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Dec 19, 2017 John woolman and his anti slavery essays,
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Dec 19, 2017 John woolman and his anti slavery essays,
romantics essay Empiricism would continue on to the john woolman anti slavery essays, present day. Essay On Role Of Media In Good! It would become increasingly materialistic in French philosophy, culminating in the reductionism of Auguste Comte (1798-1857), wherein all human experience is reduced to biology, chemistry, and ultimately physics. And His Slavery! Rationalism, too, continues to the present day, reaching its peak in Georges Hegel 's (1770-1831) idealism of the Absolute. Hegel held that all human activity is in good, nothing more than the working of the john woolman slavery essays, universe as it slowly and inevitably progresses towards ultimate Godhood. In both empiricism and rationalism (and materialism and idealism), the human, especially the individual human person, gets lost -- either in how can i write argument the eternal bumping of john woolman and his essays, atoms or in the grand scheme of God-making. Our thoughts and feelings are nothing of any importance either way! We are just carbon molecules or the twitchings of eternity. Some philosophers were taken aback by this tendency, both before and after Comte and Hegel.
They felt that, for human beings, it was our own day-to-day living that was the how can essay, center of our search for the truth. Reason and the evidence of our senses were important, no doubt, but they mean nothing to us unless they touch our needs, our feelings, our emotions. Only then do they acquire meaning . This meaning is what the Romantic movement is john, all about. I will focus on several philosophers that I believe most influenced psychology. First is Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who is writing comparative analysis, often considered the father of Romanticism. John Anti Slavery! And the last is Friedrich Nietzsche, who is argument essay, sometimes considered the greatest Romantic.
Afterwards, we will look at the commonalities among these philosophers that let us talk of a Romantic Movement. No history of psychology is complete without a look at Jean-Jacques Rousseau. He has influenced education to the present day, philosophy (Kant, Schopenhauer. ), political theory (the French Revolution, Karl Marx. ), and he inspired the Romantic Movement in Philosophy, which in turn influenced all these things, and psychology, once again. He was born in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1712 to the watchmaker Isaac Rousseau and his wife Suzanne Bernard Rousseau. Athough a Calvinist, Isaac was also a bit unstable, and left his wife and first son, returned to father Jean-Jacques, then left again. His mother died one week after Jean-Jacques was born, and he was raised by an aunt and uncle. they sent him off to boarding school in the country where, he says, he learned “all the insignificant trash that has obtained the name of education.” The experience did, however, serve as the start of his love-affair with rural life. At twelve years old, he returned to his aunt and john woolman and his essays, uncle.
There apprenticed to writing analysis a watchmaker, he developed two other personal qualities: The constant beatings from his master (as well as at school) led him to lying and idleness; and adolescence led him to john essays develop a rather bizarre romantic streak. He would spend much of his life falling in parlementaire dissertation love. At sixteen, he ran away from home with no money nor possessions. A priest led him to baroness Mme de Warens, a 29 year old beauty who apparently had a soft spot for losers and potential converts. Her influence led him to john woolman essays convert to Catholicism, though he was not yet ready to give up his exhibitionism nor his desire to be spanked by lovely ladies. He entered a seminary in 1729, but was promptly dismissed. He eventually developed an great leader on-again, off-again physical relationship with the lovely Mme Warens. In the mean time, he walked all over the countryside, often long distances.
He loved the woolman anti, woods, mountains, and nature itself. He served as an occasional tutor and music teacher, but spent much of his time reading Enlightenment authors. Voltaire’s work turned him to a Nature worship quite congenial to his personality. In 1742, when he was 30 years old, he left for short essay leader Paris. John And His Slavery! He quickly befriended the political writer Diderot , who managed to help him get a job as a secretary at the French Embassy in Venice. He was dismissed because of essay, his insolent nature.
In 1746 he met and john and his, fell in love with Therese Levasseur, a simple-minded laundress and seamstress. They together had four children, all of whom were send to governance orphanages. Woolman Anti Slavery Essays! Keep in mind that that was a common response to poverty in those days (i.e. from the fall of Rome to World War II!). He did feel considerable remorse about it later, but admitted that he would have made a really lousy father! No one doubts him on that. He worked as a secretary to various aristocrats and spent quite some time composing music. He even rewrote an operetta by Voltaire and wrote to him. Rgime Parlementaire! A literary contest with a monetary prize caught his attention and, in 1750, he won with Discours sur les arts et les sciences -- a powerful attack on civilization. This was the first time we see his ideas about the natural goodness of man. And although we think of slavery essays, him as an Enlightenment thinker, this thesis was actually anti-Enlightenment, anti-philosophy, anti-reason, anti-Voltaire, and even anti-printing press! The good life, he was saying, is the simple life of the peasants.
This conception of argument essay, “back to nature” involved, of course, a romanticized notion of john woolman anti slavery essays, nature, and stands in stark contrast to the nature of jungles and on role of media governance, deserts! 1752 was another active year. He wrote his comedy Narcisse . His operetta Le devin du village was successfully presented to the King. John Woolman Slavery Essays! Unfortunately, his illness -- he suffered from essay a variety of painful and humiliating bladder problems -- kept him from meeting the King, and he forfeited a pension. In 1753, another competition was announced. Rousseau’s entry, Discourse sur l’origine et les fondements de l’inegalite parmi les hommes , won and was published two years later.
In this piece, he accepted biological inequalities, but argued that there were no natural basis for any other inequalities -- economic, political, social, or moral! These, he said, were basically due to slavery essays the existence of private property and the need to defend it with force. Man is good, he argued, but society, which is little more than the reification of greed, corrupts us all. He admits that it is essay communities, no longer possible for us to leave civilized society now. It has, in fact, become a part of our nature!
The best we can do is to lead simpler lives with fewer luxuries with the john and his, simple morality of the gospels to renaissance art essays guide us. In his article on economics for woolman and his anti the Encyclopedia , he suggest that it would help if we had a graduated income tax, a tax on luxuries (and none on necessities), and essay communities, national free public education. In 1756, he moved with Therese and her elderly mother into “the Hermitage,” a cottage lent to him by Mme d’Épinay. Woolman And His Slavery! There he wrote a novel (or “romance”) called Julie, ou la nouvelle Heloise , referring to the Heloise of Heloise and Abelard fame. It became perhaps the most famous novel of the 1700s. On the rgime britannique, other side, he alienated his friends with unpleasant letters and his rudeness towards his benefactress Mme D’Epinay. John Woolman! Even his oldest friend, Diderot, called him mad. In a huff, he left the Hermitage. In 1762, Rousseau published both Émile and The Social Contract . Essay On Virtual! The first line of woolman essays, The Social Contract is the how can i write argument, most famous: “Man is born free, and woolman essays, he is everywhere in chains.” The purpose of the rest of the book was to describe a society that would instead preserve that freedom. “The social contract” is an admittedly mythological contract among individuals to surrender some of short, their freedoms to ensure a community which respects the individual and, thereby, preserves as much freedom as possible. This idea, combined with Locke’s thoughts on government, were to inspire the founding fathers of the new United States.
It should be noted, though, that at the end of the anti essays, book, Rousseau does prescribe death as the punishment for anyone who, by their actions, shows that they do not hold the common values of the community! The French Revolution would show more clearly than the American what a double-edged sword a philosophy such as Rousseau’s can be! Émile was far more sedate. It is comparative, a treatise on child-rearing, from the man who sent his four children to orphanages! Turns out, though, he had some pretty good advice. He condemned all forms of education that use force. Instead, he promoted education that nurtured the natural unfolding of john slavery essays, a child’s potentials. This in a time when it was thought that if you didn’t beat children regularly with a good sized stick, they would grow up spoiled!
And Nature, he said, is to be the child’s primary teacher, with freedom to writing comparative analysis explore the major teaching method. Basically, he says, the child learns by gradual adaptation to necessities, and by imitation of those around him. Education should be primarily moral until the child is john woolman anti slavery, twelve, when intellectual education begins. Italian! Religious education should be held off until the child is 18. Essays! This way, the child can develop reasonable religious beliefs, rather than unthinking acceptance of mythology and miracles. The book is beautifully written, but many would say almost naively idealistic. It would be a great influence in Europe and later in the United States. Of Media In Good Governance! Maria Montessori in Italy, for example, based many of woolman and his anti slavery, her ideas on on role of media in good governance Rousseau, as did John Dewey in the US. Woolman And His Anti! What we now call progressive education and learning by doing come basically from Émile ! The great philosophers of his time laughed at him -- but the short leader, clergy was outraged! Rousseau’s friends warned him and encouraged him to flee.
In 1762, the john and his anti, French parlement ordered all copies of Emile confiscated and italian, burned. Rousseau fled to woolman and his essays Switzerland, only to have both his books burned in Calvinist Geneva. He begged Frederic the Great for asylum in Neuchâtel. There he lived, more eccentric than ever. And yet he was the idol of women everywhere, and his publishers begged him for more. He gave them more, primarily in the form of essays or letters to his critics. But the governance, local ministers in Neuchâtel were also upset about his writings, and a local sermon led to an attack on Rousseau’s house. He and Therese moved again, to a lone cottage on a tiny island in a lake in john slavery Switzerland. But he was again ordered to leave, which he did, first to Strasbourg, then to England at the invitation of renaissance, David Hume in 1766.
At first in woolman and his anti slavery essays London he was the talk of the town, and everyone wanted to meet him. But he tired of this quickly and great, asked Hume to find him a place in the country. There, Rousseau, Therese, and their dog Sultan put quite a strain on john anti essays their hosts’ hospitality. Rousseau began to read critical articles in the British press. Already rather paranoid, he responded to them as if there were a conspiracy against him, and even accused Hume of being a part of it. He and Therese “escaped” from England back to on virtual France. Although technically still in danger of arrest in France, he nevertheless enjoyed the reception his fans gave him. But fearing for his life, he fled into the countryside to wander anonymously. In 1768, he finally married his Therese. She begged him to go back to Paris, so they did (under pseudonyms).
There he copied music for john and his anti slavery essays a living, and also finally finished, in 1770, his autobiography. He continued to write, some of his most beautiful work as well as some of his most paranoid, until 1778. He had moved into a cottage offered by the marquis de Girardin, where he happily studied the local flora, when he suffered a stroke. Therese tried to move him onto his bed, but he fell again and cut his head. By the time the Marquis got to italian renaissance him, he was dead. He was buried on the estate, and his grave become a pilgrimage site. He was later moved to the Pantheon in Paris, and john woolman slavery essays, laid to rest not far from, of all people, Voltaire. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. We do not have to visit a madhouse to find disordered minds; our planet is the mental institution of the universe. -- Goethe. Goethe was born in 1749 in Frankfurt-am-Main in Germany, the rgime dissertation, oldest of six children -- although only he and a sister survived into adulthood.
His father, Johann Kaspar Goethe, was a well-to-do lawyer and amateur scholar, but a failure in politics and and his slavery, with an unpleasant disposition. His mother, Katharina Elisabeth Textor was considerably more pleasant, and rgime parlementaire dissertation, was the daughter of the john and his, bürgermeister (mayor) of Frankfurt. Young Goethe was a handsome and talented youth, learned languages easily, and rgime parlementaire britannique, was interested in john anti music and art. He entered the University of Leipzig to study law, but a disappointment in love led him to sickness and depression, and he left school. In 1771, however, he received his law degree from the University of Strasbourg. His early reading of Bayle's Dictionary led him to renounced his Christianity as a teenager and become an atheist.
He later mellowed a bit, and adopted a pantheism modeled after Spinoza's. In 1774, he wrote Die Leiden des jungen Werthers (the Sorrows of Young Werther) , a tragic love story that, though panned by the critics, was wildly successful, especially among young romantic intellectuals. Rgime Dissertation! The book concludes with a suicide which was, sadly, imitated by a number of love sick readers. Like many of his works, the story emphasized the tensions between the nature of the individual and the restrictions of society. The following year, he was invited to join the Duke of Saxony-Weimar at court. At first, he was just an john slavery essays ornament there, but later he performed various real political duties, including inspections of mines and how can, the establishment of weather observatories.
In 1782, he was inducted into the nobility, which permitted him to add von to his name. Because of his fame and status in Weimar, he met and befriended a number of young poets, including Schiller and Herder. Since his teens, Goethe was given to john and his anti slavery falling in love, yet apparently unable to commit himself to one woman or the institution of marriage. His longest and how can i write argument, most intense relationship began around 1775 with Charlotte von Schardt, a married woman who had had seven children (though only john woolman anti slavery essays, four survived). He would write long and romantic letters to her for most of his life. He did eventually set up a household with a young working-class girl named Christiane Vulpius. She bore a child on Christmas day in essay 1789. In 1801, Goethe became quite ill, and his recovered took many years.
Toward the end of his illness, Napoleon defeated the Prussians at john anti essays, Jena and marched into essay on role of media governance, Weimar. His troops attempted to and his anti essays take over Goethe's house, and Christiane physically protected him. Rgime Britannique Dissertation! He finally married her. Goethe was a strong admirer of Napoleon, and visited him in john and his slavery 1808 at the emperor's invitation. Goethe also visited with Beethoven in 1812.
Goethe's greatest work is his two-part play Faust . Although he began writing it in 1773, it would not be finished until 1831. The first part, however, could stand alone, and it was completed in 1808. Its theme was human freedom and the power of passion, which Faust discovers after he wagers his soul in comparative a devil's bargain with Mephistopheles. [An interesting aside: Goethe's Faust creates an artificial man in his laboratory. This influenced a certain Mary Shelley, author of Frankenstein (perhaps the first science fiction novel). She even places her story in a 13th century castle she had seen which belonged to the old (and colorful) German family Frankenstein, a castle Goethe was also quite familiar with!] In addition to his poetry, novels, and plays, Goethe spend considerable time on science. Anti! He studied medicine, anatomy, physics, chemistry, botany, and art essays, meteorology. In 1792, he completed the two part Beiträge zur Optik (Contributions to and his anti slavery essays Optics) , and in 1810 the three part Zur Farbenlehre (On the writing comparative analysis essay, Theory of anti slavery, Colors) . Essay! He truly believed that it was these works that would be his greatest contributions. Instead, few scientists approved of them, and they were to make little serious impact on the field.
His work would make an impression on various artists, though, including Turner, Klee, and Kandinsky. His approach was really more phenomenological than experimental, and his work reflected more on and his the subjective experiences of color and light than on their physics. He also wrote a book called The Metamorphosis of Plants , which suggested that all plants are just variations on a primitive plant he called the rgime, Urpflanze . Woolman And His Anti Slavery Essays! He coined the term morphology along the way, and showed the relationship of human beings to animals with his discovery of the argument, human intermaxillary bone (just above your upper teeth), just where it is in lower animals. His wife Christiane died in 1816. His lifelong love Charlotte died in 1827.
The Duke died the following year. And his last remaining child died in slavery 1830. Suffering from sickness and depression, Goethe himself finally died, March 22, 1832, one year after finishing the second half of his masterpiece Faust . Arthur Schopenhauer was born February 22, 1788 in Danzig, Prussia (now Gdansk in Poland). His father was a successful businessman, and his mother a novelist. Young Arthur was moved around Europe quite a bit, which allowed him to become fluent in several languages, and to develop a deep love of nature. In 1805, his father died, and renaissance, he tried a business career. He lived with his mother for a while in Weimar, and she introduced him to and his slavery Goethe. He went on how can essay to study medicine at the University of Göttingen and and his slavery, philosophy at the University of Berlin, and ultimately received his doctorate from the of media in good governance, University of Jena in 1813.
Later, he worked with Goethe on Goethe's studies on john anti color. In 1819, he published his greatest work, Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (The World as Will and Idea) . To Schopenhauer, the phenomenal world is basically an illusion. The true reality, Kant's thing-in-itself, he refers to as Will . Will, perhaps an odd term to us today, is more like the rgime dissertation, Tao in Chinese philosophy: It is out of the Will that everything derives. But it has more the qualities of a force, and pushes or drives what we perceive as the phenomenal world. Will is, you could say, the inner nature of all things. So, if you want to understand something's -- or someone's -- inner nature, you need only look within yourself. Anti Slavery Essays! So the Will also drives us, through our instincts. This concept would influence a young Sigmund Freud a generation later. Schopenhauer, profoundly influenced by his reading of Buddhist literature, saw life as essentially painful. We are forced by our natures, our instincts, to live, to essay breed, to suffer, and to die. Schopenhauer is often described as the great pessimist!
For the world is Hell, and men are on the one hand the tormented souls and on the other the devils in john essays it. If you imagine. the argument, sum total of distress, pain, and suffering of every kind which the sun shines upon in its course, you will have to admit it would have been much better if the sun had been able to john woolman and his anti slavery call up the phenomenon of life as little on the earth as on the moon. To our amazement we suddenly exist, after having for countless millennia not existed; in a short while we will again not exist, also for countless millennia. That cannot be right, says the heart. The question, of course, is how does one get past this suffering? One way he recommends is esthetic salvation -- seeing the beauty in something, or someone. When we do this, we are actually looking at the universal or essence behind the scene, which moves us in comparative essay turn towards the universal subject within ourselves. This quiets the will that forces us into the phenomenal world. Schopenhauer believed that music was the purest art -- one step from will. A second way to transcend suffering is through ethical salvation -- compassion. Here, too, it is the recognition of self-in-others and others-in-self that leads to a quieting of the john woolman and his, will.
But these are only partial answers. The full answer requires religious salvation -- asceticism, the direct stilling of all desires by a life of renaissance art essays, self-denial and john woolman anti essays, meditation. Without the will, only nothingness remains, which is Nirvana. Schopenhauer lived many years of his life a bitter and how can essay, reclusive man, unable to deal with his lack of success in life. He began publishing his works again in 1836, and john woolman and his slavery essays, intellectuals all over Europe began to develop an interest in him. Sadly, Schopenhauer developed heart problems and on September 21, 1860, he died. After his death, he would powerfully influence such notables as the how can i write argument essay, composer Richard Wagner, Friedrich Nietzsche, Thomas Mann and many other writers. There are, as is known, insects that die in the moment of fertilization. John! So it is with all joy: life's highest, most splendid moment of on role, enjoyment is accompanied by death. -- Kierkegaard.
Søren Kierkegaard was born in Copenhagen on May 5, 1813, the youngest of seven children. His father, Michael Pedersen Kierkegaard, was in the hosiery business. He was a powerful man who held to a particularly gloomy Christianity, obsessed with guilt over having once cursed God. His mother was Ane Sørensdatter Lund, a servant of the Kierkegaard's. Two of Søren's brothers and two of his sisters died. By 1834, his mother had died as well, and Kierkegaard became nearly as depressed as his father.
He lost his faith and turned to woolman and his slavery a hedonistic life-style, but had a religious experience in 1838. He received his theology degree in 1840, and proposed to Regine Olsen, daughter of a prominent Copenhagen government official. No one knows precisely why, but in on virtual communities late 1841, he broke off the woolman slavery essays, engagement, which lead to considerable negative social press. It seems to on role of media in good governance have been the pivotal crisis in his life, and he abruptly left to Berlin to john woolman and his study. When he returned, he finished a manuscript he had been working on, and in of media 1843 published Either/Or . It takes the form of an woolman and his anti essays argument about essay leader how to live life between an aesthetic man and an ethical man -- very probably reflecting two aspects of Kierkegaard's own soul. The aesthetic man is basically a hedonist and an atheist.
Although he is portrayed as a refined gentleman, his sections of the book are rambling, suggesting that his life is woolman anti, likewise without focus. The ethical man is a judge, and his arguments are far more orderly and eloquent: He spends considerable time analyzing the ancient Roman emperor Nero and his mental states. Also in 1843, he published his famous book Fear and Trembling , which retells the essay on role of media governance, story of Abraham and his near-sacrifice of his son. This time, Kierkegaard compares the ethical response -- it is clearly wrong to kill one's own son -- with a religious response, which is reflected in john woolman and his slavery essays Abraham's faith in his God. In his various books, Kierkegaard develops his three stages or competing life philosophies: The aesthetic person, who lives in the moment and lacks commitment; the ethical person, who is in fact committed to on role in good governance his ideals; and the religious person, who recognizes the transcendent nature of true ideals. Notice the similarity to Schopenhauer, although for Schopenhauer aesthetic refers to a love of art and music, not hedonism. Throughout his work, he was concerned with passions . He defined anxiety , for example, as the anti slavery, dizziness of freedom. Despair is what the hedonist feels when he finally recognized the italian, emptiness of his life.
Guilt is what the ethical man feels when he inevitably discovers his inability to forgive himself. These definitions would profoundly influence a number of later philosophers and writers. In 1849, he published Sickness unto Death , which was his strongest call to slavery essays the conventional Christians of Copenhagen to renaissance take what Kierkegaard called a leap of faith into a more personal kind of religion. But his community is john, not quite ready for this passionate brand of Christianity, and he was severely criticized by the religious powers of essay, Denmark. Kierkegaard is john woolman slavery, often considered the first existentialist, mostly because of the on virtual communities, way he used the word existence . He said that God doesn't exist because he is eternal.
Only people exist, because they are always an unfinished product. Woolman Anti Slavery! And the nature of essay on virtual communities, existence is, first, that it is the domain of the individual, and second, that individual must take responsibility for john anti essays his or her own creation. But Kierkegaard noted that his was not a system of philosophy. Human existence is an ongoing process of creation, and cannot be encompassed by any system. This has been a central theme in existentialism ever since. Kierkegaard died on October 2, 1855, of spinal paralysis. He would not take communion, and he asked that no clergy participate in his funeral. His epitaph reads The Individual.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche. I fear animals regard man as a creature of their own kind which has in a highly dangerous fashion lost its healthy animal reason-as the i write argument, mad animal, as the laughing animal, as the weeping animal, as the woolman essays, unhappy animal. -- Nietzsche. Second only to Rousseau in the impact he had on essay great Psychology is Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche. He was born in Röcken, in john and his Prussia Saxony, on October 15, 1844, named after Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, who had the same birthday. Nietzsche's father was a minister -- one of many in the family -- who had tutored several members of the royal family.
His mother was a puritanical housewife. When Friedrich was 18, he lost his faith -- which would remain a central issue for the rest of his life. And he said his life was changed as well by his reading of Schopenhauer a few years later while a student at analysis essay, the University of woolman, Leipzig. He received an appointment as professor of philology (classical languages and literature) at the University of i write argument, Basel at the tender age of 24, a year before he received his Ph.D. Near Basel lived the famous Richard Wagner, and Nietzsche was invited to Christmas dinner in 1869. Wagner’s grandiose and romantic operas were to influence Nietzsche’s view of life for some time to come. He served a brief stint as a volunteer medical orderly during the Franco-Prussian War, during which he contracted diphtheria and dysentery, which damaged his health permanently. After returning to Basel, he published his first book in 1872 -- inspired by Wagner -- called The Birth of Tragedy out of the john woolman, Spirit of Music . It was in this book that he introduced the contrast of the Dionysian and Apollonian . Dionysus was the god of wine and revelry, living for the moment. Apollo was the god of peace, order, and art. The one lacks discipline, but the other lacks, as we would say today, soul. In 1879, because of his seriously deteriorating health, he was forced to retire from essay on role in good teaching.
He published Human, All Too Human -- an analysis of emotion -- in parts from john woolman anti essays 1878 through 1880. On Virtual! During this time also, he fell in love, although briefly, with the famous Lou Salomé (later a confident of Sigmund Freud’s!). Heartbroken, and perhaps recognizing that he was destined for bachelorhood, he retired high into the Alps to write his master work, Thus Spake Zarathustra , published in 1883 through 1885. Here, he made a heroic effort at addressing the john woolman anti, pessimism of Schopenhauer. Nietzsche felt that religion had failed miserably to provide man with meaning. So now that God was “dead,” we needed to i write argument essay stop looking to the skies and start providing that missing meaning ourselves. The people he saw as having accomplished this transition he called “ Über-menschen ,” usually translated as supermen. John And His Anti Slavery! But, he notes, supermen have not arrived as yet, and we must be satisfied to how can i write essay serve as a bridge to that future. The book is a masterpiece by any standard, yet Nietzsche remained an unknown. His health continuing to deteriorate, he was cared for by his sister, Lisbeth Förster-Nietzsche.
She, however, married an anti-semite who Nietzsche abhorred and moved to a commune in Paraguay! Nietzsche then lived in various rooming houses all over Italy and Switzerland. His eyesight went from bad to worse, and his headaches overwhelmed him. He stopped writing books and john woolman anti essays, instead wrote aphorisms (short comment), which he then collected into books. Beyond Good and Evil (the best introduction to his ideas) came out in 1886, and The Geneology of Morals in 1887. In these books, he makes clear his great distinction between Herren-Moral and Herden-Moral , that is, the short essay great, morality of lords and the morality of the herd. The morality of the and his anti slavery essays, herd is what he calls traditional Judeo-Christian morality: It is, he says, an ethic of helplessness and fear. With this morality, we keep the powerful and talented under control by appealing to virtues such as altruism and short essay leader, egalitarianism. Secretly, it is, like all motives, a “will to power” -- but a sly, manipulative one. We cry “I am weaker than you, but I am still better than you!”
The morality of lords, on the other hand, is woolman, based on the manly virtues of courage, honor, power, and the love of danger. It is pagan, western, teutonic. The only rule, he said, is do not betray a friend. Although he was not anti-semitic, his choice of words would lead the Nazis to short essay use some of them in ways he never intended many years after his death. Ask yourself if the masses of people shouting “Heil Hitler!” and john woolman anti, the acts of leader, rounding up minority civilians for work camps and slaughter in any way make you think of courage and honor!
The contrast between these two moralities is in fact a very productive one: Nietzsche become increasingly ill and john woolman essays, bitter, blind and paranoid. In Turin in great January of 1889 he had attempted to protect a horse that was being whipped when he suffered an apoplectic stroke (just like Rousseau) which sent him to an asylum. Some believe his collapse was the result of syphilis, but it could just as well have been due to and his anti slavery essays years of medication. His mother claimed him and took care of him until she died in 1897, when his sister, now back in Germany, took him in. He was seldom lucid after that. He died August 25, 1900 at the age of 55, of essay, stroke and pneumonia. A number of his works were published after his collapse, including The Will to Power in john anti slavery essays 1889, which is a collection of aphorisms found in his notebooks, and his autobiography Ecce Homo in 1908. Ecce Homo illustrates both his brilliance and his insanity very dramatically.
Freud called him the most brilliant psychologist who ever lived. Romanticism in General. Beneath all the variety represented by the Romantics lies a common theme: Passion . While the empiricists were concerned with sensory data, and the rationalists were concerned with reason, the romantics looked at consciousness and saw first and foremost its dynamics, purposefulness, striving, desire. Essay On Virtual Communities! passion! Goethe has Faust say, ''Gefülte is john and his slavery essays, Alles. Feeling is everything! In fact, they saw passion in all life, as a basic category. life as a Darwinian struggle, not just to argument essay survive, but to overcome. As such, it could be called instinct; but in humanity, it goes further, and involves an overcoming of nature itself. The only reality is this: The will of every center of power to john become stronger -- not self-preservation, but the desire to appropriate, to become master, to become more, to become stronger, said Nietzsche. Along with their love of essay, passion came an impatience with, even disgust at, the mediocre, the weak, the irresponsible, the unpassionate. The romantic's view of the world is john and his anti slavery essays, a reflection of their view of humanity: The world is on role of media, rich, full of qualities -- color, sound, flavor, feeling -- thick, you might say, and not the thin, gray, empty thing as pictured by modern science. They tended to ignore metaphysical speculation as an intellectual game.
And for Schopenhauer, passion became the basic form of all reality: a universe pressing to be realized. A passionate metaphysics requires a passionate epistemology (as opposed to john woolman and his essays an intellectual or empirical one). Essay! First, there is and his anti, a preference for intuition or insight: As Pascal put it, the parlementaire, heart has reasons that reason knows nothing of. A holistic understanding is and his slavery essays, more satisfying than logical, analytical, or experimental explanations. The world is too big for those and has to be embraced rather than picked apart. And the importance of the subjective is emphasized.
All experience is essay on virtual communities, subjective as well as objective. This is a sort of uncertainty principle that applies to all sciences, and philosophy, and certainly psychology. Objectivity is simply a meaningless goal. So subjectivity is not something to woolman and his anti slavery eliminate, but to rgime understand. Hence we must go back to life as it is lived, the john slavery essays, Lebenswelt . We must study whole, meaningful experiences. On Virtual Communities! We might want to go back to ordinary people, perhaps children or primitives, to woolman and his anti understand the lived world before it is tainted by our perpetual intellectualization. These tendencies would eventually lead to phenomenology and related methodologies.
Last (and far from least), we must have a passionate morality. The romantics tend to admire the heroic, taking a stand against nature, against rgime parlementaire dissertation, the mediocre, against nothingness or meaninglessness. To some extent, the heroic is closely tied to futility: It is often Quixotic, or picaresque. There is an affection for the foolish or unconventional. Romantic morality is more stoic than epicurean. John Woolman Anti Slavery! Meaning, as expressed by art essays virtue, purpose, and john anti, courage, is the highest value, not pleasure or happiness as we usually conceive of them.
Some romantics are suspicious of Asian philosophy to the extent that it represents surrender. Nietzsche, among them, considers even the Judeo-Christian tradition Asian and argument, weak. Their suspicion is not entirely well-founded: In traditions such as Taoism and Zen Buddhism, for example, surrender is valued precisely for john woolman anti the strength it imparts, as demonstrated physically in i write argument judo (gentle way). Schopenhauer understood this, and his work is clearly colored by Buddhism in particular. A passionate morality requires freedom, which Goethe considered the john woolman slavery essays, greatest happiness, and which was quickly disappearing from italian renaissance empiricist, rationalist, and even religious philosophy. I have to be free to take that courageous stand; to be determined is to be nothing at all. A little Buddhism sneaks in when Nietzsche speaks of amor fati, love of john woolman and his slavery essays, fate: When choices are taken from you, you can still conquer the moment with your attitude. Nietzsche said God is dead! Now, anything goes.
You don't have to do anything. Be nice? Why? Be selfish? Why? As Sartre put it, we are condemned to freedom. Even when we choose to allow ourselves to be determined, it is our choice. Essay Communities! Even Kierkegaard asks us to take a leap of faith that has no justification. Woolman And His Anti! So, we have nothing to lean on, no crutch, no opiate, no excuses. Freedom means responsibility. We create ourselves, or better, we overcome ourselves, or at essay governance, least we should.
Others just play out their programs. Freedom requires that we be truly aware, fully conscious. It requires that we be fully feeling, that we not deny but experience our passion. It requires that we be active, involved. Freedom means creativity, and the romantic prefers the artist over the scientist.
These ideas are the john woolman slavery essays, foundation for the concept of self-actualization. The heirs of the romantics are the phenomenologists, existentialists, and humanists of today. Copyright 1999, C. George Boeree. All rights reserved.
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Truth And Lies Essays and Research Papers. 2012 Honors English Block 2 The Truth About Lies Lies are perpetually told in order to john and his anti conceal the short great, . truth , for a hope that the lies told will delight and john and his slavery essays, bring happiness and joy. In reality lies can only bring one thing, trouble and nuisance. The lies are displayed in tragic love tale by Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet. In this play lies destroy the lives of not only Romeo and Juliet, but all the people around them. The destroying power of lies is communities, shown by woolman, the lies told from Romeo to on virtual communities his family, from. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Lie 1260 Words | 3 Pages. treated inferior to modern societies. Their culture was complex, well thought, and john woolman and his anti slavery, could not be understood at first sight.
Though the Ibo tribe’s culture . has already fallen, other cultures may still be preserved if the colonies only how can argument discover the and his anti slavery essays, real truth behind the culture. Of Media In Good Governance! . Chinua Achebe , Culture , Ethnic groups in Africa 911 Words | 3 Pages. Lies I lie, everyone lies . Woolman And His Anti Essays! Let’s cut to the chase. But let’s be honest here, lying is i write argument essay, a normal human aspect of woolman and his slavery essays life. In this . society the overall moral and on role of media in good, realistic view is that truthfulness is of virtue. But if one would try to imagine a world without lying, realistically thinking, it would be a world full of hurt and disappointment.
Whoever said that honesty is the best policy, is lying. There are ways to fib that smooth over situations to the point where it is john woolman, unclear what is true. Judith Viorst. Debut albums , Deception , Judith Viorst 977 Words | 3 Pages. inevitable moment when you simply do not want the honest ugly truth to be shoved in italian art essays your face.
Taking the ‘Do I look fat in these jeans?’ . example from either a mate or a girlfriend. Rarely do they want a straightforward and brutal reply of woolman essays something along the lines of ‘yes, of course/yes DUH!’ As Richard Needham once said “People who are brutally honest get more satisfaction out of the brutality than out of the honesty.” Richard J. Needham The truth supposedly ignites the crude linking chains of dishonesty. Debut albums , Interpersonal relationship , Lie 734 Words | 3 Pages. Truth and Lies About the Computer Virus. Truth and Lies About the Computer Virus Walk into any computer store today and there will be at least twenty or thirty . computer virus programs.
From the looks of it computer viruses have gotten out of hand and so has the art essays, business of stopping it. The computer user must cut through the media hype of apocoliptic viruses and shareware programs and discover the real facts. Before we even start the journey of exploring the computer virus we must first eliminate all the and his anti slavery, fluff. The computer. Antivirus software , Boot sector , Booting 1169 Words | 4 Pages. ? Truth and Lies There are different types of lies . Distorted views and fabricated . truths are two of them. Misunderstanding, on the other hand, is not a lie. Misunderstanding is a when we fail to understand something correctly and accurately. Renaissance Art Essays! This happens a lot in our daily lives. A lot of conflicts and hard feelings are caused by this mistake. In order to avoid it, we should be more careful about the way we express our opinions and feelings.
Simultaneously, we should listen to what. Deception , Fact , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 807 Words | 2 Pages. What is truth ? All words hold power. Words have the power to john and his anti slavery essays break down and tear apart a person wither it be emotionally, physically, or . spiritually and those same words have the power to build a person or foundation. But the words themselves are not what give them the power that they hold it is us the people that give them the powers and meanings that they hold.
We might not be aware of it but we are the short essay great, ones who determine which words have what type of john and his slavery power. We decide which words label you. 2005 singles , Core issues in ethics , Debut albums 1506 Words | 4 Pages. Truth is Truth , Lying is Lying Judith Viorst describes in her essay “The Truth about Lying,” a very interesting . and intellectual composition. The author has made a great exertion to try to present four different kinds of essay of media in good lies people tell in their daily life. She has separated them into john woolman and his anti essays four sub-groups: Social Lies , Peace-Keeping Lies , and Protective Lies , and essay on role in good, Trust-Keeping Lies , and uses headings to john and his anti essays separate them. Britannique Dissertation! She has used a lot of different techniques to convey her message to the reader. Over. 2005 singles , 2008 singles , Core issues in ethics 1214 Words | 3 Pages.
schizophrenic son whom the authorities refused to ‘put away’, even though it was clearly necessary. By studying these and other texts, I can clearly see that . there are many different versions of reality and there is no absolute truth . John Woolman And His Slavery Essays! Our perspective is dependent on the way the truth is presented to art essays us, and john slavery, we are continually influenced by texts which employ various techniques to present and persuade their views. Essay Great Leader! Institutionalised is and his slavery, a hardcore punk and trash metal song by Suicidal Tendencies that. 67th Academy Awards , Dollar Baby , First-person narrative 2184 Words | 6 Pages. Brilliant Lies By Braeden Marano In the play, ?Brilliant Lies ', David Williamson uses a number of parlementaire dissertation techniques to john anti slavery essays expand on communities . the concepts introduced in the title. He uses characters and their back stories to build a supporting argument to compliment the john woolman and his slavery essays, text's overall theme that everyone lies to protect themselves. Susy's sexual harassment claim contains the most evident form of lies throughout the text, however Vince and Gary's relationship, Susy's family history, and even Marion's favouritism. Family , Human sexual behavior , Lie 929 Words | 3 Pages. elective I held a very simple black and white view regarding ‘ Truth ’ and writing analysis essay, ‘Telling the john anti, Truth ’. Rgime! I believed that there was a right a . John Woolman Anti Slavery Essays! wrong to every situation and i write, that the information and news the media presented was mainly correct and true. Through the studying of this elective I have been presented new relevant information and from this information I have reassessed my views on john woolman ‘’Telling the Truth ’. This elective presented to leader me the idea that truth is determined by the way it is told and by who tells it.
Audience , Audience theory , Face 1238 Words | 4 Pages. Katie Kirk Mrs. Addington AP Lang 1 12 October 2010 The Many Lies in Salem Arthur Miller’s The Crucible is a tragic play set in 1692 in . Salem, Massachusetts, where Miller uses the Salem Trials as a metaphor for anti, the 1950s McCarthy hearings. In Salem, people value their good names. The Puritan community acts as a theocracy in essay on role of media in good governance which there appears to be no right to privacy, and people must conform to a strict moral code. The theme of reputation, lying, and deceit are shown in Abigail, John Proctor. Daniel Day-Lewis , Elizabeth Proctor , Irony 1488 Words | 4 Pages. telling a white lie. When someone lies they are knowingly providing false information for the purpose of deception. On the other hand white . lies are untruthful statements that are not meant to harm, instead they are positive.
White lies serve as to avoid hurting the feelings of the woolman and his anti slavery essays, listener and to rgime avoid negative reactions from the listener to the speaker if the truth is told. And His Essays! Much of today’s parenting revolves around white lies . Parenting consists of telling white lies to help protect a child’s innocence. Anxiety , Deception , Ethics 1308 Words | 4 Pages. When is the i write essay, truth a lie. When it is john woolman essays, only half told. The truth like an arrow in flight, if it deviates by a plus or . minus .0 degrees, in any direction, will not hit its mark. True it may come pretty close, may fall with in acceptable boundaries, but more times than not it will miss the rgime parlementaire britannique, mark altogether. John Anti Slavery! Seems to me people always say they want that arrow (the truth ) to writing comparative analysis essay hit dead center bulls eye all the time, but because of john woolman anti slavery essays hidden agendas though the aim, was true when the arrow was loosed. Conscience , Consciousness , Lie 873 Words | 2 Pages.
What exactly is the truth ? Is it reality, sincerity, integrity? Is it accuracy and honesty? How can we tell the difference between the writing comparative, . truth and john slavery, lies ? Why does the media have the power to decide for us what is analysis essay, true? As Oscar Wilde once said 'The truth is rarely pure and never simple'. This statement sums up the difficulties of telling the truth , and this is furthermore shown in Rob Sitch et al's Frontline, Lies by Michael Leunig and the poem Nothing to Report by May Herschel Clarke. John Anti! The television. A Story , Episode , Michael Leunig 1595 Words | 5 Pages. ?Question: What does the Bible say about white lies ? Is a white lie okay if it is told to avoid hurting a person?
Answer:We know lying is . a sin (Leviticus 19:11;Proverbs 12:22). But what about those “little white lies ” that involve an ever-so-slight stretching of the truth ? Do the small lies matter, or are they harmless? What if telling the truth might hurt someone? Lying is defined as “making an art essays, untrue statement with the intent to deceive.” A white lie is an untrue statement, but it is usually. Bible , Deception , False 1355 Words | 3 Pages. ?Madi McClure 05/14/14 3rd Period Deception and Truth The Good In Deception Everyone characterizes deception differently. One may view it as . breaking the trust of a loved one and think of it as a mere deceit. Woolman Anti! Others may accept deception as a way to how can i write argument gain or give happiness. John Woolman Anti! Some may even think of it as part of life. More commonly, deception stands being viewed as hand and hand with “evil”, this includes, not only viewed by rgime parlementaire britannique dissertation, people, but also portrayed in movies and novels from all eras of time. Frequently.
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Confidence trick , Deception 879 Words | 3 Pages. “Is this Life?” Resolutions, Humour and Family in anti Mike Leigh’s Secrets Lies In this essay I would like to on virtual communities argue that in Secrets and . Lies Mike Leigh is suggesting that secrets cause tensions in families and woolman essays, destroys relationships between family members. Firstly, I would like to consider that it is short essay great leader, actually true according my own experience because there is been some lies and woolman and his slavery essays, hidden secrets in my family as well and once they are exposed, it causes embarrassments to those whom are affected. Secondly. Actor , Film , Hollywood, Los Angeles, California 1520 Words | 4 Pages. ?1. Introduction Lies , damned lies , and statistics is a phrase describing the persuasive power of numbers, particularly the . use of statistics to bolster weak arguments. On Role In Good Governance! It is also sometimes colloquially used to doubt statistics used to prove an opponent's point.
The term was popularised in the United States by woolman slavery, Mark Twain (among others), who attributed it to the 19th-century British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881): There are three kinds of lies : lies , damned lies , and how can argument essay, statistics. . Arithmetic mean , Causality , Correlation does not imply causation 2353 Words | 7 Pages. Analysis of john anti Lies in Huckleberry Finn That book was made by Mr. Comparative Analysis! Mark Twain, and he told the truth , mainly. John Woolman! There was things . which he stretched, but mainly he told the essay, truth (1). Those are among the first lines in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, so it's obvious from the john woolman and his anti, very beginning that the truth , or lack thereof, is a major theme in the book. Huckleberry Finn is a liar throughout the whole novel but unlike other characters, his lies seem justified and moral to the reader because they. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Lie , Mark Twain 1737 Words | 5 Pages. ? Truth or Lie? Admit it: You’ve lied. You told your boss you were at home with the flu when really you are spending the day . going shopping at short essay great leader, the mall.
You told your friend that she looked fabulous in that new polka dot dress she just bought. According to woolman and his the free online dictionary, a lie is defined as a false statement made with deliberate intent to argument deceive; an intentional untruth; a falsehood. There are several different reasons that a person might lie. For example, you might lie. Ethics , False , Human 971 Words | 5 Pages.
As a society, we have become so accustomed to metaphors and empty truths that we absent-mindedly accept them. But if society is and his anti slavery, told a lie and . believes it, does that turn the lie into the truth ? For example, in the beginning of the human's reign on this planet, humans thought the earth was flat only to short essay leader be proven that the john woolman and his anti slavery, earth was in essay on virtual fact round. Woolman And His Essays! But if ordinary humans were told that the renaissance art essays, earth is flat and they accept that as the truth , live their life as though it is true, then what makes it untrue. Antisocial personality disorder , Belief , Histrionic personality disorder 1692 Words | 4 Pages. Discovering the Truth : The Operation of woolman and his slavery essays Ethos in Anti-Smoking Advertising REBECCA FELDMANN This rhetorical analysis appeared in a journal . called Young Scholars in Writing, which publishes articles on rhetoric and composition written by college undergraduates. Analysis Essay! Feldmann shows how the john woolman anti essays, popular and effective Truth campaign appeals to teens by short essay, building ethos and challenging the john and his anti essays, ethos of tobacco companies. As you read, look at how she carefully defines concepts up front, which she can then use. Advertising , Cigarette , Passive smoking 2230 Words | 7 Pages.
The Truth is in the Knowledge Aaron Gillett University of Laverne Abstract “All truths are easy to understand once they are . How Can I Write Essay! discovered; the john woolman anti essays, point is to discover them.” Truth is education, but a person could never find the truth without being enlightened. The truth is the argument essay, easiest thing to find, but many people do not care to find it. Most are more comfortable with the truth or afraid of woolman and his anti slavery what actually might be true. However, if they would just be optimistic and fearless they might actually experience. Epistemology , Experience , Knowledge 923 Words | 3 Pages.
“No Point in Ignoring the Truth Thesis/Map: The truth of Oedipus’ fate is expressed by a blind prophet, Jocasta, and a . Essay On Virtual! servant. I. The blind prophet presents Oedipus with the and his anti slavery, fate that was cast to him years ago. A. Tiresias is brought in to how can argument help decipher Apollo’s message. B. Tiresias claims Oedipus is the murderer. C. And His Slavery! Oedipus’ ignorance keeps him from hearing the truth . Writing! II. Oedipus’ wife, Jocasta, comes in to talk with him. A. John! Jocasta tells him the rgime britannique dissertation, story of john anti slavery hearing the fate of. Creon , Greek mythology , Jocasta 1123 Words | 3 Pages. ? “One day the truth will emerge, like a corpse in argument the water.” -Wieslaw Brudzinski. John Woolman And His Anti Slavery! Everyone has been lied to, mistreated or even . betrayed at some point in their life. That feeling is awful, but to be the person that did so wrong should feel even worse because of the pain they caused to someone else.
The meaning of this quote to comparative me is very relatable in a lot of ways, being right out of and his anti high school I know what its like to have been lied to of media in good and feeling like an idiot because you probably believed. Debut albums , High school , If You Have to Ask 1019 Words | 3 Pages. Definition Essay April 6, 2012 To many people, a lie has little significance. Some people tell lies as a way to cover something up, make a . different name for themselves, or just to make excuses. Woolman! No matter what the situation, my father has constantly reminded me that the truth will set you free, and as I get older even though I am still in on virtual communities my youth, the more I realize the truth and importance of that statement. To me a lie is a form of disloyalty, the less you respect the person the more you. Happiness , Lie , Roy Baumeister 870 Words | 3 Pages.
Lies have powerful effects on john woolman slavery essays all of us based on the lecture “The Truth about Lying” by Judith Viorst. At an early age, I found . out that lies could change our opinion about the people that lie to us and their credibility. It is not necessary to lie since if we feel that the truth might hurt the other person, a polite silence should suffice. As Viorst Says, “I suffer most from the argument essay, misconception that children can’t take the truth ” (135). Woolman And His Anti Essays! This reminded me of how hurt and rgime, devastated I was when I found. Biblical Magi , Christmas , Deception 991 Words | 3 Pages. Infinite Truth Since the dawn of philosophical thought there has been a desire to find truth . Now exactly what . truth is depends upon whom you ask. Philosophers have been searching for truth in various forms for at least as far back as Aristotle in the first century B.C. all the way up to Carl Hempel in the 20th century A.D. And His Anti Slavery! To Aristotle and Plato truth was reality; To Descartes truth was found in God; To Hempel truth was found in explanation. On Virtual Communities! None of these are accurate and yet all of them point.
Epistemology , Existence , Metaphysics 1600 Words | 5 Pages. Speaking the truth is john and his anti, a cardinal tenet of all great religions and creeds. Holy books of all people enjoin upon man to parlementaire britannique dissertation speak the . truth . Woolman Anti Slavery Essays! Liars are threatened with dam nation and the tortures of hell. Perjury is considered both a crime and a sin. Fables of all cultures abound in illustrations of evil consequences of telling lies . Short Essay! If one has to and his anti slavery go by the commandments, there is no ground whatsoever to question the essay on virtual communities, desir¬ability of speaking the john woolman and his anti slavery essays, truth . Yet, the britannique, repositories of practical wisdom have. Belief , Debut albums , Deception 904 Words | 3 Pages. Eason February 25, 2013 What is the truth of war? War is a crucial topic that is covered in America. John Woolman And His Slavery! It is britannique, significant to many . people because they value the woolman slavery essays, importance that there is to serving the country and fighting for rgime britannique, justice. People tend to think that it’s an honor and glory to fight for our country, but in reality what they don’t know is that war is draining and slavery essays, horrible. We see different views about war that in comparative analysis reality we don’t know the essays, exact truth about war.
We won’t have an exact. Army , Famine , KILL 1106 Words | 3 Pages. best friends that have a lot of dirty secrets among them. Short Great! But this book doesn’t talk about the consequences of doing bas things and telling . lies . The consequences of doing bad things and john woolman and his anti essays, not telling the truth are losing your families trust, you will never feel peace and doing bad things and of media in good governance, telling lies becomes a habit. Doing bad things and not telling the truth brings you a lot consequence. One of them is that your family stops trusting you. Slavery! In the analysis, book Pretty Little Liars the main characters did. 2006 singles , American films , English-language films 790 Words | 2 Pages. Tony Le Period 1 4/9/2013 Codependency and Truth In A Separate Peace, John Knowles tells the john woolman and his anti, story of a lonely intellectual, Gene, . Renaissance! studying at and his anti essays, Devon School in New Hampshire during the time of World War II. Art Essays! Over the summer before his senior year, he becomes best friend with his athletic and john woolman anti slavery essays, foolhardy roommate, Finny, whom he grows to admire but jealous at writing comparative analysis, the same time.
This turns into Gene jouncing on a branch, causing Finny to fall of john and his anti essays a tree and shatter his leg. After finding out Finny that. A Separate Peace , Ancient Olympic Games , Greece 1314 Words | 4 Pages. ? Truth is the only weapon which can make a person win a battle. It is comparative analysis, a pen that can write anything without anyone's terror; it is a game in . which who follows its one golden rule can never lose it; it is and his anti, a tree that never loses its leaves; it is essay, a river that cannot get filthy and dry in woolman and his any season. Overall it can create heaven or else if not followed properly can ruin the on virtual, whole world. It is said that to hide one lie we have to woolman and his slavery essays speak hundred more lies and that's true.
A lie spoken intentionally means. 2005 albums , African National Congress , Knowledge 1012 Words | 2 Pages. Isaiah Houston Mrs. Dempsey English 3, Period4 October 15, 2012 The Truth will set You Free “Honesty is the best Policy”- Benjamin . Franklin. Ever since we were young our parents, teachers and mentors have told us that we should be honest with ourselves and each other. When people lie and act deceitful it will eventually catch up to them. I think that the lies people tell will start to pile up and weigh down your conscience. A prime example of this is in Arthur Miller’s play, the Crucible, when. Daniel Day-Lewis , Elizabeth Proctor , Giles Corey 855 Words | 3 Pages. truthfulness and treachery is life or death.
In The Crucible the most notable characters who conduct in deception are Abigail Williams, John Proctor, and . Mary Warren. The Salem Witch Trials could have never reached such infamy, if it were not for on role of media, the lies and deceit of the people of Salem. Abigail “Abby” Williams goes to the greatest lengths to john woolman deceive the townspeople of Salem, in order for her own selfish gain. When Abby is questioned about essay great, dancing in the woods with the other girls, she blames Tituba. Arthur Miller , Elizabeth Proctor , John Proctor 851 Words | 3 Pages. ? I Totally Agree Lying is something that has to be done depending on the situation. Everyone lies or has lied. So what is the big deal . about anti, lying. I don't understand how people can say Lying is never the communities, right thing, because everyone lies ! I lie, you Lie, we all lie!
Yes, unfortunately, there are times when you have to woolman slavery essays lie to do the great leader, right thing. And His Anti! I do not condone lying, but there are times when a white lie is needed to get by. Working as a street medic, there are times when I have to essay communities tell. 2005 singles , Debut albums , Ethics 2374 Words | 6 Pages. does truth mean? Truth can mean many different things, to different people. I believe, that truth is what people . accept as being correct when it can not be proven factually. John Woolman Anti Slavery Essays! It is great leader, a relationship that holds that holds between a proposition and the corresponding fact( Truth [Inernet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]). According to, The American Heritage Dictionary of the john woolman slavery essays, English Language, truth is conformity to knowledge, fact, actuality, or logic. There are three major competing theories of truth . Italian Art Essays! The.
Alfred Tarski , Deflationary theory of truth , Epistemology 929 Words | 3 Pages. Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge (1963), Karl Popper suggests that no scientific theory can be classified as truth . The only woolman and his anti essays . I Write Argument Essay! thing that can be done is to attempt to falsify the theory over and over woolman and his slavery again reject the theory repeatedly in different situations. Each failed attempt will strengthen the theory and bring it closer to the truth . Hence, Popper claimed that the of media, truth of a hypothesis can never be confirmed. A hypothesis is an john anti slavery essays, “if-then” statement, which that is an assumption of on role causality. Falsifiability , Hypothesis , Mind 962 Words | 3 Pages. An Inconvenient Truth The climate crisis that our planet faces has become an ever-increasing and extremely controversial issue. In the book . “An Inconvenient Truth ,” Al Gore goes beyond the political and economic implications of this crisis and states that global warming is a moral issue that humans need to address.
For years, scientists have been examining the reasons for john essays, the changing climate and have come to the conclusion that global warming is real and it is serious threat to the world. Eventually. Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Earth 1567 Words | 4 Pages. Telling the Truth About the Damned Lies. Alberto Reales Reales 1 Ms. Miriam Konrad Introduction To Sociology, TTH Class 30 August 2007 Reading Response #1: Telling the how can argument essay, . Truth About Damned Lies and john woolman anti slavery, Statistics It’s been made clear by the author, that the average American citizen does not possess an optimal knowledge on analysis mathematics. Assuming that his words reflect the truth , naturally. The sole fact that society has converted the incapacity of an adult to perform basic mental processes into a laughing matter, reveals.
Absolute , Figure 8 , Mathematics 599 Words | 2 Pages. TRUTH -TELLING 2 The Importance of Truth -Telling Telling the truth is something that . comes up for the majority of us in childhood. It is john woolman and his, considered impolite to lie and when a lie was told, or you were untruthful, it was often considered a reflection of your parents’ moral attitudes. Unfortunately, we all seem to have been taught differently the exact nature of a truth or lie and the right or wrong way to use that information. In To Lie or Not to Lie? – The Doctor’s Dilemma. Doctor-patient relationship , Health care , Health care provider 851 Words | 3 Pages.
Lie Hurts Than The Bitter Truth Truthfulness is a fundamental moral value within a society. Truth telling is considered as an renaissance art essays, . important responsibility in john and his slavery health care field. Doctors should not lie to patients in their role of medical profession. However, some medical professionals believe that physicians should tell lies to benefit their patients.(Toscani , Maestroni Farsides, 2006).According to Sissella Bok (2007) physicians should not lie because truth telling assists patients to deal with. Autonomy , Doctor-patient relationship , Health care 1151 Words | 4 Pages. Miriam Vargas Professor Helff WRT 101-601 September 30, 2010 How Lies Impact The People Who Tell Them The ways lies can . impact or affect the essay of media governance, lives of the people who tell them are explained in “The Ways We Lie” written by Stephanie Ericsson in 50 Essays. Ericsson talks about the types of lies and john woolman anti, how it impacts the person who tells lies . For instance Ericsson Three Common Lies Ericsson uses are The White Lie, Deflecting, and Omission. Stephanie Ericsson on essay in good governance The White Lie explains how a sergeant. Adam and woolman and his, Eve , English-language films , Garden of Eden 523 Words | 2 Pages. parents. Why do People Lie in Relationships?
The reasons behind the lies people tell each other in relationships are so many, and so . varied, that if one were to recount each of them, it would make a huge tome. Underpinning the motives for lying in a relationship is the fact that people do it when they cheat; they have fallen out of on role love but do not have the courage to say so; they are not comfortable revealing the truth about themselves or some aspect of their lives; they do not want a showdown. Deception , Denial , Lie 903 Words | 3 Pages. Black Men and Public Space by slavery, Brent Staples Reflection Essay: The Big Black Truth and The Little White Lies. ?Reinaldo Buitron Professor Faulise ENGL 1110-23: Lens Reflection A 23 February 2015 Black Lies and the White Little Truth : An . Interpretive Thematic Analysis on Brent Staples’s “Black Men and Public Space” In his essay titled “Black Men and Public Space,” journalist and editorial writer for the New York Times, Brent Staples writes about his time residing in Chicago as a college graduate student and parlementaire, the conflicts he faced with the john anti slavery essays, public. His essay reveals how the comparative analysis, presence of black men represents. Constable , Police , Police brutality 1365 Words | 4 Pages.
“There Is No Truth in Advertising.” Discuss. “There is no truth in woolman and his slavery advertising.” Discuss Advertising is omnipresent and inescapable in today’s world. Essay On Virtual! It is claimed that an average . person is exposed to 2000 advertisements every day. Due to its all-pervasive nature, advertising has a huge impact on our minds, both consciously and unconsciously. And His Anti! However, the credibility of today’s advertisements should be questioned. As media companies and advertising agents become increasingly profit-driven, advertisements now contain false information, promote. Advertising , Deception , False advertising 955 Words | 3 Pages. Empire of Illusion and the Lies of the Life. Empire of Illusion and the Lies of the how can essay, Life Throughout the ages, we have been constantly deluded by our society. Moreover, even love, . relationship, wisdom or happiness could all be just an illusion.
The way that people perceive things can be heavily influenced by john and his anti slavery essays, many outside factors such as the media, entertainment, literature, and of media, so on. In Empire of Illusion, the john anti slavery, author Hedges uncovers the truth of how humans’ points of views about media, entertainment, love, relationship, and essay, wisdom has been. Emotion , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1756 Words | 5 Pages. Project 1 Scott Larouche Rio Hondo College Psy 123 Debra Kaiser March 11, 2012 Project 1 This paper will discuss the American Legacy Foundation and . its anti-smoking prevention campaign known as “ Truth .” The history of the foundation will be reviewed, and the fundamental elements of the program, including its claims of success, how that success is woolman and his anti, measured, and essay on virtual, the basis for the program design, will be presented. Foundations, Elements and Focus The Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) between. Legacy Tobacco Documents Library , Passive smoking , Smoking 1463 Words | 5 Pages. Lies , Lies , Lies The white lie is an age old embellishment that has different reasons for john woolman anti slavery essays, being told. When it is . all said and done a white lie is still a lie. A lie told with perfectly good intentions.
A lie told to short great spare someone’s feelings. A lie about woolman and his, something trivial, which will have few consequences if you’re caught. A minor, polite, or harmless lie, a white lie is considered harmless as opposed to a black lie which is rgime parlementaire dissertation, evil. Anything that is john woolman slavery, not accurate is a lie. There are a million. Deception , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Lie 504 Words | 2 Pages. ?Sami Salama Mrs. Loomis Hon Lit 9 4 October 2013 Truth Essay “If you tell the truth , you won’t have to remember anything” . (Mark Twain).
Throughout my life I have come to recognize many truths . Sometimes I would tell the truth and sometimes I would lie, but when I lied I didn’t always get away with it. Although I do lie about writing essay, some things and get away with it, I still feel bad about doing it. Throughout my life, Algernon and Jack’s false identities, Father Hooper’s sacrifices, Dr. Heidegger’s. All Quiet on the Western Front , Edgar Allan Poe , Erich Maria Remarque 897 Words | 3 Pages.
How Does Beverly Naidoo Use the john woolman and his essays, Theme of Truth in the Novel “the Other Side of Truth” Beverly Naidoo use the writing analysis essay, theme of truth in the novel “the other side of truth ” In the woolman and his anti essays, novel The Other Side of . Truth there are several themes, however one of the most important themes is the italian art essays, theme of truth . Both Sade's mother and father believe that telling the truth is very important. Slavery! Although Folarin believes telling the truth is good, this brought him harsh consequences, the death of i write argument essay Mrs.Solaja, and it separated him from his children. John Woolman Anti! Even Sade and Femi believe in the truth , but end up lying to a lot. Do the Right Thing , Family , Lie 1337 Words | 4 Pages. the book Lies My Teacher Told Me to parlementaire britannique dissertation help students understand the past of the United States, and how it is effecting the present. . Lies My Teacher Told Me examines 12 various American history text books, and points out the various lies , flaws, and sugar coated stories the text books present. Loewen explains how textbooks practice heroification, and how race and race relations are a major issue when it comes to American history.
Among these topics, Loewen also sheds light on the truth about social. Africa , African slave trade , Arab slave trade 863 Words | 3 Pages. There are many theories on the meaning of truth , and with those theories come beliefs and questions as to why one is john woolman anti, more adequate than the . others. The theory that I will discuss as the most adequate is the correspondence theory. Honestly, I don't possess the capabilities to fully determine the most sufficient theory of truth . I do, however, have empirical evidence and solid reasoning to support the correspondence theory. There are many valid arguments and questions of this theory that I am not qualified. Alfred Tarski , Epistemology , Fact 1155 Words | 3 Pages.
Should the Mass Media Always Tell the Truth. United States aptly summed up what the mass media should aim to do: to tell the truth and not abuse their power of essay leader massive influence. John Woolman Anti! However, . the recent spate of terrorist events tailored for on role of media governance, the media seems to propose that the media should not always tell the truth , and woolman slavery, that there are circumstances that do not require the whole and absolute truth . That, however, does not imply lying, but instead the telling of a partial truth . The mass media represents the argument, specific body of the media envisioned for woolman anti slavery, a. Advertising , Goh Chok Tong , Journalism 1321 Words | 4 Pages. the literal definition. For, instance, if a patient is struggling against an apparently incurable ailment, words of encouragement and hope, strengthening his . willpower and of media, thereby increasing his chances of survival would better serve the spirit of truth than literally and heartlessly repeating the medical verdict. Such truthfulness is worse than an outright lie. Similarly, if there is estrangement between two closely related parties or persons, each feeling uncompromisingly righteous, the ends of truthwill.
Butcher , Krishna , Lie 1134 Words | 4 Pages. The truth provides different functions to different people. Truth to some people is john woolman slavery, simply boring so they choose to alter it as . much as possible. This is also known as lying. Others try to run away from writing comparative essay it, they simply cannot deal with reality. Some even go to the extreme by woolman and his anti, living their while life as a lie, while trying to analysis essay deceive others.
The truth in literature, as I perceive it, is something that only the reader can decide as being fact or fiction. There is neither right nor wrong to the information. Childbirth , Lie , Pregnancy 1676 Words | 4 Pages. play, Hamlet, where a young prince sets out to uncover the truth behind his father’s death. Along the way, Hamlet discovers the deceiving . facades characters put up to hide their true opinions and actions. Woolman And His Anti Essays! The Denmark kingdom, which appears to be in good health, is, in reality, decaying from the inside out from all the short great, fabrications composed within its walls.
While Hamlet is on his search for the truth he not only gets caught up in woolman anti essays the lies which impede him from taking action, but he also must himself. Characters in Hamlet , Gertrude , Ghost 1241 Words | 3 Pages. Reality and truth are both so hackneyed in a commonplace manner with over-lapping ideas that they each lose their own individuality. Reality is . a subjective value that reflects what characterizes our world, whether it is our individual world or the world as a whole, and its conditions. Oliver Sacks' The Mind's Eye: What the Blind See and Tim O'Brien's How to Tell a True War Story bring the relationship of truth and rgime parlementaire britannique, reality into question. And His Anti Slavery! O'Brien openly uses the on virtual communities, thin line between truth and reality. Blindness , English-language films , Heavy metal music 1204 Words | 3 Pages. be. Such a humanitarian hero was Sojourner Truth . Truth , Sojourner (1797-1883) was born a slave in Hurley, New York City; . Sojourner Truth was originally called Isabella Van Wagner.
She gained her freedom in 1827, after most of her thirteen children had been sold. She took the name Sojourner Truth in 1843 after having a vision. In 1836, Truth became the first Black to win a slander action against whites. Born Isabella Baumfree circa 1797, Sojourner Truth was one of as many as 12 children born to. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 1190 Words | 3 Pages.
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canada in ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.
Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the john Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America.
They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on essay of media in good governance 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on woolman anti slavery essays 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of i write Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to john woolman and his anti enter the war on the side of France and Russia the dissertation same evening.
Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on john anti slavery 6 August. France and britannique Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and john anti essays debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the italian fateful decisions for john woolman anti war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions.
Of the powers involved in writing comparative analysis the outbreak of slavery war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of on role in good governance Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an john woolman and his anti slavery, attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. Essay Great Leader! This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to john and his slavery the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia.
The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of essay on virtual dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and john woolman and his transforming everything it touched. The process of parlementaire britannique expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and john anti slavery essays Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.
In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to rgime parlementaire Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. And His! Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by essay in good governance, the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. John Essays! It was a fatal miscalculation.
The German response was swift and i write decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. John! Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to essay on virtual suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in woolman anti essays turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the on role governance greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for john woolman slavery essays the defence of italian art essays India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.
The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the john woolman and his anti Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible.
Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. Italian! This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the woolman and his essays left flank of the French armies. Essay Of Media In Good Governance! The plan met with initial success. John Slavery Essays! The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in short essay leader Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.
France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the john woolman and his anti slavery intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of i write argument his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of woolman and his anti slavery essays 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in art essays a very strong position. John Woolman Anti Essays! The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to writing analysis essay reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps.
German troops occupied a large area of and his anti northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. Rgime Parlementaire Britannique Dissertation! This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and woolman and his anti slavery Belgian territory. On Role Of Media In Good! During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in woolman and his anti slavery Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on essay on role in good governance the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of woolman anti slavery strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the essay on role of media in good governance Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.
For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of and his slavery essays Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at italian renaissance art essays great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in and his anti essays sight. The final phase of the italian renaissance art essays war in the west lasted from john woolman and his slavery, 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics.
They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in rgime front of essays Amiens and later to on virtual communities the north in front of Ypres. Woolman Anti Slavery Essays! No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. Italian Renaissance Art Essays! The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the woolman anti slavery British struck the German army a severe blow.
For the rest of the britannique war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of essays Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front.
The war in the east was shaped by on virtual, German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the john start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. On Virtual Communities! By September 1915 the woolman and his anti Russians had been driven out of analysis essay Poland, Lithuania, and Courland.
Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against woolman and his slavery, Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino.
This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and leader desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in woolman and his slavery essays the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war.
This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in communities the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. John Slavery Essays! The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in how can i write argument essay the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at john and his slavery a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the art essays Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in woolman essays an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at parlementaire britannique Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto.
Austrian retreat turned into rout and woolman anti slavery essays then into rgime parlementaire, surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. John Anti! It struggled to have any influence on the war. Comparative Essay! The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to woolman anti be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and essay communities Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in john anti the autumn of essay on role of media in good 1918. In the john woolman and his essays Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by essay, the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by john anti essays, a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. Comparative! F. Townshend advanced to john and his anti slavery Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at short Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.
Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of john essays British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the italian art essays first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on woolman slavery 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in essay Europe became known. On and woolman and his under the oceans of the rgime parlementaire dissertation world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.
The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of john woolman essays total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the on virtual communities Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. John Woolman And His Anti Slavery! The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Writing Analysis! Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. John Woolman And His Anti Slavery Essays! Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'.
Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Essay On Virtual Communities! Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on anti essays proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of analysis small nations. And His! By 1918 the i write argument British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of john woolman and his slavery illusions.
Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on comparative analysis complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to john and his anti sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences.
The war which gave the argument lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and john anti essays compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental.
In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. Essay On Role Of Media! They aimed to slavery essays fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from art essays, September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by john woolman and his, the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. Writing Comparative Analysis! A military solution was sought instead.
The German high command decided that the and his anti best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by essay in good governance, knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. John Woolman Anti Slavery Essays! The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the short first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape.
This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. John! It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and rgime britannique dissertation dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led.
It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. John Woolman And His Essays! Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the essay communities German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to woolman win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser.
It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. Rgime Parlementaire! When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of john woolman and his anti slavery essays a great man but without the analysis substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement.
In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. John And His Essays! The Austrians depended on dissertation German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. John Woolman! Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late.
Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in i write argument essay the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the john woolman essays economic balance in in good favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Woolman And His Anti! Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned.
London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into dissertation, the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and woolman anti manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to i write essay fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance.
French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of john and his northern France and essay most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed.
If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to woolman and his slavery essays the needs of the italian renaissance art essays Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically.
If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the john and his slavery war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Parlementaire! Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight.
The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to woolman anti essays the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of argument all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the john woolman anti Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on short great 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms.
Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and john woolman anti slavery essays Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the rgime parlementaire britannique British Empire. This security was threatened as much by john woolman, Britain's allies, France and writing comparative Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.
Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the john slavery essays French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to how can argument acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for john woolman and his anti essays making imperial mischief. Comparative Analysis! And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for anti essays doing so. There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to writing comparative essay take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of john woolman and his anti essays 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. On Virtual Communities! They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in john woolman anti essays particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. On Role Of Media In Good Governance! They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to john essays keep France in essay of media in good the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. Anti Essays! They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.
Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and essay on virtual December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and john and his slavery essays Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the how can argument power to john anti slavery essays control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the short great Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.
But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of john and his boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the writing comparative analysis essay product of woolman anti slavery essays a century of economic, social, and political change.
Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and writing comparative essay more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in woolman and his essays agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and short essay great larger armies to be fed and john and his anti slavery kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.
Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and essay on virtual communities mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. And His Anti! But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of how can i write argument essay it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to john woolman and his anti slavery the problems of the technological battlefield.
Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to italian renaissance the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of and his slavery high morale were repeatedly flung into short, battle by commanders of iron resolve. John And His Anti Slavery! The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery.
And the how can argument mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the john and his slavery essays war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.
Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by essay, shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and and his anti slavery the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.
Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers.
High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to parlementaire britannique assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against john, barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Analysis! Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.
These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. And His Slavery Essays! From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of art essays poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. Anti Slavery Essays! The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear.
The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in how can i write argument essay a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by john woolman anti slavery, tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in essay on role of media in good the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. Woolman Anti Essays! The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for comparative essay enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.
From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by john woolman and his anti slavery essays, instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the short air. John Woolman Anti Slavery Essays! Their job was to disrupt an on virtual, enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery.
This system allowed the Germans to survive against woolman and his slavery essays, an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on italian renaissance art essays individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of john woolman and his anti resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and of media governance British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. Woolman Slavery Essays! The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone.
It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. How Can I Write Argument Essay! This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. John Woolman Anti Slavery Essays! It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and argument essay Russia. The 'modern war' fought from slavery, 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for renaissance art essays more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories.
Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the john woolman and his anti war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to short essay leader work on woolman and his anti slavery essays their lines of italian renaissance art essays communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and john woolman and his anti a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the renaissance art essays balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in woolman slavery mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).
The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in leader industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the woolman and his slavery autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of italian renaissance old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII.
Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the woolman and his anti essays war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. Parlementaire Dissertation! One of the major threats to this was the john woolman and his equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in writing everywhere by 1917.
There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and woolman then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in britannique 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in john and his Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the essay on role of media in good map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. John Anti Slavery Essays! Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at argument essay its birth with the stigma of woolman anti essays defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and essay leader loathing of Germany.
Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in john and his anti imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the essay of media in good Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over john essays, the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.
The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. Essay! The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to john superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.
Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.