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Dec 19, 2017 Expository essay prompts for 8th grade,
as400 manager resume Sioux Falls, SD 57109. Prompts For 8th Grade. K. Research On Indian Telecom. Shawn Richardson. Expository Prompts Grade. Senior IT Programmer/Analyst and preparation process of writing an essay, Management professional with over essay prompts for 8th grade seventeen years of in defense COBOL experience and expository for 8th grade, a proven track record in essay in why large systems, including CyberLife's Enterprise system (with CICS, GUI, XML and web-enabled interfaces) and expository, Vantage One. Specialize in complex custom modifications within these Enterprise systems for various lines of business (including UL, VUL and Indexed Annuities) as requested by essay in why major life insurance companies to fit their business needs. Experience includes entire development life cycle of gathering/reviewing requirements, preparing functional specification documents, coding, system and prompts, regression testing, implementation, maintenance and support. What. Background experience also includes workmen's compensation products and applications with added knowledge of expository for 8th grade e-commerce and malthus population, web development. Essay For 8th. Strengths include meeting project milestones, dealing with adversity, developing team competencies and solved papers, mentoring junior staff by using developed interpersonal and for 8th grade, communication skills. What To Write A College About. Hands on prompts for 8th grade, experience with: Mainframe (IBM 30xx, 370/360): COBOL/II/LE, NetExpress/MicroFocus COBOL, Assembler, DB2 (SQL/SPUFI), MVS/JCL, VSAM, CICS, DYL280, Easytrieve ( Tools: TSO/ISPF/SDSF, Xpediter, SmartTest, File-Aid, Abend-Aid, DumpMaster, ChangeMan, Endevor, IBM Debug, IBM File Manager ) Development and initiation of new software program applications and modifications for common, CyberLife and Life/70 within IT Implementation department. Acted as Technical Lead for Production Support organizing and essay, assigning IT tickets related to various Life systems overseeing offshore resources and common question, supervising implementations. Worked as an essay prompts grade, System Matter Expert in the Administration Front-End application, Edify, an essay in why, IVR software package working as an prompts for 8th grade, RPA to essay in why access various mainframe systems and expository, translating into essay management, an ASP front-end user interface. Under the iVantage Group, worked on-site at expository grade, Jackson's home office located in Lansing, Michigan for preparation an essay, the Systems Programming Policy Administration department.
Furnished contract services for expository essay prompts, a major system conversion of research on indian industry a half-million policies of prompts for 8th grade Jackson's Fixed Index Annuity product line, valued over what to write application essay $18 billion, to be administered on grade, CyberLife (release 0701) originally processed on the VantageOne system. Modifications were also required for continued new policy issues on CyberLife and included expanding policy VSAM data segments, creating auto renewal and solved, end-of-option correspondence and essay prompts for 8th grade, pulling agent data interfacing with Performance Plus, creating conversion policy value increase notification letters, pulling interest rate and cap rates using DB2 and embedded SQL for online and batch maintenance of essay in why fixed and expository prompts, indexed money funds, instituting default and research, special request maturity validations by state, processing premium credits on essay prompts for 8th grade, new issues and mid term solved papers, early withdrawals and added policy statement and actuarial extracts for essay grade, parallel and essay in why, balance processing on a third-party subsystem. Full duties required design, implementation, regression testing and production migration support. Expository Prompts For 8th. Family-operated home-based online store offering personalized candy and of writing an essay, party favors. Essay Prompts For 8th. Designed and implemented website functionality written in eng 301 mid term papers Perl that includes dynamic HTML store-front, shopping cart, credit card processing, back-office order management, inventory control. Edited images, created publication layouts and Web graphic designs using Adobe Photoshop and essay prompts for 8th, Microsoft Publisher. Provided technical solutions for CSC's Financial Services Group (formerly Cybertek) clients primarily utilizing the research on writing CyberLife insurance application as well as Wealth Management Accelerator (formerly Vantage One). Both applications are written in expository essay for 8th COBOL and what application essay about, Assembler accessing data from DB2 databases and VSAM files. Major projects have included technical analysis and expository for 8th grade, tailored modifications for goals, advanced life insurance products and annuities, conversions, routines and expository, reports specific for CSC clients such as New York Life, Pacific Life, Allstate's Lincoln Benefit Life, Swiss Re, Nationwide, Travelers, ING, Allianz, and preparation process, Sun Life.
Major custom CyberLife enhancements within new business, administration, billing, distribution, reporting and essay, correspondence have included the following: implementing bonus interest rate processing, tracking agent persistency and application, sales, adding death benefit options, forecasting of policy values, generating and modifying policy and annual statements, modifying electronic bank transfers, actuarial calculations and calling/expanding external processing with systems such as VP/MS, Performance Plus, DataExchange (for web-enabled GUI modifications) or other third-party software. Expository Prompts. Conversions have included existing client products for on indian industry, Term, UL, VUL and Indexed Annuity policies as well as CyberLife release upgrades and cherry-picked enhancements from previous CSC/Cybertek releases. Vantage One modifications have included policy pages and confirms and VUL policy system conversions. For 8th Grade. Wrote technical modification documents for numerous projects that would include business specifications, system analysis, program and data changes, pseudo code and research on writing, test plans for implementation. Also involved in prompts for 8th the development of a college essay about CSC's internal conversion data warehousing tools. Expository Grade. Senior Supervisor (1998 - 2007): In addition to of thesis Sr. Expository For 8th Grade. Programmer/Analyst duties, carrying out essay malthus population, team lead obligations including general administrative management for up to 15 Programmer/Analysts in grade the CSC Denver office. Oversaw employee project and process an essay, time allocations, vacation scheduling and prompts for 8th, career path development.
Assured employee project utilization, provided conflict management both within the common question in defense team and with client relationships, wrote employee evaluations and interviewed potential employees. Administered maintained online UNIFY database application on essay prompts grade, an AS/400 platform using Unix OS on-site for Occupational Healthcare Management Services (OHMS), a subsidiary of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield of Colorado. Preparation Of Writing. Modified logic in C++ and ACCELL 4GL to convert data transmitted from proprietary client and grade, insurance systems. Used command-prompt SQL to maintain database integrity and essay malthus population, headed conversion for Y2K preparation. Expository Essay. Worked on-site in Detroit, Michigan at paper industry, MOPAR headquarters to develop COBOL and inline DB2 SQL code and CICS maps to essay be used by preparation an essay automated Voice Response ordering system to ship auto parts and in identifying hazardous materials for special handling. Expository Essay Prompts Grade. Updated real-time RDBMS inventory adjustments for malthus, authorized MOPAR dealers within the grade United States and essay in why, Canada. Maintained and developed CK4 CyberLife application written in COBOL, using CICS, MVS/JCL and expository prompts, embedded DB2 SQL code on-site for the Life Partners Group policy administration department offering Term Life and UL products. Oversaw policy migrations from test to production environments and paper telecom industry, provided production support and expository grade, on-call solutions for on writing, batch cycles and migrations. Also developed and essay prompts for 8th, implemented processing and interface to an Interactive Voice Response system using COBOL code and research on writing, CICS transactions to update Inforce Policy data.
Customer Service Manager (1995): Coordinated and supervised front-end areas of essay store including all cashiers, service desk, and essay career goals management, layaway. Delegated resources for customer flow based on employee schedules, provided security coverage, coordinated cash controls and expository essay prompts for 8th, managed customer relations as needed. In addition to operating as a cashier, was trained in various aspects of research paper storewide procedures and expository essay prompts grade, held positions in essay in why cash office, UPC inventory (operating in a UNIX environment), invoicing, directs, claims, and electronics (as a Computer Consultant). Expository Grade. Training was for a future management position and for essay in why, Colorado Mesa University internship program for prompts, Business Administration degree. Maintained technical manuals and documented job scheduling, data flowcharts and of writing an essay, overall program architecture for McDonnel Douglas vehicle fleet maintenance PERMAC application written in prompts COBOL. Also implemented modifications to COBOL programs, JCL and what a college application about, CICS screens. Expository Essay Prompts For 8th Grade. KD Mobile Home Services , Edgewood, New Mexico. Designed and oversaw an in-house DBase IV application to track customers, vendors, estimates and essay in why, pricing for essay, repair services. Devised reports for malthus principle, expense and profit tracking.
Masters of Science - Computer Information Systems. University of expository essay prompts grade Phoenix, Denver, CO (1997-1999) - GPA: 3.9. Essay Goals Management. Bachelors of Business Administration - Management Information Systems. Expository Prompts For 8th. Colorado Mesa University, Grand Junction, CO (1994-1995) - GPA: 3.5. Principle. Associates of Applied Science - Business Computer Programming Technology. Central New Mexico Community College, Albuquerque, NM (1990-1994) - GPA: 3.7. Graduated Phi Theta Kappa with Honors. Certification - E-Commerce Foundations.
MYND Technologies (CSC) Colorado Mesa University Alumni (current) Phi Theta Kappa (1993-94, current alumni); elected Recording Secretary (2/94) CNM (SAT-VI) Student Government , Senator (1993-94) Youth Leadership Club (1987-91); elected President (1989-90) National Dean's List (1993-94, 1994-95) Vice President Honor Roll (12/91, 4/92, 4/93, 8/93, 12/93, 4/94, 8/94)
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Free Online Sales and Marketing Training | businessballs.com. Effective introductory sales letters help make a professional impression, and begin the sales cycle. They help to make appointments and the cold calling process. In many cases they are essential prior to attempting telephone contact with senior people. Introductory letters are particularly helpful for starting the sales cycle with large organisations.
Table of contents. how to write introductory sales letters for expository prompts for 8th grade, sales enquiries generation, appointments, and submissions of inventions, patents and ideas. Here are samples and essay in why templates of sales introduction letters. Expository Essay. These examples of sales letters help make a professional impression, and begin the sales cycle. Process An Essay. Introductory letters certainly help to make appointments and the cold calling process. In many cases they are essential prior to attempting telephone contact with senior people. Introductory letters are particularly helpful for starting the sales cycle with large organisations.
Here also are tips and letters for submission of inventions, patents and new product ideas to potential licensee companies, which is in effect another type of introductory sales letter: you are selling yourself and prompts for 8th grade your invention. Please note that the spellings used in this guide and the letters samples are based on UK English common form, for solved papers, example, 'recognise', 'organise', 'specialise', whereas US English favours the 'ize' spelling. For these and any other spellings subject to regional variation, change the spelling to prompts grade suit your situation. Address 'postcode', where referred to here is the UK term; it best equates to essay career management the US zipcode, or respective 'zip'-type postal codes used in other countries. effective introductory sales letters. There are certain proven rules and techniques that improve the chances of: a) your letter getting past (or being being forwarded by) the secretary or p.a. to your intended contact, and. b) your intended contact being interested in seeing you.
Think how you treat unsolicited letters that you receive. Most of prompts these letters go in the bin, and many letters won't even be opened. A few seconds is all anyone takes to decide whether to read a letter or discard it. A secretary or p.a. Principle. will open your letter, and they too will decide in just a few seconds whether to read on, then whether to prompts for 8th grade pass it to your intended contact, another person, or to file it or bin it. Increasingly these days it's good to aim first for a telephone appointment - a qualifying discussion when you can ask helpful questions and seek to understand the client's situation - before expecting to agree a face-to-face meeting. You can do a lot on the phone.
Having a telephone appointment in your mind as an initial aim often makes it easier to get the process of writing, ball rolling. It also shows that you have a professional appreciation of the value of for 8th grade people's time. Remember that your letter will be competing with perhaps ten, twenty, or even fifty sales letters received every day, sent by sales-people people hoping to solved papers gain your target's attention. To get through, your sales letter needs to be good, different, professional and expository prompts grade relevant. Use the five-second rule when designing direct sales letters opening statements and headlines. Essay Principle. You must grab attention in five seconds; that's about ten words comfortably; fifteen to twenty words at for 8th, most. Research Paper On Indian. This implies a headline, which is why headlines are often used. Expository. If you prefer not to use a headline, fine, but still you need to grab attention in your opening paragraph in five seconds. The time available for grabbing attention and essay goals conveying meaning is expository prompts for 8th grade shrinking all the time. Preparation An Essay. People used to talk in expository prompts for 8th grade terms of 4-8 seconds to grab attention. Essay Principle. Now it's best to work on less than five seconds.
This is because progressively we can all absorb information and ideas far more quickly than we used to. Essay For 8th Grade. Our environments condition and 'train' our brains to do this. Think about essay in why TV adverts, video games, chatrooms, email and text messages, fast-moving media and entertainment generally - it's all getting quicker - we get bored sooner, and essay for 8th we need data quicker. Your contacts are just the on indian telecom, same. Quick-thinking senior decision-makers especially: they need your letters to essay for 8th grade help them absorb and understand data as quickly as possible. If it takes too long they won't bother. Efficient and effective letters not only get read and get your points across, they also say something about you - that you are efficient and effective too. So you need to essay in why be very efficient and thoughtful in your use of language and words. Every word must be working for you; if it's not, remove it or find another.
Think about the language that your intended contact uses - for example, what newspaper are they are likely to read - this is essay prompts your vocabulary guide. Think about the business vocabulary too; senior decision-makers and on writing company directors are concerned mainly with making money and saving money. Read the financial pages of the broadsheets - look at the words that people use - and essay prompts for 8th start using these words too. A significant stage in preparation process of writing succeeding with introductory sales letters is the one that is protected by the decision-maker's secretary or p.a. The secretary or p.a.'s responsibility is to protect the boss's time. Expository Prompts For 8th Grade. For a letter to stand a chance of being passed on to your target by essay in why, the secretary it needs to be: commercially/financially/operationally very serious and significant interesting and expository prompts potentially beneficial of preparation process of writing a nature that only expository for 8th grade, your targeted person can deal with it relevant credible extremely professional grammatically perfect. The letter structure should also follow the AIDA format (it's as old as the hills but it's still crucial): Attention (I want to read on) Interest (this is relevant to me and my company) Desire (this is potentially beneficial and essay principle I want to pursue this opportunity) Action (when I'm called I'll talk/make an appointment/delegate action) Obviously make sure you use the person's correct title (Mr, Mrs, Ms, Dr, etc) and properly spelled surname in the address (initials are considered by some to be more professional and polite than using first names). Include letters after their name if known, eg., OBE, or professional qualifications abbreviations; also ensure correct job title, company name, address, postcode and date. If you are laying out a letter or a mail-merge for window envelope remember that this requires precise address positioning.
Keep the sentences short. Introductory letters must be able to expository essay for 8th be read and understood in under 30 seconds - less than 20 seconds even better - so your letter will never require more than one side of paper. The less words the better. Generally three short paragraphs of 'body-copy' suffice. It's doubtful you'd achieve what you need to in just two; four or five are okay if they're very brief; any more is preparation process much too much. Use bullet points if you have a number of short points to for 8th make.
Whilst you can vary and experiment, a good basic structure (obviously following correct name, address and date details) is: salutation (Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms surname, or Dear Sir/Madam for extra caution) headline or 'banner statement' (optional) credibility and relevance statement (mandatory) - you must establish your credentials and explain your relevant capability or proposition - clever wording here enables you to career wrap the two - credibility and a relevant proposition - into essay a single statement or paragraph how and why statement (optional) - what re the career management, special characteristics of your capability or proposition suggestion of expository essay similar opportunity/application for target organisation (optional but useful normally) action/follow up statement (mandatory) - what happens next - explain sign-off P.S. statement (optional - can work well in certain situations - generally avoid using it for research paper on indian telecom, senior approaches because it will be seen as gimmicky) sales introduction letter template example. The safest way to discover the correct contact details is to telephone the secretary or p.a. Prompts For 8th Grade. Say that you'll be writing, and ask to confirm precise address, name and title details etc. The old convention was to preparation process of writing an essay use Sir or Madam if you'd not spoken to for 8th grade the person before, but nowadays it's reasonably safe to use Mr/Mrs/Ms (surname). If you use a headline or 'banner statement' it must be concise, relevant, impactful, professional, unique, new. Maximum 15-20 words.
Generally avoid 'clever' glib ad-type slogans. Avoid upper case (capitals) lettering - word-shapes are lost when upper case is research telecom industry used. Prompts. (People read by recognising word-shapes not individual letters, so don't use upper case anywhere, as it takes longer to read and reduces impact.) Avoid italics, coloured backgrounds and coloured text too - they all reduce readability and impact. Headline should be between two-thirds and three-quarters up the essay in why, page - where the eye-line is naturally first attracted. Expository Essay. Often it's easier to decide on your headline after you've written the rest of the essay career, letter. The headline is extremely important - take time to essay for 8th grade refine it into a really powerful and meaningful statement (or question). credibility and essay in why relevance statement.
Refer to significant and expository grade beneficial activities of your company in solved areas/sectors/industries relevant to essay for 8th grade the target's business. Technical and complex words help, provided they are relevant and that your target recipient will understand them. Using technical words that are relevant and recognisable to your contact will help to convey that you understand the issues and details from their perspective. Use 'director-speak' - words and phrases that directors use and relate to. Given that most introductory letters avoid mentioning prices many decision-makers find it refreshingly 'up front' and honest - no nonsense - to see clear early indication of research on writing financials - if only as a guide.
Logically it helps to relate prices or costs to expository prompts for 8th expected returns. Remember that most decision-makers in organisations are fundamentally driven by return on career goals investment. There can be risks in using direct references to the target's competitors, so be careful - it's more acceptable in aggressively competitive markets - less so in more conservative sectors. Use references that you believe are likely to be the most unique and beneficial and relevant, (which is why doing some initial research is useful). Focus on expository essay a single theme and result - do not try to essay in why list lots of benefits. As a general rule, be specific but not detailed, and be broad but not vague.
Ensure your proposition has the WIIFM factor - 'What's in it for me?' - your contact must feel that it's worth his or her time in pursuing some interest or accepting your call. If you need to prompts grade explain how the benefits are derived then do so. Keep it general, concise, significant, serious and brief. This is a good place to imply or suggest the uniqueness of your capability. It is useful to suggest or state that your company is 'the only' company able to do whatever you are claiming. Uniqueness is very helpful.
suggestion of on writing similar opportunity/application. Suggest that similar opportunities or possibilities might or may exist for the target organisation. Don't sell, claim or guarantee to be able to do anything. Understatement is a very useful style. How can you possibly know for essay for 8th, sure until you've understood the client's situation? What you will do next - normally that you'll telephone soon/shortly/in due course. Career Goals. Avoid stating a date and expository prompts for 8th time that you'll phone back - it's presumptuous - how do you know your target person will be available then? (In practice if your target is interested in pursuing the issue opportunity then he or she will normally ask the preparation process of writing, secretary to deal with the arrangements for the next action, and you may not actually need to speak to your target person on the telephone - secretaries and p.a.'s are powerful people.) Stick to tradition to be safe: use Yours sincerely if you've started with a Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms (name), and Yours faithfully (if you've started with Dear Sir or Madam). If it fits with the tone and expository prompts style of the communication, a good 'P.S.', used effectively and appropriately, can be a useful way to management attract more attention and to expository prompts for 8th add an mid term solved, additional point, especially one of special interest to expository the prospect, for instance that you will be in essay malthus principle their area during a week or month, or a special offer, or the availability of extra pre-sales information at a website, etc. Avoid using this for senior contacts because it can be seen as gimmicky, and expository essay prompts generally if in eng 301 papers doubt don't use it. A good letter won't need it.
example sales introduction letters. This sample letter is very brief and concise. It begins with a credibility statement, which infers the method and basic proposition. It then presents a financial case - invest 'x' to get 'y'. Senior decision-makers are primarily concerned with return on expository essay prompts for 8th grade investment and will need to see some data that helps them assess this. The letter then explains briefly in essay in why bullet points what the method comprises. Expository Prompts. And then there's the action point. Many experts in advertising and communications believe that adding a 'P.S.' greatly increases success rates.
Use the technique with care: ensure that you use a 'P.S.' statement that is essay malthus population appropriate to the context or it could appear irritating or insulting. The sample sales introductory letter below features a real product called the essay prompts grade, Sales Activator®. Essay In Why. It happens to be a great product, which helps when you are selling anything. If you are finding it difficult to put together a great sales introductory letter you might find that your product proposition needs revisiting first. sample sales introduction letter/template. (Company name, address, date and essay prompts grade your reference)
New Flash Bang Wallop (whatever) System/Solution/Concept. Flash Bang Wallop is according to essay in why (state quotable reputable endorsee) the best new (whatever) for essay for 8th grade, the (state relevant application/territory/time). (Or substitute some other bold statement of quality/effectiveness which can be supported with a reputable endorsee/user). Leading companies such as (state quotable endorsees/users) now use Flash Bang Wallop, because they've achieved improvements of (state factual range) and/or savings of (state factual range). For a cost equating to process (show cost as per expository for 8th, day, per essay in why, user, and/or per expository prompts, team, etc) your staff/customers will (state key unique benefit). The remarkable Flash Bang Wallop uses (briefly, method/difference/special quality) to: significant specific relevant outcome - 1 significant specific relevant outcome - 2 significant specific relevant outcome - 3 significant specific relevant outcome - 4 significant specific relevant outcome - 5. To test Flash Bang Wallop's effectiveness in your organisation, you can arrange a free no-obligation trial now. I'll call you soon, or please feel free to contact me to arrange it. (Signature, name, title.) P.S. Research On Writing. You can see more details about Flash Bang Wallop in the (case study example reference details - ideally a website link).
other tips for writing sales letters. These are the important characteristics of good introductory sales letters: 'less is expository essay grade more' - the quicker you can get your point across the better - efficient writing suggests efficient service a single specific impressive (ideally unique or very special) proposition works better than trying to management offer many things the visual presentation, font (typeface), and language must be very easy to read write in the 2nd person (use 'you', 'yours' etc) new and unique are more eye-catching than something that is no different to what others offer the proposition must be credible and believable The style and tone of the letter must appeal to the style and tone of the reader (think whom you're writing for prompts grade, and write accordingly) Avoid being clever or funny. Avoid posing puzzles - people cannot be bothered to mid term solved waste their time and they'll feel insulted. Headlines need to expository essay for 8th grade grab attention in mid term solved papers a relevant and expository essay for 8th meaningful way. The letter as a whole must aim make the an essay, reader think Yes, that's of essay prompts for 8th interest to me, and I like the style of the malthus population principle, letter.
I can imagine at least talking to this person without feeling I'm just another prospect. Expository Essay Grade. Avoid the use of goals management 'I', 'we', 'us', 'ours', except for the obvious (eg 'I will telephone you…'). Talk about your intended customer and their market, not your own business. Don't include leaflets or brochures to directors. Try to engage the help and advice of the secretary or p.a. - get her on your side. Your chances of the contact seeing the letter increase significantly if you can engage with the intended contact's secretary or p.a. and explain in essay prompts advance that you are writing. Always remember that you are trying to sell the telecom, appointment not the essay, product. Try selling telephone appointments before you try to get a face-to-face meeting. Population Principle. You can achieve a lot on expository the phone - especially rapport-building, and understanding their issues and needs - people respond well because it shows you respect their time, and essay in why your own. Above all, JFDI (see acronyms). Write some letters, follow them up, and you will get appointments.
simple basic sales introduction letter. Here is a very simple general sales introduction letter - you can use this or adapt it for most situations as it is very general. This type of expository prompts for 8th introductory letter is ideal for essay in why, new sales situations when you need to generate some sales leads and enquiries before you know your products and markets in great detail, and need to get something moving. This type of letter must be followed up by a phone call - it will not generate a response on its own. Preferably research your prospects first to expository understand something about them, and especially to find the name and address details for the relevant decision-maker.
This type of preparation process of writing an essay letter is low-pressure - it seeks to essay prompts grade establish a connection and offer discussion if timely and essay career goals appropriate for the client. name and address. Dear (Mr/Mrs, etc, name) attention grabbing heading (up to 10 words) (the heading must grab attention - something your prospect will relate to essay prompts for 8th that your proposition will produce - for example, Cost-Effective Sales Enquiry Generation , or Reduce Your Staffing Overheads , or Fast-Track Management Training ) When you next consider your arrangements for research paper on indian telecom industry, (product/service) I would welcome the opportunity to essay prompts for 8th understand your requirements and situation. (Optional) Our customers include (two or three examples, relevant and known to paper telecom the prospect), who have found (state key benefit, % savings, strategic advantage) from working with us. I will telephone you soon to agree a future contact time that suits you/your own review timescale. (Name and signature) (Optional 'P.S.' message) It's very quick and easy to create a simple sales introduction letter like the example above. Many sales people fail to expository prompts grade send anything at all because they take too long creating the letter and organizing the mail-merge, etc. Essay Career Goals Management. If you find yourself falling into this trap remember JFDI - get on expository essay for 8th grade and do it. Then get on the phone and follow it up. Sending a simple professional sales introduction letter overcomes the preparation process, initial obstacle that most organizations use as a defence against sales introductions.
A good simple introductory letter can also establish a level of credibility and professionalism in the mind of the contact and his or her p.a., who is essay prompts grade likely to be the essay in why, person who reads and deals with the expository essay prompts grade, letter first. tips for submissions of inventions, patents, new product ideas and proposals to potential licensee or partner organizations. Submitting inventions, patents and career management new product or service ideas, or new business propositions, to expository for 8th potential licensee companies or partners is a complex area as regards patents and intellectual property (if applicable), but in all other respects is research on writing quite simple. It's just a form of prompts selling. You are selling your idea and yourself.
If your proposal or idea concerns a new invention, then your approach will be influenced by your country or regional laws as to eng 301 mid term how best to protect and register your intellectual property. Expository Grade. In the research on writing, case of inventions, do not leap in and apply for expository essay prompts for 8th grade, a patent without first reading and eng 301 taking advice on expository the best approach for your own situation. Patents are expensive, and moreover they will reveal your ideas when published, which might not be desirable if your idea is malthus population principle still under development, or you are unsure of your aims and strategy. It is important that you research the existing market for similar ideas. Many inventors assume they have come up with an original idea, spend lots of time and money on it, only to find that the idea isn't new or advantageous to the market. Be careful whom you expose your ideas to. Telling people about your ideas without the protection of non-disclosure and secrecy agreements effectively puts your ideas into the public domain and will commonly make it impossible to successfully apply later for a patent. Telling people will also risk your idea coming into expository essay prompts for 8th the hands of research paper on indian telecom people who will use it as their own.
Be careful if you engage one of the many inventors 'agencies'. Some of these are parasitic organisations who will charge you a fee for basically doing what you could have done yourself if you just read and learn for yourself. Prompts Grade. Some are worse and exploit inventors for eng 301 mid term solved papers, extortionate fees, irrespective of whether the expository, inventions have a real chance in the market-place. On Writing. So before engaging an agency of this type, clearly and expository prompts firmly clarify what they will do for you, and check a few references from among their existing inventor customers. Avoid incurring legal costs until you are sure that such services and costs are necessary, and assess this requirement for yourself. If you ask a patent lawyer you can predict what the process of writing an essay, answer will be.
And they'll say you need a lawyer not because they are deliberately exploiting you, it will be because their approach is to err on essay grade the side of caution, in the face of everything and anything that could go wrong. At some stage you may well need a lawyer to help with patents and intellectual property - certainly you will if your venture comes to life and offers a reasonable scale - but wait until you need one before incurring these costs. At some stage as well you will need to consider product liability. Population Principle. It is likely that any licensee or partner will want to essay prompts for 8th grade hold you responsible for ultimate liability for product safety, and although this is commonly negotiable, you need to be aware of the issue at paper industry, the outset. At some point you must ensure suitable insurance is put in expository essay grade place for your own protection in this area. As regards selling your idea, it is essential that you look at and judge your invention or proposal from a marketing and commercial standpoint. Essay Career Goals. Your own subjective personal opinion, or your mum's or friends' views, are irrelevant.
The questions are: Is the invention or new product idea significantly better than anything else currently available? Has anyone else thought of it yet? Is there a market for expository essay for 8th, it? If so how big is the essay in why, market and what is the customer profile? Can the invention or idea be distributed via existing or easily established channels? Can it be developed and manufactured for a cost that will allow a supplier to make a profit on it? Have you taken into account the costs of design development, production development, tooling, origination, packaging, advertising and promotion, sales and expository prompts grade distribution, training, wastage, returns, servicing, replacement, environmental and health and safety implications, corporate social responsibility, and research on writing recovery of other business overheads? Does the profit per item, after all these costs, multiplied by expository essay for 8th grade, the realistic volumes (bearing in mind usual market inertia and resistance to new ideas, and competition alternatives), equate to a financial gain that is big enough to make a significant difference to the profit of the sort of companies you are approaching? If so what is the pay-back timescale, and what is the return on investment for the licensee? Is the return on investment from research paper telecom, your invention better than the expository prompts grade, ROI from other new product or market development options available to population your potential licensees?
Will the invention or new product idea fit with the style, quality, processes, aspirations, etc., of the sort of essay companies you are approaching? Can you demonstrate all of these factors to a potential licensee, in a clear, professional presentation lasting no longer than 30 minutes? When and if you are able to answer these questions positively, then you can feel justified in approaching potential licensees or distribution partners. Research. The fewer of these questions that you can answer positively, then the less likely you will be to succeed. Your plans are likely to encounter some chicken-and-egg dilemmas, for prompts for 8th, example - how do you gauge market reaction if you cannot expose the concept?; and how do you calculate return on investment if you don't know the details of the potential licensee's costs of manufacturing and overheads?
In short you need to be pragmatic and adaptable, develop rough estimates to more precise data as and when you are able. Your entire proposition is telecom industry a rough concept to begin with, in all respects. You must mould it into shape over time. Tighten up the facts and figures as you go along. That's why even very big corporations use the expressions 'cigarette packet' or 'table napkin' when describing early stage new concepts and ideas. Not much is known, but critically the rough estimates stack up into a good-looking business case. You must be sure your idea does too. When you are ready to approach potential licensees make sure you research the organisations and their markets first. It's easy to do this on the web. Phone the expository prompts for 8th, companies also for preparation process, their brochures, and annual reports if available.
This will help you to build a picture of how they operate and prompts for 8th grade what they need. Understand the market, the research, suppliers, the distribution, the essay prompts for 8th, market leaders, and their competitive strengths. Select your potential partners carefully. Perhaps complete a SWOT analysis for eng 301 solved, each. Importantly, understand the basic financials - their turnover, volumes, market shares, typical profit margins - especially gross margins (before operating overheads) - as this helps you compare and assess the gross margins offered by your invention or idea.
And then aim to get meeting with them. Definitely resist explaining your ideas by post or email. You should ideally seek an opportunity to present your invention or idea in person, together with all the supporting business case justification that surrounds it - this is what sells the idea. An idea with a strong business case is far more likely to be considered. When you try to expository for 8th grade arrange your meeting I would not recommend that you write first. Phone first. Phone each company (somebody at head office in the commercial or marketing department is a reasonable start point - if in doubt start with the p.a. to the divisional CEO or general manager) and find out reliably and exactly each of their preferred processes for the submission of research telecom outside inventions or new business ideas. Who are their people who are responsible for assessing new ideas from expository, outside partners?
And then follow their process. It will be different for each company, and will therefore require a different letter for each. I'd add the following points: Expect to malthus principle be asked or better still offer to sign/provide a mutual non-disclosure agreement. Expository Essay For 8th. You need this for your own protection, especially if you have not yet applied for a patent. Malthus. Also, potential licensees - especially big corporations - are commonly concerned that outside inventors' ideas could coincide with their own NPD (new product development), which would create a potential vulnerability for the corporation if the essay for 8th grade, outside inventor is able to claim after a disclosure that they (the inventor) own the idea.
For this reason big corporations have rigorous submission processes which can be off-putting. It's a matter of working with their processes and policies. To approach smaller companies - say below ?200m/$300m size - I suggest you phone the p.a. to the CEO and ask her/his advice how to submit or make your approach. If they don't have a non-disclosure agreement then you should provide one. When you know what sort of letter to write, keep the letter short, and generally try to follow the paper, principles outlined in the guidelines above for other introductory sales letters. The same principles apply - you are selling yourself and your idea - but first you need to sell the appointment. Letters of this sort really need simply to prompts for 8th say that your invention is in the area of (product/service sector), and the market advantages and financial returns will accrue to the licensee.
Do not explain what the invention is in writing until you have exchanged NDA's (non-disclosure agreements), and ideally you should wait to explain/present your invention, and the make-up of research paper telecom your team, in essay prompts person at a meeting. I say 'your team' because the potential licensee will be interested in the people who constitute your company or group (and they will certainly need at essay principle, some stage to essay prompts for 8th grade satisfy themselves that you have suitable integrity, reliability, back-up, etc). The potential licensee will be as concerned about you as they are concerned about the on indian telecom industry, idea. Many corporations already have an established inventor community - these will be trusted people and companies - your challenge is to become one of these, or at least to meet the qualifying criteria (which will certainly require you to prompts possess some commercial and essay in why market awareness, integrity, as well as technical and creative capability - so work on attaining these attributes). Below is a basic template and sample letter for submitting a new idea, invention, or business proposition.
Adapt it according to the process that potential licensee or partner company tells you to follow, (in other words the essay grade, information they need, in order to meet with you). As a final point - resist being bullied by potential licensee companies or potential partners. Do not provide details of your idea until and unless you are happy with the intentions, integrity, and authority of the other party. There will be some corporate marketing executives, product managers, and management technical managers who will want to discover your ideas, but will have no intention (or authority) to grade do anything with them. This is another reason for starting at the top - with the CEO's p.a. - to learn and make use of the organisation's official procedure for the submission of outside ideas and inventions. letters template and malthus population sample - for inventions and expository essay for 8th grade ideas submissions. Adapt this sample letter - use it as a template guide - to suit your own situation. (Company name, address, date and your reference) (use a title that will mean something to the reader, for example: 'unique new product for child education market', or exciting new business proposition for process an essay, sales training sector', or 'innovative new product for the automotive security sector') Further to out telephone conversation on (date) here is an outline of our proposal. I am (brief credibility statement - for example: 'I am an expert in the field of [discipline/technology/market, etc], qualified to [qualifications], with [experience]' or 'I own and run the [name] product development company, which specialises in [market/technology] and expository essay prompts for 8th grade is (accreditations/quality standards/previous achievements]')
We have developed a highly innovative product/solution for the (describe market) sector. Our research indicates that our formula/invention/technology is unique and will offer significant advantage over all available similar and competing products/services. We can prove/show/demonstrate design, development, production, and distribution viability, a likely unit cost of ?/$(cost)/gross margin in essay in why excess of X%, and realisable sales volumes of expository essay prompts for 8th grade Y,000/million units over preparation process of writing an essay N years. We estimate that the investment required for design and development necessary for launch would be in essay grade the region of ?/$(cost). Our idea will deliver the following customer benefits: (list 3-5 points - do not give away invention or idea secrets - focus on what it does that other products cannot, not how it does it) for eng 301 mid term solved, example - can be used under water meets safety standards for pre-school market battery life of five years. We believe that this new product could fit well within the (prospect organisation name) portfolio, given your market strengths, values and customer base, and so we would like to present our ideas to you and your appropriate team.
If you'd like to proceed to the next stage we would expect to sign a mutual non-disclosure agreement, and await your advice on this. I'll call you soon to see if you wish to progress matters. Expository Prompts For 8th Grade. Or please contact me.
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Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs Law Reform. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMCG’s) inhabit an active presence in all states and essay prompts grade, territories in Australia. Some members of these gangs are responsible for essay population principle, serious organised crime and yet the expository, total gang and membership numbers of Australian OMCGs is preparation process rising. According the Australian Crime Commission1. (ACC), Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs are among the most detectable components of Australia’s criminal landscapes and expository prompts, because unlike other criminal organisations who try and keep themselves anonymous, OMCGs on the other hang maintain websites, openly represent themselves through gang patches, tattoos, leather and publicly fight amongst themselves. We will write a custom essay sample.
on Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs Law Reform or any similar. topic specifically for you. These gangs have two sides; one legitimate operation of of writing an essay, business (transport, private security, entertainment and essay prompts grade, construction industries) and then the other in career, the production and distribution of illegal substances and activity such as vehicle rebirthing, serious assault, serious frauds, arson, high tech crime, organised theft, property and traffic offences, money laudering, drug and expository essay prompts, firearms trafficking and much more. Fourty-four gangs in Australia are being of management, interest, with a total of 179 gangs and 4,480+ members in essay prompts for 8th grade, Australia2.. There is population principle a string Pacific Islander and Middle Eastern presence in essay prompts grade, a number of these gangs and in some instances some gang members don’t even ride motorcycles.
Numbers of individuals and process, motorcycle gangs argue that motorcycle gangs are constantly being unfairly targeted. Mr Errol Gildea, President of the Hell’s Angels Motorycycle Club opposed suggestions that motorcycle gangs were involved in prompts grade, organised crimes and commented, “the club does not break the laws as a rule, if individuals do, that is of writing an essay their business. They should be dealt with. Expository Essay For 8th Grade! But we are not an organised crime outfit. ” 3. Gang members say they’ve noticed an increase in the public’s and police officer’s attitude towards them, and blame the government and media, who especially stereotypes and dehumanises them. However, it is of writing an essay noted that the essay for 8th, ‘code of silence’ adopted by OMCGs contributes to the negative perceptions of the clubs and make it difficult for law enforcers to bring justice to individual bikers engaged in criminal activity. OMCGs mainly make their income from the research industry, manufacturing business and distribution of illegal drugs, and by having.
Page 2 Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs Law Reform Essay. a business, mostly being tattoo parlours, they can put some of the income derived from those illegal activities and declare it as income through the business, basically disguising the mass amount of money. Expository Prompts For 8th! “Across Australia, outlaw motorcycle gangs are entrenched in the tattoo industry. Police conservatively estimate 1 in preparation of writing an essay, 4 tattoo parlours are bikie-affiliated. In NSW alone, police have recorded 189 crimes at tattoo parlours over the past 3 years”, says Alex Mann from Abc 7:30 investigation4.. Tattoo parlour businesses that aren’t owned by bikies say that they’ve been branded a bad name. They’ve also seen as big competitors for other businesses. These gangs make up only prompts for 8th a small percentage of Australia’s crime rate by yet this small percentage is troublesome to the government.
They are financially a stress to the government and are hard to expose. To police they’re views are negative as they stuff up society, meaning more they have to domesticate and preparation process of writing, take care of. Legal Issues Increasing prevalence of international connections, with gangs cooperating with other regions overseas and with sophisticated and high-threat organised crime groups operating in Australia and internationally. OMCGs are evolving in expository essay grade, response to changes in criminal environment and attempts by law enforcement to counter their criminal activities. Members play a leading role in Australia’s domestic production and involvement in illicit drug markets; particularly of amphetamine type stimulants. OMCGs also hire external expertise when needed, such as lawyers, accountants, chemists and real estate agents. Pose a serious risk and nuisance to public and their safe being because they are liable to react violently to rival OMCGs to harass their members or for trespassing on their territory (Gold Coast Syd Airport) They are problem in which is growing as both social and of writing an essay, financial cost related to prompts for 8th, gang violence and crime in both Australia and NZ. The issue costs the Australian Government over malthus principle $15 billion dollars annually. Expository Essay Prompts Grade! The Australian Crime Commission conservatively estimates that serious and essay, organised crime costs Australia $15 billion every year.
This cost comprises loss of business and expository essay, taxation revenues, expenditure on law enforcement and regulatory efforts, and social and community impacts of crime. Raising public awareness of crime issues is an important step in minimising the impact serious and research, organised crime can have on the community. The Government has introduced many initiatives aimed to dismantle and investigate OMCGs in Australia. Expository Essay For 8th Grade! The most recent tasks include; The Attero Task Force, established by the Serious and Organised Crime Coordination Committee, an initiative between state and territory law enforcement and Commonwealth agency partners to target, disrupt, disable, dismantle and investigate the criminal activity of the Rebels OMCG in Australia and was the first of is kind to tackle a specific Australian OMCG. June 2012 National Anti-Gang Task Force, which fights gang related crime as well as an Australian Gang intelligence centre to provide national criminal information and trends on gang activity across Australia and its links overseas.
The force includes members from the essay in why, Australian Federal Police, State and Territory Police Forces, Australian Customs, Border Protection, Department of Immigration and Citizenship, the Australian Taxation Office, Centrelink And the Australian Crime Commission. March 2013. Australia’s first national security strategy, ‘Strong and Secure: A Strategy for Australia’s National Security’, which provides a principle framework to guide Australia’s security improvements over the next 5 years. Jan 2013. The Commonwealth Organised Crime Strategic Framework (OCF) and the National Organised Crime Response Plan (OCRP) strengthen varied approaches, organisation, information sharing and combines activities to combat organised crime. As organised crime in Australia continues to grow and transform over time, Australia’s response strategies will also develop and transform to counter new challenges in the fight against organised crime. In recent years, most States and Territories have enacted legislation that gives authorities greater powers to expository essay prompts grade, tackle gang related crime. Often the stated aims of governments when introducing such laws has been to on writing, target the activities of outlaw motorcycle clubs.
However, the legislations never. refer specifically to organisations and also applies to any person or group that meet the terms active in the corresponding Acts. Each State and Territory has there own legislation to combat organised crime groups, including OMCGs. The table5. Essay Grade! contains some brief information regarding the provisions of malthus population principle, each Act, the lawsuit that has taken place in relation to the legislation in Western Australia, South Australia, NSW and Queensland, and expository prompts grade, some of the preparation an essay, amendments that have been made to some of these Acts since they were first introduced. The table starts with South Australia, which was the first jurisdiction to expository prompts for 8th, introduce a control order regime for “criminal organisations”. New South Wales, Queensland, the Northern Territory, Western Australia and Victoria later followed this regime, however Tasmania and the ACT are the only remaining jurisdictions without a control order scheme targeting organised crime. The ACT does not appear in the table; but Tasmania does, because it has a legislative scheme for essay malthus, the making and enforcement of fortification warning and removal notices in place. The following is a brief history of recent events: • February 2008 – the South Australian Government introduced the Serious and Organised Crime (Control) Bill 2007 • September 2008 – the expository prompts for 8th, Serious and Organised Crime (Control) Act 2008 came into research, effect in SA. Under the Act, a group or club can be declared an ‘organised crime group’, which enables various orders to expository for 8th, be made to restrict the essay career, movement and associations of the group’s members.
The legislation was introduced to specifically suppress motorcycle clubs, which are viewed by the South Australian Government to present a major organised crime threat in SA. Responses to the legislation were divided with a number of motorcycle clubs, academics, legal organisations and individuals strongly opposed to the legislation, which has been described as ‘draconian’ and restricting human rights. • March 2009 – a violent confrontation between members of the for 8th grade, Hells Angels and Comancheros Motorcycle Clubs on preparation process of writing, 22 March resulted in the murder of Anthony Zervas at Sydney Airport. His brother, Hells Angel member Peter Zervas was shot and expository, seriously injured in an attack a week later. These events were seen to be a culmination of escalating OMCG violence in essay principle, New South Wales (NSW), which has included drive by shootings and the bombing of an OMCG club house. • April 2009 – The Crimes (Criminal Organisations) Control Act 2009 came into effect in prompts for 8th, NSW. The legislation was introduced as a direct response to OMCG violent criminal activity and provides a mechanism for declaring an organisation a ‘criminal organisation’ and essay malthus, strengthens the ‘capability of the New South Wales Crime Commission to take the proceeds of crime from expository essay prompts for 8th grade these organisations and their associates’. • April 2009 – The Standing Committee of Attorney-Generals (SCAG) discussed ‘a comprehensive national approach to combat organised and gang related crime and to prevent gangs from simply moving their operations interstate’ in response to public concern about the violent and telecom, illegal activities of expository essay for 8th grade, outlaw motorcycle gangs. Of Writing! • June 2009 – The Attorney-General, the Hon. Robert McClelland MP, introduced the Crimes Legislation Amendment (Serious and Organised Crime) Bill 2009 into Parliament on 24 June.
The Bill provides for measures agreed to by state and territory Attorneys-General at their April meeting. Expository Prompts For 8th Grade! The Attorney-General stated that the on writing, measures will: ‘target the perpetrators and profits of organised crime and will provide our law enforcement agencies with the tools they need to combat the increasingly sophisticated methods used by organised crime syndicates’. The most recent issues are from the arise of the new Firearms Laws particularly Bar Lock Out Laws. 2013 Fire Arms The Firearms and Criminal Groups Legislation Amendment Act 2013 (NSW) received assent on 23 October 2013. This legislation, when it commences, will: amend the expository essay for 8th, Firearms Act 1996 (NSW) to empower police officers to enter and search premises occupied by a person who is subject to a firearms prohibition order to determine whether the person is complying with the research, order, to prohibit such persons from acquiring or possessing firearms, and from residing at premises where firearms are present, and from attending certain other places such as gun shops and shooting ranges and to create an offence to give possession of a firearm or firearm part to a person who is not authorised to essay prompts for 8th, possess it. Amend the research paper, Restricted Premises Act 1943 (NSW) to increase penalties for expository essay for 8th grade, offences relating to reputed criminals attending premises and to allow police to search such premises for firearms and other weapons. Amend the Crime Commission Act 2012 (NSW) to enable the Crime Commission to investigate matters relating to essay in why, the criminal activities of prompts for 8th grade, a specified criminal group. The NSW Parliament has passed legislation that will give police more power in managing criminal groups and firearm ownership. 2013 Bar Lock Out Law. As part of research on writing, wide ranging new legislation on outlaw motorcycle gangs, new obligations in the Liquor Act 1992 on licensees and expository essay for 8th, their staff to not knowingly allow persons wearing or carrying prohibited items (such as outlaw motorcycle gangs’ “colours”6. ) into licensed premises.
The new laws, which came into effect on 17 October 2013, provide that licensees, permittees, their employees and approved managers must not knowingly allow a person wearing or carrying a prohibited item into licensed premises (this includes, clubs, pubs, restaurants or any other licensed premises or premises to which a permit relates). The maximum penalty for a breach of this provision is $11,000. 00 (or up to $55,000. 00 for a corporation). The legislation in NSW stretched from Wollongong to Lake Entrance and was placed into action promptly as discussed in the Daily Telegraphs article “Pubs, clubs ban bikies’ colours”7. Some say its effective and others say it’s discriminative, for example the Shoalhaven police say its been effective in the reigon as shown in the abc’s article “Shoalhaven police say bans on bikies colours have been effective”8. Effectiveness The death of several people should not have to be the principle, reason for review of organised crime laws, and shows that Australia attempts at preventing the problem have not been very successful. Although New South Wales has legislated specifically against organised crime, the murder in an airport9. For 8th Grade! area showed that the gangs are often willing to commit crimes even in highly monitored and policed zones in on writing, Australia.
Laws are not enough to prevent and protect Australia from the increase in gang activity. Australian police and lawmakers should also look at countries such as the expository grade, USA, where OMCG crime is even higher by copying the same successful tactics to essay in why, prevent gang crime. Australian police should be able to expository prompts, combat and prevent organised crime. Some ideas include strict curfews in specific urban areas, high police awareness in essay in why, identified gang areas, and anti-loitering laws.
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Dec 19, 2017 Expository essay prompts for 8th grade,
5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the color and contrast that keep the story moving. A cast of characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Instead of expository prompts for 8th, spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. For those times when the story is especially important and preparation of writing meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and essay social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to solved, tell.
I’ve mentioned before that taking on a photo project is one of my favorite ways to reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by expository essay prompts, a larger group. Research Paper On Indian Telecom Industry! A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to expository for 8th, talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and want to know about the glitz and glamour of it all. It’s the perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on and on essay in why, about all of the red carpets, the expository essay grade celebrities, the fame, and the fortune. It also can be extremely satisfying and eng 301 mid term papers kick-start your creative wonderment. By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the expository grade end result.
An example: for essay in why, a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to my clients. I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for expository essay prompts, this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and posted them on paper on indian industry, my personal Facebook page the heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Expository Prompts Grade! Bigger than just the two pictures. She and I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . We photographed hundreds of women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an extremely powerful moment for them. Beyond my beautiful children, the fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments. Research On Writing! It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and essay prompts for 8th becoming a large and powerful project, one of the biggest markers in my career so far.
TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Your images will guide you to essay in why, your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. Expository Essay Prompts Grade! For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to of writing, my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors.
I knew from the first time I met the transport van I wanted to expository, document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to process of writing an essay, temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known. Essay Prompts For 8th Grade! I tear-up every time I see it. I am also put to work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is essay malthus tough. It’s going to take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in expository essay grade, volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more.
I’m not sure yet, but the point is essay in why that I have the images, ready for expository essay for 8th, their time, whenever that is. TIP: If you think there is something to essay in why, it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Essay For 8th Grade! Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and malthus population principle save them until your essay takes shape. Expository For 8th! You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it.
Luckily for of writing an essay, my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over prompts grade shooting. Preparation Of Writing An Essay! Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the expository for 8th more coverage you have, the eng 301 mid term solved papers better. Prompts Grade! This is one of the few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in paper on indian industry, case you need it. Prompts For 8th! Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card.
You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept. TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in essay goals, pieces and photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and for 8th whatever else. This will save you having to return to the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to eng 301 solved papers, reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Grade! Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in eng 301 solved papers, the project. This is where it is so helpful to have someone else help. Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and not your own feelings.
Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the power behind. I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. For 8th Grade! This event is meant to papers, put faces on the survivors and raise awareness, and has been a large local event for expository essay for 8th, years. I was thrilled to of writing, be selected to be the exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience. This made it difficult for me to pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on the power of the image and not my personal feelings. Essay Grade! In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the an essay final image used, as ultimately this is their story.
TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to do with clear eyes. Expository Prompts Grade! We see the mistakes, the mid term solved papers personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on expository essay grade, a project that is essay goals incredibly important to you, or large in scale. For 8th Grade! Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces. Bring in people who are interested in photography and people that aren’t.
People that know about your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at essay in why, all. Expository Essay For 8th! But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for essay population principle, your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Essay Grade! Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more?
Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an essay in why organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to expository prompts grade, take the time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for population principle, your story.
TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and longterm benefit. Expository! Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to an outstanding connection, or more work, and paper on indian telecom industry there is expository essay for 8th nothing wrong with getting those things along with the personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. On Writing! Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in expository essay prompts grade, the comments if you have, or have considered it.
If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category. Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in of writing, People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the country. Expository Prompts For 8th! Her photography can be viewed at www.lynseymattingly.com or on Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. I suffer from the same challenges as you in tip #4.
I get caught up in essay malthus population principle, my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html. Expository Essay Grade! I have an idea for on indian industry, a photo essay I wanted to expository for 8th, pursue, this article helped grow it further. Thank you. Wonderful article. I liked the goals management picture for #3. Essay For 8th Grade! This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for me, the images are just part of the story, but the eng 301 mid term papers words and texts can help define them, giving them context and body. For me, an image rarely works alone and usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and what follows is expository prompts a very important element of each capture, as well. Preparation Process An Essay! One example from prompts, my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Bangkok: I think the research issue in Tip #4 is common to expository prompts, all creative endeavors: We all get too close to research paper on indian, the material.
In a previous life, I was a writer and essay for 8th grade editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the essay in why examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for expository essay for 8th, telling me about paper telecom this!! It pretty much rocks. Prompts! I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro essay in why photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share. I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the terracotta warriors, to essay for 8th, help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. Research! I have never done this before. They are not expecting much.
Just pictures for the event. Essay! However, I wanted to tell a story. A story of these volunteers as well as the orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of whether is that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to research telecom industry, take pictures of people, but take pictures of the story behind the people. Thank you again very much. This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about it. Thank you again for this great article. Expository Essay Prompts For 8th! Really good points and very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at one of essay population, my blogs and expository grade can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the focus similar. the research paper industry shift in essay prompts for 8th grade, focus from 1, 2, 3 and essay in why 5 is radical. 5 the green plant on essay prompts for 8th, the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change.
The drain-pipe is beautiful because the paper on indian telecom eye follows the essay prompts grade path of the essay in why pipe and so tightly focused. It seems to essay prompts, be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and management then sudden change to expository essay prompts grade, green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the same focus.. Malthus! but the dried plants and wall work, the drain beautiful and interesting. Essay Prompts! The green plants against solved papers walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is interesting group and essay prompts for 8th grade should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an preparation process of writing an essay eBook. It took me a long time to figure out how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only publishes to essay prompts for 8th, iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the on writing eBook only on iPads. Photo essays in black and white. This post inspired me to start my website of photo essays. My current ongoing series is about a band I went on tour with and expository the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in context by research, using words to string them together.
Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and through. Grade! Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips. 2006 - 2017 Digital Photography School, All Rights Reserved / Disclaimer.
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Ebook Guaranteed for 2 full months Pay by PayPal or Credit Card Instant Digital Download. Expository Essay! Ebook Guaranteed for 2 full months Pay by preparation process, PayPal or Credit Card Instant Digital Download. PHOTOGRAPHY COURSE Guaranteed for 2 full months Pay by PayPal or Credit Card Instant Digital Download GET DAILY free tips, news and reviews via our RSS Feed Sign up to the free. PHOTOGRAPHY COURSE Guaranteed for 2 full months Pay by PayPal or Credit Card Instant Digital Download GET DAILY free tips, news and expository prompts grade reviews via our RSS Feed Sign up to the free. PHOTOGRAPHY COURSE Guaranteed for 2 full months Pay by PayPal or Credit Card Instant Digital Download.
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Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment. LISTENING COMPREHENSION – THEORY OVERVIEW. This chapter contains an overview of theory related to listening comprehension in EFL environment. First, the importance of listening comprehension is prompts grade discussed. Second, difficulties in essay goals, listening comprehension for EFL learners are illustrated. Third, listening comprehension processing is discussed. Fourth, evidences from previous related research that listening instruction could lead to expository essay prompts improvement, as measured by research on indian industry pre-tests and expository prompts grade post-tests, were discussed. Fifth, nature and characteristics of children’s learning are reviewed. On Writing? Lastly, research questions of the present study are stated. 1. The Importance of Listening Comprehension.
The increased importance of listening comprehension in language learning may be attributed largely to the development of communicative language teaching approach, which attempts to prepare learners to transfer their classroom skills to real-life context, over the past three decades (Asher, 1977; Krashen, 1982; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; Vande Berg, 1993). Essay For 8th? There has been a shift from eng 301 mid term papers, non-teaching listening comprehension in the audio-lingual period to teaching listening comprehension in a strategy-based approach (Mendelsohn, 1998). Before World War II, the teaching of reading was given the most attention while that of expository essay prompts grade listening comprehension was the most infertile and the least understood language skill (Winitz, 1981). Under the essay in why predominant audio-lingual approach in the 1960’s and expository essay the early 1970’s, the teaching of paper telecom industry listening comprehension was still minor. With the increasing interest towards communicative language teaching approach, several researches revealed the importance of listening comprehension (Brown #038; Yule, 1983; Faerch #038; Kasper, 1986; Feyten, 1991; Long, 1985). Listening comprehension has ever since received a lot more attention in language teaching.
On the one hand, technological advances and the growing awareness of the prompts grade importance of listening in research, the world have made listening even more important in the communication process (Mendelsohn, 1998). In current globalized society, with universal and massive exposure to radio, television, satellite broadcasts, and expository essay prompts for 8th grade internet, individuals are expected to be increasingly prepared to receive information through listening and speaking, more than ever before (Dunkel, 1991; Vande Berg, 1993). On the other hand, some scholars (Nord, 1981; Wintiz, 1981) considered proficiency in listening comprehension as a necessary condition for acquiring production language skills, specifically speaking and research on writing writing. The comprehension-based teaching approach supports that students at the beginning level should be allowed to keep silent until they feel safe and expository essay for 8th grade ready to produce the target language. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that students are probably engaged in listening before they are able to essay speak and write in the target language, which means that second language instruction at a beginning level should focus on expository essay developing learners’ listening comprehension ability. Still, other scholars (Dunkel, 1991; Long, 1985; Rost, 1990; Vogely, 1999) stressed that listening is important because it provides input as the raw material for learners to process in language learning.
Without correctly understanding the input, any learning simply cannot begin (Rost, 1994). Furthermore, the failure of listening comprehension of the target language is an impetus, not merely an obstacle, to language learning as well as to process communication interaction (Rost, 1994). The recognition of the importance of listening comprehension has resulted in an increased number of listening activities in students’ textbooks and even in comprehension-based methodology texts designed specifically for teaching listening (Anderson #038; Lynch, 1988; Rost, 1990; Underwood, 1989; Ur, 1984). Several studies have found that through the use of effective pre-listening activities, instructors can increase students’ understanding of the listening passages, which in turn develops their listening proficiency and contributes to expository their mastery of the target language (Herron, 1994; Richards, 1983; Rubin, 1994; Teichert, 1996; Vande Berg, 1993). 2. Difficulties in Listening Comprehension for EFL Learners. The first difficulty in listening comprehension for EFL learners is that they are less likely to share the same schema with native speakers (Ur, 1984; Harmer, 2001). As Kant (1781/ 1963) claimed, new information, new concepts, and new ideas can have meaning only essay management when they can be related to something the individual already knows. This applies as much to second language comprehension as it does to comprehension in one’s native language. The empirical research in the related field has come to be known as schema theory and has demonstrated the truth of Kant’s original observation and expository prompts for 8th grade of the research on writing opening quote from for 8th, Anderson et al (1977). Schema theory research has shown the importance of background knowledge in language comprehension (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart, 1980; Rumelhart #038; Ortony, 1977).
According to schema theory, a text provides directions for process of writing listeners or readers as to how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previously acquired knowledge. This previously acquired knowledge is called the expository grade listeners’ or readers’ background knowledge, and the previously acquired knowledge structures are called schemata (Bartlett, 1932; Adams #038; Collins, 1979; Rumelhart, 1980). The prior knowledge, or schema, that a L2 listener brings to the listening task plays a vital part in interpreting the material, and should be considered in the evaluation of learners’ listening comprehension (Long, 1990; Raphan, 1996). Based on eng 301 schema theory, the process of expository essay interpretation and comprehension is guided by essay in why the principle that every input is mapped against expository for 8th some existing schema and that all aspects of that schema must be compatible with the input information (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Efficient language comprehension requires the ability to relate the solved papers textual input to one’s own background knowledge, which means that understanding words, sentences, and entire texts relies not merely on prompts grade one’s linguistic knowledge but also the knowledge of the on writing world (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). According to essay prompts for 8th Richards (1983), much of our knowledge of the world is organized around scripts, which is our memory about particular situations, the essay population goals, participants, and procedures commonly associated with them, and the information needed to understand is therefore not explicitly present in the utterance but is provided by expository essay the listeners from on indian, their repertoire of expository essay prompts for 8th grade scripts.
This means that the connections between events need not be specified when we talk about them, since they are already known and principle can be inferred. Without the right kind of pre-existing knowledge, or relevant script, comprehension may become very difficult (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983). Non-native speakers may have a different shared knowledge of expository prompts grade cultural reference and discourse patterning in their own language and culture; their individual scripts may differ in certain degree and essay in why content from target language scripts, and that poses additional problems for some foreign language learners who have to work twice as hard to understand what they hear. (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983; Underwood, 1989). The second difficulty is that EFL learners are usually much less familiar with different accents and that they sometimes have considerable problems when they encounter a new accent in expository prompts for 8th grade, the listening process (Kennedy, 1978). Accent is potentially an important variable in listening comprehension (Buck, 2001). Many foreign-language learners who are used to the accent of their own teacher are surprised when they find they have difficulty understanding someone else (Ur, 1984). An unfamiliar accent can cause problems in communication and may disrupt the whole comprehension process (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). Native speakers are generally used to listening to a variety of accents while EFL learners are less exposed to different accents (Buck, 2001). Besides, learners who have more experience in listening to and understand a number of different accents are more likely to be able to essay career goals cope successfully with listening tasks than those who have only heard one or two (Ur, 1984).
Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that it generally takes a L2 learner much longer to adjust to the voice if the expository essay prompts accent is management very different from any with which he is familiar than a native speaker (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). The third difficulty is expository essay prompts grade that EFL learners are less capable of perceiving prosodic features in English speech which have a direct impact on how listeners process and interpret discourse segments (Buck, 2001; Lynch, 1998; Rubin, 1994). The rhythmic pattern of spoken English is one of its distinctive features (Richards, 1983). Unlike many languages in the world that are syllable-timed, which means that the length of time required to pronounce an paper on indian utterance depends upon the number of syllables it contains, English is a stressed-timed language (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). What this means is that the time between stressed syllables is expository prompts for 8th grade reasonably constant in any utterance, and the remaining syllables in the utterance, no matter how many there are, must accommodate to the rhythm established by the stressed syllables (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995).
As a stressed-timed language, the following English sentences would take about the same amount of time to articulate, even though the mid term solved number of syllables contained in essay, each sentence is very different (Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995): The CAT is INTerested in proTECTing its KITTens. LARGE CARS WASTE GAS. The result of the solved stress-timed language is that the words between the stressed syllables are pronounced very quickly, with no stress or mild stress, and if there are more words they are pronounced even quicker to fit in essay prompts grade, the short time, subjecting to research on writing considerable phonological modification (Buck, 2001). Also, Vanderplank (1988) argues that perception of stress is an important factor in rapid and efficient listening comprehension. This adds another dimension to the listener’s task, since listeners must learn the complex set of rules that determine the pronunciation of connected speech and prompts for 8th be able to identify words according to the rhythmic structure within which they occur (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Any lack of such phonological knowledge can pose comprehension difficulty (Buck, 2001). In the research of Henricksen (1984), most native speakers had little difficulty understanding words in their modified form in mid term solved papers, an utterance whereas the presence of phonological modification significantly reduces comprehension for expository prompts for 8th second-language listeners.
In addition, Vanderplank (1985) found interesting differences in native speakers’ and non-native speakers’ ability to perceive stress by research on writing addressing that ‘native speakers were in essay for 8th grade, general agreement as to sentence stress location, while only a small number of paper on indian industry non-native speakers agree with native speaker judgments as to stress location, and the ability to perceive stress location was not significantly linked to level of expository English ability in essay malthus, learners’ (p. 38). Still, Bond and for 8th grade Garnes (1980) agree that speech perception is also subject to what they call ‘heuristic strategies’ such as paying attention to stress, intonation patterns, and stressed vowels. Therefore, listeners need to know how the sound system works in English speech, in order to be able to process natural listening task in real time (Buck, 2001). The fourth difficulty is that hesitation and pausing could cause perceptual problems and essay in why thus comprehension errors for prompts for 8th non-native speakers (Voss, 1979). In his study, 22 non-native speakers of English were asked to listen to a passage of spontaneous speech, about 210 words long. On Writing? Results indicated that nearly one-third of all perception errors were related to essay grade hesitation phenomena. These errors were due to on writing listeners’ either misinterpreting hesitations as words, or parts of words, or to misinterpreting parts of words as hesitations (Voss, 1979).
In contrast, some researches indicated that hesitation and pausing help listening comprehension (Blau, 1990; Blau, 1991; Dunkel, 1988; Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). However, Voss is the only one among these researchers who used real and for 8th spontaneous speech. All of the eng 301 mid term solved other studies used a written text read aloud. Voss (1979) suggests that native speakers are usually not bothered by hesitation phenomena since they possess strategies to recognize and process such phenomena while focusing on meaning, and non-native speakers get stuck in bottom-up processing of phonetic utterances that do not affect meaning, while native speakers discard these utterances in favour of top-down processing. There are indications that in for 8th, some cases hesitation and pausing can help listening comprehension, and in others they may cause problems (Buck, 2001). In the researches of Friedman #038; Johnson (1971) and Johnson #038; Friedman (1971), pauses inserted at meaningful syntactic boundaries can benefit comprehension, whereas random pauses do not. When one-second pauses were introduced into a text at the juncture between clauses, comprehension improved, while pauses inserted randomly into the text resulted in lower levels of comprehension (Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Consequently, the ability to understand spoken English must include the essay malthus population ability to deal with hesitation and pausing (Buck, 2001). Hesitation and pausing also affects our impression of the pace of expository essay prompts speech (Richards, 1983). The impression of faster or slower speech generally results from the goals management amount of expository for 8th pausing that speakers use (Richards, 1983).
Stanley (1978) suggests that when speech was faster, language learners ‘constantly failed to perceive individual phonemes and hence words with which they were already familiar’ (1978: 289). Comprehension declines as the preparation an essay speakers talk faster, and expository essay prompts for 8th the weight of the evidence suggests that the decline in comprehension is telecom industry rather slow until a threshold level is reached, at which time an increased speech rate leads to a much more rapid decline in comprehension (Buck, 2001). Expository Essay Prompts? Griffiths (1990) found potential evidence that speech faster than two-hundred words per essay in why, minute (w.p.m.) is difficult for lower-intermediate learners to understand. He found that this level of students perform best at 127 w.p.m. Moreover, Griffiths (1992) investigated the effects of three different speech rates (127, 188, and 250 w.p.m.) on listening comprehension of second-language learners and for 8th grade concluded that comprehension was significantly better at the slowest speech rate and worse at the higher rates. On the other hand, Blau (1990; 1991) found that speech ranging from research, 145 to 185 w.p.m. did not significantly affect listening comprehension of intermediate- and advanced-level L2 learners. As for the general concept of speech rate, Rivers (1981) cites the following figures: Fast: above 220 w.p.m.
Moderately fast: 190-220 w.p.m. Average: 160-220 w.p.m. Moderately slow: 130-160 w.p.m. Slow: below 130 wpm. Besides, Sticht (1971) quotes a normal speech rate of expository prompts 165 to 180 words per essay in why, minute for native speakers of English. Prompts For 8th Grade? Based on the researches abovementioned, speech rate is one of the variables that affect listening comprehension, which may relate to text variables, such as vocabulary, syntax or topic, type of text used, and amount of background knowledge required (Buck, 2001; Rubin, 1994). The fifth difficulty is that learners tend to think they have to completely understand what they hear, consequently causing anxiety (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Essay In Why? Most foreign-language learners run into a psychological problem: they have a kind of obligation to understand everything, even things that are not important, and prompts for 8th grade they feel discouraged and may even completely give up listening if they encounter an incomprehensible word (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Paper On Indian Industry? Foreign language beginning learners have to understand all when they hear only single words or short sentences. Essay For 8th Grade? However, when listening comprehension passages get longer, they still assume that total comprehension is successful comprehension, and find it very difficult to get used to the idea that they can be competent listeners with less than one hundred percent comprehension (Ur, 1984).
From the anecdotal evidence in the research of research on writing O’Malley et al. (1989), it is found that ”effective listeners seemed to essay grade be aware when they stopped attending and made an effort to redirect their attention to the task’ (p. 428) and ‘ineffective listeners reported that when they encountered an unknown word or phrase in essay, a listening text, they usually just stopped listening or failed to be aware of essay for 8th grade their inattention’ (p. 428). Population? Foreign-language learners have this difficulty probably because their receptive system is expository essay for 8th grade overloaded (Ur, 1984). They have to work much harder at career, decoding than native listeners and essay prompts for 8th try to interpret every detail as it comes up instead of relaxing and taking a broader view. Compared with reading and writing, listening is population principle more stressful for learners since it involves serious time constraints on processing, which cause learners’ anxiety (Ur, 1984).
3. Listening Comprehension Processing. Most models of listening perception in language learning include what is essay for 8th usually referred to as top-down, bottom-up and research interactive processing. 3.1. Top-down processing. In top-down processing, the listeners need to use their pre-existing knowledge to essay for 8th grade interpret or get a general view of the listening passage and to create appropriate and plausible expectation of essay what they are about to come across (Harmer, 2001; Goodman 1967; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991; Smith 1971). Top-down processing occurs as the for 8th perceptual system makes general predictions based on essay malthus population general schemata, or prior knowledge, and then searches the input, either visual or auditory, for information to fit into, or verify these predictions, and thus top-down processing is expository for 8th conceptually-driven or knowledge-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991). In the study of essay in why Shohamy and Inbar (1991), it was reasonably hypothesized that listeners who employed a knowledge-based approach first made predictions about the passage they were about to listen to, basing their predictions on the questions they previewed prior to listening. In the first listening listeners might have checked their hypotheses and only afterwards, in a second listening, may have filled in the information gaps by supplying the local cues. Bacon (1989) and Vande Berg (1993) found that appropriate pre-listening activities could benefit learners’ comprehension for various listening exercises. Advance organizers, such as brainstorming (Vande Berg, 1993), illustrations and key words (Teichert, 1996), picture prediction (Harmer, 2001) and making inferences after listening to a series of sentences (Brown, 2001), can be used to facilitate learners’ top-down processing and help them be engaged in listening tasks. 3.2.
Bottom-up processing. In bottom-up processing, the listener focuses on individual words and essay grade phrases by decoding the linguistic input rapidly and accurately to refute implausible interpretation, and mid term solved achieves understanding by combining these detailed elements together to build up a whole view of the listening passage (Harmer, 2001; Carrell 1983, 1988; Carrell #038; Eisterhold 1983; Rost 1990). Essay Grade? Thus, bottom-up processing is data-driven or text-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Rubin, 1994). There are two types of comprehension strategies identified by Van Dijk and Kintsch (1983): one is local strategies which require learners’ attention to relations and links between the facts denoted by local clauses and sentences, and the other is global/ macro-strategies which require a focus on the overall coherence, gist or topic of a text. Based on the statements above mentioned, it can be concluded that the local strategies are related to bottom-up processing while the global/ macro-strategies are related to research paper on indian top-down processing. Kelly (1991) proposed that in the early stages of foreign language learning, learners rely very much on bottom-up processing when listening and only when they consider that they are making progress to the proficiency and skills in the foreign language, they bring into semantic and other knowledge related to essay for 8th grade top-down processing. Some bottom-up pre-listening activities were proposed by several researchers to make listening comprehension easier. Malthus Principle? Providing listeners with key vocabulary before listening proved valuable in Raphan’s (1996) and Rost’s (2002) studies. Harmer (2001) mentioned a bottom-up processing activity of finding differences between a written text and a recorded account of the same events that can be implemented in teaching listening. Another bottom-up activity for beginning listeners is to listen to a series of sentences and then circle one (out of three) verb form contained in prompts grade, the sentences (Brown, 2001).
3.3. Interactive processing. Listening comprehension is preparation process of writing considered by some researchers as an prompts for 8th grade interactive process between top-down and bottom-up processing and as a continuous modification of a developing interpretation in response to incoming information and pre-existing knowledge (Brownell, 1996; Buck, 1991; Harmer, 2001). Perception occurs when sufficient information has been provided both from the expectations set up by top-down processing and from linguistic input by bottom-up processing (Kelly, 1991). According to Kelly (1991), if the on writing sound signal is expository prompts weak, obscured or incomplete, the listener will probably make greater use of top-down processing; similarly, it is when the career goals management listener’s expectations are low or not sensible that he will need to rely more on the sensory level and to hear clearly what is being said by bottom-up processing, and such view of perception processing would probably fit in with almost all current models of auditory speech perception. Similarly, some studies have indicated that effective listening comprehension takes place when the listener can successfully monitor their interpretation by constantly checking it against the incoming linguistic cues and to modify their hypotheses accordingly (Tyler #038; Warren, 1987; Buck, 1990). In his research, Buck (1990) indicated that a number of listeners monitored the incoming information with what they had already heard before or with their background knowledge to expository develop their interpretation of the listening text.
Further, there were instances in his study that serious comprehension problems had occurred when listeners failed to research notice their developing interpretations were incompatible with the incoming information. In addition, O’Malley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) indicated that bottom-up processing is only fragmentary for efficient EFL listeners; they activate more L1 knowledge in the form of schemata and use both top-down and expository essay prompts for 8th bottom-up strategies to construct meaning. Hildyard and Olson (1982) found that efficient listeners and research paper readers use the knowledge-based interactive mode of text processing, while low level students relate mostly to local details. According to Rumelhart (1980), both top-down and expository grade bottom-up processing should be occurring at all levels simultaneously: bottom-up processing ensures that the process of writing an essay listeners will be sensitive to essay prompts information that is new or contradictory to their ongoing hypotheses about the eng 301 text; top-down processing helps the listeners to resolve ambiguities or to select between alternative possible interpretations of the expository essay prompts for 8th grade incoming data. 3.4. Malthus? Effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up processing. There is prompts for 8th grade continuous discussion about the role of top-down and bottom-up processing in listening comprehension, but little could we conclude whether top-down or bottom-up processing is more important to a listener. Some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension depends more on top-down processing. In the researches of Carrell #038; Eisterhold (1983), Conrad (1981, 1985), Hildyard #038; Olson (1982), Kelly (1991), Meyer #038; McConkie (1973), Rumelhart (1983), Shohamy #038; Inbar (1991), Van Dijk #038; Kintsh (1983), it is found that skilled listeners, like proficient readers, use a knowledge-based mode of text processing, namely top-down processing, whereas less-skilled listeners and readers both attend mostly to essay local details as in the bottom-up processing.
Similarly, Voss (1984) found that ‘successful speech perception depends on an active reconstruction process applying top-down strategies to the acoustic input, i.e., assigning ultimate values to essay for 8th grade segments and essay career goals management other lower-order units on the basis of hypotheses about essay prompts, a larger stretch’ (p. Malthus Population Principle? 148). Grade? In Weissenreider’s (1987) study, schemata which are crucial in top-down processing were found to essay in why be beneficial in expository essay grade, listening comprehension. Her results show that both textual schemata (knowledge about the newscast processing) and content schemata (topic familiarity with specific news) help the listening comprehension of non-native speakers, particularly when participants are capable of incorporating cognitive strategies. Lund (1991) provides evidence for top-down processing in his study by comparing listening and reading of research on writing first-, second-, and prompts grade third-semester university students of German.
He concluded that participants relied considerably on top-down processing in listening tasks. Wolff (1987) worked with twelve- to eighteen-year-old German students of English and found that while students appeared to make a simultaneous use of bottom-up and top-down processing with an easy listening text, they used more top-down processing strategies for more difficult texts. Essay Management? In addition, some researches indicated that beginners rely very heavily on background knowledge and expository essay prompts for 8th hardly use other cues in listening comprehension while learners with better linguistic proficiency use their greater linguistic knowledge and experience to help them understand a text (Mueller, 1980; Vandergrift, 1997). Research On Writing? Thus, providing background information and essay prompts grade previewing are particularly important and effective for the less proficient language student to comprehend a text (Hudson, 1982). Nevertheless, some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension relies more on essay bottom-up processing than on expository top-down strategies. Schemata in top-down processing can also have dysfunctional effects on listening comprehension (Long, 1990; O’Malley et al., 1989). In Long’s (1990) study, participants completed a survey of their background knowledge of eng 301 two topics used, namely, gold rush and rock groups, and he found that participants overextended their gold rush schemata onto a set of data that were clearly incompatible.
It is clear, then, that schemata can hurt, as well as help listening comprehension and it can also be inferred that linguistic knowledge plays a prominent role in comprehension when appropriate schemata are not available to the listener (Long, 1990). 4. Evidences from Previous Research Related to Listening Comprehension. Results from expository, previous research that instruction can lead to listening improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent. On the one hand, there was no significant improvement in the studies of Johnson and Long (2007), O’Malley et al. (1985), and McGruddy (1995). Johnson and Long (2007) assessed listening competency of college students through the mid term solved Watson-Barker Listening Test (Watson #038; Barker, 2000). There were no significant differences between the scores of pre- and post-test after listening instruction, indicating that listening instruction did not influence performance-based listening ability. O’Malley et al. (1985) found differences, but not statistically significant, in the scores at the post-test of essay prompts for 8th EFL learners who received different types of listening instruction. In the research of McGruddy (1995), significant differences in pre-test and post-test were observed merely in a non-standardized listening test rather than in a standardized test. On the other hand, some studies revealed more success in terms of listening instruction. In the study of Nichols, Brown and Keller (2006), the trained group of 31 freshman students made significant gains in essay malthus principle, scores during the period of listening instruction.
In Kohler’s (2002) study, 70 learners of Spanish at a university received listening instruction. Their listening comprehension significantly increased, compared with the non-intervention group. However, there does not appear to expository prompts for 8th have been a pre-test of learners’ listening comprehension, without which it is difficult to conclude Kohler’s claim of research on writing significant improvement in listening comprehension of the prompts grade experimental group. In addition, in the study of Graham and preparation process an essay Macaro (2008), 151 senior high school students of essay for 8th grade French as a foreign language in England were targeted, and a positive impact of listening strategy instruction was noticed. Students who underwent listening instruction significantly outperformed those who did not receive such instruction, and students reported that they themselves recognized this improvement. 5. Management? Characteristics of Children’s Learning. Based on expository prompts grade the theory of Piaget and Inhelder (1969), there are four phases of children’s cognitive development, which are sensory-motor period, preoperational period, concrete operation period and formal operation period. The period of concrete operation generally represents the solved papers elementary school students, ranging from 7 to 12 years old. Children in the concrete operation period begin to think logically. Essay Prompts For 8th? Operations are associated with personal experience and are in concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation.
Children’s learning in this period relies heavily on operational activities, such as objects, pictures and physical experiments. Another theory concerning children’s learning is the scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner, #038; Ross, 1976) which was developed based on the concept of eng 301 mid term solved zone of proximal development proposed by expository grade Vygotsky (1978). Zone of proximal development refers to the differences between the level of actual development and the level of potential development; the level of actual development means children’s actual independent problem-solving competence while the level of potential development means children’s problem-solving competence developed either through the leading or guidance from essay in why, adults or instructors or through the collaboration or cooperation with more competent peers (Wertsch, 1984). The zone, or the expository essay for 8th difference, of papers proximal development does not mean a fixed distance or concrete space of learning; rather, it refers to the possible, learnable scope created by the interaction between people and its changes with the expository essay for 8th grade development of individuals (Cole, 1985; Moll, 1990). Scaffolding, when applied in teaching practices, generally refers to the development of learners’ gradual comprehension of knowledge through the interaction between the instructor and the learners. In such interaction, teachers, as assistants in children’s learning process, provide necessary assistance to foster learners’ cognition with the consideration of learners’ development level. The interaction which is the scaffolding in research, the teaching process generally follows the pattern of expository prompts for 8th question asking from the teacher, replying from students, specific guidance of of writing asking further questions from the teacher, and then replying from students. According to Harmer (2001), young children learn differently from grade, adolescents, and adults in many ways. Children tend to respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words.
They learn from everything around them rather than only focusing on the precise topic they are being taught. Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see and hear and, crucially, from what they have a chance to touch and interact with. In addition, children have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging or interesting they can easily get bored, losing interest after around ten minutes. In the light of these characteristics, teachers at essay in why, this level need to provide a rich diet of learning experiences which encourages students to get information from expository essay prompts for 8th grade, a variety of career goals management sources (Harmer, 2001). Essay Prompts Grade? In addition, in the process of on writing scaffolding in teaching, it is essential for teachers to be skilful in asking questions to activate students’ thinking and creativity, which are helpful in deepening and broadening the language development of the expository essay prompts students. Teachers are suggested to avoid closed-ended, unimportant or forcing questions, but to provide open-ended, supportive or guiding ones to encourage the mid term papers interaction between teachers and students. Teachers need to expository prompts for 8th work with their students either individually or in groups to develop good relationships, and need to paper plan a range of expository essay for 8th activities for a given time period, and to be flexible enough to move on to the essay career goals next exercise when they see their students getting bored. 6. Research Questions of the Present Study.
Listening comprehension is important for expository prompts for 8th EFL learners. Beginning instruction in malthus principle, a second language should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension. In Romania, formal EFL beginning instruction falls in grade, elementary education, a phase in which listening comprehension should be paid attention to. It is likely that listening instruction in elementary school puts more emphasis on bottom-up listening processing than on top-down processing. As Kelly (1991) noted, EFL beginning learners rely very much on preparation of writing an essay bottom-up listening processing, it is possible for elementary students to resort more to bottom-up processing when listening. Although some studies have investigated either the effects of different advance organizers on essay for 8th listening comprehension of undergraduate and junior-high school students (Sherman, 1997; Vande Berg, 1993; Herron, Hanley, #038; Cole, 1995) or how to teach high school students listening skills more effectively, little research has been done regarding the research on writing teaching of grade listening in essay malthus, elementary school, which is the beginning level of EFL learners. From the above discussion in the theory review, little research has targeted elementary EFL learners in terms of listening instruction. Expository Essay Prompts Grade? The effect of process of writing an essay listening instruction, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent in essay for 8th, previous research which mostly involved undergraduate and high school students.
Although it is apparent that listening involves both top-down and bottom-up processing, most elementary English learners tend to focus on population bottom-up rather than top-down processing (Kelly, 1991). Therefore, it would be valuable to investigate the effect of listening instruction as well as the essay for 8th listening processing of elementary EFL learners. The present study focused on three research questions: (1) Do interactive processing teaching activities result in better listening performance than bottom-up teaching activities? (2) Why or why not? (3) When do elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing? To address the telecom research questions, comparison of performance between two groups was conducted after the two groups of participants had respectively received a series of expository prompts for 8th listening instruction, namely interactive pre-listening activities and bottom-up pre-listening activities so that the effectiveness of different pre-listening activities could be evaluated to malthus investigate whether interactive processing activities lead to better performance than bottom-up processing activities. Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered for the interactive group after the post-test to investigate when elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing. Search our thousands of essay prompts for 8th grade essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to essay management a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to expository essay prompts your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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