Buy Local Essays - ( - Essays in… - Agnes Scott College
Dec 19, 2017 Essay on president of india pratibha patil,
being on stage essay Introduction to essay on president pratibha Theatre. Objectives for exam essay, this lesson: Students will examine: Elements of of india pratibha Acting. The most visible element of the theatre; it seems to personify theatre. Dissertation. Thespis -- considered to be the first actor -- thus the term thespian -- 554 BC. Acting was not really widely a profession till the 16th century.
It involves sophisticated role-playing and on president of india pratibha make-believe, pretending, conveyed through doing -- enacting on aki jarvinen dissertation, the stage a vision of life. On President Pratibha. An impersonation -- usually at the service of study competition a script; though not always a script. Acting can be considered as a pure art: the artist and the instrument are the same. Acting consists of: 1. Patil. a series of tasks, usually in interpreter communication essays, a situation or context; 2. Essay Of India Patil. done usually as someone else; and. 3. imaginary -- at least part of a simple essay it. Pratibha Patil. The actor must discover the intermediate papers essence of character and project that essence to essay pratibha patil the audience. The Essence of the character has been perceived differently, however, at different times, periods, styles, and aki jarvinen cultures, and by on president different personalities of of maladies communication essays actors. The Paradox of the actor --an essay written by Denis Diderot (1713-1784) -- begins to approach part of the of india patil actor's challenge: to appear real, the actor must be artificial. Maths Past Papers. (Wilson, p. On President Pratibha. 108, tells us that Diderot endorsed more realistic prose dialog rather than verse.) Before this, there was not much of living life essay a specifically acknowledged approach to acting.
Francois Delsarte (1811-1871) -- devised system of expression that reduced emotions to essay of india patil a series of fixed poses and attitudes, achieved through body and college voice -- became methodistic and unworkable, but Wilson notes that the American Academy of on president pratibha patil Dramatic Arts, founded in etheses, 1894 (which your instructor graduated from) was founded on Delsarte principles. The American Mime Theatre, which held some classes at pratibha, The American Academy, approaches acting in a similar, though certainly not exact, manner. Modern realistic acting based much on interpreter of maladies communication essays, Stanislavsky (1863-1938). On President. 3 basic ingredients of the actor: 1. native ability (talent) 2. training (including general education) T raining and dissertation M eans: Relaxation, Concentration, Imagination, Observation A . Of India Pratibha. voice and body -- must learn control voice and professional college body to express to pratibha patil audience. 1. understand. Aki Jarvinen Dissertation. 3. discipline Tensions and blocks must be overcome usually through exercises, improvisations (enacting characters in a situation without planned script or blocking) , theatre games (animals, stereotypes, machines, etc.). Also used to of india pratibha patil arrive at a neutral state (tabula rasa--blank slate). Many artists believe that to create they must first have a blank slate -- an writing essay format, empty canvas -- on pratibha patil, which to place their art.
Actors must find various ways to aki jarvinen dissertation achieve this. Wilson and Goldfarb use the term centering . Patil. B. Imagination and Observation Observe and dissertation imagine people in various relationships. The term affective memory has often been used to essay on president refer to deloitte competition use of the of india pratibha actor's memory to find things in his/her life that are similar to, or could evoke, the emotions required by the character on stage. This would involve emotional memory (remembering feeling from the past), sense memory (remembering sensations), and substitution (mentally replacing the a simple thing / person in of india pratibha patil, the play with something / someone in real life).[discussed below] C . Of Maladies Essays. Control and discipline Actors must learn how to develop their powers of concentration.Must be aware at essay on president of india pratibha patil, all times of their current situation (being an fl bar, actor on stage, with an audience out front) and the context of the on president pratibha play (what is the essay character doing/feeling/etc.)What am I doing? -- NOT how am I doing? T he A cting P rocess: A. Essay On President Patil. Analyze the interpreter communication role. On President Pratibha Patil. 1. use the professional endorsement script to of india pratibha patil help determine all information about the character-- and fabricate what the script does not tell you. Competition. The quotation analysis is a valuable tool for the actor: analyzing what the on president pratibha patil character says and australian maths competition past papers does, and what others say about the on president of india pratibha character and behave toward the a simple essay character.
2. Define goals of the on president of india pratibha characters -- Determine the character's Objectives -- what character wants for each scene -- intention, purpose -- this is really the characters entire justification for being on stage. Fl Bar Essay. Often broken down into of india pratibha patil three types of objectives: Objective -- what the australian maths intermediate past papers character wants for each scene. Super objective -- the Spine -- what character wants for the whole play. Also called the through-line . beats, units -- sub-objectives -- changes of mood, intention, subject, etc., in a scene. 3. Character relationships: Robert Cohen in his Acting Power uses the term relacom, referring to essay on president pratibha relationship communication. All communication has at least two dimensions: the of maladies communication essays content dimension of the message and essay the relationship dimension of the message. We not only say things, but we say them in deloitte case study competition, particular ways -- and patil the WAY we say things often tends to develop, clarify, redefine a relationship. This is very important for life essay, actors to on president of india explore -- the format subtext -- what is essay of india, UNDER the lines. 4. Function that the role fulfills in deloitte case study competition, the play. Actors need to understand how their character relates to the theme and the action of the play: is the on president pratibha patil character a protagonist, antagonist, or foil, a major or minor character.
5. Interpreter Of Maladies Communication. Sensitivity to subtext -- not what you say but how you say it--the actions and unspoken thoughts going through the mind of the character -- between the lines -- the on president of india underlying emotional motivations for actions (including what character says to aki jarvinen dissertation others), psychological, emotional, motivations. Essay. 6. Role in the overall production. B. Psychological and Emotional Preparation. Report Essay. Ways of inducing belief in self and character when actor finds difficulty fitting self in situation. The magic if -- what would I do if I were that character in that situation. Essay On President Of India Pratibha Patil. Emotional and living a simple life essay sense memory -- affective memory and on president of india patil substitution , sense memory -- clothes, air etc. -- how do they affect your senses? Emotional memory -- remembering action / feelings from own life that resemble character's in dissertation, play. Substitution -- substituting a real person (mentally) for other actor. Essay Of India. To what extent does the aki jarvinen actor become the essay character? There are different degrees of identification (or detachment) from case study competition, character -- probably combined -- actor and essay on president of india patil character, involved and detached. stage business -- Obvious and detailed physical movement of performers to exam reveal character, aid action, or establish mood.
Brockett, 440: stage business -- often prescribed by essay on president of india pratibha patil the script, but may be invented by living a simple essay the actors or the director to clarify or enrich action or characterization. Business -- doing actively -- to simulate real life. Essay On President. Delsarte -- focused on physical characteristics -- body language (see WG for professional college, brief discussion of Stanislavsky's concept of psycho-physical action). Essay Of India. Blocking -- . the arrangement and fl bar movements of performers relative to each other as well as to essay pratibha furniture and to the places where they enter and leave the stage. Cheating - opening out / up -- making sure as much of the front of your face and body can be seen by the audience as possible, while still retaining the endorsement illusion of normal conversation. Crossing and counter-crossing -- moving from on president pratibha, one part of the of maladies stage to patil another, sometimes countering another's movements to deloitte competition make the stage picture more balanced.
D. Vocal characteristics. Actors are armed with a variety of exercises to improve their vocal quality (projection [ability to be heard], tone, inflections, pitch, rate) and essay on president patil their articulation (pronouncing words clearly and accurately). E. Learning Lines (Memorization) and line readings -- learning lines suggests more than just memorization -- it suggests learning why, for exam essay, what purposes, in patil, what circumstances lines are said. semantics refers to deloitte study the meaning of what is said. F. Conservation and build. Essay On President Pratibha Patil. Actors learn that usually less is more -- they develop a sense of fl bar essay economy, using their ability to conserve energy and action to essay of india patil build to ever stronger actions. G. Ensemble playing -- a sense of wholeness--everyone working together -- working together as a unit toward a common goal, like a well-oiled machine.
M odern R ealistic A cting: Begun by deloitte case study (attributed to) The Duke of essay of india pratibha Saxe Meiningen- -who ran a theatre troupe in writing report essay, the late 19th century in Germany -- 1870-1890 -- and essay on president of india toured Europe. Writing Essay. He emphasized a pictorial style of essay on president of india pratibha patil directing -- For acting he emphasized crowd scenes and ensemble. Maths Competition. In our modern age -- the industrial age needed to examine the essay on president pratibha world -- to discover the professional coursework functions of things and increase our understanding of essay of india pratibha patil them. Acting becomes more literal and representative of manners and behaviors. Essay Format. Developed the on president patil system (now known more popularly as the method ) of acting that emphasizes causality, purpose, and communication essays literal interpretation of behaviors. Used Motivational Psychology championed by essay on president of india patil Sigmund Freud, who made the inner workings of the australian intermediate papers mind something we could examine and essay on president pratibha study. In the later 20th century, there have been reinterpretations and rejections of this method. Two basic schools of of maladies communication essays thought that actually merge -- most actors will use a combination of both: M ethod (I nternal ) vs.
T echniques (E xternal ) Technique (External) Discovering ways to convey emotions vocally and physically and of india project to the audience.Requires an intellectual understandingUses more of an outside-in approachDo the writing essay format action and then the feeling will follow (The James-Lange Theory-- physical actions can lead to essay on president of india emotional reactions). Emphasis on exam, Body language-- The Delsarte System (Olivier felt that the key to pratibha a character was the competition intermediate past papers nose or how the on president character walks) -- I once found the interpreter key to a character (Earnest in essay on president of india pratibha, Design for Living ) in professional endorsement college coursework, how he held a cigarette--once I discovered that way of essay on president patil holding a cigarette, much of the writing report format rest of the character developed. On President Of India Patil. Method (Internal) To help actors discover the emotional truth of the character--works best with realistic theatre -- for which it was originally intended.Requires an fl bar, emotional intelligence and on president understanding.Uses more of an fl bar essay, inside-out approach.Think the of india pratibha patil thought and the action will follow.The magic if -- What would I do if I were that character in that situation? In practice--probably a combination of essay both of these is essay of india pratibha, best. Deloitte Competition. Most actors will tell you that they veer toward method or technique, but most probably use a combination of both. R epresentational Vs P resentational A cting: Representational: actors want to on president of india make us believe they are the character; they pretend. Presentational: rather than pretending they are the character, actors present the character to us, almost as if saying, Hi, this is the actor speaking, and I'm going to present the ideas of this character to interpreter of maladies you; I don't really believe I'm anything other than myself, but you can believe it if you want. personality actors -- even today, many successful actors never play anyone but themselves, but do it very well. Pratibha Patil. On the representational side of the aisle, arguably: Dustin Hoffman, Meryl Streep, Robert DeNiro, Samuel L. Jackson. On the presentational side, arguably again: Paul Newman, Denzel Washington; Does anyone ever believe that Bruce Willis plays anything other than himself, but does it really well?
A critic (witty Dorothy Parker) said of Katherine Hepburn in essay, the 1930's that she runs the gamut of emotions from on president of india pratibha, A to B. John Wayne -- never tried to exam essay be anything else. but they are successful because they help us to believe the story. A revolt against Stanislavsky's method acting: Brecht's Alienation-effect asks actors to present their characters to the audience and specifically NOT to of india patil get involved.
Need Help Write My Paper - Rashtrapati Pratibha Patil | -… - Texas Christian University
Buy Essay Online - Online Essay Writing - How Good a President Was Pratibha Patil? -… - University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN
Dec 19, 2017 Essay on president of india pratibha patil,
Is junk DNA bunk? A critique of ENCODE. Edited by Michael B. Eisen, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA, and accepted by the Editorial Board February 4, 2013 (received for review December 11, 2012) Do data from the essay patil Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project render the notion of junk DNA obsolete? Here, I review older arguments for junk grounded in the C-value paradox and propose a thought experiment to challenge ENCODE’s ontology. Specifically, what would we expect for cfm ethesis_id the number of functional elements (as ENCODE defines them) in on president genomes much larger than our own genome? If the number were to stay more or less constant, it would seem sensible to consider the rest of the DNA of larger genomes to be junk or, at least, assign it a different sort of role (structural rather than informational).
If, however, the writing number of functional elements were to essay on president, rise significantly with C-value then, ( i ) organisms with genomes larger than our genome are more complex phenotypically than we are, ( ii ) ENCODE’s definition of a simple life functional element identifies many sites that would not be considered functional or phenotype-determining by essay on president patil standard uses in biology, or ( iii ) the same phenotypic functions are often determined in fl bar exam essay a more diffuse fashion in on president pratibha patil larger-genomed organisms. Good cases can be made for propositions ii and iii . A larger theoretical framework, embracing informational and structural roles for DNA, neutral as well as adaptive causes of endorsement coursework complexity, and selection as a multilevel phenomenon, is on president of india pratibha, needed. There is much excitement in the blogosphere, among mainstream science journalists, and fl bar, within the community of practicing genome biologists about of india patil a flurry of articles and letters in writing report format the September 6th, 2012 issue of Nature . Essay Of India! These papers and many others published at about the same time and since under the umbrella of the ENCODE project collectively claim function for the majority of the 3.2 Gb human genome, not just the few percent already recognized as genes (traditionally defined) or obvious gene-controlling elements. Kolata writes in The New York Times that “[t]he human genome is packed with at least four million gene switches that reside in bits of DNA that were once dismissed as ‘junk’ but that turn out to exam essay, play critical roles in controlling how cells, organs and other tissues behave” (1). In a Nature News and on president of india, View commentary, Ecker et al. (2) assert that “[o]ne of the a simple essay more remarkable findings described in the consortium’s entree paper is that 80% of the genome contains elements linked to biochemical functions, dispatching the widely held view that the human genome is mostly ‘junk DNA.’” The editors of The Lancet (3) enthuse: “Far from being ‘junk,’ the DNA between protein encoding genes consists of of india patil myriad elements that determine gene expression, whether by switching transcription on or off, or by regulating the degree of case study transcription and on president pratibha, consequently the concentrations and fl bar exam, function of all proteins.” Succinctly, in Science , Pennisi (4) declares that the ENCODE publications write the “eulogy for junk DNA.” The new data—coming from high-throughput analyses of pratibha transcriptional and chromatin landscapes, transcription factor footprints, and long-range chromosomal interactions—support many current population genetic studies linking human diseases to of maladies, supposedly nongenic regions, and essay of india patil, they are truly impressive in scope and depth (5). They resonate with the current enthusiasm for assigning multiple subtle but vital regulatory roles to the still enigmatic long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) now known to be transcribed from much of the writing report length of our genome (6, 7). Pratibha Patil! Additionally, congruence at many sites between the many methods used (RNA sequencing, binding by one or more of 100+ DNA binding proteins, DNase I hypersensitivity, histone modification, DNA methylation, and life, chromosome conformation capture) leaves no doubt that many of these 4 million gene switches do represent chromosomal loci that are special in of india pratibha some way, in at of maladies least one cell type. However, do ENCODE’s data truly require us to abandon the of india pratibha patil widespread notion that junk DNA—here specifically understood as DNA that does not encode information promoting the of maladies communication essays survival and reproduction of the essay on president of india pratibha patil organisms that bear it—is the major constituent of many eukaryotic genomes, our own genome included? I will argue by way of essay a thought experiment and an analysis of what biologists traditionally have understood as function that they do not.
At the very least, “junk” as it has been conceived is an apt descriptor of the bulk of essay on president pratibha many genomes larger than our own. Moreover, it almost certainly still is for much of deloitte case study competition our genome, unless we hold Homo sapiens to essay on president pratibha, be unique among the animals in the efficiency of deloitte study competition its chromosomal organization and not just its cultural attainments. Such genomic anthropocentrism, unacknowledged conflation of of india pratibha patil possible meanings of “function,” questionable null hypotheses, and unrecognized panadaptationism are behind this most recent attempt to junk “junk.” Several of professional endorsement these same points have been made in on president of india pratibha patil brief by Eddy (8) and Niu and Jiang (9). My aim here is to of maladies essays, remind readers of the structure of some earlier arguments in defense of the essay pratibha junk concept (10) that remain compelling, despite the obvious success of ENCODE in mapping the subtle and complex human genomic landscape. Also, I will suggest that we need as biologists to etheses ca display 1123, defend traditional understandings of on president pratibha patil function: the deloitte publicity surrounding ENCODE reveals the extent to which these understandings have been eroded. However, theoretical expansion in essay of india patil other directions, reconceptualizing junk, might be advisable.
The junk idea long predates genomics and since its early decades has been grounded in the “C-value paradox,” the observation that DNA amounts (C-value denotes haploid nuclear DNA content) and professional endorsement coursework, complexities correlate very poorly with organismal complexity or evolutionary “advancement” (10 ? ? ? –14). Humans do have a thousand times as much DNA as simple bacteria, but lungfish have at least 30 times more than humans, as do many flowering plants and some unicellular protists (14). Moreover, as is often noted, the disconnection between C-value and organismal complexity is also found within more restricted groups comprising organisms of seemingly similar lifestyle and comparable organismal or behavioral complexity. Essay! The most heavily burdened lungfish ( Protopterus aethiopicus ) lumbers around with 130,000 Mb, but the pufferfish Takifugu (formerly Fugu ) rubripes gets by on less than 400 Mb (15, 16). Competition! A less familiar but better (because monophyletic) animal example might be amphibians, showing a 120-fold range from frogs to salamanders (17). Among angiosperms, there is a thousandfold variation (14). Additionally, even within a single genus, there can be substantial differences. Salamander species belonging to Plethodon boast a fourfold range, to cite a comparative study popular from the 1970s (18). Essay On President Of India Patil! Sometimes, such within-genus genome size differences reflect large-scale or whole-genome duplications and sometimes rampant selfish DNA or transposable element (TE) multiplication. Communication! Schnable et al. (19) figure that the maize genome has more than doubled in size in the last 3 million y, overwhelmingly through the replication and accumulation of TEs for example. If we do not think of essay pratibha this additional or “excess” DNA, so manifest through comparisons between and within biological groups, as junk (irrelevant if not frankly detrimental to the survival and reproduction of the organism bearing it), how then are we to think of it?
Of course, DNA inevitably does have a basic structural role to fl bar essay, play, unlinked to on president, specific biochemical activities or the encoding of information relevant to professional college, genes and their expression. Centromeres and telomeres exemplify noncoding chromosomal components with specific functions. More generally, DNA as a macromolecule bulks up and gives shape to chromosomes and thus, as many studies show, determines important nuclear and cellular parameters such as division time and size, themselves coupled to essay on president of india patil, organismal development (11 ? –13, 17). The “selfish DNA” scenarios of 1980 (20 ? –22), in which C-value represents only the case study competition outcome of conflicts between upward pressure from essay on president reproductively competing TEs and downward-directed energetic restraints, have thus, in subsequent decades, yielded to more nuanced understandings. Cavalier-Smith (13, 20) called DNA’s structural and cell biological roles “nucleoskeletal,” considering C-value to be optimized by organism-level natural selection (13, 20). Deloitte Case Study Competition! Gregory, now the principal C-value theorist, embraces a more “pluralistic, hierarchical approach” to what he calls “nucleotypic” function (11, 12, 17). A balance between organism-level selection on nuclear structure and essay of india, cell size, cell division times and developmental rate, selfish genome-level selection favoring replicative expansion, and (as discussed below) supraorganismal (clade-level) selective processes—as well as drift—must all be taken into writing report essay account. These forces will play out differently in different taxa. Of India Patil! Gonzalez and Petrov (23) point out, for instance, that Drosophila and humans are at opposite extremes in terms of the balance of processes, with the minimalist genomes of the former containing few (but mostly young and quite active) TEs, whereas at least one-half of our own much larger genome comprises the moribund remains of of maladies communication older TEs, principally SINEs and LINEs (short and long interspersed nuclear elements). Such difference may in part reflect population size.
As Lynch notes, small population size (characteristic of essay our species) will have limited the effectiveness of natural selection in interpreter communication essays preventing a deleterious accumulation of TEs (24, 25). Zuckerkandl (26) once mused that all genomic DNA must be to some degree “polite,” in that it must not lethally interfere with gene expression. Indeed, some might suggest, as I will below, that true junk might better be defined as DNA not currently held to account by selection for any sort of role operating at on president pratibha any level of the biological hierarchy (27). Essay! However, junk advocates have to date generally considered that even DNA fulfilling bulk structural roles remains, in of india terms of study competition encoded information, just junk. Cell biology may require a certain C-value, but most of the stretches of noncoding DNA that go to satisfying that requirement are junk (or worse, selfish). In any case, structural roles or multilevel selection theorizing are not what ENCODE commentators are endorsing when they proclaim the essay on president pratibha patil end of junk, touting the etheses existence of 4 million gene switches or myriad elements that determine gene expression and assigning biochemical functions for 80% of the on president of india pratibha patil genome. Indeed, there would be no excitement in either the press or the scientific literature if all the ENCODE team had done was acknowledge an established theory concerning DNA’s structural importance. Rather, the excitement comes from interpreting ENCODE’s data to mean that a much larger fraction of our DNA than until very recently thought contributes to our survival and fl bar essay, reproduction as organisms, because it encodes information transcribed or expressed phenotypically in one tissue or another, or specifically regulates such expression. ENCODE (5) defines a functional element (FE) as “a discrete genome segment that encodes a defined product (for example, protein or non-coding RNA) or displays a reproducible biochemical signature (for example, protein binding, or a specific chromatin structure).” A simple thought experiment involving FEs so-defined is at the heart of my argument.
Suppose that there had been (and probably, some day, there will be) ENCODE projects aimed at on president pratibha patil enumerating, by transcriptional and chromatin mapping, factor footprinting, and so forth, all of the FEs in the genomes of Takifugu and living essay, a lungfish, some small and on president pratibha patil, large genomed amphibians (including several species of Plethodon ), plants, and various protists. There are, I think, two possible general outcomes of this thought experiment, neither of which would give us clear license to abandon junk. The first outcome would be that FEs (estimated to fl bar exam, be in the millions in our genome) turn out to be more or less constant in number, regardless of C-value—at least among similarly complex organisms. If larger C-value by itself does not imply more FEs, then there will, of course, be great differences in what we might call functional density (FEs per kilobase) (26) among species. FEs spaced by essay on president of india patil kilobases in living a simple essay Arabidopsis would be megabases apart in maize on of india pratibha average. Endorsement College! Averages obscure details: the extra DNA in the larger genomes might be sequestered in essay on president of india a few giant silent regions rather than uniformly stretching out the space between FEs or lengthening intragenic introns. However, in either case, this DNA could be seen as a sort of polite functionless filler or diluent. Writing Report Essay! At best, such DNA might have functions only of the structural or nucleoskeletal/nucleotypic sort. Indeed, even this sort of functional attribution is not necessary. There is room within an expanded, pluralistic and hierarchical theory of C-value (see below) (12, 27) for essay on president patil much DNA that makes no contribution whatever to survival and fl bar, reproduction at the organismal level and thus is junk at that level, although it may be under selection at the sub- or supraorganismal levels (TEs and clade selection).
If the human genome is junk-free, then it must be very luckily poised at essay some sort of minimal size for organisms of human complexity. We may no longer think that mankind is at the center of the universe, but we still consider our species’ genome to be unique, first among many in having made such full and efficient use of all of interpreter communication its millions of SINES and LINES (retrotransposable elements) and introns to encode the multitudes of lncRNAs and house the millions of enhancers necessary to make us the uniquely complex creatures that we believe ourselves to be. However, were this extraordinary coincidence the case, a corollary would be that junk would not be defunct for essay pratibha patil many other larger genomes: the term would not need to living a simple essay, be expunged from the genomicist’s lexicon more generally. As well, if, as is commonly believed, much of the functional complexity of the on president of india human genome is to be explained by evolution of our extraordinary cognitive capacities, then many other mammals of professional endorsement college lesser acumen but similar C-value must truly have junk in on president of india pratibha their DNA. The second likely general outcome of case my thought experiment would be that FEs as defined by ENCODE increase in number with C-value, regardless of apparent organismal complexity. If they increase roughly proportionately, FE numbers will vary over essay patil a many-hundredfold range among organisms normally thought to be similarly complex. Defining or measuring complexity is, of course, problematic if not impossible.
Still, it would be hard to convince ourselves that lungfish are 300 times more complex than Takifugu or 40 times more complex than us, whatever complexity might be. More likely, if indeed FE numbers turn out to increase with C-value, we will decide that we need to think again about what function is, how it becomes embedded in macromolecular structures, and what FEs as defined by ENCODE have to tell us about it. What do we mean by function, informational or otherwise? Most philosophers of biology, and deloitte case competition, likely, most practicing biologists when pressed, would endorse some form of the selected effect (SE) definition of essay of india pratibha function (28 ? –30). Selected effect is the form of teleological explanation allowed, indeed required, by Darwinian theory (31). Accordingly, the functions of a trait or feature are all and only those effects of its presence for living which it was under positive natural selection in essay pratibha the (recent) past and for which it is under (at least) purifying selection now. They are why the trait or feature is there today and possibly why it was originally formed. Thus, we might reasonably say that the a simple function of the lac operon in Escherichia coli is (and presumably, long has been) to allow facultative growth of bacteria on ?-galactosides, because we believe that, long before E. coli was brought into the laboratory, the lac operon was maintained by selection to allow such growth. We might also say that one of the functions of the human FOXP2 gene (which we share with many other vertebrates) is of india pratibha patil, now to support speech (32), although in fl bar exam the more distant mammalian past, it could not have. We would imagine that there has been selection for speech in human populations over considerable time.
Traits like FOXP2, now under positive or purifying selection for one effect but first arising because of selection for another, are what Gould and Vrba (33) called “exaptations”. What we would not want to call functions (or even exaptations) are effects never so far selected for—side effects, as it were. Gould and Lewontin (34) famously called these “spandrels.” They comprise both undesirable but apparently unavoidable consequences, like vulnerability to phages in bacteria with pili or lower back pain in primates walking upright, and essay of india, seemingly neutral ones, like the thumping noise made by the heart, to use an example beloved of philosophers. Indeed, even fortuitously advantageous traits, such the FOXP2 -enabled capacity to leave voice messages on answering machines, are not SE functions. College Coursework! We do not think that our ancestors experienced positive selection for leaving voice messages, although our descendants well might (and FOXP2 would then for on president of india them have acquired a new exaptive function). In any case, past selection, recent or ancient, can only be inferred, and we must use indirect ways to make the inference. One way, likely the most reliable but not universally applicable, is evolutionary conservation.
If diverse lineages retain a DNA sequence despite the erosive force of mutational divergence, there must be some effect maintained by purifying selection. The above is not to say that all conserved sequences are conserved through purifying selection at the level of organisms: some may be selfish. Conversely, some conserved functions, such as the complementary base-pairings that maintain ribosomal RNA secondary structures, do not require primary sequence conservation (35). Cfm Ethesis_id! Moreover, not all sequences that are likely to be currently under purifying organismal selection are conserved on essay on president of india an evolutionary (transspecies) timescale. Deloitte Competition! In a recent comparative genomic survey, Ward and Kellis (36) find both mammal-conserved human sequences showing increasing diversity within our species (and thus, likely becoming nonfunctional in humans) and mammal-nonconserved sequence showing reduced within-human diversity (and thus, likely acquiring new function among us). Ponting and Hardison (37), using methods that they believe to take into essay on president pratibha patil account such turnover, “estimate that the steady-state value of writing essay ? sel [the proportion of on president of india pratibha patil all nucleotides in the human genome that are subject to purifying selection because of their biological function] lies between 10% and 15%” (37). Another way to attribute function is through experimental ablation: whatever organism-level effect E does not occur after deleting or blocking the expression of essay format a region R of DNA is taken to be the latter’s function. This attribution is close to essay, the everyday understanding of function, as in the function of the carburetor is to oxygenate gasoline. The approach embodies what philosophers would call a causal role (CR) definition of function and living a simple life, supposedly eschews evolutionary or historical justifications. Much biological research into pratibha patil function is etheses ca display, done this way, but I think that most biologists consider that experimental ablation indirectly points to SE. Patil! They believe that effect E could, under suitable conditions, be shown to have contributed to the past fitness of organisms and most importantly, that R exists as it does because of E . Cardiologists do not say that it is the function of the heart to make a thumping noise, although stopping the heart will silence it.
Similarly, geneticists studying Huntington disease would not say that the fl bar exam trinucleotide repeat in the cognate gene, reiteration of which gives rise to the disorder, has disease causation as a function—although replacing the repeat with a nonidentical set of unique triplets encoding the same amino acid sequence would eliminate the essay of india deleterious effect (38). A third, and interpreter of maladies essays, the least reliable, method to infer function is mere existence. Essay On President! The presence of writing report format a structure or the occurrence of a process or detectable interaction, especially if complex, is taken as adequate evidence for its being under selection, even when ablation is infeasible and the possibly selectable effect of pratibha presence remains unknown. Because our genomes have introns, Alu elements, and report essay, endogenous retroviruses, these things must be doing us some good. Because a region is transcribed, its transcript must have some fitness benefit, however remote. On President Patil! Because residue N of life essay protein P is leucine in species A and isoleucine in on president of india patil species B, there must be some selection-based explanation. This approach enshrines “panadaptationism,” which was forcefully and effectively debunked by Gould and Lewontin (34) in 1979 but still informs much of college molecular and on president of india, evolutionary genetics, including genomics.
As Lynch (39) argues in his essay “ The Frailty of essay Adaptive Hypotheses for essay of india pratibha the Origins of writing report essay format Adaptive Complexity ,” This narrow view of on president evolution has become untenable in light of a simple essay recent observations from genomic sequencing and population genetic theory. Numerous aspects of genomic architecture, gene structure, and developmental pathways are difficult to explain without invoking the nonadaptive forces of essay on president of india pratibha patil genetic drift and mutation. In addition, emergent biological features such as complexity, modularity, and evolvability, all of which are current targets of considerable speculation, may be nothing more than indirect by-products of processes operating at lower levels of communication essays organization. Functional attribution under ENCODE is of this third sort (mere existence) in essay pratibha patil the main. Although FEs as defined by ENCODE might be cross-identified by several methods and even evolutionarily conserved, they could most often be the molecular equivalent of spandrels—structured elements that are the indirect consequence of selection operating on other features but are themselves selectively neutral, a form of interpreter of maladies structured noise.
Demonstrations that some biochemical signatures are not neutral and may even meet SE criteria say nothing about the rest and are, of essay pratibha course, expected as long as opportunism and co-optation are understood to be key elements in evolution. In taking such a liberal definitional course, ENCODE follows the lead of the fl bar Gene Ontology (GO) project, which defines molecular function in essay pratibha decontextualized nonhistorical terms (40): Molecular function describes activities, such as catalytic or binding activities, that occur at the molecular level. GO molecular function terms represent activities rather than the entities (molecules or complexes) that perform the actions, and do not specify where or when, or in what context, the writing essay action takes place. Proponents of ENCODE actually are concerned with what they call “functional validation” but principally seem worried about the danger of mistaking functional specificity (recognition or activity) rather than the risk of attributing function (especially regulatory function) where none exists in on president of india patil the SE sense. Stamatoyannopoulos (41) writes: These examples illustrate a natural temptation to equate activity with patterning of epigenomic features. However, such reasoning drifts progressively farther away from experimentally grounded function or mechanistic understanding. The sheer diversity of cross-cell-type regulatory patterning evident in distal regulatory DNA uncovered by a simple ENCODE suggests tremendous heterogeneity and functional diversity.
ENCODE is thus in a unique position to promote clearer terminology that separates the essay on president of india pratibha identification of functional elements per professional endorsement coursework se from the pratibha ascription of specific functional activities using historical experimentally defined categories, and also to dissuade the ascription of etheses ca display cfm ethesis_id 1123 very specific functions based on a biochemical signature in place of a deeper mechanistic understanding. There are three other “natural temptations” that I would caution consumers of the ENCODE project product to avoid. Essay Of India Pratibha! The first temptation is the assumption that, because some members of a class of elements have acquired SE functions, all or most must have functions or (more broadly) that the class of elements as a whole can thus be declared functional. Stamatoyannopoulos (41), for instance, writes: In marked contrast to the prevailing wisdom, ENCODE chromatin and professional endorsement college, transcription studies now suggest that a large number of transposable elements encode highly cell type-selective regulatory DNA that controls not only their own cell-selective transcription, but also those of neighboring genes. Far from an evolutionary dustbin, transposable elements appear to be active and lively members of the essay genomic regulatory community, deserving of the same level of scrutiny applied to other genic or regulatory features.
It is surely inevitable that evolution, that inveterate tinkerer, will have sometimes co-opted some TEs for exam essay such purposes (42). However, it is an overenthusiastic extrapolation to describe TEs as a class as “active and lively members of the genomic regulatory community.” Moreover, the word “regulation” has itself degraded through use by genomicists, from designating evolved effects shown or likely to enhance fitness, presumably by efficient control of the use of on president of india patil resources, to more broadly denoting any measurable impact of one element or process on other elements or processes, regardless of fitness consequences. Report Essay Format! I think this broadening of definition misleads biologists such as Barroso (43) in a passage cited later in this essay. Pacemakers regulate heartbeats and that is their function: tasers and caffeine also affect cardiac rhythm, but we would not (at least in the former case) see this as regulatory function. Regulation, defined in this loose way, is, for instance, the assumed function of many or most lncRNAs, at least for some authors (6, 7, 44, 45). However, the transcriptional machinery will inevitably make errors: accuracy is on president, expensive, and interpreter of maladies, the selective cost of discriminating against all false promoters will be too great to bear. There will be lncRNAs with promoters that have arisen through drift and exist only essay of india pratibha patil, as noise (46).
Similarly, binding to proteins and ca display cfm ethesis_id, other RNAs is something that RNAs do. It is on president of india pratibha, inevitable that some such interactions, initially fortuitous, will come to be genuinely regulatory, either through positive selection or the living a simple life neutral process described below as constructive neutral evolution (CNE). Of India Patil! However, there is no evolutionary force requiring that all or even most do. At another (sociology of science) level, it is deloitte case competition, inevitable that molecular biologists will search for and discover some of those possibly quite few instances in which function has evolved and argue that the function of lncRNAs as a class of elements has, at last, been discovered. The positivist, verificationist bias of contemporary science and the politics of patil its funding ensure this outcome. However, what is the correct conceptual framework here? Why should either function or nonfunction for a class of elements be taken as the null hypothesis, and why should evidence for or against function, however defined, be taken as support of one or the other? Either is life essay, a form of essay of india pratibha patil essentialism or natural kind thinking inappropriate in contemporary biology.
There is, after all, nothing in nature that constrains classes of of maladies genetic elements defined by humans as sharing certain common characteristics to share others not part of that definition. The second natural temptation is to assume that function of essay on president pratibha a part implies function of the whole. Co-optation of the promoters of TEs or the insertion of fl bar essay bona fide regulatory sequences into on president introns is taken to impart function to the TE or intron as a whole. However, the cell does not necessarily see the rest of the TE or the deloitte case competition intronic surround of an embedded enhancer as relevant to pratibha patil, its activity, and only the promoter or enhancer sequence may be under selection. Even when an entire genetic element seems relevant or necessary (whole introns must be removed even if only certain sites are active in uwaterloo cfm ethesis_id 1123 their removal), there is the possibility of excess baggage or junk-like character. Do enhancer-harboring introns really need to be so long? Another analogy seems in order: My computer might be 5 ft from the wall socket, but if I have only a 10-ft electrical cord all 10 ft will seem functional, because cutting the on president of india pratibha cord anywhere will turn off my machine. In this connection, note that much more than one-half of 80.4% of the communication human genome that ENCODE deems functional is so considered because it is essay on president of india pratibha patil, transcribed (4), most often into an intron or lncRNA, only a tiny fraction of the length of which is likely to be involved in potentially regulatory interactions. A third and related natural temptation is to inflate functional attribution through choice of window size. The ENCODE Project Consortium notes (5) that: The vast majority (80.4%) of the human genome participates in at least one biochemical RNA- and/or chromatin-associated event in at least one cell type. Living A Simple Life! Much of the genome lies close to a regulatory event: 95% of the genome lies within 8 kilobases (kb) of a DNA–protein interaction (as assayed by bound ChIP-seq motifs or DNase I footprints), and 99% is of india patil, within 1.7 kb of at least one of the biochemical events measured by ENCODE.
Even this last and exam, largest percentage, assuming the average biochemical event to directly involve tens to hundreds of bases (41), assigns functions to only a minority (perhaps 10%) of the genome’s base pairs. ENCODE’s data are indeed unexpected and impressive, but without some principled and agreed-on metric for functional density and FE boundaries, any answer to the question “how much of the genome is functional?” remains endlessly negotiable and on president of india patil, transparently window size-dependent. In her News and View editorial in the September 6, 2012 issue of interpreter communication essays Nature , Barroso (43) speculates as follows concerning the vast majority of human DNA, until now thought useless: …there is a good reason to keep this DNA. Results from the ENCODE project show that most of these stretches of DNA harbor regions that bind proteins and RNA molecules, bringing these into positions from which they cooperate with each other to regulate the function and level of expression of essay on president pratibha patil protein-coding genes. In addition, it seems that widespread transcription from non-coding DNA potentially acts as a reservoir for the creation of etheses ca display cfm ethesis_id new functional molecules, such as regulatory RNAs. In addition to patil, equating regulation with having an effect, Barroso (43) revives here the interpreter notion that excess DNA is not junk because it may some day be of use, and thus it is essay on president pratibha patil, maintained as a reservoir. Brenner (47) long ago derided this sort of reasoning as follows: There is a strong and widely held belief that all organisms are perfect and that everything within them is there for a function. Believers ascribe to the Darwinian natural selection process a fastidious prescience that it cannot possibly have and some go so far as to think that patently useless features of existing organisms are there as an investment for the future. One sees similar Panglossian futuristic speculation in exam some of the recent literature on robustness and evolvability (critique in ref. Essay On President Of India! 48).
However, it cannot in general be the case that selection operating at the level of fitness of individuals within a species can favor the deloitte case study competition origin or maintenance of traits that incurs selective cost at essay on president of india pratibha patil that level, while offering only the remotest hope of future benefit to the individual and its descendants. Other evolutionary mechanisms can. Study! The publications by Lynch et al. (24) and Lynch (39, 49) have effectively argued that drift operating in on president very small populations will (by chance) encourage accumulation of DNA that can add to C-value and might, in the future, come in handy. Selection at the suborganismal (selfish DNA) level may also seem to interpreter of maladies communication essays, be future-directed: TEs do sometimes later become useful through co-optation or general effects on of india pratibha patil the generation of novelty (42, 50). Indeed, Fedoroff (51) has recently proposed that TEs should not be described pejoratively as “selfish” and that the prevailing view—that the epigenetic silencing mechanisms that eukaryotes use to limit TE replication arose to do just that—puts the living a simple essay evolutionary cart before the horse. Rather, Fedoroff (51) suggests that these mechanisms, by also limiting recombination between repeated TEs (which makes genomes smaller), allow TEs to accumulate, growing genomes and that this was a “…critical step in the evolution of multicellular organisms, underpinning the pratibha patil ability to diversify duplicates for competition expression in specific cells and tissues” (51). Fedoroff (51) concludes that On balance, then, the likelihood that contemporary eukaryotic genomes evolved in essay on president pratibha the context of essay epigenetic mechanisms seems vastly greater than the likelihood that they were invented as an afterthought to combat a plague of parasitic transposons. However, evolutionary explanations of pratibha patil genome structure need not be either/or in this sense, after it is recognized that selection affecting the genome operates at all (including supraorganismal) levels of the biological hierarchy (12, 27). TEs can be selected through selfish replication at the level of DNA, while selection at the level of organisms has established silencing mechanisms to reign in TE replication, and selection at the level of clades has looked favorably on professional coursework those clades with complex genomes that engender evolutionary novelty and render whole-clade extinction less likely. (That is, clades that have TE-rich dynamic genomes may have indeed because of that produced more and on president of india pratibha, more interestingly diverse and evolutionarily robust and evolvable descendant species.) Evolutionary forces operate simultaneously at all levels in report the same and different directions with differing strengths and results measurable in on president of india different units (such as the frequency of TEs in an individual genome, TE-enhanced individuals in a species, TE-bearing species in a genus, or classes comprising such species in a phylum). Indeed, one could reasonably argue for an eventual expansion of the SE definition of case competition “function” to include all levels as long as we distinguish them (DNA-level function, organism-level function, clade-level function, and so forth). This definitional expansion might well lead to a reduction in the amount of on president of india patil DNA that we could reasonably call junk.
However, I think such an expanded idea of report function does not currently inform ENCODE or most genomic thinking, and in any case, the problems of inference, evidence, and appropriate null hypotheses remain. Quite often, we can intuit the essay on president of india pratibha patil results of case a thought experiment before articulating the reasons for on president of india pratibha patil our intuition. This propensity is the mysterious appeal and practical use of thought experiments. My intuition is that, when ENCODE-like methods are applied with equal thoroughness to larger genomes, outcomes of the second sort described above will be obtained. That is, lungfish will have many more FEs than Takifugu , and large-genomed Plethodon species will have more than smaller-genomed ones. If there were a primate with a C-value substantially greater than that of H. Living A Simple Life! sapiens , it would prove to on president of india pratibha patil, have more FEs, even if judged more primitive in intelligence or on behavioral grounds. An exception might be genomes in which C-value increases are very recent and caused by the expansive replication of repetitive sequences that previously lacked ENCODE-definable sites.
Assuming these predictions are borne out, what might we make of of maladies it? Lynch (39) suggests that much of the genomic- and systems-level complexity of eukaryotes vis a vis prokaryotes is on president pratibha patil, maladaptive, reflecting the inability of selection to block fixation of incrementally but mildly deleterious mutations in the smaller populations of the former. Thus, for professional coursework instance, the fact that eukaryotic molecular machines comprise more interacting subunits than their prokaryotic counterparts reflects the essay inability of selection operating on smaller populations to enforce functional efficiency. Additionally, to living a simple life, be sure, the proliferation of short- and essay on president patil, long-range molecular interactions deleteriously interposing themselves within previously simpler regulatory networks will be harder to stop in small than large populations. Several recent publications (52 ? ? –55) have revived the argument that CNE is just such an interpositional force, possibly a very powerful one. Essay Format! A simple example of CNE would be a process by of india pratibha patil which self-splicing intron RNAs could become dependent on proteinaceous splicing factors. Initially, the RNA secondary structure is sufficient to catalyze self-removal, but fortuitously bound proteins that stabilize the RNA can compensate for interpreter of maladies communication (presuppress) mutations that might destabilize elements of the structure necessary for independent splicing. Because they are not now deleterious, such mutations will accumulate to on president patil, equilibrium: the purifying selection pressure that maintained RNA secondary structure has gone. College! No selection is involved at this stage. If there are several such potentially presuppressible mutations, then a ratchet-like mechanism will make it difficult or impossible for the RNA to ever regain splicing independence. On President! Elimination of the protein will become a lethal event.
Therefore, purifying selection now prevents the loss of the complex feature (molecular interdependency), although positive selection did nothing to create it. The entire multiprotein, multi-RNA, eukaryotic spliceosome might have evolved through reiterations of this process along with very many of the intricacies of the cellular machinery (52 ? ? –55). Case Competition! CNE would work in concert with any population-size effect. Neither entails positive selection for the complex structure and/or processes thus produced—only purifying selection against its elimination. Philosophers who endorse SE definitions of function have not, to my knowledge, embraced or even considered such CNE scenarios, which would meet CR definitions. Considering traits fixed by CNE to have SE function would add still additional arrows to the quiver of on president panadaptationism and should perhaps be discouraged. A common consequence of CNE is that even structures or processes that have arisen by etheses ca display positive selection because they increase organismal fitness will later become more complex in terms of the number of intermolecular interactions required for their successful completion. Function diffuses. On President Of India Pratibha Patil! Genetic networks will first acquire and then require more and more protein–nucleic acid, protein–protein, and interpreter of maladies communication, nucleic acid–nucleic acid intermolecular associations. Larger genomes, producing more RNAs (and sometimes more proteins), offer up more macromolecules and variants as potential fortuitous presuppressors and more potential DNA binding sites.
Recognition systems for transcription and essay on president of india pratibha patil, transcription factor binding cannot be made indefinitely more accurate without the professional college coursework aid of on president of india pratibha patil unbearably slow and selectively costly proofreading systems. Tradeoffs between speed, economy, and accuracy will unavoidably entail that larger genomes will produce disproportionately more noise in fl bar terms of fortuitous transcripts capable of essay pratibha patil becoming presuppressors and life, thus, more complex, seemingly regulatory, networks of interaction. Some will be functional in on president a CR if not an deloitte case, SE sense, and on president of india pratibha patil, some will have arisen through CNE so that they are now maintained by purifying selection. However, many, possibly the vast majority, are just there. The above considerations are but some of the reasons that one might intuit that FE number will scale with genome size. A very recent comparative analysis of interpreter of maladies transcription factor binding sites in model organisms (45) confirms this conjecture.
Ruths and Nakhleh (45) claim that …neutral evolutionary forces alone can explain binding site accumulation, and on president of india, that selection on the regulatory network does not alter this finding. If neutral forces drive the accumulation of binding sites, then, despite selective constraints, organisms with large amounts of [noncoding] DNA would evolve functional, yet ‘overcomplicated’ networks. The renewed debate over junk, thus, owes much of its heat to at least four misconceptions or misrepresentations. First is the deloitte study pretense that there is any definable boundary between informational and structural (genic and nongenic) functions for essay pratibha DNA. Increasingly, genomics is expanding the cfm ethesis_id boundaries of information as geneticists have typically understood it. Minimally, gene means more than it used to mean. Djebali et al. (56) write …the determination of genic regions is currently defined by the cumulative lengths of the isoforms and their genetic association to phenotypic characteristics, the likely continued reduction in the lengths of intergenic regions will steadily lead to the overlap of most genes previously assumed to essay on president patil, be distinct genetic loci. Of Maladies Essays! This supports and is consistent with earlier observations of a highly interleaved transcribed genome, but more importantly, prompts the reconsideration of the definition of a gene. As this is a consistent characteristic of annotated genomes, we would propose that the on president of india transcript be considered as the essay basic atomic unit of inheritance. Concomitantly, the term gene would then denote a higher-order concept intended to capture all those transcripts (eventually divorced from their genomic locations) that contribute to a given phenotypic trait. However, regulatory loci are also informational even if not transcribed, and ENCODE has documented many long-range interactions between chromosomal regions that may be brought together physically in the nucleus, a very complex and structure-rich molecular machine, at some time during the cell cycle.
Therefore, in this sense, the gross structure of the essay of india pratibha chromosome set also carries information that may be relevant to the function of genes, broadly defined. Additionally, all DNA has the job of serving as a template for its own replication—to that extent, encoding information. It is nevertheless true that a distinction between structural and essays, informational roles has long been part of the C-value argument for pratibha patil junk DNA. This line of reasoning has held that high C-value might be necessary for of maladies essays cellular function, but the nongenic DNA that fills the requirement is informationally junk. ENCODE’s claim is that much more of the DNA is, in fact, informational (especially regulatory) than we had thought, and essay pratibha patil, indeed ENCODE’s focus is on sites likely to be involved directly or indirectly in transcription—on the “myriad elements that determine gene expression” to deloitte, quote The Lancet (3). Therefore, the structure–information distinction informs the interpretation of the project’s results, and without it there would be nothing novel or newsworthy in essay on president patil the assertion that all of the human genome has some sort of role in study competition human biology. We have known that since the mid-1980s.
Second is the conflation of SE and CR definitions of function. Those of us who speak of excess DNA as informationally junk mean that its presence is not to be explained by past and/or current selection at the level of essay of india patil organisms—that it has no informational function construable historically as an SE. Fl Bar! Those who say that almost the whole of the human genome is functional informationally do so on the basis of an operational diagnosis embracing a nonhistorical CR definition of function. This definition is certain to identify as functions very many effects that have not been selected. The rhetoric attending the declared “eulogy for on president of india pratibha junk DNA” (4) sweeps this distinction under the carpet. Third is a false natural kind ontology, essentialist in nature, that encourages ( i ) the attribution to a whole class of operationally defined genetic elements those functions known only for exam essay a few and/or ( ii ) the attribution to the whole length of such a genetic element a function that resides in on president of india pratibha only part of it. In the case of lncRNAs and intron transcripts, whose lengths together make up more than three-quarters of 80% of the genome said to exam, be functional, this second sort of essay on president pratibha functional attribution seems especially misleading. Fourth may be a seldom-articulated or -questioned notion that cellular complexity is adaptive, the product of positive selection at the organismal level. Our disappointment that humans do not have many more genes than fruit flies or nematodes has been assuaged by evidence that regulatory mechanisms that mediate those genes’ phenotypic expressions are more various, subtle, and sophisticated (57), evidence of the sort that ENCODE seems to vastly augment.
Yet there are nonselective mechanisms, such as CNE, that could result in the scaling of FEs as ENCODE defines them to C-value nonadaptively or might be seen as selective at some level higher or lower than the level of individual organisms. Splits within the deloitte case study discipline between panadaptationists/neutralists and essay on president patil, those researchers accepting or doubting the importance of multilevel selection fuel this controversy and others in biology. I submit that, up until now, junk has been used to denote DNA whose presence cannot reasonably be explained by natural selection at the level of the interpreter of maladies essays organism for encoded informational roles. There remain good reasons to believe that much of the DNA of many species fits this definition. Nevertheless, while still insisting on essay on president of india pratibha SE functionality, we might want to writing essay format, come up with new definitions of function and junk by ( i ) abandoning the distinction between informational and of india, nucleoskeletal or nucleotypic roles for uwaterloo ca display 1123 DNA, ( ii ) admitting that there may be strong selection for C-value as a determinant of many cell biological features, ( iii ) fully embracing hierarchical selection theory and acknowledging that different genomic features may have legitimate functions defined and in play at different levels, and ( iv ) expanding the SE definition of function to include traits that arise neutrally but are preserved by purifying selection (12). Much that we now call junk could then become functional. However, such a philosophically informed theoretical expansion is not what ENCODE, or at least those authors stressing the demise of junk, so far seem to have in on president of india patil mind (1 ? ? ? –5). In the end, of course, there is no experimentally ascertainable truth of these definitional matters other than the report essay truth that many of the most heated arguments in on president of india biology are not about facts at all but rather about the words that we use to interpreter essays, describe what we think the facts might be. However, that the on president pratibha debate is in the end about the meaning of words does not mean that there are not crucial differences in our understanding of the evolutionary process hidden beneath the etheses uwaterloo ca display cfm ethesis_id 1123 rhetoric. I note that a very forcefully worded critique by Graur et al. Essay Of India Pratibha Patil! (58), with more specific objections to ENCODE's methodology, was published while this manuscript was in the proof stage.
I thank Evelyn Fox Keller, Eric Bapteste, James McInerney, Andrew Roger, and living a simple life essay, the Centre for Comparative Genomics and Evolutionary Bioinformatics (CGEB) group for comments on this manuscript and the Canadian Institutes for Health Research for support.
How to Write a History Essay - Rashtrapati Pratibha Patil | -… - University of Puerto Rico - Rio Piedras
Dec 19, 2017 Essay on president of india pratibha patil,
50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. On President Pratibha Patil? Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. Fl Bar Exam? It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. Pratibha? When you send out your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of of maladies communication essays yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to your best advantage. Of India? Just like how you dress your best for an interview, it’s important to give your resume the same treatment — to make sure it’s polished and presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of report essay format styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to get some ideas for essay on president of india pratibha, updating your own resume. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Click the exam image to essay on president, see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate.
This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the illusion of etheses uwaterloo cfm ethesis_id 1123 depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to essay of india pratibha, symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Etheses Cfm Ethesis_id 1123? Here, Michael Long frames his name and essay of india patil, his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look. A Simple? Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the of india traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an interpreter of maladies edge in terms of on president of india patil attracting attention.
Other strong points of this design by a simple life essay, Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and essay on president of india patil, plenty of negative space. There seems to be a trend, at deloitte case least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to essay patil, forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to endorsement college, meet you. Here’s a little about me” header at on president pratibha patil the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for exam essay, yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of essay on president patil fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of essay professionalism (and an on president of india pratibha patil opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is something you can use over and over again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it.
For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on deloitte case competition, a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Essay On President Of India? Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and whittles down the information to only the basics (skills and past positions). Report? Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N. Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the essay of india resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for uwaterloo ca display cfm ethesis_id, a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. On President Pratibha? Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in study competition, the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here.
Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of essay patil pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about you and complement or enhance the text, like in professional coursework, this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into essay of india pratibha patil, your resume. It doesn’t have to be the center of ca display attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out of india pratibha patil some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume?
Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the same graphic on etheses cfm ethesis_id 1123, your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. Essay On President Of India Pratibha? If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is readable.
You’ve only got one name. Make it memorable. If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume. Give the hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of writing report format your resume.
For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on the run? Post your resume online and essay on president of india pratibha patil, make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn. Etheses 1123? Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of pratibha patil your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the case infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of of india patil graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here.
Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Endorsement? Use a sidebar in your resume to on president patil, call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from her educational and uwaterloo ca display 1123, professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the breadth of his skills and on president pratibha patil, experience. Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of a simple life circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in various areas, such as management and on president pratibha patil, design. The size of the fl bar essay circles corresponds with his amount of experience — a fresh way to on president of india patil, illustrate core competencies. Give the case study person looking at your resume an excuse to find out more about you. Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. If your job history includes working for essay of india pratibha patil, big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Tamas Leb has included space to do so on this resume template, and it makes an impressive statement, even at a glance.
For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and think about innovative ways to writing essay format, present your information. Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of pratibha holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the etheses 1123 extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. The vertical timeline on essay pratibha, the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidate’s career history. Etheses Uwaterloo Cfm Ethesis_id 1123? This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to essay on president pratibha patil, tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes don’t have to be fancy to make a good impression. If competition is stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of fl bar exam essay a one-page resume allows for. On President Patil? Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd. Professional Coursework? This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and on president pratibha patil, short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch.
As if to etheses uwaterloo ca display cfm ethesis_id 1123, say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. Essay? This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. There may be times when it’s ok to let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the of maladies communication pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about pratibha looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is deloitte study competition a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the essay of india same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to do what you can to get noticed. For an fl bar exam essay illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is essay on president of india both appropriate for her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at.
No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Etheses Uwaterloo 1123? Just the essentials — enough to essay of india pratibha patil, get someone interested in essay, wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to essay on president of india, achieve if you condense your resume down to only the report most relevant information. If you have a lot of essay on president of india pratibha information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for each section. Need to essay, keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and on president of india patil, kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Even if your industry doesn’t allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in living a simple, more subtle ways, like through font choices or an essay of india pratibha patil accent color.
Resumes don’t always have to read from left to right, top to bottom. You can play with the layout of living your resume to make the best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to essay of india pratibha, navigate, similarly to how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to professional college, get right:
Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action! Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Of India Patil? Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the fl bar exam craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the on president of india patil digital possibilities of graphic design. Writing Format? Design The Perfect Google+ Banner Image With Tips And E. 50 Unique and Engaging About Us Pages to of india pratibha, Inspire You. Ca Display? These Are Some of The Most Beautiful Album Covers We#8.
Graphic Design From Around the World: Spanish Design. On President Of India? 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for professional college coursework, Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for on president pratibha, Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers.
The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of 2015. 100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to Apply Them . Report Format? Free Icons: 49 Best Sites To Find Beautiful And Useful . 60 Awesome Free Tools To Create A Visual Marketing Camp. Essay Patil? Free Stock Photos: 73 Best Sites To Find Awesome Free I. You're almost there! You’ll receive an email soon to confirm your subscription. Empowering the world to design. Get your dream job!
Design a resume to impress using Canva#8217;s amazingly simple drag-and-drop design tool.
Custom Economics Papers Writing Services - Rashtrapati Pratibha Patil | -… - Tufts University, Medford, MA
Dec 19, 2017 Essay on president of india pratibha patil,
desert essays an essay by Grant Allen. If deserts have a fault (which their present biographer is of india, far from admitting), that fault may doubtless be found in the fact that their scenery as a rule tends to be just a trifle monotonous. Writing Report Format? Though fine in themselves, they lack variety. To be sure, very few of the deserts of real life possess that absolute flatness, sandiness and sameness, which characterises the of india patil, familiar desert of the poet and of the annual exhibitions#151;a desert all level yellow expanse, most bilious in its colouring, and relieved by but four allowable academy properties, a palm-tree, a camel, a sphinx, and a pyramid. For foreground, throw in college a sheikh in appropriate drapery; for background, a sky-line and a bleaching skeleton; stir and essay on president pratibha mix, and your picture is finished. A Simple Life? Most practical deserts one comes across in travelling, however, are a great deal less simple and theatrical than that; rock preponderates over sand in their composition, and inequalities of pratibha surface are often the rule rather than the exception. There is reason to believe, indeed, that the artistic conception of the common or Burlington House desert has been unduly influenced for ca display cfm ethesis_id, evil by the accessibility and the poetic adjuncts of the Egyptian sand-waste, which, being situated in a great alluvial river valley is essay patil, really flat, and, being the most familiar, has therefore distorted to its own shape the mental picture of all its kind elsewhere. But most deserts of actual nature are not all flat, nor all sandy; they present a considerable diversity and variety of 1123 surface, and on president of india pratibha their rocks are often unpleasantly obtrusive to the tender feet of the pedestrian traveller.
A desert, in fact, is only a place where the weather is always and uniformly fine. The sand is interpreter, there merely as what the on president of india, logicians call, in their cheerful way, 'a separable accident'; the essential of a desert, as such, is the absence of vegetation, due to essay drought. The barometer in essay on president of india patil those happy, too happy, regions, always stands at Set Fair. At least, it would, if barometers commonly grew in living the desert, where, however, in the present condition of science, they are rarely found. On President Pratibha Patil? It is this dryness of the deloitte study competition, air, and this alone, that makes a desert; all the rest, like the camels, the sphinx, the skeleton, and the pyramid, is essay on president, only thrown in to complete the a simple essay, picture. Now the first question that occurs to essay of india pratibha the inquiring mind#151;which is but a graceful periphrasis for the present writer#151;when it comes to examine in detail the peculiarities of deserts is just this: Why are there places on the earth's surface on which rain never falls? What makes it so uncommonly dry in uwaterloo ca display Sahara when it's so unpleasantly wet and so unnecessarily foggy in this realm of England? And the obvious answer is, of course, that deserts exist only in those parts of the world where the run of mountain ranges, prevalent winds, and ocean currents conspire to render the average rainfall as small as possible. But, strangely enough, there is a large irregular belt of the great eastern continent where these peculiar conditions occur in an almost unbroken line for thousands of miles together, from the west coast of Africa to the borders of China: and it is in this belt that all the best known deserts of the world are actually situated.
In one place it is the Atlas and on president patil the Kong mountains (now don't pretend, as David Copperfield's aunt would have said, you don't know the Kong mountains); at another place it is the Arabian coast range, Lebanon, and the Beluchi hills; at writing report essay format a third, it is the Himalayas and the Chinese heights that intercept and precipitate all the moisture from the clouds. But, from whatever variety of local causes it may arise, the of india pratibha patil, fact still remains the fl bar exam essay, same, that all the great deserts run in this long, almost unbroken series, beginning with the greater and the smaller Sahara, continuing in the Libyan and essay on president pratibha Egyptian desert, spreading on through the larger part of of maladies communication Arabia, reappearing to pratibha the north as the Syrian desert, and to the east as the desert of Rajputana (the Great Indian Desert of the Anglo-Indian mind), while further east again the long line terminates in the desert of Gobi on the Chinese frontier. In other parts of the world, deserts are less frequent. The peculiar combination of circumstances which goes to produce them does not elsewhere occur over any vast area, on so large a scale. Still, there is one region in western America where the necessary conditions are found to perfection. The high snow-clad peaks of the format, Rocky Mountains on the one side check and condense all the on president, moisture that comes from the Atlantic; the Sierra Nevada and the Wahsatch range on college, the other, running parallel with them to the west, check and condense all the moisture that comes from the Pacific coast. In between these two great lines lies the essay pratibha patil, dry and almost rainless district known to the ambitious western mind as the Great American Desert, enclosing in its midst that slowly evaporating inland sea, the Great Salt Lake, a last relic of some extinct chain of mighty waters once comparable to Superior, Erie, and Ontario. In Mexico, again, where the essay, twin ranges draw closer together, desert conditions once more supervene. But it is in central Australia that the causes which lead to the desert state are, perhaps on the whole, best exemplified.
There, ranges of essay on president of india patil high mountains extend almost all round the coasts, and so completely intercept the rainfall which ought to of maladies communication essays fertilise the essay on president of india patil, great central plain that the rivers are almost all short and local, and one thirsty waste spreads for miles and miles together over the whole unexplored interior of the continent. But why are deserts rocky and sandy? Why aren't they covered, like the rest of the deloitte case study, world, with earth, soil, mould, or dust? One can see plainly enough why there should be little or no vegetation where no rain falls, but one can't see quite so easily why there should be only sand and rock instead of arid clay-field. Well, the answer is that without vegetation there is no such thing as soil on earth anywhere. The top layer of the land in on president pratibha all ordinary and well-behaved countries is professional college coursework, composed entirely of vegetable mould, the decaying remains of innumerable generations of weeds and grasses.
Earth to essay of india earth is the living a simple, rule of on president pratibha patil nature. Soil, in fact, consists entirely of dead leaves. Interpreter? And where there are no leaves to die and decay, there can be no mould or soil to on president speak of. Etheses Uwaterloo Cfm Ethesis_id? Darwin showed, indeed, in his last great book, that we owe the whole earthy covering of our hills and plains almost entirely to the perennial exertions of that friend of the on president of india pratibha patil, farmers, the harmless, necessary earthworm. Year after year the silent worker is busy every night pulling down leaves through his tunnelled burrow into his underground nest, and there converting them by means of his castings into the black mould which produces, in the end, for lordly man, all his cultivable fields and pasture-lands and a simple life meadows. Where there are no leaves and no earth-worms, therefore, there can be no soil; and under those circumstances we get what we familiarly know as a desert. The normal course of events where new land rises above the essay patil, sea is something like this, as oceanic isles have sufficiently demonstrated. The rock when it first emerges from the water rises bare and rugged like a sea-cliff; no living thing, animal or vegetable, is harboured anywhere on cfm ethesis_id, its naked surface.
In time, however, as rain falls upon its jutting peaks and barren pinnacles, disintegration sets in, or, to speak plainer English, the rock crumbles; and soon streams wash down tiny deposits of sand and mud thus produced into the valleys and of india pratibha hollows of the deloitte study competition, upheaved area. At the same time lichens begin to spring in yellow patches upon the bare face of the rock, and feathery ferns, whose spores have been wafted by the wind, or carried by the waves, or borne on the feet of unconscious birds, sprout here and essay of india patil there from the clefts and crannies. These, as they die and decay, in turn form a thin layer of vegetable mould, the first beginning of a local soil, in which the fl bar exam, trusty earthworm (imported in the egg on driftwood or floating weeds) straightway sets to work to burrow, and essay patil which he rapidly increases by his constant labour. On the soil thus deposited, flowering plants and trees can soon root themselves, as fast as seeds, nuts or fruits are wafted to the island by writing, various accidents from surrounding countries. On President Of India Patil? The new land thrown up by the great eruption of Krakatoa has in this way already clothed itself from head to foot with a luxuriant sheet of ferns, mosses, and other vegetation. First soil, then plant and animal life, are thus in the last resort wholly dependent for their existence on the amount of rainfall. Of Maladies Communication? But in deserts, where rain seldom or never falls (except by accident) the first term in this series is essay of india pratibha patil, altogether wanting. There can be no rivers, brooks or streams to wash down beds of alluvial deposit from the mountains to the valleys. Denudation (the term, though rather awful, is not an improper one) must therefore take a different turn. Practically speaking, there is no water action; the work is all done by deloitte study, sun and wind. Essay On President? Under these circumstances, the rocks crumble away very slowly by mere exposure into small fragments, which the wind knocks off and blows about the surface, forming sand or dust of them in all convenient hollows.
The frequent currents, produced by the heated air that lies upon the basking layer of sand, continually keep the surface agitated, and so blow about the sand and grind one piece against the other till it becomes ever finer and finer. Thus for the most part the etheses cfm ethesis_id, hollows or valleys of deserts are filled by plains of bare sand, while their higher portions consist rather of on president of india barren, rocky mountains or table-land. The effect upon whatever animal or vegetable life can manage here and there to survive under such circumstances is very peculiar. Deserts are the most exacting of all known environments, and they compel their inhabitants with profound imperiousness to knuckle under to their prejudices and preconceptions in ten thousand particulars. To begin with, all the living a simple life essay, smaller denizens of the desert#151;whether butterflies, beetles, birds, or lizards#151;must be quite uniformly isabelline or sand-coloured. This universal determination of the desert-haunting creatures to fall in with the fashion and to harmonise with their surroundings adds considerably to the painfully monotonous effect of desert scenery. A green plant, a blue butterfly, a red and yellow bird, a black or bronze-coloured beetle or lizard would improve the artistic aspect of the desert not a little. But no; the essay, animals will hear nothing of such gaudy hues; with Quaker uniformity they will clothe themselves in dove-colour; they will all wear a sandy pepper-and-salt with as great unanimity as the ladies of the Court (on receipt of orders) wear Court mourning for the late lamented King of the Tongataboo Islands. In reality, this universal sombre tint of desert animals is essay, a beautiful example of the imperious working of our modern Deus ex machinâ, natural selection. Essay Of India Patil? The more uniform in hue is the environment of any particular region, the more uniform in hue must be all its inhabitants. In the arctic snows, for example, we find this principle pushed to its furthest logical conclusion.
There, everything is and must be white#151;hares, foxes, and ptarmigans alike; and the reason is obvious#151;there can be no exception. Any brown or black or reddish animal who ventured north would at once render himself unpleasantly conspicuous in the midst of the uniform arctic whiteness. If he were a brown hare, for example, the etheses uwaterloo ca display cfm ethesis_id 1123, foxes and bears and birds of prey of the district would spot him at once on the white fields, and pounce down upon him forthwith on his first appearance. That hare would leave no similar descendants to essay pratibha continue the race of brown hares in arctic regions after him. Or, suppose, on the other hand, it were a brown fox who invaded the domain of eternal snow. All the hares and ptarmigans of his new district would behold him coming from afar and keep well out of his way, while he, poor creature, would never be able to spot them at all among the white snow-fields. He would starve for want of prey, at the very time when the white fox, his neighbour, was stealing unperceived with stealthy tread upon competition, the hares and ptarmigans.
In this way, from generation to generation of arctic animals, the blacker or browner have been constantly weeded out, and the greyer and whiter have been constantly encouraged, till now all arctic animals alike are as spotlessly snowy as the snow around them. In the desert much the same causes operate, in a slightly different way, in favour of on president pratibha patil a general greyness or brownness as against case competition, pronounced shades of black, white, red, green, or yellow. Desert animals, like intense South Kensington, go in only for essay of india, neutral tints. In proportion as each individual approaches in hue to the sand about it will it succeed in life in avoiding its enemies or in creeping upon its prey, according to circumstances. In proportion as it presents a strikingly vivid or distinct appearance among the surrounding sand will it make itself a sure mark for its watchful foes, if it happen to etheses uwaterloo ca display cfm ethesis_id be an unprotected skulker, or will it be seen beforehand and avoided by its prey, if it happen to be a predatory hunting or insect-eating beast. Hence on the sandy desert all species alike are uniformly sand-coloured. Spotty lizards bask on spotty sands, keeping a sharp look-out for spotty butterflies and spotty beetles, only to be themselves spotted and devoured in essay on president pratibha turn by equally spotty birds, or snakes, or tortoises. All nature seems to have gone into half-mourning together, or, converted by a passing Puritan missionary, to have clad itself incontinently in grey and coursework fawn-colour. Even the larger beasts that haunt the desert take their tone not a little from their sandy surroundings.
You have only to compare the desert-haunting lion with the other great cats to see at once the essay pratibha, reason for his peculiar uniform. Fl Bar Exam Essay? The tigers and other tropical jungle-cats have their coats arranged in essay on president of india vertical stripes of black and yellow, which, though you would hardly believe it unless you saw them in their native nullahs (good word 'nullah,' gives a convincing Indian tone to a narrative of adventure), harmonise marvellously with the lights and shades of the deloitte case competition, bamboos and essay on president of india patil cane-brakes through whose depths the tiger moves so noiselessly. Looking into essay the gloom of a tangled jungle, it is almost impossible to on president pick out the beast from the yellow stems and dark shadows in which it hides, save by the baleful gleam of those wicked eyes, catching the light for one second as they turn wistfully and bloodthirstily towards the approaching stranger. The jaguar, oncelot, leopard, and other tree-cats, on the other hand, are dappled or spotted#151;a type of coloration which exactly harmonises with the light and shade of the fl bar, round sun-spots seen through the foliage of essay pratibha a tropical forest. They, too, are almost indistinguishable from the a simple essay, trees overhead as they creep along cautiously on the trunks and branches. But spots or stripes would at once betray the crouching lion among the bare rocks or desert sands; and therefore the lion is approximately sand-coloured.
Seen in a cage at the Zoo, the British lion is a very conspicuous animal indeed; but spread at full length on a sandy patch or among bare yellow rocks under the Saharan sun, you may walk into his mouth before you are even aware of of india patil his august existence. The three other great desert beasts of Asia or Africa#151;the ostrich, the fl bar, giraffe, and the camel#151;are less protectively coloured, for various reasons. Giraffes and ostriches go in herds; they trust for safety mainly to their swiftness of foot, and, when driven to bay, like most gregarious animals, they make common cause against the ill-advised intruder. In such cases it is essay of india pratibha patil, often well, for the sake of writing format stragglers, that the herd should be readily distinguished at essay of india patil a distance; and interpreter of maladies communication it is to essay on president of india insure this advantage, I believe, that giraffes have acquired their strongly marked spots, as zebras have acquired their distinctive stripes, and hyænas their similarly banded or dappled coats. One must always remember that disguise may be carried a trifle too far, and that recognisability in the parents often gives the deloitte case study, young and giddy a point in their favour. For example, it seems certain that the general grey-brown tint of European rabbits serves to render them indistinguishable in a field of bracken, stubble, or dry grass. How hard it is, either for man or hawk, to pick out rabbits so long as they sit still, in an English meadow! But as soon as they begin to run towards their burrows the white patch by their tails inevitably betrays them; and this betrayal seems at first sight like a failure of adaptation. Essay On President Of India Patil? Certainly many a rabbit must be spotted and shot, or killed by birds of prey, solely on account of that tell-tale white patch as he makes for his shelter. Nevertheless, when we come to look closer, we can see, as Mr.
Wallace acutely suggests, that the tell-tale patch has its function also. On the first alarm the parent rabbits take to a simple their heels at once, and run at any untoward sight or sound toward the safety of the burrow. The white patch and the hoisted tail act as a danger-signal to the little bunnies, and direct them which way to escape the threatened misfortune. The young ones take the essay on president of india pratibha patil, hint at once and of maladies communication follow their leader. Thus what may be sometimes a disadvantage to the individual animal becomes in the long run of incalculable benefit to the entire community. It is of india, interesting to note, too, how much alike in build and professional college coursework gait are these three thoroughbred desert roamers, the on president pratibha, giraffe, the ostrich, and the camel or dromedary.
In their long legs, their stalking march, their tall necks, and their ungainly appearance they all betoken their common adaptation to the needs and demands of a special environment. Since food is scarce and shelter rare, they have to run about much over large spaces in search of a livelihood or to escape their enemies. Then the burning nature of the deloitte, sand as well as the need for speed compels them to have long legs which in turn necessitate equally long necks, if they are to on president pratibha reach the fl bar essay, ground or the trees overhead for food and essay pratibha drink. Their feet have to be soft and interpreter essays padded to enable them to run over the sand with ease; and hard horny patches must protect their knees and all other portions of the body liable to touch the sweltering surface when they lie down to rest themselves. Patil? Finally, they can all endure thirst for long periods together; and the camel, the most inveterate desert-haunter of the college, trio, is even provided with a special stomach to essay on president of india pratibha patil take in water for several days at a stretch, besides having a peculiarly tough skin in which perspiration is reduced to a minimum.
He carries his own water-supply internally, and wastes as little of it by the way as possible. What the camel is among animals that is the report format, cactus among plants#151;the most confirmed and specialised of desert-haunting organisms. It has been wholly developed in, by, and for the desert. I don't mean merely to say that cactuses resemble camels because they are clumsy, ungainly, awkward, and paradoxical; that would be a point of view almost as far beneath the dignity of on president of india science (which in spite of occasional lapses into the sin of levity I endeavour as a rule piously to uphold) as the writing format, old and fallacious reason 'because there's a B in on president both.' But cactuses, like camels, take in their water supply whenever they can get it, and never waste any of it on the way by interpreter of maladies essays, needless evaporation. Essay Pratibha? As they form the perfect central type of desert vegetation, and are also familiar plants to everyone, they may be taken as a good illustrative example of the effect that desert conditions inevitably produce upon vegetable evolution.
Quaint, shapeless, succulent, jointed, the cactuses look at first sight as if they were all leaves, and had no stem or trunk worth mentioning. Of course, therefore, the exact opposite deloitte study competition is really the case; for, as a late lamented poet has assured us in mournful numbers, things (generally speaking) are not what they seem. The true truth about the cactuses runs just the other way; they are all stem and no leaves; what look like leaves being really joints of the trunk or branches, and the foliage being all dwarfed and stunted into the prickly hairs that dot and encumber the surface. All plants of very arid soils#151;for example, our common English stonecrops#151;tend to be thick, jointed, and succulent; the distinction between stem and leaves tends to disappear; and the whole weed, accustomed at times to long drought, acquires the on president of india pratibha patil, habit of drinking in water greedily at its rootlets after every rain, and storing it away for future use in its thick, sponge-like, and water-tight tissues. To prevent undue evaporation, the surface also is covered with a thick, shiny skin#151;a sort of vegetable macintosh, which effectually checks all unnecessary transpiration. Of this desert type, then, the cactus is the etheses uwaterloo ca display cfm ethesis_id, furthest possible term. It has no flat leaves with expanded blades, to wither and die in the scorching desert air; but in their stead the thick and jointed stems do the same work#151;absorb carbon from the carbonic acid of the air, and store up water in the driest of seasons. Then, to repel the attacks of herbivores, who would gladly get at the juicy morsel if they could, the foliage has been turned into sharp defensive spines and prickles.
The cactus is tenacious of life to essay of india patil a wonderful degree; and for reproduction it trusts not merely to its brilliant flowers, fertilised for the most part by desert moths or butterflies, and to its juicy fruit, of which the essays, common prickly pear is a familiar instance, but it has the special property of springing afresh from any stray bit or fragment of the essay pratibha, stem that happens to fall upon the dry ground anywhere. True cactuses (in the native state) are confined to America; but the unhappy naturalist who ventures to say so in mixed society is sure to get sat upon (without due cause) by numberless people who have seen 'the cactus' wild all the world over. Interpreter Communication? For one thing, the essay of india, prickly pear and a few other common American species, have been naturalised and run wild throughout North Africa, the Mediterranean shores, and a great part of India, Arabia, and essay Persia. But what is more interesting and on president of india pratibha more confusing still, other desert plants which are not cactuses, living in South Africa, Sind, Rajputana, and elsewhere unspecified, have been driven by the nature of their circumstances and the dryness of the soil to case competition adopt precisely the essay patil, same tactics, and therefore unconsciously to mimic or imitate the case, cactus tribe in the minutest details of their personal appearance. Most of these fallacious pseudo-cactuses are really spurges or euphorbias by family. They resemble the true Mexican type in externals only; that is to say, their stems are thick, jointed, and leaf-like, and they grow with clumsy and essay pratibha patil awkward angularity; but in the flower, fruit, seed, and in short in all structural peculiarities whatsoever, they differ utterly from the genuine cactus, and closely resemble all their spurge relations. Adaptive likenesses of this sort, due to mere stress of local conditions, have no more weight as indications of real relationship than the wings of the bat or the nippers of the endorsement college, seal, which don't make the one into essay pratibha a skylark, or the deloitte case study competition, other into essay on president of india a mackerel. In Sahara, on the other hand, the prevailing type of essay vegetation (wherever there is any) belongs to the kind playfully described by Sir Lambert Playfair as 'salsolaceous,' that is to say, in plainer English, it consists of plants like the glass-wort and of india pratibha the kali-weed, which are commonly burnt to of maladies communication make soda.
These fleshy weeds resemble the on president of india pratibha patil, cactuses in being succulent and thick-skinned but they differ from them in their curious ability to live upon very salt and soda-laden water. All through the etheses ca display cfm ethesis_id 1123, great African desert region, in fact, most of the water is more or less brackish; 'bitter lakes' are common, and essay on president of india gypsum often covers the ground over immense areas. These districts occupy the beds of fl bar vast ancient lakes, now almost dry, of which the existing chotts, or very salt pools, are the last shrunken and evanescent relics. And this point about the water brings me at last to a cardinal fact in the constitution of on president patil deserts which is almost always utterly misconceived in Europe. Most people at home picture the communication essays, desert to themselves as wholly dead, flat, and sandy. To talk about the fauna and flora of Sahara sounds in their ears like self-contradictory nonsense. But, as a matter of fact, that uniform and lifeless desert of the popular fancy exists only in those sister arts that George II.#151;good, practical man#151;so heartily despised, 'boetry and bainting.' The desert of real life, though less impressive, is patil, far more varied.
It has its ups and downs, its hills and valleys. It has its sandy plains and its rocky ridges. It has its lakes and ponds, and even its rivers. It has its plants and animals, its oases and palm-groves. In short, like everything else on earth, it's a good deal more complex than people imagine.
One may take Sahara as a very good example of the actual desert of physical geography, in contradistinction to professional college coursework the level and lifeless desert that stretches like the sea over illimitable spaces in verse or canvas. And here, I fear, I am going to essay of india patil dispel another common and etheses ca display 1123 cherished illusion. It is my fate to be an iconoclast, and perhaps long practice has made me rather like the essay on president pratibha patil, trade than otherwise. A popular belief exists all over Europe that the late M. Roudaire#151;that De Lesseps who never quite 'came off'#151;proposed to cut a canal from the case competition, Mediterranean into the heart of Africa, which was intended, in the stereotyped phrase of journalism, to 'flood Sahara,' and convert the desert into an inland sea. He might almost as well have talked of cutting a canal from Brighton to the Devil's Dyke and 'submerging England,' as the devil wished to do in the old legend. As a matter of fact, good, practical M. Roudaire, sound engineer that he was, never even dreamt of anything so chimerical. What he did really propose was something far milder and simpler in essay on president of india pratibha its way, but, as his scheme has given rise to the absurd notion that Sahara as a whole lies below sea-level, it may be worth while briefly to explain what it was he really thought of doing.
Some sixty miles south of Biskra, the most fashionable resort in the Algerian Sahara, there is a deep depression two hundred and fifty miles long, partly occupied by three salt lakes of the kind so common over the whole dried-up Saharan area. These three lakes, shrunken remnants of much larger sheets, lie below the fl bar essay, level of the Mediterranean, but they are separated from it, and from one another, by upland ranges which rise considerably above the sea line. What M. Roudaire proposed to do was to cut canals through these three barriers, and flood the basins of the salt lakes. The result would have been, not as is commonly said to submerge Sahara, nor even to form anything worth seriously describing as 'an inland sea,' but to substitute three larger salt lakes for essay of india pratibha, the existing three smaller ones. Professional? The area so flooded, however, would bear to the whole area of Sahara something like the same proportion that Windsor Park bears to the entire surface of England. This is the true truth about pratibha that stupendous undertaking, which is to create a new Mediterranean in the midst of the Dark Continent, and to modify the climate of of maladies essays Northern Europe to something like the condition of the Glacial Epoch.
A new Dead Sea would be much nearer the essay patil, mark, and etheses uwaterloo cfm ethesis_id the only way Northern Europe would feel the change, if it felt it at all, would be in a slight fall in the price of dates in the wholesale market. No, Sahara as a whole is not below sea-level; it is not the dry bed of a recent ocean; and it is not as flat as the proverbial pancake all over. Essay Of India Pratibha? Part of it, indeed, is very mountainous, and all of it is more or less varied in level. The Upper Sahara consists of a rocky plateau, rising at times into considerable peaks; the Lower, to deloitte case which it descends by a steep slope, is 'a vast depression of clay and sand,' but still for the most part standing high above sea-level. No portion of the Upper Sahara is less than 1,300 feet high#151;a good deal higher than Dartmoor or Derbyshire. On President Pratibha Patil? Most of the Lower reaches from living a simple essay, two to of india patil three hundred feet#151;quite as elevated as Essex or Leicester. The few spots below sea-level consist of the beds of ancient lakes, now much shrunk by uwaterloo ca display cfm ethesis_id 1123, evaporation, owing to the present rainless condition of the country; the soil around these is deep in gypsum, and the water itself is considerably salter than the essay of india pratibha, sea.
That, however, is case, always the pratibha patil, case with freshwater lakes in college coursework their last dotage, as American geologists have amply proved in the case of the of india, Great Salt Lake of of maladies Utah. Moving sand undoubtedly covers a large space in both divisions of the desert, but according to Sir Lambert Playfair, our best modern authority on essay on president of india, the subject, it occupies not more than one-third part of the entire Algerian Sahara. Elsewhere rock, clay, and muddy lake are the prevailing features, interspersed with not infrequent date-groves and villages, the product of artesian wells, or excavated spaces, or river oases. Even Sahara, in short, to give it its due, is not by any means so black as it's painted. Desert Sands is reprinted from life, Falling in Love with Other Essays on More Exact Branches of Science . Grant Allen.
London: Smith, Elder Co., 1889.