borders, shading, formatting of dissertation first and last columns and rows). Analysis Human Understanding! If you decide to use a table style, and dissertation & theses, plan to thesis literature review, control font formatting through the table style, be sure to create the table from & theses, a paragraph formatted with the prompt, Normal style. Any other paragraph or character style overrides the font formatting defined in the table style. The following sample code demonstrates how to create a table style and dissertation & theses, apply it to romulus my father memoir essay, all the tables in a document. Figure 2 shows the dissertation & theses, result. Word can repeat a specified number of essay recollected heading rows at the top of every page if a table breaks automatically to a new page. It is not possible, however, to display different text, such as Continued. . ., in & theses, repeated heading rows. Be sure to apply HeadingFormatting in ozick essays, the finishing stages of your code.

Applying a table style or AutoFormat overrides this setting. Dissertation & Theses! Controlling how a table breaks to literature, a new page is dissertation & theses, another aspect of dissertation table formatting. Dissertation! You can prevent rows from literature, splitting across pages by dissertation & theses setting the essay about devices, AllowPageBreaks property of the Table and Row objects. This property has no effect on vertically merged cells. Dissertation & Theses! Sometimes, you are required to link data into analysis of essay, a document from another application.

The user would usually copy the data, or use one of the dissertation, Word tools to import it. Essay! (For example, on the Edit menu, click Paste Special with Link , or, on the Data toolbar, click Insert Database or, on the Insert menu, point to dissertation & theses, Object , and romulus my father memoir essay, then click From File with Link .) In Word 2003 and in dissertation & theses, recent service packs for ozick essays Word 2000 and Word 2002, new security measures prevent fields that link in dissertation & theses, outside data from updating automatically. For more information, see the Microsoft Knowledge Base article How the Behavior of the my father essay, Word Fields Changes After You Install the Word Update. Dissertation! There are, of doctoral course, equivalent commands in & theses, the Word object model, but they are not usually the best choice for romulus my father memoir essay the developer. The InsertObject and & theses, InsertDatabase methods are difficult to get working correctly. Concerning! Due to differences in how individual machines may be configured, if you get them working on one computer, they may not work on the next. Paste Special does not have this kind of dissertation problem, but it is not considered polite to interfere with the user's Clipboard. Instead, often the of essay concerning human understanding, most reliable and efficient approach is to re-create the final result of & theses using the 1980, commands in the Word interface: inserting Link and Database fields directly.

Link fields use OLE to bring live data into Word. Database fields can, like mail merge, bring in data through Dynamic Data Exchange (for Microsoft Office Excel and dissertation & theses, Microsoft Office Access), Open Database Connectivity (ODBC), or (in Word 2002 and 2003) OLE DB. Where possible, I recommend using ODBC for the Database field connections. Newer installations and thesis, versions of Word do not support DDE well and the Database field does not always store all the necessary information to update an OLE DB connection. ODBC is dissertation & theses, more broadly supported and more stable. To determine the syntax you need to link to a particular application, go through the understanding, steps in the user interface, then press Alt+F9 to toggle on the field codes. For an & theses, Excel spreadsheet, for example, you see something like: . (Although pasting always uses an literature review, R1C1 cell reference, you can substitute a range name, if you prefer to dissertation & theses, work with a named Excel range.

The following code sample demonstrates this.) To create a table from an Excel file, you must either create an Excel file or use one you already have and change the path in romulus my father memoir essay, the code to point to it. Dissertation! To insert this field using the Word object model, use the Fields.Add method: When programming for international use, remember that English field names are used in all language versions of Word 2000 and later. Essay About Electronic! For Word 97, you need to use the local language field names, switches, and functions. The Type argument of the & theses, Fields.Add method enables you to specify the field type, and Word automatically inserts the appropriate field name for the current local language. But you may need to 1965 recollected, change the rest of the field content (in the dissertation, Text argument). Ozick Essays! Consult the Word Help files for detailed information about individual Word fields and their switches. Dissertation! The * Mergeformat switch is not field-specific but it plays an essay recollected, important role with linked tables. (The * Mergeformat switch corresponds to & theses, the PreserveFormatting argument of the analysis of essay understanding, Fields.Add method.) This switch tells Word to retain table and font formatting applied to the table when the field updates.

If it is dissertation, not present in the field, formatting reverts when the field updates. If the doctoral, number of & theses rows (records) in the field result increases, new rows may not pick up direct formatting applied in beowulf prompt, Word. The * Mergeformat switch also saves where formatting is dissertation & theses, applied in a field result. Therefore, if the number of about records a linked table displays can vary (increase) when the field updates, the dissertation, formatting may appear inconsistent. Ozick Essays! In this case, do not use the * Mergeformat switch; consider using a table AutoFormat or table style instead. Dissertation & Theses! The * Mergeformat switch does not work correctly in the original release of Word 2000. Service packs for that version corrected the bug. Besides the * Mergeformat switch, you can use a table AutoFormat to 1965 1980 essay, control the appearance of a Database field. & Theses! In contrast to the switch, a table AutoFormat applies correctly even if the thesis review, size of the dissertation & theses, table changes, and saves and study thesis, is editable as part of the dissertation, field code (see the of essay human understanding, b and dissertation & theses, l switches in romulus essay, the Word Help). & Theses! You can link table data in through a field as an alternative to beowulf essay, reading data from another source and then creating a table from it in Word. After you link to the outside table, you can apply the Unlink method to break the dissertation, link, turning it into a plain Word table.

This can save a lot of time (because you write less code), and essay, the performance is & theses, sometimes improved. You cannot extract data from analysis human, a closed Word document in its native, binary file format (unless you are a C++ programmer and you have obtained the BIFF information from dissertation, Microsoft). If the 1965 1980 essay recollected, user saves the dissertation & theses, document in about electronic devices, HTML, RTF, or (for Word 2003) XML file format, then you can use the & theses, usual tools to open these files and parse out the ozick essays, information without needing to dissertation & theses, use Word. For more information about Word-specific information for these file formats see Microsoft Office Developer Center: Word. For more information about Office binary file formats see the ozick essays, Microsoft Knowledge Base article Information about how to extract Office file formats and schemas. Otherwise, you must open the dissertation, document in 1980 recollected, Word to dissertation & theses, get at my father memoir, its content. & Theses! The most intuitive way to pull out table information is to process the table cell by cell. Aquifer Study! As when writing data into a table, this method is slow. It is dissertation & theses, more efficient to dissertation databases, convert the table to delimited text, pass it to a string variable, and then work with it. If the table contains merged cells, Word automatically splits the cells so that the delimited text string contains the dissertation & theses, same number of romulus memoir essay fields (cells) for & theses every record.

The value that was in the merged cell is in the first field/record where Word encountered the merged cell; the other fields derived from the merged cell are empty. Thesis Literature Review! There is, therefore, no way to & theses, distinguish between fields that were part of merged cells and fields derived from cells that were empty. If you need to doctoral dissertation, know what cells were merged it is recommended that you save the table or document to a filtered HTML file and then parse the HTML file. Dissertation! Merged table cells have a colspan or rowspan property after they convert to HTML format. Do not use a field delimiter that is contained in memoir, the table data. Dissertation & Theses! Also, if the table data contains any paragraph marks, you must replace them with another character before converting the table to romulus my father, text, and then restore them in the text passed to the string variable. You can convert the & theses, table to text directly in beowulf prompt, the document (then use the Undo method to reverse the dissertation & theses, process or, alternatively, close the ozick essays, document without saving).

If this approach presents problems (for example, the dissertation, user is or will be working in beowulf, the document) it is also possible to reproduce the & theses, table in a new document and beowulf essay, convert it to text. Dissertation! When working with Word 2003, you can pick up the table information as XML directly from the table range. You must set DataOnly to false and essay, pick up the WordProcessingML, which is quite verbose. Dissertation! This article does not address all of the dissertation, aspects about dissertation, automating Word tables, but it can help you get a good start. Check the Additional Resources section for more information about other aspects of working with Word, and for 1965 essay more information about tables in particular. Cindy Meister specializes in automation of & theses Microsoft Office applications. Ozick Essays! Her main area of interest is Word for & theses Windows, especially the doctoral dissertation databases, challenge of bringing information from dissertation, outside Word into documents and extracting content from Word documents for use in thesis review, other applications. She has worked with all releases of Microsoft Office applications since the dissertation, early 1990's. She has been a Word Most Valuable Professional (MVP) since 1996. Cindy resides in Switzerland, and can be reached at study thesis, [email protected] . She maintains, at irregular intervals, a Web site with tips on using Word at

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sample essay ads Sample Essays for Advertising Essay. 2. Furniture Depot employed our internet advertising company to help. & Theses? Since then its businesses increased by ozick essays 10% over last year's totals. Furniture Depot's success demonstrates how using our internet services can increase your profitability. Describe how well reasoned you find this argument. Dissertation & Theses? In the discussion be sure to analyze the line of reasoning and my father memoir, the use of & theses, evidence in the argument. For example, you may need to consider what questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and what alternative explanations or counter examples might weaken the doctoral databases argument's conclusion. You may also address possible changes in the argument that would make it more logically sound, and what, if anything, would help you better evaluate its conclusion. This essay has three main flaws:

1) They are taking credit for something they may not be responsible for: other factors could have caused the increase in sales. This is the after this therefore because of this fallacy. 2) Although sales increased, did profits increase? Did the costs of dissertation, advertising exceed the increase in sales? We don't know. Study? Since the argument concludes that they can increase profitability, this is not valid. This is similar, but not the same as, a fallacy of eqivocation, where the same word is given two meanings. Didn't get a 6? Try another practice essay Need to learn more tips on structure and essay writing, read the AWA Guide to get tips on essay writing Selected Sample Essays: textfield: The internet advertising company is unsuccesful in promoting its services because it takes credit for Furniture Depot's 10% sales increase without explaining what role it had in this success. Dissertation? The advertising company makes unsubstantiated claims as to its effect on Furniture Depot's business success. The advertiser would have been better served to mention specifically its strategies with the furniture store and how these may have positively influenced the company.

As well, some type of customer information would have been useful in comparing public recognition of Furniture Depot before and after the advertisor's involvement. First of all, a potential client for this advertisor would want some type of background as to why, specifically the sales rose. Memoir? An overall rise in economy will normally lead to business increases, irrespect to what advertising firm is used. Perhaps Furniture Depot recently purchased new and better furniture or reduced its prices. & Theses? The demise of 1980 essay, a nearby furniture competitor would also increase Furniture Depot's sales. Without fully understanding the situation, a client cannot make an dissertation, informed decision based on the information provided by my father memoir the advertising company.

In other words, there could be other factors causing the change and they are incorrectly attributing it to themselves. Get to the heart of the logical flaw. In addition, public recognition of the & theses new Furniture Depot's advertisement would have greatly benefited the advertisor's claims. A small survey asking customers why they were in Furniture Depot and where they were first informed of the store could effectively accomplish this task. Recollected? For instance, the knowledge that the advertisor attracted new customers by & theses offering a free T-shirt or poster would at least clarify the detailed strategic intentions of the advertisor. this is fine, but you missed another huge flaw in the reasoning. The argument said that revenues went up by 10%, but what is interest to essay, business is profits. So there are really two main flaws here 1) falsely taking credit and dissertation, 2) revenues vs. 1965 Essay Recollected? profits. In conclusion, the advertising company's claims of improving Furniture Depot's sales is unwarrented and unsubstantiated. A business's sales may improve for a number of reasons, one of which may be effective advertising. But without this information, proper analysis of the dissertation effect played by the advertisor on Furniture Depot is not possible.

Style here is good, this is a fine essay. Structure: 5 very good. Content: 5 good, should have mentioned profit flaw. Style: 5, Good, well-balanced. textfield: The internet advertising company argues that because Furniture Depot used their service and Furniture Depot's business increased 10% over doctoral dissertation last year's totals, that their internet services can increase your company's profitability. Dissertation & Theses? Two serious flaws undermine this assumption. This is a fine intro. Doctoral? You could discuss the flaws in dissertation, the intro in summary. First, Furniture Depot's 10% increase in business may have been due to other factors than using the databases services of the internet advertising company. A mere correlation does not establish causality GOOD LOGIC, Watson! . In fact, Furniture Depot's business may have increased due to new merchandise, a new radio campaign, or a shakeup in the sales department nice examples. The internet advertising company offers no evidence to directly establish that Furniture Depot's increase in business was due to retaining their services.

Without establishing causality, the internet. advertising company's argument is highly suspect. Second, the internet advertising company's success with Furniture Depot may not be directly transferrable to other lines of business EXCELLENT SUMMATION OF A PARAGRAPHS POINT IN ONE SENTENCE. For example, a company that specializes in selling ice cream might cater to a group of customers whose demographics are extremely different than Furniture Depot's customers. Furniture Depot's customers might be highly educated and internet savy; whereas the ice cream company's group might be poorer and less likely to use the internet. Customer groups who use the internet less than Furniture Depot's customers will be less likely to be influenced by internet advertising. In fact, different businesses may find that media other than the internet will appeal more strongly to their. target customer groups.

When people can't find the dissertation right flaws in an argument, they try splitting hairs. The problem here is that you argue the internet is only used by some demographics, not too strong in a day of prompt, Name major markets where the demographics are bad for the internet?? very few. A stonger example would have been that certain industries are not. compatible with the internet. The internet is dissertation & theses more important with the airline industry than ice cream because you can buy and sell it online. Try shipping ice cream by beowulf prompt fedex. This paragraph is an example.

Sure, that is dissertation & theses a problem, but you are missing the major glaring flaw that every bschool candidate should catch. They said they increased sales, but did they increase PROFITS? What's the bottom line. Profits are whats important. In summary, the internet advertising company's argument is not persuasive. About Electronic? It would be more persuasive if it could be demonstrated that Furniture Depot's 10% increase in business was directly related to internet advertising.

Furthermore, the internet advertising company could more successfully persuade other companies that Furniture Depot's success could be replicated with their target customer groups by dissertation demonstrating that the demographics of Furniture Depot's customers closely match that of their prospective customers. Structure here is good, suprisingly good considering you aren't on our. records for buying out 1980, awa guide. if you are taking the AWA seriously its a must read. This is a 5 essay. This argument is not very well reasoned, thought there are some possibilities how it could be strengthened in dissertation & theses, its line of argumentation. In the intro paragraph you should discuss more about the argument and its problems (all sample arguments are loaded with flaws). Aquifer Study Thesis? This is too short. The internet advertising company presents the evidence that it was employed by Furniture Depot for 1 year and that afterwards businesses rose by 10 %. Dissertation? The internet company than makes the conclusion that this example demonstrates how employing the company would increase everybody's profitability. combine this with Paragraph 1. As one can see there are several assumptions made that are not proven.

The internet company generalizes its success in the furniture branch to romulus my father essay, all other branches as well. Dissertation & Theses? In other branches though it might not be possible or helpful to make advertisement in the internet, like in essay electronic devices, the car washing industry. Another assumption made is that the 10 % rise in business was only achieved by the company's advertisements, no benchmarking is presented though how the whole furniture branch developed. If the branch had a 20 % rise in business on average, than the 10 % of Furniture Depot is dissertation not that outstanding anymore, whereas it could be considered to essay prompt, be good if the rest of the branch was only capable of gaining 5 % more that last year. Similar to the last assumption is the next one. The arguments say nothing about other actions in the business of Furniture Depot like severe price cuts or extension of the product line. All these action could have contributed to Furniture Depots's success in the last year. There are some possibilities how the internet company could make its argumentation more reasonable. & Theses? They could present additional information proving that their work was a major contribution to 1980 essay recollected, the business rise, data how the rest of the furniture branch developed and how it would be possible to generate additional benefit for & theses, other branches too.

As one can see there are some leaps in the argumentation of the dissertation internet advertising company, but there are also ways of how those unproven assumptions could be turned into facts that would actually help the company. Combine the last two paragraphs into 1. Dissertation & Theses? you have correctly identified the argument's errors, but the structure is lacking. To help you, our online essay guide has standard formats for these types of essay questions. Beowulf Prompt? In sum, you should have an intro paragraph that deliniates the problems with the analysis of argument question followed by 2-3 paragraphs with flaws, then a concluding paragraph that sums it up. This would have been a 5. textfield: The argument made by the internet advertising company in its appeal to attract. business is very weak. First of all, the internet advertising company states that Furniture Depot employed their. advertising company to help.

It does not mention any of the specifics. For example, we do not. know what the internet advertising company accomplished as a result of being employed by. Furniture Depot. Next, assuming that an aggresive internet advertising project had been. successfully implemented, the dissertation advertising company is assuming that the essay increase of the business. was due entirely to them and dissertation & theses, their advertising project. Nothing is mentioned about other.

forms of ozick essays, advertisement that Furniture Depot might have used. What if Furniture Depot undertook. an aggressive television campaign that was the real cause of the dissertation increase in sales. Another. reason for the increase in sales may have been an aquifer, overall increase in sales of furniture sales. this is a highly effective essay that addresses the main flaws in the argument. However, for organization's sake, this paragraph is dissertation too long.

It could have been broken up into 1980 essay recollected, a few points. Nothing is mentioned about other competitors and their advertising strategy. & Theses? Also, the. internet company does not say anything about beowulf essay, why employing them is better than employing any. other internet advertising company. This is a short side point. This paragraph feels stapled on. Finally, the author is drawing a direct correlation between an dissertation & theses, increase in sales and an. increase in profitability. Since profits take into beowulf essay prompt, account costs, it is possible that although. sales increase profitability decreased because of the relative costs of advertising.

In summary, the & theses advertising company could have done a much better job in pursuating us to. employ them by providing more information in these areas. 1) The overall advertising strategy of Furniture Depot before. and after the advertising project. 2) Some supporting statitics on sales of beowulf, other furniture. depots competitors and their advertising strategies. 3) Some evidence as to what they have to.

offer that is different from any other internet service company. The old problem of good content and poor organization. The into is too short, the first body paragraph is dissertation rambling and too long, second is unnecessary. You should better define the beowulf prompt flaws before you start writing and map out your essay better beforehand. The good news is that with some organizational help you could do very well on this section. This is dissertation & theses probably a 4.5 score essay. If you haven't already, consider reading the doctoral essay guide at. textfield: The cited advertising copy is not effective because it fails to provide even the dissertation & theses most basic information that would support the my father memoir stated conclusion. The internet advertising company suggests that its services can increase the target audience's profitability. It presents the dissertation Furniture Depot as an example of its ability.

However, the advertisement provides no information that would lead the reader to believe: (1) that the internet advertising campaign caused the Furniture Depot to see a 10% increase in electronic, sales; (2)the advertisement refers to the profitability of the target audience's business, rather than to dissertation, the sales; and (3) the advertisement refers to he Furniture Depot's businesses in a way that leaves the reader uninformed concerning the about electronic devices corporate structure of these businesses. Alone, any of dissertation, these these shortcomings would substantially weaken the stregnth of the logic used in the advertisement. Together, these three shortcomings render the romulus essay quoted copy virtually meaningless. You are going way, way to far. The argument is NOT meaningless, but weak and tenuous with several major assumptions. & Theses? Ranting wastes the grader's time and annoys them.

This intro is too long and tedious. Pat yourself. on the back, though, for doctoral, finding the errors . The greatest weakness of the claim presented in the advertisement is & theses that it fails even to suggest that the internet advertising campaign caused an increase in revenue at the Furniture Depot. The targeted reader is thus presented with virtually no information that would logically convince him to dissertation databases, consider purchasing internet advertising services. Dissertation? A more compelling advertisement would, at a minimum, assert that The Furniture Depot's advertising campaign caused increased revenues.

The advertisement would be even stronger if the copywriter included information indicating that other variables remain constant. For example, the advertisement would be more compelling if it stated that Furniture Deport experienced its first profitable quarter in 5 years after retaining the 1965 recollected internet marketing firm. Dissertation & Theses? Of course, too. much data in advertising copy can interfere with the message. Essay Recollected? Therefore, even if the advertising firm did not want to include extensive documentation in the ad itself! These last two are unnecessary. Paragraphs are WAY too long. be more concise. & Theses? Avoid exclamation marks. You have to boil down these arguments to one or two sentences.

lf, the firm should still be prepared to study thesis, back up its claim with data excluding other causes of increased revenues. Thus, the advertisement should claim credit for the increased sales experienced by dissertation Furniture Depot. Second, the central claim presented in aquifer, the advertising copy is ambiguous. & Theses? The reader cannot be certain whether the marketing firm claims to increase sales or profitability. Profitiability can be Aeffected by dozens of variables, ranging from production costs to employee compensation to taxes. The advertisement should clearly state that the internet advertising raises sales. Essay Prompt? Advertisers should let management worry about dissertation, profits.

Last. This is the main paragraph. You caught the main assumption about ozick essays, sales and profits (many students will miss this one). Again, writing is not concise enough. Finally, the advertisement refers to the Furniture Depot's businesses. This leaves the reader uncertain as to precisely what it is that the marketing firm did for the Furniture Depot. Is the Furniture Depot a retail outlet? A large conglomerate? The reader cannot tell.

Introducing this uncertainty adds no benefit to the effectiveness of the ad. Thus, it should be removed. Here you are splitting hairs. The advertisement's three faults severely weaken the advertisers claimed benefit. An effective ad would (1) assert a causal link between the Furniture Depot's advertsing campaign and its increased revenues; (2) make clear that the dissertation & theses firm is indeed claiming that it can increase sales revenue, and aquifer study, not profit; and (3) remove the ambiguity concerning the nature of the dissertation Furniture Depot's business.

By addressing these three shortcomings, the advertiser can improve the effectiveness of its advertisement. This conclusion is brilliant. Short concise and effective. Write your next essay how you wrote that conclusion. Problem here is that you are not concise enough. The paragraphs are too bloated and essay, you are kicking a dead horse. The good news is that you write reasonably well, can identify arguments, and follow the last paragraph you will do well. Note: if you haven't already, consider getting our online prep guide. textfield: The advertising company makes a claim that its services were the cause of a client's increased profitability. Dissertation? There are two underlying assumptions in this claim.

First, that the about electronic 10% figure stated as business increase translates directly into increased profitability. Second, if the 10% figure indeed correctly represents increased profitability, then the statement also assumes that there were no other causes for & theses, the increase except for the ad firm's services. Therefore, the entire argument is well-reasoned only if the beowulf essay prompt advertising company is using accurate assumptions to make their claim. & Theses? this last sentence is probably not needed. Wow, made for the e-rater: short concise and effective. To determine the validity of the claim, one would first have to investigate the 10% figure. 1965 Recollected? Is this figure an increase in dissertation, sales volume? In revenues?

In gross or net profit? What does the 10% represent and how was it determined? Indeed, it is vague. If it is discovered that the 10% does in fact represent annual increase in net profits, the next point of investigation would be to determine how these profits were achieved. Did a competitor go out of business, causing an romulus memoir, influx of dissertation, customers? Did the entire industry have a boon that year, raising revenues for all furniture retailers across the board?

Or was the prompt increase in & theses, profits due to altered business practices at Furniture Depot, such as lowering costs? Furniture Depot could have switched to my father, another supplier with cheaper rates. They could have altered their delivery policies, making their products more appealing to the consumer. There are a multitude of ways in which internal changes could have impacted profits, and these would all have to be analyzed in order to determine cause and effect relationships. This is the dissertation & theses key flaw, an increase of sales is not relevant, profits are what is important. This is ozick essays another assumption. Sorry, this may do in normal life, but its not the dissertation proper AWA essay conclusion.

Sum up your arguments in beowulf prompt, 2 to & theses, 3 sentences. Repeat yourself and restate the main points. This conclusion is empty. organization 4 (bad conclusion blew the 6) First of all,the internet advertising company states that the Furniture Depot's sales increased by 10% over last year's totals since it employed their advertising service. There is no necessary relation between the sales growth and the effect of the aquifer thesis advertising. Because the argument doesn't state when the Furniture Depot started to employ the dissertation & theses service in this year.

If the service began by the end of the year, it is databases very obvious that there should be other reasons to promote the business. If this argument could include the dissertation exact time when the advertising service started, it would be more sufficient. On the other hand, even the service started very early of the beowulf essay prompt year, the internet avertising company should not definetly draw a conclusion that the dissertation & theses sales growth of the Furniture Depot only relies on the advertising service. If the study argument could provide a deatailed analysis of the reasons behind the sales growth, its saying about the advertising effect on the sales growth would be more reasonable for the reader. This is called splitting hairs that is, finding minor points in dissertation & theses, an argument rather than missing the big picture. the big picture is that a hundred other things could have boosted sales, such as 10% GDP growth, the bankruptcy of ozick essays, a competitor, so correlation does not prove causality. You found the dissertation argument's gaping whole (many student's don't). I like this paragraph! Short, effective, well reasoned and you even say how you could improve the argument. Based on the above analysis, we can say that this argument need more evidence to make it more.

logical and reasonable. Too short. Ozick Essays? Use the conlcusion to rehash. structure: 2 (lousy intro and conclusion) textfield: The claim that using internet services bolstered the company's sales by dissertation 10 percent. is not a well reasoned argument for several reasons.

Although sales did increase by 10% over the previous year, there are no other reasons stated. that could also have caused a ten percent sales improvement. Dissertation? Perhaps the company improved. its' product line and created more demand for its' products. What if the & theses sales territory.

had expanded by 10%, resulting in ozick essays, a 10% increase in product sales(?) - this certainly has. nothing to dissertation, do with internet advertising. This is the after this therefore because of this fallacy. its' should be its read the about grammar section in dissertation, the awa guide!! Furthermore, the reader is not given any information about what the romulus company had prevously used as an advertising medium. Was it TV, radio, print or some combination of the dissertation & theses three?

It is possible that judicious application of those mediums might have resulted in a 20% increase in sales! Since we have not been given his information, we can only guess. Well, the real point here, and what is missing from your critique is the profit vs. revenue. Beowulf Prompt? I know this is the internet age, but businesses are supposed to make profits. The real issue, and a critical flaw in the argument, is & theses how much was spent on internet marketing to romulus, increase sales, i.e., what was the return on investment in terms of profitability.

This. is a major flaw you didn't address sufficiently. Another fallacy in the argument is that the statment Furniture Depot's success demonstrates how using our internet services can increase your profitability presumes the assumption that the statment is true without ever having substantiated the statement's truth in dissertation, first place. I believe this begs the question. . That is not a premise but the conclusion. First knock the premises. This point is essay awkward. You need a concluding paragraph which restates the faulty premises, their errors and how the conlcusion is wrong, and could possibly be improved. Perhaps this argument would be better supported had there been additional facts regarding the company's sales and advertising picture. For example, Without having significantly changed our product line or increased our marketing reach, Furniture Depot experienced a 10% sales increase which we feel is primaily due to our strategic change from & theses, print advertising to internet advertising.

In this approach we are shown comparison from one type of advertising versus another. The statement also has the ring of my father memoir essay, a controlled experiment i.e. 'nothing was changed in dissertation, our business except the doctoral manner in dissertation & theses, which we advertised our products'. Beowulf? This serves to eliminate possibilities that that could challenge the original premise. This should be paragraph 4, not 5. This conclusion is & theses too long. content: 4 : ok, missed profitability flaw.

strucutre: 4 mis-order of conclusion and paragraph 4. Paragraph 1 is too short. grammar style: 4 Style is very good, but numerous embarassing grammar errors, its' should be its' need a little more work here. textfield: The argument is so simplistic and banal as to be laughable. Any high school student of moderate intelligence could see the enormous whole in the logic of argument's claim between the services of an ozick essays, internet advertising company and the increased sales of Furniture Depot. As stated, the above argument would need to be modified to & theses, reflect its tenuousness, or the relationship between advertisng and sales carefully analyzed, before it could be used as proof of the dissertation databases internet advertising company's abilities. I know its a bad argument, the graders know, you know. be GRACEFUL in & theses, how you criticize it. Also, when you get fuming you often miss the biggest flaws, as is the case here. Your intro should tactfully point out the essay about problems and dissertation, address them systematically without this huffy-puffy chest beating. Rewriting the argument is simple, but the effect would be to make the expression ineffectual and effete What is effette (you've been studying vocab lists too hard).

Seriously, don't feel the need to prompt, use sophomoric words. Accurately stated, the interent advertising company's effect on sales could be summed up in several different ways, none of them flattering. First, the conclusion could be rewritten as, Furniture Depot's success might have been increased by our interent service.. This option is not convincing. Two Second?, if rewritten it might need to reflect the fact that the advertising company might have actually hurt the sales of Furniture Depot, rather than improved them. What's the bottom line, in simple statistical terms , confounding factors other than the internet company could be at work here.. That could be stated much more concisely. Dissertation? For example, perhaps GDP grew by 10% last year, or the industry's growth could have been 10% per year, or maybe -10%, these factors would be vital in analyzing the aquifer thesis impact of the marketing campaign. Dissertation? They are using the after this therefore because ofthis logical fallacy such as Al Gore claiming responsibility for the booming high-tech economy. An appropriate study would need to romulus memoir essay, control for the audience and the effects of advertising. If the advertising company showed that it specifically targeted certain marketing clusters, and after viewing advertising, those clusters were more likely to dissertation, shop at Furntiture Depot, they could claim a more convincing effect on sales.

More specifically, if specific users, after viewing web advertising, shopped at the store, a most convincing argument could be advanced. That's actually extremely creative. Aquifer Study? Good essay. Also, an appropriate study would need to examine the market as a whole. & Theses? The analysis would need to compare Furniture Depot's success to doctoral dissertation, the successes of similar companies, with and without internet advertising. & Theses? Possibly, the growth in sales of Furniture Depot was less than the growth in sales for comparable companies. Furthermore, if Furnture Depot is doctoral dissertation databases new, the sales increase could have been from almost nothing to significanlt more than nothing, but still not very much. A better test, one that is more reliable, would be to dissertation & theses, test an essay about, increase in dissertation & theses, name recgnition. If after internet advertising there was a measurable increase in name recognition, particulary among interent savvy consumers, the relationship between the advertising company's program and the benefit to beowulf essay, Furnture Depot might be more tangible. As such, only the & theses very gullible could find the above argument convincing evidence to purchase the services of the internet advertising company. Very creative again, but this isn't art class, that is, creativity is not what is judged in AWA essays.

What you need is a tight structure and 1965 1980 essay recollected, good arguments. These paragraphs are too long and could be concisely put into one paragraph other than rambling. Plus, there is no conclusion. Dissertation? The huge giant hole here is that you missed flaw 2, which is revenues and profits are entirely different. Perhaps they increased revenues by 10%, but did they increase PROFITS? Maybe the program cost too much.

Be careful, analysis of argument questions often have two flaws that are large. You are obviousl very intelligent, but ETS' underpaid workers would love to dismiss you as ..AAMBA (another-arrogant MBA). The e-rater would be confused. Essay? Writing the AWA section takes DISCIPLINE, as does most concise. and persuasive writing. style: 2 (AAMBA, but no serious flaws in dissertation, grammar, ) content: 2 (creative, verbose, missed the profit flaw) structure:2 (no conclusion)

You need the awa guide, goto You should get a 5-6 if you read it and do a few more essays because you are obviously a very good writer but just need to learn to write in the AWA format. Didn't get a 6? Try another practice essay GMAT | GRE. Need to learn more tips on structure and essay writing, read the AWA Guide to get tips on essay writing GMAT | GRE.

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causes of wwi essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Dissertation & Theses? Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Dissertation Databases? Its human and material costs were enormous. Dissertation? And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved.

Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in dissertation, the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the dissertation & theses war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.

Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of aquifer study, these events have been intensively researched and debated.

Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. Dissertation & Theses? They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the doctoral dissertation databases fateful decisions for dissertation & theses, war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in essay prompt, the outbreak of dissertation & theses, war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to 1965 1980 recollected recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to & theses Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.

Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in my father essay, 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. & Theses? The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to aquifer study their prestige and dissertation & theses, authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and aquifer study, humiliate Serbia. The French feared the dissertation superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia.

This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the databases war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and & theses, encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and recollected, transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in dissertation & theses, August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events.

Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the essay about devices Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to dissertation Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the aquifer study Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to dissertation keep Germany in the war for another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into beowulf essay, a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at dissertation & theses war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India.

Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the romulus my father essay Ottoman Empire in dissertation & theses, November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. Ozick Essays? The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the & theses conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the beowulf Western Front in France and Belgium the dissertation & theses French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.

Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Essay About Devices? J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of dissertation & theses, character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against doctoral databases the German right wing, the 'miracle of the dissertation & theses Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench.

Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. Romulus? By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in dissertation, a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the ozick essays strategic initiative. It was free to dissertation & theses retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Ozick Essays? Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from dissertation & theses, November 1914 until March 1918.

It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and memoir essay, their British allies to evict the German armies from & theses, French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in prompt, Artois; in dissertation & theses, the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by ozick essays, the intensity of the & theses fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of about, strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of dissertation & theses, morale in the French army.

For much of the ozick essays rest of 1917 it was incapable of dissertation & theses, major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from romulus memoir essay, 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres.

No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the dissertation & theses German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. Essay About Electronic? The Allied counter-offensive began in July.

At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in & theses, Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. Essay? This did nothing to & theses lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on databases, the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September).

These victories ensured the security of dissertation & theses, Germany's eastern frontiers for romulus essay, the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and dissertation & theses, Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia.

They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against romulus essay Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace.

This had a major influence on the German decision to & theses seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in about devices, the east it is dissertation far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to 1965 1980 essay recollected aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in dissertation, an attempt to essay prompt dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in dissertation, a major Italian defeat at ozick essays Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.

On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and dissertation, split the ozick essays Austrian armies in & theses, two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the ozick essays Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. Dissertation? In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the aquifer study thesis malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the dissertation & theses Middle East British armies fought the aquifer thesis Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by dissertation, the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.

The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and ozick essays, was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the dissertation first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in ozick essays, September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. & Theses? Turkey surrendered on aquifer study, 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in dissertation, West and south-west Africa succumbed to dissertation British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the dissertation bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.

On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Study Thesis? Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the & theses south Atlantic, and ozick essays, the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. & Theses? Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the romulus my father Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. Dissertation & Theses? German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and 1965 1980, sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into dissertation, the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.

The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Essay? Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the & theses war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. My Father Essay? By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the dissertation French), while simultaneously encouraging the beowulf essay aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine.

It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters.

Most, however, dismissed it. Dissertation? This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in doctoral, the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the dissertation success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model.

To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on 1980 essay, the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in dissertation & theses, his belief that Germany could obtain an essay about devices outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of dissertation, its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to essay prompt recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against dissertation & theses France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of doctoral, a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the dissertation best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.

The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days.

The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. Recollected? The German army was a potent instrument. & Theses? It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state.

It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on 1980 recollected, interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of dissertation & theses, German troops quickly from front to front.

The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the essay Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to dissertation & theses win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.

The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by aquifer thesis, other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.

This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to & theses ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to ozick essays the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice.

Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by dissertation & theses, Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on 1965 essay, winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. Dissertation & Theses? They could not be defeated by my father memoir, the German army, at least not quickly. & Theses? The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated.

They might even have chosen to do this. They had in memoir essay, the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the dissertation & theses world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned.

London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to about imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of dissertation & theses, scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by ozick essays, the German occupation of much of northern France and most of & theses, Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. Ozick Essays? During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the dissertation & theses Germans.

This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of 1965 1980 recollected, military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the dissertation & theses historic norm and 1965 essay recollected, one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the dissertation Franco-British alliance.

The British fought the essay electronic devices war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the dissertation & theses German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Romulus Memoir? Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Dissertation? Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.

Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the 1965 1980 essay British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. & Theses? And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and 1965, military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and dissertation, require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to romulus his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in & theses, 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.

They would win the war and decide the dissertation databases peace. For the & theses British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the essay about electronic French alliance were inescapable. Dissertation? The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and aquifer, resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. & Theses? The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief.

And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the beowulf prompt Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army.

They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on dissertation & theses, 27 November 1917, and was given the essay power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of & theses, 1918 threatened to divide the 1980 essay Allies.

Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Dissertation? The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and my father essay, political change. Europe in & theses, 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and ozick essays, more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.

Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in dissertation & theses, the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to romulus my father essay be assembled and deployed quickly. Dissertation? Industrial technology provided new weapons of study thesis, unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and dissertation, machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers.

These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. Romulus My Father Memoir Essay? The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the dissertation Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to study the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses.

As a result the opening battles of the & theses war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by romulus essay, the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of & theses, iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. Aquifer Thesis? The human costs were immense. & Theses? The 'human solution' was not enough.

The search for ozick essays, a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to & theses get out thesis of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of & theses, perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.

The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Ozick Essays? Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to & theses protect.

Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. My Father Essay? Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on dissertation, their own firepower and romulus essay, this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for & theses, its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. Essay Devices? It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and dissertation & theses, the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.

The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and databases, humidity. All types and & theses, calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the ozick essays explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.

Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of dissertation, 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the ozick essays first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to dissertation & theses inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt.

From the aquifer study autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed.

In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into dissertation & theses, battle dressed like an industrial worker in essay, a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against dissertation poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by aquifer study thesis, a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. Dissertation? This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches.

The solution was to ozick essays deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to dissertation their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.

The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. My Father Memoir Essay? Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on dissertation, the Western Front throughout 1917 and to aquifer study thesis inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and dissertation, their command and control systems, were ordered to 1980 recollected bypass points of resistance and dissertation & theses, advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon beowulf essay prompt, enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.

The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and dissertation, increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to essay electronic produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and dissertation & theses, the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for about devices, more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory.

More men meant more men for the armies and more men for & theses, the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in essay about electronic, the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of & theses, Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to ozick essays work on their lines of dissertation, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).

The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Dissertation? Prodigies of production were achieved. & Theses? On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. Ozick Essays? In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of & theses, their industrial capacity was in German hands.

Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the electronic devices best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of dissertation & theses, propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Ozick Essays? Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the dissertation & theses war in romulus memoir essay, 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for dissertation & theses, women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on essay recollected, the battlefield for social advances at home. & Theses? And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway.

The First World War redrew the map of Europe and aquifer study thesis, the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and & theses, collapsed. Prompt? They were replaced by & theses, a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by thesis, inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and & theses, loathing of ozick essays, Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium.

They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the dissertation & theses security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in about devices, India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the dissertation & theses British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.'

The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of ozick essays, some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of & theses, Modern War . Ed.

Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Doctoral Dissertation? Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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Dec 19, 2017 Dissertation & theses,

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But there is dissertation & theses, one item that the Australian arm will not be stocking. ICE cream lovers may be asked to join a summer boycott on Paddle Pops and Gaytimes to support workers locked in a pay dispute. EXCLUSIVE: A disgruntled convenience store customer left a bad review online. The store owner has taken swift revenge. Oroton reveals hefty full-year loss. LUXURY retailer Oroton is ozick essays, looking at dissertation, its options after falling sales and the demise of its Gap stores pushed it to prompt, a full-year loss. FEW customers, almost empty shelves, a fire sale. & Theses. For this global retailer winning over Australia should have been a cinch. But, again, a big name has failed. Outrage over blue v pink card display. A UK post office has been criticised for separating its boys’ and ozick essays girls’ birthday cards by colour, with shoppers saying “let toys be toys”.

IN 2000 Kate Morris had a hard time convincing people the internet was going to be massive. Now she’s laughing all the way to the bank. THIS woman’s hilariously detailed shopping list for her husband, created to “solve a weekly problem”, has gone viral. TENSIONS between Donald Trump and dissertation & theses Kim Jong-un have spilt over into romulus my father Sydney’s Little Korea, with a bizarre dining dispute. Customers rage over baked beans change. AUSTRALIAN shoppers are angry at Kraft Heinz after its “bold move” to change one of Australia’s favourite grocery store items slightly backfired. Shoppers demand ‘all time favourite’

CADBURY lovers have subjected the & theses chocolate maker to a deluge of posts demanding the return of their favourite flavour after it was discontinued. THIS small gesture by an Aldi staff member towards a 75-year-old customer goes to show a little kindness goes a long way. STRUGGLING toy retailer Toys ‘R’ Us has filed for doctoral, bankruptcy amid falling sales, shifting tastes and & theses online competition. SHOPPERS have threatened to boycott Woolworths after its former CEO dredged up an awkward race comparison on 7.30. Coles pulls sausages from its shelves. IF YOU bought a packet of these chorizo sausages, you’ll be wanting to take them back — they’ve been recalled after testing found they were dangerous. The big problem with online shopping.

AUSSIES love the idea of buying their groceries online, but not many actually do — and it’s mainly for one reason. PENNY has a transgender son, and 1980 recollected when she saw a protest over the sale of “The Boy in the Dress” at dissertation, Aldi, she had to dissertation databases, speak out. BARGAIN hunters, rejoice. Myer has announced plans to dissertation & theses, roll out a new model it’s been trialling, promising discounted brands year-round. SCENES of beowulf essay prompt shoppers frantically stripping baby formula from shelves have caused outrage — but are the “daigou” really to blame? Department stores are in massive trouble. MYER and David Jones are struggling big time, while other Australian retailers thrive. Why? There are two big things undermining them.

Third time lucky for fast food giant? ONE of dissertation & theses America’s biggest fast food chains is having a crack at the tricky Australian market — and its arrival is imminent. Urgent recall over stove fire fears. SHOPPERS who bought portable gas stoves from Kmart are being urged to doctoral, return them amid fears they could catch fire or explode. A FED-UP Coles customer has posted shocking video of a group of women scrambling to strip baby formula from shelves. THEY’VE been red since before anyone can remember. But the famous red Coca-Cola can is dissertation, about to get shaken up.

NEWSAGENTS have gone to war against doctoral databases, Lottoland, and it's fighting back. Australian gamblers could end up being the winners. India lodges complaint over lamb ad. IT WAS supposed to promote unity through meat-eating but there was one glaring problem. Now India has hit back.

Coles store attacked by dissertation, 20 youths. A GANG of 20 youths physically and essay about electronic verbally abused staff at a Coles supermarket while they ransacked and stole “armfuls of stock”. PIZZA Hut has been forced into damage control after a massive glitch caused customers to be charged up to five times for the same order. Famous brands lost in translation. WE KNOW it as a burger chain in dissertation & theses, Australia but in prompt, the US Hungry Jack’s is not the same thing at all.

Mars bars and Milky Ways have also got lost in & theses, translation. IT LOOKS like a normal receipt for a Subway sandwich and juice, but if you look closely you might be able to ozick essays, spot a daring secret message. Amazon could be here within weeks. RETAIL giant Amazon could launch in dissertation, Australia in the next 60 days with analysts saying its local website could go live sometime next month. HUNGRY? This KFC will feed you a chicken burger or three-piece feed in exchange for a smile . But there’s a catch. ALDI has been caught up in study, the heated debate over a book by a well-known children’s author, after a shopper was offended. PLASTIC bans may soon be illegal across Australia, after yet another state government passed laws banning them. Horror as $99 Aldi microwave explodes.

AN AUSSIE dad has told of his terror after a brand new microwave from Aldi shattered as his one-year-old daughter stood nearby. Aussie lamb ad sparks controversy. GODS. Prophets. Messiahs.

All may come to the table under this Australian meat industry ad. But some of their followers are seeing red — and are fuming. Shop offers ‘mattress testing’ sleepovers. DO YOU struggle to pick out the right mattress for a peaceful night’s sleep? This shop has a brilliant solution, offering shoppers a real-life trial. Angry shoppers slam Woolworths cake.

A WOOLWORTHS cake that hit shelves on & theses Father’s Day is being slammed as an 1965 1980 essay, insult to dissertation, Australian dads by outraged shoppers. Brawl erupts at Aldi furniture sale. TWO families have been filmed brawling over cheap outdoor furniture at an Aldi in Melbourne, with the manager forced to ozick essays, step in. Father’s Day ideas for as little as $3. AUSSIE dads can be spared from more socks and jocks. It’s not too late to get an affordable gift.

We found these ideas at Woolies, Aldi, Coles and Kmart. KMART shoppers are united in dissertation & theses, their opposition to memoir, this one big change to stores. So why is the retail chain not listening to them? A FACEBOOK post praising these cookies has gone viral. & Theses. But while they look tempting and delicious, there’s a problem with them. This could kill Australia’s hippest suburb. A SEEMINGLY innocuous plan to ozick essays, change road conditions could “obliterate” one of dissertation & theses Australia’s trendiest neighbourhoods, critics have claimed. THERE’S “no chance in hell” Australia’s immigration can be dialled back according to 1965 1980 recollected, one of dissertation Australia’s most vocal commentators. A RETAILER charging an 1965 1980, extraordinary amount for water after Hurricane Harvey has been forced to apologise.

A 15-MINUTE wait at & theses, the chemist prompted Kristie Mercer to make this video, sparking an aquifer, angry response from experts. Crust Pizza owner’s $62 million profit. NEW menu items at Crust Pizza helped boost its parent company’s profits to $62 million, as the fast food giant jumped on the latest food fads. A MUM who mistakenly fed her kids dog biscuits has been vindicated with Woolworths admitting to a pet food palaver. Woolies’ furious food fight with rival. THE retailer has been dragged into & theses a bizarre three way fight with an organic grocer and a big rival. The result could give a clue to a future Woolies store concept. FAST food giant KFC doesn’t pay workers weekend penalty rates and doctoral databases hasn’t done for dissertation, years. But it says its staff are no worse off. ICONIC Australian food personality Maggie Beer’s range of about electronic ice creams, pates, pastes and ciders are struggling on supermarket shelves. THE Reject Shop is living up to its name.

As shoppers turn their backs, the chief executive is blaming one major error. CUSTOMERS to & theses, this supermarket found largely empty shelves. The reason why has caused fiery debate online. Big W’s ‘extremely disappointing’ loss. BIG W has posted a massive loss, and Woolworths has warned things aren’t getting better any time soon for the struggling retailer. Coles receipts reveal price increase. COLES has been forced to 1965 recollected, come clean about dissertation a big price hike after these receipts were photographed just one week apart. Woolies’ $2000 warning for customers.

WOOLWORTHS has warned its customers to be on the lookout for essay electronic, this dodgy email going out to dissertation & theses, customers this morning. Nestle sued over ozick essays ‘fake spring water’ THIS bottled spring water has been dubbed “a colossal fraud” in a class-action lawsuit against & theses, food and beverage giant Nestle. Kids yoghurt recall over choking fears. AUSTRALIANS are being advised of a national recall of dissertation several popular children’s yoghurt products after choking fears were raised. BUNNINGS has hit a snag. The $700 million UK expansion is looking like a bad idea, with one analyst warning of dissertation “disaster”. A NUMBER of Masters stores across Australia will be transformed, but questions have been raised on whether it will actually work. COLES has reported a 13.5 per romulus memoir, cent decline in full-year profit to dissertation & theses, $1.61 billion, with comparable food and aquifer thesis liquor sales slowing to just one per cent. A MELBOURNE mum has praised Coles for its new initiative, saying she was “fighting back tears” after a recent shopping trip.

IF YOU walk out of the supermarket without checking your docket, you could be missing out - and getting ripped off. AUSTRALIANS are getting three limited edition $2 coins with designs from & theses one of Australia’s most popular children’s books. DOMINO’S has been savaged with more than $1 billion wiped from the company after an dissertation databases, embarrassing French fail. A SYDNEY woman who slipped on a grape at Woolworths is “devastated” after a court revoked her $151,000 compensation payout. IF YOU bought one of these cut-price toasters from Target, you should unplug it now — and take it back for dissertation, a full refund. BIG-SCREEN televisions, smartphones and drones have helped electronics retailer JB Hi-Fi deliver a record result. SHOPPERS across NSW will be able to keep emptying their wallets on ozick essays Boxing Day, after a successful two-year trial. FROM a shopping trip to dissertation & theses, Westfield, a brilliant idea was born. Three years later, Lana Hopkin’s business is worth $30 million. IKEA has just released a 25-minute ad for doctoral dissertation, bedroom furniture that is so relaxing you may be comatose by dissertation, the end of it. DOMINO’S tried giving away 10,001 free pizzas to ozick essays, promote the launch of dissertation its new premium range.

It went terribly wrong. WOOLIES boss Brad Banducci has ripped into the payments firm which double billed customers for aquifer study thesis, purchases made in March. AUSTRALIA’S six Gap outlets will close by the start of dissertation next year after troubled handbag retailer Oroton ditched its joint venture. GO AND get some Yum Cha while you still can. Beowulf. The iconic Chinese centres of Aussie cities are dying as developers move in. Dunkin’ Donuts plots bizarre change. STAR without the & theses Bucks?

Pizza without the Hut? Dunkin’ Donuts is experimenting with a confusing change to its iconic name. Changes coming to supermarket shelves. AUSTRALIA is the beowulf prompt target of an ambitions $500 million strategy to change the & theses way we eat and drink by 2020, and doctoral dissertation it could be a win for shoppers. THIS Brisbane mum is furious after witnessing organised groups of up to dissertation & theses, eight people strip baby formula from shelves. THIS guy is sick of having the same old conversations with his mates - so he’s gone to drastic lenghts in a desperate attempt to find new ones. Domino’s ditches one of its classic pizzas. IT’S arguably the dissertation databases original pizza that started the dissertation & theses whole shebang, but Domino’s says people just aren’t buying it anymore.

David Jones’ radical $100 million idea. DAVID Jones has a new strategy to see it return to its foodie “heyday”, but the $100 million, three-year plan is a big risk. My Father Essay. Will it actually work? Delivery guy leaves terrifying letter. LAUREN Ledford ordered a pizza. A week later, she received an unhinged, four-page letter from the driver — because she didn’t leave a tip. COCA-COLA has been put in charge of running a new empty can and bottle refund scheme in a move that has been labelled “utterly stupid”. Top shopping centre plagued by crime.

ONE of the dissertation country’s most popular malls has had to call in the cops as centre bosses struggle to thesis, deal with a violent crime spree. THIS Coles ice cream sandwich was thrown on the grass on Friday afternoon and it still hasn’t melted. Even ants “fled in terror”. Aldi’s hilarious ‘vegetarian’ options. AN ALDI customer has noticed something very bizarre about dissertation his local supermarket’s vegetarian section. Self-serve check-outs inventor hates them.

THERE’S one major flaw with self-serve check-outs that no one has been able to fix. Thesis. Even the guy who invented the dissertation machines can’t stand them. McDonald’s worker ‘fired over gross pics’ THE guy behind those disgusting McFlurry images says he was sacked by McDonald’s for breaching the prompt company’s social media policy. RISING living costs and & theses low wage growth are forcing many households to swap healthy food for cheaper packaged goods in a “disastrous” trend. Woolies shopping cards aren’t safe. A MAJOR security vulnerability in the Woolworths app has allowed thieves to “hack” into accounts and steal customers’ Rewards points. A CANBERRA woman emailed Australia Post asking about a package. The reply from the company was so perfect she “fell off her chair”. A MAJOR retailer has “stolen” the beowulf name Bondi Beach, prompting the local mayor to call on the Federal Trade Minister to dissertation & theses, intervene.

THE fast food giant has confounded expectations with a sales surge. But the bosses in aquifer study, the US have a lot to thank Australia for. Fake ‘free range’ egg supplier fined $1m. AN EGG producer that supplies Coles and dissertation Woolworths has been ordered to prompt, pay $1 million for dissertation & theses, deceiving shoppers with its ‘free range’ labelling. Retailers making a motza out of refunds. THOSE money back guarantees and no questions asked refunds might seem reassuring but its savvy retailers that could be profiting. Woolies deals another blow to ozick essays, Coke.

WOOLIES has dealt yet another blow to Coca-Cola Amatil, announcing it will pull all but two of its Mount Franklin lines from shelves. IT’S the end of an era for Aussie sports lovers. Amart Sports, a 40-year-old brand, is being swallowed by Rebel. Westpac: Yes vote email was a ‘mistake’ Dodgy builder hit with six-figure bill. PM’s ‘replacement’ rises in power list.

Sacked CBS employee harassed over & theses Vegas. Bishop says what all women are thinking. Sacked after making $70 phone call. Trump’s ‘embarrassing’ speech backfires. A NOTE ABOUT RELEVANT ADVERTISING: We collect information about the content (including ads) you use across this site and use it to make both advertising and content more relevant to ozick essays, you on our network and other sites. Dissertation. Find out more about our policy and your choices, including how to opt-out.

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