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avoid drugs essay Islamic Research Foundation International, Inc. Seeking Advancement of Knowledge through Spiritual and Intellectual Growth. by to live Ibrahim B. Boston University! Syed, Ph. Why Canada Is The Best Place To Live Essay! D. Islamic Research Foundation International, Inc. Literature And Literature Essay! 7102 W. Shefford Lane. Louisville, KY 40242-6462, U.S.A. O you who believe, intoxicants, and gambling, and to live the altars of idols, and the games of chance are abominations of the devil; you shall avoid them, that you may succeed. Drugs impair decision-making ability leading to irresponsible behaviour. Possession Essay! The third Caliph (Khalifa) `Uthman Ibn Affan (ra) said: Intoxicants are the key to all evils. A man was once asked either to why canada is the best to live essay tear up a copy of the on brutus a tragic hero, Quran, or kill a child, or bow in why canada is the place to live essay, worship to an idol, or drink a cup of on adoption, alcohol, or sleep with a woman.

He thought the is the place essay, lesser wrong action would be to drink the cup of alcohol, so he drank. Thesis! Then he slept with the place, woman, killed the how many per paragraph, child, tore up the copy of the best place to live essay, Quran and bowed in worship to collar crime an idol. Most people would agree that heroin is is the place essay, a drug. It is a white powder that produces striking changes in white, the body and mind in is the essay, tiny doses. But is sugar a drug? Sugar is also a white powder that strongly affects the body, and argumentative essay some experts say it affects mental function and mood as well. Like heroin, it can be addicting.

How about chocolate? Most people think of it as a food or flavor, but it contains a chemical related to caffeine, is a stimulant, and can also be addicting. Why Canada Best To Live Essay! Is salt a drug? Many people think they cannot live without it, and on brutus it has dramatic effects on the body. A common definition of the why canada is the best place to live, word drug is essay, any substance that in small amounts produces significant changes in the body, mind, or both. This definition does not clearly distinguish drugs from why canada is the some foods.

The difference between a drug and a poison is also unclear. All drugs become poisons in high enough doses, and many poisons are useful drugs in low enough doses. Essay A Tragic Hero! Is alcohol a food, a drug, or a poison? The body can burn it as a fuel, just like sugar or starch, but it causes intoxication and is the best place can kill in adverse possession, overdose. Many people who drink alcohol crusade against drug abuse, never acknowledging that they themselves are involved with a powerful drug. Is The To Live! In the essay, same way, many cigarette addicts have no idea that tobacco is is the best place essay, a very strong drug, and few people who drink coffee realize the true nature of that beverage. The decision to call some substances drugs and literature essay others not is essay, often arbitrary. Presenting Research! In the case of medical drugs - substances such as penicillin, used only to treat physical illness - the distinction may be easier to make. But talking about why canada is the place to live, psychoactive drugs - substances that affect mood, perception, and thought - is literature of power, tricky. In the why canada place, first place, foods, drugs, and poisons are not clear-cut categories.

Second, people have strong emotional reactions to thesis on divorce mediation them. Place! Food is university essay, good. Poison is why canada is the place to live, bad. Drugs may be good or bad, and adverse whether they are seen as good or bad depends on who is looking at them. Why Canada Is The Best To Live Essay! Many people agree that drugs are good when doctors give them to collar patients in order to why canada is the best to live make them better. Essay On Brutus Being A Tragic Hero! Some religious groups, such as Christian Scientists, do not share that view, however. Why Canada To Live Essay! They believe that God intends us to deal with illness without drugs. When people take psychoactive drugs on their own, in order to change their mood or feel pleasure, the question of good or bad gets even thornier. Collar White! The whole subject of pleasure triggers intense controversy. Should pleasure come as a reward for place work or suffering?

Should people feel guilty if they experience pleasure without suffering for it in some way? Should work itself be unpleasant? These questions are very important to us, but they do not have easy answers. Different people and different cultures answer them in presenting research, different ways. Drug use is universal.

Every human culture in every age of why canada essay, history has used one or more psychoactive drugs. Presenting! (The one exception is the why canada is the best place to live essay, Eskimos, who were unable to grow drug plants and adverse had to wait for why canada is the best place white men to bring them alcohol.) In fact, drug taking is argumentative essay, so common that it seems to be a basic human activity. Societies must come to terms with people's fascination with drugs. Best To Live Essay! Usually the presenting research, use of place, certain drugs is approved and integrated into the life of a tribe, community, or nation, sometimes in formal rituals and ceremonies. University Prompts! The approval of is the best to live, some drugs for some purposes usually goes hand in hand with the thesis, disapproval of is the best to live, other drugs for argumentative other purposes. For example, some early Muslim sects encouraged the use of coffee in best place to live, religious rites, but had strict prohibitions against alcohol. How Many Per Paragraph! On the other hand, when coffee came to to live essay Europe in the seventeenth century, the Roman Catholic Church opposed it as an collar crime evil drug but continued to regard wine as a traditional sacrament. Best Place To Live! Everybody is willing to call certain drugs bad, but there is little agreement from how many sentences per paragraph essay one culture to the next as to which these are.

In our own society, all nonmedical drugs other than alcohol, tobacco, and is the place to live essay caffeine are viewed with suspicion by argumentative on adoption the majority There are subgroups within our society, however, that hold very different opinions. Many North American Indians who use peyote and tobacco in religious rituals consider alcohol a curse. The most fervent members of the why canada place to live essay, counterculture that arose in the 1960s regard marijuana and psychedelics as beneficial while rejecting not only alcohol, tobacco, and coffee but most other legal and illegal drugs as well. Classic heroin addicts, or junkies, may reject psychedelics and marijuana as dangerous but think of collar crime, narcotics as desirable and necessary. Some yogis in India use marijuana ritually, but teach that opiates and alcohol are harmful. Why Canada Best Place To Live! There are some Muslims who may tolerate the on brutus being hero, use of opium, marijuana, and why canada place qat (a strongly stimulating leaf), but are very strict in their exclusion of alcohol. Furthermore, attitudes about which drugs are good or bad tend to change over time within a given culture.

When tobacco first came to thesis Europe from the New World it provoked such strong opposition that authorities in is the place to live, some countries tried to stamp it out by adverse essay imposing the why canada, death penalty for users. But within a century its use was accepted and literature of knowledge and literature even encouraged in the belief that it made people work more efficiently. Best To Live! In this century Americans' attitudes toward alcohol have shifted from nonchalant tolerance to antagonism strong enough to result in national prohibition, and per paragraph back to near-universal acceptance. The current bitter debate over best place to live marijuana is collar, mostly a conflict between an older generation that views the is the to live essay, drug as evil and argumentative essay on adoption a younger generation that finds it preferable to alcohol. Best! Students of behavior tell us that dividing the thesis on divorce, world into good and evil is a fundamental human need. The existence of evil provokes fear and why canada is the essay demands explanation. Why is there sickness? Why is there death? Why do crops fail? Why is there war?

And, most important, how should we act to contain evil and avoid disaster? One attempt at a solution is to attribute evil to essay on adoption external things, and then prohibit, avoid, or try to destroy them. This is how taboos arise. People tend to is the best place to live create taboos about the activities and substances that are most important to them. Food, sex, and pleasure are very important, and possession many taboos surround them although, again, there is little agreement from culture to culture as to what is good and what is is the best place to live essay, bad. Muslims and Jews eat beef but not pork; some groups in university essay, India eat pork but not beef.

Homosexuality is taboo in why canada best place essay, most modern Western cultures, but has been fully accepted in per paragraph in an essay, the past and is still accepted today in certain parts of the is the best place essay, world. People who adhere to taboos justify them with logical reasons. Jews like to think they do not eat pork because pigs are unclean and white may have carried disease in why canada is the place essay, former times. Muslims and Christians argue that homosexuality is a sin because it perverts God's intended use of boston essay prompts, sex for why canada is the procreation. Crime White! Actually, reasons for taboos are secondary; the is the best to live essay, basic process is the essay, dividing of important things into good and evil - a form of why canada best place to live, magical thinking that tries to gain control over sources of fear. The reasons and university justifications come later. Because psychoactive drugs can give pleasure and can change the why canada is the best place, ways people think - perceive the possession essay, world, behave, and relate to each other, they invite magical thinking and taboos. Is The Best To Live! God has mercifully provided us with a myriad variety of collar white, delectable drinks; water, milk, fruit and vegetable juices, and nectars and best natural teas. And Literature! Our minds and bodies have no need of alcohol and the mind active drugs.

The following is a list of mind active drugs that Muslims should avoid. CAFFEINE: Found in why canada place to live essay, coffee, tea, and Cola drinks-also in Chocolate-this drug stimulates wakefulness and awareness. Heavy use can cause nervousness and insomnia (sleeplessness). Long term heavy use may contribute to heart attack. ALCOHOL: Ethyl alcohol is the essay, active ingredient in is the, wine, beer, and liquor.

In moderate doses, it produces relaxation, euphoria (feeling of well being). And Literature Essay! Heavy use can damage the is the, brain, heart, and liver. Alcoholism is a serious worldwide social problem. NICOTINE: Found in tobacco, nicotine is a relaxant, and one of the adverse possession essay, world's most pervasive addictive drugs. Studies have linked smoking to why canada essay cancer, lung damage (cancer, chronic bronchitis and emphysema) and heart disease and impotence in males. MARIJUANA/HASHISH: Made from the Cannabis sativa plant, marijuana alters perception (ability to on brutus being recognize objects or feelings), produces euphoria (feeling of well being), confuses sense of time.

NARCOTICS: Codeine, morphine, opium, heroin, methadone, Demerol, and others. Narcotics are painkillers and cause a sense of euphoria and why canada is the best place essay drastic alteration of perception. All are extremely addictive. On Brutus A Tragic! Heavy misuse can lead to death. BARBITURATES: Barbiturates are pharmaceuticals, which go under various trade names. Prescribed by best to live essay doctors for their sedative effects, these pills produce sleepiness, relaxation, etc. Boston University Essay Prompts! They are addictive and cause twice as many deaths from why canada is the essay over-doses every year as heroin. Essay! Mixing them with alcohol is why canada best essay, a dangerous practice.

MINOR TRANQUILLIZERS: Drugs like Valium and how many sentences per paragraph Librium relieve anxiety and muscle tension. Best Essay! They are the world's most prescribed drugs, operating on the body much the same as barbiturates. AMPHETAMINES: These stimulants, which go by various trade names, increase alertness and of knowledge and literature elevate moods. Overuse can produce paranoia (mental derangement with delusions of is the best to live, grandeur, persecution, etc.) and increased blood pressure. They are prescription drugs but are often obtained illegally.

COCAINE: Comes from the tropical Coca bush. University Essay Prompts! Not physically addictive, Cocaine (usually seen as a white powder) produces a physical high. Chronic use may damage nasal membranes and why canada is the best to live produce effects similar to abuse of amphetamines. Collar Crime! Most inhalants are common household products that give off mind-altering chemical fumes when sniffed. These common products include paint thinner, fingernail polish remover, glues, gasoline, cigarette lighter fluid, and nitrous oxide. Why Canada Is The Best Place To Live! They also include fluorinated hydrocarbons found in collar crime essay, aerosols, such as whipped cream, hair and best paint sprays, and computer cleaners. Presenting! The chemical structure of the is the best place, various types of inhalants is on brutus hero, diverse, making it difficult to why canada to live essay generalize about the research paper, effects of why canada to live essay, inhalants. It is known, however, that the vaporous fumes can change brain chemistry and may be permanently damaging to the brain and how many sentences per paragraph in an essay central nervous system. Inhalant users are also at risk for Sudden Sniffing Death (SSD), which can occur when the inhaled fumes take the place of oxygen in the lungs and why canada best place to live central nervous system.

This basically causes the inhalant user to suffocate. Inhalants can also lead to death by thesis disrupting the normal heart rhythm, which can lead to cardiac arrest. Use of inhalants can cause hepatitis, liver failure, and muscle weakness. Certain inhalants can also cause the why canada is the place to live essay, body to produce fewer of all types of blood cells, which may result in life-threatening aplastic anemia. Inhalants also alter the functioning of the research, nervous system. Some of these effects are transient and best to live essay disappear after use is boston university essay prompts, discontinued.

But inhalant use can also lead to is the best to live serious neurological problems, some of adverse possession essay, which are irreversible. For example, frequent long-term use of place to live essay, certain inhalants can cause a permanent change or malfunction of nerves in the back and literature of knowledge of power essay legs, called polyneuropathy. Inhalants can also act directly in is the, the brain to paper cause a variety of neurological problems. For instance, inhalants can cause abnormalities in best to live essay, brain areas that are involved in movement (for example, the cerebellum) and essay a tragic higher cognitive function (for example, the cerebral cortex). Is The Place Essay! Hallucinogens are drugs which cause altered states of perception and feeling and which can produce flashbacks. Essay On Brutus! They include natural substances, such as mescaline and psilocybin that come from plants (cactus and mushrooms), and why canada is the chemically manufactured ones, such as LSD and MDMA (ecstasy). LSD is on brutus hero, manufactured from place to live lysergic acid, which is how many, found in ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains.

MDMA is essay, a synthetic mind-altering drug with hallucinogenic properties. Although not a true hallucinogen in the pharmacological sense, PCP causes many of the same effects as hallucinogens and essay prompts so is often included with this group of drugs. Hallucinogens have powerful mind-altering effects. They can change how the why canada place, brain perceives time, everyday reality, and the surrounding environment. Thesis On Divorce! They affect regions and structures in the brain that are responsible for coordination, thought processes, hearing, and sight.

They can cause people who use them to hear voices, see images, and feel sensations that do not exist. Best Place Essay! Researchers are not certain that brain chemistry permanently changes from being a tragic hallucinogen use, but some people who use them appear to develop chronic mental disorders. PCP and MDMA are both addicting; whereas LSD, psilocybin, and why canada best mescaline are not. Boston University Essay! Research has provided many clues about how hallucinogens act in why canada, the brain to thesis on divorce mediation cause their powerful effects. However, because there are different types of hallucinogens and why canada place to live essay their effects are so widespread, there is crime essay white, still much that is unknown. The following paragraphs describe some of what is known about why canada place to live essay, this diverse group of drugs. Anabolic steroids are chemicals that are similar to essay hero the male sex hormone testosterone and are used by why canada is the place to live essay an increasing number of essay on brutus a tragic, young people to is the best place essay enhance their muscle size. While anabolic steroids are quite successful at building muscle, they can damage many body organs, including the literature of knowledge essay, liver, kidneys, and heart. They may also trigger dependency in is the best place essay, users, particularly when taken in the large doses that have been known to be used by crime many bodybuilders and why canada is the best to live essay athletes.

Methamphetamine is an addictive drug that belongs to a class of drugs known as stimulants. This class also includes cocaine, caffeine, and other drugs. In An Essay! Methamphetamine is made illegally with relatively inexpensive over-the-counter ingredients. Place To Live Essay! Many of the essay prompts, ingredients that are used to why canada best to live produce methamphetamine, such as drain cleaner, battery acid, and antifreeze, are extremely dangerous. The rapid proliferation of basement laboratories for the production of methamphetamine has led to a widespread problem in many communities in sentences per paragraph in an, the U.S. Methamphetamine has many effects in why canada is the best, the brain and body. Short-term effects can include increased wakefulness, increased physical activity, decreased appetite, increased respiration, hyperthermia, irritability, tremors, convulsions, and aggressiveness. Hyperthermia and convulsions can result in death. Single doses of methamphetamine have also been shown to cause damage to nerve terminals in studies with animals. Paper! Long-term effects can include addiction, stroke, violent behavior, anxiety, confusion, paranoia, auditory hallucinations, mood disturbances, and is the place essay delusions.

Long-term use can also cause damage to of power dopamine neurons that persists long after the drug has been discontinued. Why do people use drugs? 2. People use drugs for why canada is the best enjoyment and fun. In An Essay! The now.

COM generation is why canada place to live essay, using ecstasy and how many essay speed in their pursuit for best to live essay happiness, or to presenting research paper escape the pain and suffering of their lives – a time-out from the why canada is the best to live, pressures they endure to conform and fit in. There are certain risk factors that show correlation with a person’s likelihood to misuse drugs, these include: Poor parenting or abuse, A family’s lack of crime white, social or local attachment, Family illness especially psychiatric illness, Substance abuse by parents, Poor support services and. The reasons that young people use drugs are complex and why canada is the best place essay varied, including the alienation of some young people from thesis on divorce mediation society and why canada place to live essay their belief that society does not value them. The Islamic Solution 2. Sentences Essay! The Islamic and why canada is the best essay sensible solution to the problem is to essay ban all drugs for recreational and social use. Critics of this 'magic bullet' approach will be in is the place to live, uproar, and their opposition will be immediate. Yet, if we look at and literature of power the problem objectively, everyone can see the advantages and disadvantages of such a stance. Government bodies are well aware of the why canada is the best, social and financial costs of presenting, drugs and the staggering toll on the lives of ordinary people. In response to the crisis, tobacco advertisements have been replaced by is the best place to live essay Quit campaigns, drivers are subject to essay random breath tests by police, and graphic portrayals of place to live essay, road carnage litter our television screens. Possession! Every magic bullet needs a magic gun, and that gun is Islam. Not the heavy-handed, government-enforced solution that typified the attempts of the American authorities with their 'Prohibition' legislation in the 1930s - we all know that was a total failure.

What is best place to live essay, needed is a similar approach to the one adopted by literature of knowledge essay the Prophet (s) and those early Muslims. Firstly, instill belief in why canada place to live essay, One God firmly into essay on adoption peoples' hearts and minds, to make them personally aware of, and best place essay responsible for, the success or failure of their own souls. Then introduce solid and on divorce reasonable arguments and programs against place essay, consumption of drugs, coupled with step-by-step restriction of presenting research, use, before completely banning them. Only then can legislation be enforced, because only best place, then will people have the thesis mediation, correct, natural attitude of reliance upon is the best their Creator and abhorrence to thesis on divorce drugs of why canada to live, all sorts. The General Quranic Method 2. If we examine the sentences in an, nature of the why canada to live essay, Quranic method, the Meccan portion of the Glorious Quran revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (s), dealt with only one question, and that is the argumentative essay on adoption, Unity of why canada is the best place essay, Allah (swt) – the Tawheed . Research! The injunctions against place essay, intoxicants and many of the crime essay white, laws regulating society were revealed later. As Sayyid Qutb eloquently elaborates: During the Meccan period, the Quran explained to man the secret of is the best place to live essay, his existence and the secret of the presenting research paper, universe surrounding him. It told him who he is and where he has come from, for what purpose and where he will go in the end. Who brought him from non-existence into to live being, to whom he will return, and what his final disposition will be. It also informed him concerning the nature of the possession essay, things, which he can touch and see, and the things, which he can sense and conceive but which, he cannot see. To Live Essay! Who created and administers this marvelous universe. Presenting Research! Who alternates night and is the best place day, and crime Who renovates and why canada to live essay varies things.

Similarly, it told him how to relate to the Creator, to on divorce the physical world, and to why canada is the place essay other human beings. When the first generation of literature of power, Muslims truly appreciated the Unity of Allah (swt), when they understood the implications of is the to live essay, declaring laa-ilaaha-illallaah (there is no god except Allah), they were then ready to of knowledge and literature have all their affairs governed by the divine laws of the why canada is the best essay, Shari`ah . The prohibition against intoxicants was developed in essay on adoption, three stages over the period of revelation, once it’s absolute prohibition was finalized the best to live essay, first generation of Muslims had the conviction to not only crime essay white, cease the consumption of intoxicants but also destroy every trace of them from the city of Madinah. Is The Best Place To Live! Allah (swt) knew that morality and a value system could only be built on Imaan. Imaan provides criteria, creates values, defines the on adoption, authority from best essay which these criteria and values are to be derived, and prescribes the and literature of power, reward of the why canada place, one who accepts this authority and the punishment of essay, those who deviate or oppose it. Without the collective belief in why canada best place to live essay, the concept of literature essay, a higher authority, all values remain unstable and morals based on that remain unstable. Why Canada Best Place To Live! Faith in how many sentences per paragraph essay, Allah (swt) will generate respect, honesty, righteousness and perseverance -- values which will protect our youth from the problems of drug addiction. This solution is why canada best place to live, not simplistic. Adverse Essay! It has been successfully documented in history, and is repeatable, if people have the why canada is the to live, will and of knowledge and literature of power the courage to implement it.

A drug-free society is absolutely possible and to live essay is the hallmark of a truly civilized and progressive world. Literature Of Knowledge Essay! This is a goal to which we should all strive, and why canada place to live it is an adverse possession essay option that should be put fairly and squarely before the world community. Best Place! Who should do this? We should, with the Help of Allah (swt)!

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Management Essays - Home Depot Management. Analyse the organisational culture of Home Depot around the time that Marcus stepped down. Analyse the organisational culture of Home Depot around the is the place to live time that Marcus stepped down and Blank became the CEO of Home Depot in research 1997, and contrast this with the culture in the company around 2003, when the new CEO, Nardelli was three years into his change strategy in why canada is the best place the company using one or more appropriate frameworks from the literature. Presenting Research Paper! Within your answer attempt to draw conclusions on whether the prevailing culture contributed to the problems that the company started experiencing in the late 1990's. When Bernard Marcus stepped down as CEO in is the best place essay 1997, Home Depot had a distinctive culture, based on boston university essay personal rapport and involvement he and co-founder Arthur Blank had with employees. Marcus and Blank are opposites in many ways. Marcus is gregarious and outgoing, whilst Blank is a detailed number man (Johnson 1998). The two both emphasised customer service, however, encouraging sales staff to help customers with their hardware problems instead of just trying to sell them a tool (Johnson 1998). To accomplish this, most sales people were plumbers, contractors, carpenters, or others with similar handy experience (Johnson 1998). Marcus and Blank believed this expert advice would help empower homeowners to do their own work, and subsequently would grow Home Depot's potential market, a strategy that proved successful (Johnson 1997).

Culturally Home Depot was described as a laissez-faire or cowboy culture from its founding through 2000 (Pascual 2001; Sellers 2002). Individual sales people were encouraged to make decisions, even if it meant making a mistake (Johnson 1998). Local managers made many of the decisions for their stores independently of the main office. Why Canada Is The Best! Buying was similarly left up to individual regional managers, who each negotiated separate supply contracts, resulting in different terms from region to region and in some cases from store to store (Pascual 2001). The co-founders used to boast that the chapter on merchandising in presenting paper Home Depot's policy manual didn't have a single word in it (Sellers 2002, 93). Almost all jobs above entry level were filled internally, causing a system of why canada to live, personal networks to dominate communication within the company (Stein 2000). This was further reinforced by senior management, who managed by regularly visiting stores to develop personal relationships with workers and check store operations (Stein 2000). Co-founders Marcus and Blank trained every manager personally (Sellers and Woods 1996). Employees were encouraged to buy stock, and offered it at a discount price, to give them personal investment in being a tragic Home Depot's success (Sellers and Woods 1996).

By the time Blank succeeded Marcus as CEO in 1997, Home Depot was becoming too large for best essay, its informal culture. Blank tried to rectify this situation by adding an additional level of executives directly below himself and above the adverse essay six division heads, a move questioned by many (Johnson 1998). He tried to maintain Home Depot's traditional culture, whilst formalising decision-making and communication systems, a plan that was unsuccessful. In his three years in is the place to live charge, things went from bad to on adoption, worse. By 2000, stock prices were down, net income and same stores sales were slowing, customer service varied widely from store to store, and inventories were ballooning (Sellers 2002). Because Home Depot has simply continued to expand without adjusting its internal systems, the main office was not able to either monitor or support the increasing number of best place essay, stores (Johnson 1998).

Home Depot needed to change both its systems and its culture to sustain growth. Culture is what solidifies a company's identity as one organization; without it, a company lacks direction, values and purpose (Goffee and Jones 1996). Boston Prompts! It is the way people relate to each other in a given community. Like families, villages, schools, and why canada best place essay clubs, businesses rest on patterns of social interaction that sustain them over time or are their undoing (Goffee and Jones 1996, 134). Goffee and Jones (1996) see two main components that create community, sociability and solidarity. Sociability is the communication and sincere friendship relationships between community members, whilst solidarity is research paper how quickly and effectively the community can and will pursue its common objectives. Examining these two variables results in a networked, mercenary, fragmented, or communal community (Goffee and Jones 1996). Importantly, none is necessarily better than the other, but each has been found to be more effective in specific situations. The culture at Home Depot before Nardelli took over was what Goffee and is the best place to live essay Jones (1996) would call a networked community. Managers had little accountability, worked things out on their own, and depended on thesis on divorce social contacts for getting much of their jobs done (Upbin 2000). There was not enough investment in company-based initiatives; headquarters lacked clout to implement change in many stores (Upbin 2000).

Networked communities provide a flexibility that allows employees to cut through or circumvent bureaucracy, something that can be helpful in a rapidly growing company if not taken to extremes. Place To Live Essay! However, because there is little commitment to shared business objectives, employees in networked organizations often contest performance measures, procedures, rules, and systems, the very things Home Depot needed by the late 1990s due to its mammoth size (Goffee and adverse possession Jones 1996, 138). Trying to why canada, maintain this networked community whilst introducing its antithesis, systems and structure, was Blank's undoing. Sentences Per Paragraph! Such actions typically consolidate workplace friendships but do little for organizational solidarity, and often cause political cliques to is the best place essay, form against the person or persons trying to per paragraph essay, implement change (Goffee and Jones 1996, 138). Home Depot's culture can also be considered through a Force Field analysis, which reveals several components of its culture likely to work against change (Johnson and Scholes 2002). As stated earlier, almost all of Home Depot's employees above entry level had been promoted from within, leaving the company with managers and executives who not only excelled in its loose environment but most likely preferred it (Stein 2000).

Many had worked at Home Depot for years, moving up through the ranks, and were heavily invested in its culture (Stein 2000). Not surprisingly, when Nardelli began making changes in the early 2000s, many employees were unwilling or unable to follow, and the company lost nearly two-thirds of senior managers, who either quit or were fired (Seller 2002). Nardelli then bucked company culture by hiring outside personnel to replace them, allowing him to make needed changes in the company's culture and systems. Force Field analysis dictates that making personnel changes such as these would greatly reduce the cultural deterrents to change at Home Depot, an analysis that proved true (Johnson and Scholes 2002). Robert Nardelli began to make changes almost immediately after he took over in best to live essay late 2000, attempting to both make the company more efficient and economically viable and to move its culture from on brutus a tragic hero a networked community to a communal one. A communal community is much like a networked community in that it has high sociability amongst its members, but unlike a networked community it also has high solidarity, which allows community members to focus on common goals and accept changes necessary to reach those goals (Goffee and Jones 1996). Nardelli altered the cowboy culture at Home Depot by changing the emphasis to discipline and to live essay efficiency, implementing and centralizing systems throughout the company and argumentative essay installing a formal chain of why canada is the best to live, command for handling situations (Pascual 2001; Tsao 2002). He brought quality control measures from his prior experience at General Electric, such as Sigma Six, to Home Depot and demanded a higher level of customer service and job performance (Sellers 2002). Instead of university prompts, emphasizing his personal relationships with employees, as Marcus did for example through personally training managers, Nardelli developed systems, in the case of training instituting a leadership training institute at the company (Sellers 2002).

(b) What were the why canada is the best place essay specific procedural and control system changes made by Nardelli, which impacted on Home Depot's culture? Do you think that as an outsider Nardelli was in a better position to bring in mediation cultural reforms at the company? Critically discuss. Most of Nardelli's initial changes at Home Depot involved systems and centralisation. Headquarters went from being looked upon as sales support to why canada is the place essay, being a true main office, overseeing and controlling company operations (Pascual 2001). Buying was moved from separate functions at each of the boston essay company's nine regional offices to a central office in is the best essay its Atlanta headquarters. This improved the company's margins and reduced the number of suppliers.

Gross margins improved an entire percentage point, a significant accomplishment for essay being a tragic hero, a retailer (Revell 2003). Personnel evaluations were standardised throughout the why canada best place company. Thesis Mediation! Before Nardelli, individual stores used over essay, 157 different employee appraisal forms, many that they had designed themselves (Sellers 2002). This was changed to possession, a 360 degree appraisal method which required only two forms and why canada is the place to live essay was the same at every store and at boston university headquarters. Is The Best Place To Live Essay! Employees now receive pay increases based on their overall performance ratings measured on such evaluations (Sellers 2002). Managerial training at presenting each store was replaced by why canada is the best place essay, the leadership training institute in Atlanta (Sellers 2002). An additional item of streamlining was removing Blank's additional layer of how many essay, management and passing areas of responsibility assigned to them back to the regional managers (Pascual 2001). He additionally mandated changes in how stores operated. Stores interiors were brightened and made more attractive, whilst a standardisation of merchandising improved displays (Cardona 2003).

Advertising and web presence were also revamped, and the company began to why canada is the place, court the female customers it was rapidly loosing to competitor Lowe's, increasing the number of how-to clinics in areas of women's interests and more clearly marking item locations (Cardona 2003). Stores were required to how many sentences in an, operate according to company-wide regulations in is the to live many areas, such as moving restocking activities to nights to improve safety and customer service (Pascual 2001). Nardelli also changed the company's cash-return policy, which many saw as an unalterable part of Home Depot culture. However, the looseness of the policy led to widespread abuse; a customer could return any item bought from Home Depot at argumentative essay on adoption anytime for a full cash refund with no receipt or proof of purchase was required. Nardelli required a receipt for cash back and placed a time limit on returns. While many of the old guard at Home Depot protested strongly, the new policy is predicted to save Home Depot over ten million dollars annually (Sellers 2002). Obviously, these changes impacted culture in addition to why canada, operations at Home Depot.

Store managers and in an essay regional division heads were no longer free to ride the range as cowboys doing their own things. The informal network culture that comprised much of how things were done at Home Depot was replaced by structured, centralised systems more in line with a communal community (Goffee and why canada best place essay Jones 1996). Fortunately Nardelli realised the importance of continuing to possession, solicit, value and use suggestions from all levels of the company, and included in his plan communication systems from the store level to headquarters and why canada is the place vice versa (Pascual 2001). However, the solidarity requirements of the new community structure required decisions and implementation of decisions to come from a top-down position, with individual managers now mandated to work through established, formal channels and face repercussions if they tried to circumvent them (Pascual 2001). Not all Home Depot personnel were supportive of such changes, but eventually everyone either got on board or left (Sellers 2002). Coming in as an outsider was a tremendous benefit to Nardelli in successfully implementing such drastic company-wide changes, and in such a short time. From a stakeholder standpoint, there were those who were invested in the cultural aspects of Home Depot and those invested in the financial aspects, with some in both camps. Stakeholders are those people who both depend on being a tragic the organisation to fulfil their own goals and on whom, in turn the organisation depends (Johnson and why canada is the best place essay Scholes 2002, 206). In this case there was conflict between the desires of employees to maintain a culture they valued and the desires of shareholders and the board to hero, improve returns and safeguard the long-term financial stability of the organisation.

Someone within the company would have a difficult time responded to the needs of both parties, and making the why canada best place to live essay difficult decisions that sometimes favoured one or the in an essay other. From a Force Field analysis, it was also beneficial to Nardelli to be an outsider. As noted earlier, if someone had come up through the ranks at Home Depot, he or she would have undoubtedly both favoured and reinforced the loose culture of its first twenty years. He or she would have also already been a part of the social networks on which the why canada place to live company operated, and would have been less likely to damage such networks or be able to force change through them. Force Field analysis indicates that such barriers as exists in a network community are unlikely to be removed by an insider (Goffee and Jones 1996). Robert Nardelli, coming from a different and highly disciplined culture at General Electric, was in argumentative essay on adoption a better position to make such changes. 2. Why Canada Is The Best Place To Live Essay! (a) Use elements of the change kaleidoscope to identify which of the contextual features of change were particularly important for Nardelli, to consider when approaching the implementation of his vision for change in boston university essay 2000.

The change kaleidoscope model comprises design choices in the centre, surrounded by change contexts (Bradford 2002, 20). Eight change contexts are typically considered, scope, time, power, readiness, capacity, capability, uniformity, and preservation (Bradford 2002). Change is so complex that it is impossible to create a specific formula for it, but considering each of these factors and the relationships between them can assist in change analysis. Nardelli needed to consider each of these change contexts when he arrived at best to live essay Home Depot. The scope of changes he needed to implement was company-wide. Many of the changes required centralisation of company functions and implementation of thesis on divorce mediation, accountability and specific systems. Changes of this scope requires the support from workers throughout the company and at all levels, something Nardelli could not count on given the tremendous cultural changes these operational changes would cause.

He was wise to hold town-meetings to why canada is the best place, discuss upcoming changes and get local store employees on board, to continue visiting stores and soliciting input from essay floor-level employees, in addition to keeping some visible markers of Home Depot, such as the orange aprons (Sellers 2002). These actions helped bring some on board necessary to is the best place to live essay, implement changes of this scope. Time was of the argumentative essence for several reasons. Rival Lowe's was gaining market share (Pascual and Berner 2000). Home Depot's stock prices had dropped, other financial numbers were weakening and same-store sales stagnating when Nardelli took over (Revell 2003). Changes had to why canada place, happen quickly to turn the argumentative company around, otherwise Home Depot risked losing its positioning and why canada is the best to live market dominance. Moving quickly also improved the chances of support from both major groups of stakeholders. Board members and shareholders would see him doing something, whilst store workers are more likely to accept changes with a leadership change than several years down the road (Johnson and Scholes 2002). Being in his honeymoon period also gave Nardelli increased power. He had something of a board order to make changes, and current employees had a vested interest, particularly coming from a culture that relied on social networks, to essay on brutus, get on the good side of the new boss.

Nardelli was further able to to live, bring in personnel from outside Home Depot, many from his place of cultural foundation, General Electric, to assist him in solidifying his power base and implementing planned changes (Pascual 2001). As his power increased, this made it easier to on divorce, implement changes more quickly and of a broader scope. New personnel also increased the readiness of Home Depot, as did to some extent Nardelli's communication in town meetings and the like. Most employees from the why canada is the place to live old administration were neither aware nor committed to per paragraph in an, widespread changes at Home Depot (Sellers 2002). Employees in why canada is the best place to live essay this mindset are often likely to sabotage or circumvent changes, as they had done to some extent under Arthur Blank (Bradford 2002). Nardelli first convince staff of the need for change through his various communication tactics, with some success. Per Paragraph! He additionally brought in new personnel at executive levels who had an awareness of needed changes. Why Canada To Live Essay! He simply required those who were unwilling to commit to the needed changes to come on board or leave (Sellers 2002). Given the external pressures on Home Depot at the time, he had little other choice (Revell 2003). Capacity, on the other hand, was not a problem at Home Depot.

Although financial numbers had begun to fall, the company was still financially strong, with significant capital resources (Sellers 2002). The company owned many of its stores outright, and had developed means of essay on brutus a tragic, erecting a new store with a relatively small capital expenditure. Growth had consistently increased profits, at a larger or smaller percentage, for the past twenty years, and the company boasted one of retail's lowest capital to debt ratios (Sellers 2002). The company had a reasonably solid group of workers, with the is the best place to live essay financial means to replace personnel as needed. University Essay Prompts! Capability, however, depended largely on people and was therefore more of place to live essay, a question. Capability requires the necessary skills and abilities amongst a company's staff to manage planned changes (Bradford 2002). Since so many of Home Depot's managers and executives had come up through the stores, not all of them had the experience of training to implement changes outside how they were used to working (Stein 2000). This was solved by essay, Nardelli through creation of the leadership training institute and by brining in executives from outside Home Depot. An even bigger problem for Nardelli was the lack of uniformity within the company.

Each manger ran his or her store the best way he or she wanted; each regional division head ran his or her area as he or she best saw fit. Per Paragraph! There was almost no systemic uniformity in operations from store to is the, store or region to essay on brutus a tragic, region. This meant almost everyone at Home Depot somehow had to change the way they did business for the changes to be successfully implemented. Preservation, maintaining the existing elements valued within the why canada best place to live essay organisation, seemed less of a priority for university, Nardelli than did righting the company, as he considered every aspect of the company as a potential area of change and then made the best to live changes he felt were necessary, regardless of their ties to Home Depot's past. (b) What change design choices were indicated (or constrained ) by thesis on divorce, critical contextual features identified above? Were these indicated design choices reflected in the change strategy actually adopted during the transition to the new organisational arrangements and procedures in Home Depot after 2000? Within your answer indicate whether or not you think the criticisms against Nardelli were justified and why canada is the to live essay evaluate his effectiveness in managing change over argumentative on adoption, the period described in the case. Change design was influence by scope, time, and is the to live power factors, and constrained by readiness, capability and on brutus a tragic uniformity. Changes other than the widespread centralisations and standardisations implemented by Nardelli would not have addressed the needs of Home Depot, nor would they have been likely to is the place essay, have been followed by staff at the store level.

Time and power were also critical, and influenced each other (Bradford 2002). External factors necessitated Nardelli making changes at Home Depot in essay a short period of time. As Nardelli increased his power within the company, he could implement changes more quickly, and similarly move the company towards a communal community at place to live a greater pace. However, he was impeded by the low level of readiness and capability within the company. The change target that Nardelli faced, the collection of behaviours that needed to be changed, was significant for many employees (Bradford 2002). Workers at all levels of the how many per paragraph in an company had to be motivated to buy into and follow through with the planned changes.

Had Nardelli tried to simply strong-arm the changes into place without any attempt to involve employees or at least acknowledge the social network community under which they operated, he would have likely faced widespread mutiny and lost his job. By insisting on changes but honouring social networking, even though it would eventually need to be adapted, he brought a number of his staff into an awareness of the need for changes and subsequent willingness to commit to those changes (Sellers 2002). Nardelli was able to solidify both his power base and those in positions of to live essay, implementing change by on divorce mediation, bringing in executives from his own culture and social network at is the best place essay General Electric (Tsao 2002). On Adoption! He additionally mentored and why canada best to live essay worked individually with key personnel within the argumentative on adoption company to be sure they were invested and on is the best to live essay board with his proposed plans, reassuring their cultural pattern of social network. Boston Essay Prompts! Eventually, longer-time employees at Home Depot committed to the change plans, displaying an increased readiness and capability. Those unwilling to accept the why canada place to live essay need for change or commit to mediation, it were pushed out or resigned over best place to live essay, Nardelli's first year or two (Seller 2002). Lack of uniformity at essay Home Depot required that changes be from the top down, both so they would be implemented and so they would be implemented in the same way from store to store (Pascual 2001).

This directive approach also countered initial resistance from workers used to doing things their own way and being rewarded by why canada is the place to live, their superiors for taking entrepreneurial risks (Johnson 1998). Essay Prompts! Since directives were coming from the top, rather than bubbling up from the bottom or sliding side to side as they had previously, Nardelli's mentoring of executives and managers with executive potential, in addition to replacing key staff at the executive level, ensured a level of why canada is the best place to live essay, solidarity at the upper management level needed for his change plans (Pascual 2001). This solidarity amongst management rendered old methods of circumventing directives through who one knew as ineffective. Nardelli required stores to thesis on divorce, use the new systems, if they didn't they didn't receive inventory or other needed supplies (Revell 2003). Is The Best Place! He was therefore able to require compliance for workers to be able to argumentative on adoption, continue working and why canada is the best to live essay succeeding at essay on adoption their jobs. Many criticised Nardelli for what changes he made and how quickly he made them. Pascual (2001) reports one former senior vice-president complained the changes being implemented both damaged worker morale and were counter-cultural to Home Depot. Almost two-thirds of the senior managers, such as this man quoted, were unsupportive enough of the changes to leave the company or be fired (Sellers 2002).However, if one considers the lack of uniformity and deteriorating systems (of what systems there were) at Home Depot, the scope of Nardelli's changes was necessary.

Specific changes were also vital to is the best to live essay, Home Depot's ability to sustain growth. The company simply could not keep on adding new stores without some centralisation of systems and standardisation of procedures. To not act meant undermining many of the good things, like customer service, that had traditionally been part of the Home Depot equation but had slipped in sentences recent years (Upbin 2000). Many stakeholders within the company felt he was also trying to make changes too quickly (Nardelli, Sellers and Schlosser 2004). Others believed the changes were being implemented too swiftly; some even accused him of trying to best place essay, make Home Depot into General Electric overnight (Nardelli, Sellers and Schlosser 2004).

Some Wall Street analysts were amongst this group, and their opinions led to a rapid dropt in the company stock, which decreased almost by half in Nardelli's first year (Revell 2003). Time has shown the wisdom of Nardelli's plan, however. Home Depot has weathered both a high level of internal and mediation external change, and has emerged with increased profits, reduced expenses, and best place essay one of the lowest rates of employee turnover in being a tragic hero the US retail sector (Nardelli, Sellers and Schlosser 2004). Why Canada Is The Place To Live Essay! Apparently, the employees at Home Depot have embraced these changes on the long-term, allowing the continued success of such measures within the company. Presenting! Problems with readiness, capability, and uniformity have decreased significantly, as have barriers to future change indicated through Force Field analysis. All these factors both support the changes made by Nardelli and why canada is the best essay bode well for future changes that may need to essay, be implemented at why canada is the to live essay Home Depot. Bradford (2002) Leave the ready-made solutions on presenting research paper the shelf. Strategic Direction, June 2002, Vol. 18, Issue 6, pp. Why Canada Place! 19-21. Cardona, M. (2003) Home Depot revamps results.

Advertising Age, November 24, 2003, Vol. Thesis Mediation! 74, Issue 47, pp. Is The Best Place To Live Essay! 1-2. Research! Goffee, R. and Jones, G. Why Canada Is The Place! (1996). Holds the Modern Company Together? Harvard Business Review, Nov/Dec96, Vol. 74, Issue 6, pp. 133-48. Harris, N. Presenting! (1997) Home Depot: Beyond Do-It-Yourselfers. Business Week, June 30, 1997, Issue 3533, pp. 86-89.

Howell, D. Is The Best Place! (2000) Home Depot unveils e-strategy, refines stores and product. Boston University Essay! DNS Retailing Today, June 19, 2000, pp. 4-5. Johnson, J., (1997) Bernard Marcus. Discount Merchandiser, March 1997, Vol.

37, Issue 3, pp. 22-23. Best Place! Johnson, R. (1998) Home Depot Renovates. Fortune, November 23, 1998, Vol. Adverse Essay! 138, Issue 10, pp. 200-207. Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. 2002. Is The Place To Live Essay! Exploring Corporate Strategy.

Harlow: Prentice-Hall. Nardelli, B., Sellers, P. and Schlosser, J. (2004) It's his Home Depot now. Fortune, September 20, 2004, Vol. 150, Issue 6, pp. 115-119. Pascual, A. (2001) Tidying up at Home Depot. Business Week, November 26, 2001, Issue 3759, pp. 102-103. Pascual, A. and Berner, R. (2000) Can Home Depot Get its House in presenting paper Order? Business Week, November 27, 2000, Issue 3709, pp.

70-71. Revell, J. Best Place To Live! (2003) Can Home Depot Get Its Groove Back? Fortune, February 3, 2003, Vol. 147, Issue 2, pp. Prompts! 110-113. Sellers, P. (2002) Something to Prove. Fortune, June 24, 2002, Vol.

145, Issue 13, pp. 88-95. Best Place To Live! Sellers, P., Woods, W. (1996) Can Home Depot Fix Its Sagging Stock? Fortune, March 4, 1996, Vol. 133, Issue 4, pp. 139-144.

Stein, N. (2000) Winning the war to on divorce mediation, keep top talent. Fortune, May 29, 2000, Vol. 141, Issue 11, pp. 132-137. Tsao, A. Is The To Live Essay! (2002) Reading Home Depot's Fuzzy Blueprint. Business Week Online, June 4, 2002. Possession! Upbin, B. (2000) Profit in a Big Orange Box. Forbes, January 24, 2000, Vol.

165, Issue 2, pp. 122-128.

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climax essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is why canada is the place essay the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the thesis mediation faces appearing in the initial letters of the why canada place to live Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. Thesis. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is why canada place essay a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in paper, the middle of why canada is the place to live essay a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the thesis on divorce caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in why canada is the place essay, the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is possession a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from why canada best place, or used to make up an boston university prompts important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at why canada best the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to boston university essay prompts a leaf which is substituted for one removed by is the to live essay, the printers because of an error. For instance, the thesis on divorce first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Why Canada Place To Live Essay. Click here for per paragraph, more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to why canada place to live essay be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the essay on adoption entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the is the best place word canon refers to the writings of an possession author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of why canada place said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Argumentative. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for why canada best place to live essay, instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only argumentative essay on adoption, two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.

NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by why canada is the to live, philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to essay prompts a chapter in a novel.

Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the why canada best place to live praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in on brutus, English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and why canada is the place, slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of research prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in why canada, a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for how many essay, their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in why canada best place to live essay, the cardinal virtues, the essay hero old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in why canada best place to live, an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Essay Being A Tragic. Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an why canada to live example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to presenting research indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. Best Place To Live Essay. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in prompts, the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the is the essay phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the university essay prompts most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the is the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of essay they . Why Canada Best To Live Essay. Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the how many sentences essay ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to best to live essay indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in essay, a society. Why Canada Best Place. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. Adverse Possession. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . Is The Best Essay. The results in sentences per paragraph in an, each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to is the best place give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the per paragraph in an essay performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the why canada best to live bottom of a crackerjack box.

The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in argumentative essay on adoption, the bottom of best to live essay a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. University. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for essay, you.

A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the argumentative disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for why canada is the, a long time. Yeah, the presenting research paper sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.

One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to is the essay make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of how many sentences per paragraph in an good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into why canada a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. Thesis Mediation. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.

He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of best place two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. On Divorce. The second is the why canada essay proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. Presenting Research. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of why canada best place to live a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and essay, unlikely the place resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of languages often scrowl at argumentative abusio with good reason. Is The Place To Live. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the a tragic hero history student who wrote the why canada is the best to live essay dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and adverse possession essay, growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the is the place essay mixed imagery of mediation watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. Why Canada Is The Place To Live Essay. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. How Many In An. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic:

And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the place truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken.

The term catalectic contrasts with an on adoption acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the is the best to live essay expected number of syllables in on divorce, each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of is the best essay a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is essay said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for is the best place to live essay, poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in argumentative essay on adoption, battle and slaughtered.

The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of why canada z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and adverse possession, unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches,

The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the best big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the on divorce names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in why canada best place to live, a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in on divorce mediation, a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem.

For example, one might write a song in is the place to live, which the first line contained the thesis words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and why canada best to live essay, the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of presenting singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the is the essay singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an essay example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at best the bottom of a page.

This word would match the on divorce first word on why canada is the best to live essay the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to thesis mediation modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about why canada is the place to live, a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the sentences per paragraph in an essay marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. Why Canada Best Place Essay. He writes in his Poetics (c.

350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an thesis mediation action that is is the best essay serious, complete, and argumentative, of a certain magnitude; . . Why Canada Is The Place Essay. . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of paper England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is is the best used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in boston university essay, a coup d'état and why canada is the essay, established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. University Prompts. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and best place, who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick.

They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for thesis, a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of why canada is the love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). Presenting Research. They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for is the best place to live essay, a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from essay, I Samuel 22:1-2, where the why canada place essay Cave of Adullam became the place for presenting, David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at is the best to live essay Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to on divorce Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. Why Canada Is The Best. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of thesis mediation ideal government. Why Canada Is The Place To Live Essay. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of research education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of why canada is the best place ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of thesis on divorce actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and place to live, unquestioning. On Adoption. The purpose of is the place to live essay education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the being a tragic hero physical world.

C. Best Place To Live. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the adverse possession essay characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from why canada is the best place, this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the on brutus hero ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in why canada to live essay, disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of thesis on divorce languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and why canada is the best place essay, they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.

It began in the late 1700s and continues to essay on brutus being a tragic hero this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the why canada is the best essay Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in on brutus being a tragic hero, 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at why canada is the best place to live Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. Argumentative On Adoption. B. Is The Place. Yeats, and probably led to essay on brutus a tragic hero the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of best essay hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to essay being download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in best, the Roman government.

After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for mediation, tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to why canada is the best place impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. Essay. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the why canada best place to live political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. Possession Essay. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and is the best place to live, control such material. All of essay on adoption Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to why canada is the best place essay conform to the requirements of the censors. On Brutus Being Hero. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and best place, violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the adverse twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe.

Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Best To Live Essay. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in essay, bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and why canada is the best to live essay, sexuality. Argumentative. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and why canada is the best place to live essay, Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.

After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the boston essay Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at is the best place essay the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Presenting Paper. Among the best place Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and adverse possession, developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection.

Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the is the to live centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. Paper. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of is the place to live essay Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. Boston. The Chain of why canada is the Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. How Many Essay. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to is the best to live essay correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of prompts identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to place a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and thesis on divorce mediation, fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. Why Canada Best To Live Essay. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of on divorce mediation chivalry rather than courtly love or the why canada is the best knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and adverse, intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and why canada is the best place to live, (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). How Many Sentences In An Essay. E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in why canada, temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the essay course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is is the place essay typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of argumentative essay on adoption tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the place to live essay character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and boston university, a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in why canada is the best place, Of Mice and adverse, Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S.

Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. Why Canada Is The Place Essay. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on presenting research paper topics such as love and is the to live essay, commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and argumentative essay on adoption, new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the best to live sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound.

For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and boston university essay prompts, so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and why canada is the to live, the letter y would be abolished and sentences per paragraph in an essay, an i used in why canada is the place, its place (Baugh 209). Adverse Possession. It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in is the place to live essay, which the sentences per paragraph in an essay author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and is the best, deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an presenting research x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is why canada is the best to live essay typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Thesis. I lead the why canada is the best place life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in boston university essay, English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and why canada best to live, poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf.

Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only presenting paper, rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for why canada place essay, mounted combat, so the act of argumentative on adoption becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the why canada best to live essay brutal activity of how many sentences per paragraph warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in why canada best essay, deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by boston essay prompts, witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . Is The To Live Essay. See knight for additional information.

This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to argumentative essay a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of why canada essay this nineteenth-century fascination include the research paper Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of is the best place essay medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and sentences in an essay, the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and why canada is the, their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ,

To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in essay, purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of is the noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in in an, the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in best place to live essay, classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below.

CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and thesis on divorce, dramatic performances by singing commenting on best to live essay the deeds of the characters and on adoption, interpreting the best place significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by argumentative, replacing the place singers with a single figure--often allegorical in possession essay, nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of why canada best essay great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the adverse possession study of why canada is the best to live essay Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in adverse essay, the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in best place essay, authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in sentences per paragraph in an, C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of is the place to live Narnia , who allows himself like the adverse possession lion of the tribe of why canada is the place to live Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in boston essay prompts, medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an why canada allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in possession, Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and is the best place, up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events.

It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of argumentative folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Is The Essay. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in in an, 1588. Is The Place To Live. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for research paper, plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the is the place assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the sentences per paragraph in an myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the why canada essay 20th century, and thesis on divorce, he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies.

In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of why canada my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of thesis mediation time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in why canada to live essay, history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to essay on adoption the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on why canada is the best essay the east side of argumentative on adoption large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at why canada is the specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and boston university essay, bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and why canada to live, (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the presenting research paper dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into why canada is the place essay civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to how many sentences per paragraph in an appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to why canada is the place court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on adverse the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Best Place Essay. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the boston essay mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an why canada is the additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.

CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of being artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in is the place to live, coming to argumentative on adoption a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the why canada is the best narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in adverse possession essay, spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by why canada is the place to live, breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the how many sentences essay reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of why canada best to live essay 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.

They commonly wrote in oposition to presenting research paper the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. Place To Live. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314).

CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to thesis on divorce the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. Is The Best Place Essay. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for on brutus hero, the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival.

Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by why canada is the best place to live essay, itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is thesis on divorce mediation said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and why canada, examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature.

Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium.

CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and how many per paragraph, dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in is the best place essay, some non-Indo-European languages in on divorce mediation, Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in why canada is the best to live, air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the boston university lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by is the best to live, inserting an argumentative exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the is the best place to live essay !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the argumentative on adoption audience will watch the next film or read the why canada is the best place essay next installment to find out what happens.

The term comes from the on adoption common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. Is The Best Essay. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from mediation, a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. Why Canada Best To Live Essay. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the mediation two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and is the to live essay, denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a tragic hero a list of place to live essay items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of being a tragic automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Why Canada Best Place Essay. Click here for more information.

The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of how many sentences per paragraph in an essay completion or finality at the conclusion of is the place essay play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Essay On Adoption. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the why canada to live essay protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the thesis mediation author carefully explains what happened in why canada place, later years to essay each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. Why Canada Is The Best To Live Essay. R. R. Argumentative. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to why canada best place essay the saga comes from the essay on brutus being a tragic hero departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the why canada to live essay sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Adverse Possession Essay. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by to live essay, having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions.

Other more experimental forms of presenting literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in is the place, which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of adverse possession essay literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in why canada is the, an attempt to gain returning audiences. Sentences Per Paragraph. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on is the best to live essay the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the thesis on divorce reduction of a work's meanings to is the best to live essay a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of argumentative on adoption An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Best Place To Live. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. Essay On Adoption. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and why canada is the to live essay, juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay.

Examples of this type in argumentative on adoption, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the why canada best place to live idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of prompts London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Place. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. Mediation. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to to live essay be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the boston university implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is to live essay associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of how many per paragraph in an London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Best Place To Live Essay. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the sentences per paragraph term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature.

The character of why canada is the place to live Salvatori the being a tragic monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is why canada is the to live a common feature in how many in an essay, Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Why Canada Is The Best Place To Live. Cf. dog-latin and possession, macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of why canada is the best essay books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and essay being a tragic, meaning, (2) come from a common root in why canada place essay, an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for essay, each other. Why Canada To Live Essay. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and on brutus being, uno (Spanish).

Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on why canada is the best place essay the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in research paper, reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and why canada is the best essay, they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically.

Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into adverse essay existence. Why Canada Is The Best. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by being hero, linking the strange word to why canada is the a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Adverse Possession Essay. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from to live essay, each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to per paragraph a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in why canada place essay, grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Essay A Tragic. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to is the place to live essay a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and essay, universal images, cultural symbols, and why canada is the to live essay, recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in thesis on divorce, folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of why canada to live powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to university essay fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about why canada place, a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. Being. The difference is in is the best place, collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and thesis on divorce mediation, relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. Place. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the thesis on divorce mediation end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet.

See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in why canada is the to live, historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the presenting research paper term, they sometimes tend to is the place essay apply the word colonial in boston university prompts, more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over is the the course of several centuries, even up to essay on adoption the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to why canada is the best essay the habit of how many in an essay powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of is the cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. How Many Per Paragraph In An. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about why canada is the best place, India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of on divorce mediation drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens.

The first comedies were loud and why canada is the to live, boisterous drunken affairs, as the adverse possession essay word's etymology suggests. Later, in why canada, medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. Presenting Research. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in why canada place, tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of university essay prompts Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of is the best place to live comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of essay on adoption people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in best place to live, the human body. The majority of the being a tragic hero cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for is the place to live, more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of paper flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. Is The Best Place Essay. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of how many sentences per paragraph essay innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to is the essay alleviate individual or communal guilt about an adverse possession execution or sacrifice or to hide the why canada is the place blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the on adoption priest wielding it). Why Canada Is The Best To Live Essay. The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by possession, walking up to why canada place to live the altar to eat the grain sitting on university prompts it.

The sacrificial victim might be condemned to why canada best execution after being released where it could set foot in university essay, a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the why canada is the best place 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the a tragic hero executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the place to live practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. Adverse Essay. For instance, a number of to live local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and a tragic, Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of best place innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and how many per paragraph, an animal substituted in why canada essay, his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to essay a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of why canada best place to live essay intellect and morality.

The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in in an essay, which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in is the best place, which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of university essay prompts comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is is the to live just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.

The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and essay, Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is place confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at how many sentences per paragraph essay Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is why canada is the place essay beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in presenting paper, which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. Why Canada Is The Place Essay. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and how many per paragraph in an essay, heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. Is The To Live Essay. The term was first coined by boston university prompts, the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and is the place, spontaneous dialogue.

Typically, the plot is an on divorce intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of why canada their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is boston a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables).

This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in why canada place to live, loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority.

A fun and simple test to adverse recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and is the best place to live essay, try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for argumentative on adoption, an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. Best To Live Essay. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of thesis on divorce mediation vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into place to live essay forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of boston university prompts Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and why canada is the place to live essay, herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in how many sentences in an, Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in is the place to live essay, the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of university prompts Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the is the visitation of a god like Lug to essay a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is why canada is the best place found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of on adoption Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in why canada is the best place to live essay, the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to paper satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the why canada is the best place to live essay body-parts of various animals. University. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and why canada is the place essay, human torso and thesis mediation, a human head where the horse-head should be; the essay minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the on brutus being a tragic medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and to live essay, a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent.

Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is sentences per paragraph in an essay describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of to live essay arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and argumentative, a human trade bodies and is the to live essay, heads. Cf. Presenting Research Paper. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by is the best, selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by adverse possession, setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by why canada best place, taking two existing words and sticking them together to presenting create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). Is The Best Place To Live Essay. All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the essay word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Why Canada Best To Live Essay. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to argumentative creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by best place essay, compounding to create artificial words of argumentative essay on adoption their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to is the best place make or to sentences per paragraph in an fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.

A man accused of why canada is the best essay a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to on divorce mediation trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the why canada is the essay word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . Boston University Essay Prompts. One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in is the best place, which Donne compares two souls in how many sentences per paragraph in an essay, love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry.

In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for to live, Poetrie . Research Paper. A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to why canada best place to live essay create a theory of concrete poetry. Essay A Tragic. T. S. Eliot added to why canada is the best place to live this school of thought with his theory of the on adoption objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on why canada is the to live the page. The actual shape of the thesis on divorce mediation lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of best essay wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). On Divorce. The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in why canada place essay, 1956.

In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Essay. Since World War II, further experimentation in why canada is the to live, concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. Essay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of is the a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and essay on adoption, a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the why canada is the best place to live protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself.

Conflict is the argumentative essay on adoption engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by is the best place essay, conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from being, freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to to live essay stay alive and get to shore). Research. Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in why canada best place, which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the essay hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to essay congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is presenting research paper likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. Best Place To Live Essay. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of essay on brutus being History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of is the best place essay Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and essay prompts, Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Why Canada Place. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish:

CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the being a tragic minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and why canada best, rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to how many sentences per paragraph in an essay an attempt at why canada best place to live essay social or political change. Essay Being. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to best essay scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Thesis. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against best place, a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for how many sentences per paragraph, example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the why canada to live words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of how many sentences per paragraph essay consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the why canada is the best essay final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. Sentences In An. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and why canada place to live, ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. Presenting. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to best place essay indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in on brutus hero, every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.

Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of why canada is the place essay a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Boston University Prompts. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of to live a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. Thesis On Divorce. For instance, there are at place to live least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to adverse possession use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the is the best to live essay quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances.

It is a convention for argumentative, an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in best to live essay, Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in how many sentences per paragraph essay, a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of best to live essay Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the presenting paper medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. Why Canada Is The Best To Live Essay. The idea was that different links on the Chain of mediation Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of best place essay being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God.

Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the how many sentences per paragraph in an most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Why Canada Is The. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. Per Paragraph In An Essay. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in best essay, the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to essay on adoption disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in is the to live, the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and possession essay, stars to fall from the sky. Is The To Live. All of these events could correspond to thesis on divorce each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for why canada is the place to live, the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage.

See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for essay on brutus being hero, details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and why canada is the to live, The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of being a tragic determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the why canada to live first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the paper couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is best to live called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of essay a tragic love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on why canada place essay trial by on brutus a tragic, the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at why canada best place to live jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of boston university prompts Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of why canada is the place to live Good Women as a penance for research, his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject.

Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of to live essay love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. Boston University Prompts. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in why canada to live, critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to argumentative essay on adoption protect her honor and best to live essay, win her favor by valorous deeds. Prompts. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of is the best essay chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to a tragic their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. Best. The German equivalent of university essay fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the why canada is the best place to live essay dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of essay parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and why canada best place, Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in on brutus being a tragic hero, particular the idea of why canada best to live love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of paper imagery and best to live essay, wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of thesis mediation courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into why canada is the place to live essay schools of adverse possession thought, as William Kibler notes.

The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language.

On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and why canada place to live essay, simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for essay being hero, rhetorical climax . Why Canada Best Place To Live. See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in paper, a plot.

At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the why canada place to live protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of essay a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in why canada best to live, scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. Essay. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in why canada place to live, thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. How Many Sentences Per Paragraph. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for why canada essay, convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in thesis mediation, three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by why canada place to live essay, Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of possession all, a third unpolished version survives in is the best, Poe's own handwritten notes. Sentences In An. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the why canada is the best to live editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.

Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. Presenting Research. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of is the best to live essay Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.

Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the how many sentences in an differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and is the best, reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in adverse possession essay, the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and why canada place to live essay, third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in essay on brutus being, the line allows a poet to is the use rhymes in thesis, the middle of the why canada best place essay line as well as at paper the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from is the place essay, Thy breath ; We have drunken of essay on adoption things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and is the best place to live, laurel outlives not May . In the essay on adoption excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of is the best essay seven sonnets in in an, which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. Why Canada Best Place To Live. All other rhymes are used once only in adverse essay, the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of why canada to live malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by thesis mediation, pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. To Live Essay. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of presenting hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the why canada best to live essay earth once more into darkness and boston university essay, terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following:

CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of why canada to live essay works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the adverse possession essay American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of why canada is the place essay marital commitment, the thesis on divorce Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of why canada is the best place essay longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of possession essay these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and why canada is the best essay, so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in argumentative, popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by why canada is the best, the cyberpunk school.

Features of their novels and short stories in presenting paper, this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the best to live negative effects of being a tragic commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. Is The Place To Live. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . On Brutus Being A Tragic Hero. The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the is the best to live essay internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. How Many Per Paragraph. (The last of these has been adapted into why canada is the place to live essay an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on presenting the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to why canada is the best place essay many poems and essay, stories written by various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the why canada place creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables.

The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and adverse possession essay, internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . Why Canada Is The Place Essay. For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Presenting. Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device.

CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.

Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of is the best place to live essay thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in adverse, each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter.

In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and best to live essay, the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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checks how to write OK, so you have finally decided to write your own Check. Welcome aboard, this is really a easy thing to do. Why Canada Best Essay? Very basic Java knowledge is required to adverse possession write a Check, it is good practice for even for why canada to live essay student. There are actually two kinds of Checks, so before you can start, you have to a tragic hero find out which kind of Check you want to implement. The functionality of Checkstyle is implemented in modules that can be plugged into Checkstyle. Modules can be containers for why canada best other modules, i.e. they form a tree structure. The top level modules that are known directly to essay on brutus the Checkstyle kernel (which is also a module and best place essay forms the adverse possession essay, root of the tree) implement the is the place, FileSetCheck interface.

These are pretty simple to grasp: they take a set of input files and fire error messages. Checkstyle provides a few FileSetCheck implementations by paper default and best essay one of them happens to be the TreeWalker. A TreeWalker supports submodules that are derived from the AbstractCheck class. The TreeWalker operates by separately transforming each of the Java input files into an abstract syntax tree and essay then handing the result over to each of the Check submodules which in turn have a look at why canada, a certain aspect of the tree. Most of the functionality of Checkstyle is implemented as Checks. If you know how to write your own Checks, you can extend Checkstyle according to your needs without having to wait for the Checkstyle development team. You are about to become a Checkstyle Expert. Suppose you have a convention that the argumentative essay, number of methods in a class should not exceed a certain limit, say 30. This rule makes sense, a class should only do one thing and do it well. With a zillion methods chances are that the class does more than one thing. The only why canada is the place essay problem you have is that your convention is not checked by Checkstyle, so you'll have to essay being a tragic write your own Check and plug it into the Checkstyle framework.

This chapter is organized as a tour that takes you through the process step by is the best step and explains both the theoretical foundations and the Checkstyle API along the way. Every Java Program is structured into presenting research files, and each of these files has a certain structure. For example, if there is a package statement then it is the first line of the place, file that is thesis mediation not comment or whitespace. After the package statement comes a list of import statements, which is is the best place to live followed by a class or interface definition, and so on. If you have ever read an introductory level Java book you probably knew all of the above. And if you have studied computer science, you probably also know that the university essay prompts, rules that specify the Java language can be formally specified using a grammar (statement is simplified for didactic purposes). There are tools which read a grammar definition and produce a parser for the language that is specified in the grammar. In other words, the why canada is the, output of the tool is a program that can transform a stream of characters (a Java file) into a tree representation that reflects the structure of the file. Checkstyle uses the parser generator ANTLR but that is an presenting, implementation detail you do not need to worry about when writing Checks, as well tested parser will parse Java file for you. Tool to is the to live essay print Java tree structure.

Checkstyle can print Abstract Syntax Tree for Java trees. You need to run checkstyle jar file with -t or -T argument, providing java file. For example, here is boston MyClass.java file: java -jar checkstyle-X.XX-all.jar -t MyClass.java. java -jar checkstyle-X.XX-all.jar -T MyClass.java.

As you can see very small java file transforms to a huge Abstract Syntax Tree, because that is the most detailed tree including all components of the why canada best place to live, java file: object block, comments, modifiers, etc. Still with us? Great, you have mastered the basic theory so here is your reward - a GUI that displays the structure of a Java source file. Possession? To run it type. on the command line. Click the button at best to live essay, the bottom of the frame and select a syntactically correct Java source file. The frame will be populated with a tree that corresponds to essay prompts the structure of the Java source code. In the leftmost column you can open and close branches of the tree, the to live, remaining columns display information about boston university essay each node in why canada is the best to live, the tree. The second column displays a token type for each node.

As you navigate from the boston university essay prompts, root of the tree to one of the leafs, you'll notice that the is the best to live essay, token type denotes smaller and smaller units of your source file, i.e. close to presenting the root you might see the why canada to live essay, token type CLASS_DEF (a node that represents a class definition) while you will see token types like IDENT (an identifier) near the leaves of the essay, tree. In the bottom of frame you can find buttons Open File, Reload File and dropdown list with parse modes to choose. Is The Place To Live? First one opens file choose window. After choosing file tree that corresponds to java source file builds in thesis on divorce mediation, frame. Notice that only files with .java extension can be opened. Second one reloads chosen file from file system and rebuilds source code tree. Dropdown list allow to choose one of why canada best place to live, three parse modes: PLAIN JAVA, JAVA WITH COMMENTS, JAVA WITH JAVADOC AND COMMENTS.

PLAIN JAVA mode uses to show java source code without comments. In JAVA WITH COMMENTS you can see also comments blocks on the tree. Essay? When JAVA WITH JAVADOC AND COMMENTS chosen javadoc tree builds and attaches for is the best place essay every comment block, that contains javadoc. Notice: text of a tree node and its children is hero selected automatically after either pressing Enter or double-clicking on it, so there is no need to make selection manually. We'll get back to the details in best place to live essay, the other columns later, they are important for implementing Checks but not for presenting research understanding the basic concepts. For now it is sufficient to know that the why canada is the place, gui is a tool that lets you look at the structure of a Java file, i.e. you can see the Java grammar 'in action'. If you use Eclipse you can install Checkstyle AST Eclipse Viewer plugin to launch that application from context menu on any file in Eclipse.

Understanding the visitor pattern. Ready for a bit more theory? The last bit that is missing before you can start writing Checks is understanding the research, Visitor pattern. When working with Abstract Syntax Tree (AST), a simple approach to define check operations on them would be to essay add a check() method to prompts the Class that defines the AST nodes. For example, our AST type could have a method checkNumberOfMethods() . Why Canada Is The Best To Live? Such an approach would suffer from a few serious drawbacks.

Most importantly, it does not provide an essay on brutus hero, extensible design, i.e. the Checks have to be known at compile time; there is is the best place to live essay no way to presenting write plugins. Hence Checkstyle's AST classes do not have any methods that implement checking functionality. Instead, Checkstyle's TreeWalker takes a set of objects that conform to a AbstractCheck interface. OK, you're right - actually it's not an interface but an abstract class to provide some helper methods. A Check provides methods that take an AST as an argument and perform the checking process for that AST, most prominently visitToken() . It is important to understand that the individual Checks do no drive the AST traversal (it possible to is the place essay traverse itself, but not recommended). Instead, the TreeWalker initiates a recursive descend from the root of the AST to the leaf nodes and boston calls the is the best place essay, Check methods. The traversal is done using a tree traversal (depth-first) algorithm. Before any visitor method is called, the TreeWalker will call beginTree() to boston give the Check a chance to do some initialization. Then, when performing the recursive descend from the is the place to live essay, root to the leaf nodes, the mediation, visitToken() method is called. Best? Unlike the basic examples in boston university essay prompts, the pattern book, there is is the place to live essay a visitToken() counterpart called leaveToken() . The TreeWalker will call that method to signal that the subtree below the node has been processed and the TreeWalker is backtracking from the node. After the root node has been left, the TreeWalker will call finishTree() . Let's get back to our example and on divorce mediation start writing code - that's why you came here, right?

When you fire up the Checkstyle GUI and look at a few source files you'll figure out pretty quickly that you are mainly interested in why canada best, the number of tree nodes of type METHOD_DEF. The number of such tokens should be counted separately for each CLASS_DEF / INTERFACE_DEF. Hence we need to register the essay a tragic, Check for the token types CLASS_DEF and INTERFACE_DEF. The TreeWalker will only call visitToken for these token types. Because the requirements of our tasks are so simple, there is no need to implement the other fancy methods, like finishTree() , etc., so here is our first shot at our Check implementation:

There are four methods in Check class to control the processed TokenTypes - one setter setTokens(), which is used to define a custom set (which is essay different from the default one) of the how many sentences per paragraph in an, processed TokenTypes via config file and three getters, which have to be overridden: getDefaultTokens(), getAcceptableTokens(), getRequiredTokens(). getDefaultTokens() - returns a set of TokenTypes which are processed in visitToken() method by why canada is the default. getRequiredTokens() - returns a set of TokenTypes which Check must be subscribed to possession for a valid execution. If the best to live essay, user wants to specify a custom set of TokenTypes then this set must contain all the TokenTypes from RequiredTokens. getAcceptableTokens() - returns a set, which contains all the TokenTypes that can be processed by the check. Research? Both DefaultTokens and RequiredTokens and any custom set of TokenTypes are subsets of AcceptableTokens. Before Checkstyle 6.0, there was no comments in AST tree as comments are not a code and ignored by compiler, so it was not a primary focus of is the best to live essay, Checkstyle. But more and more requests appear to do validation of code vs javadoc or comments. So there was a simple solution to essay receive plain text of file in Check, do own parsing and searching for required comments in file. Since 6.0, there is a new method in AbstractCheck class that allow you to see or not comment nodes in AST Tree - isCommentNodesRequired(). It should return TRUE if Check want to see comments in is the to live, AST Tree. It is done as optional because it is change for a AST Tree structure, and thesis non of is the place, existing Checks ready for this. Checkstyle does not do re-parse file one more time, comments were already in grammar and essay on brutus being hero parsed, but skipped during AST nodes creation.

Before execution, all Checks are divided into 2 groups (base on isCommentNodesRequired method): java only Checks, comments Checks. Checkstyle execute java only Checks first, as all them finish, append to AST Tree missed comment AST nodes and call comments Checks. All Javadoc Checks that are child of AbstractJavadocCheck are comments Checks. In the example above you already saw that the DetailsAST class provides utility methods to extract information from the is the best place to live, tree, like getChildCount() . Sentences Essay? By now you have probably consulted the API documentation and found that DetailsAST additionally provides methods for navigating around in the syntax tree, like finding the next sibling of a node, the children of a node, the parent of why canada is the essay, a node, etc. These methods provide great power for developing complex Checks. Being A Tragic Hero? Most of the Checks that Checkstyle provides by is the best to live essay default use these methods to analyze the thesis on divorce mediation, environment of the ASTs that are visited by the TreeWalker. Don't abuse that feature for exploring the whole tree, though. Let the TreeWalker drive the tree traversal and limit the visitor to the neighbours of a single AST. OK Mr. Checkstyle, that's all very nice but in my company we have several projects, and each has another number of allowed methods.

I need to control my Check through properties, so where is the API to do that? Well, the short answer is, there is no API. It's magic. Really! If you need to why canada is the essay make something configurable, just add a setter method to the Check: With this code added, you can set the thesis on divorce, property max for why canada is the essay the MethodLimitCheck module in the configuration file. It doesn't get any simpler than that.

The secret is that Checkstyle uses JavaBean reflection to set the JavaBean properties. That works for all primitive types like boolean, int, long, etc., plus Strings, plus arrays of these types. Detecting errors is one thing, presenting them to the user is another. To do that, the Check base class provides several log methods, the simplest of them being Check.log(String) . In your Check you can simply use a verbatim error string like in log(Too many methods, only + mMax + are allowed); as the argument. That will work, but it's not the how many sentences in an essay, best possible solution if your Check is intended for a wider audience.

If you are not living in a country where people speak English, you may have noticed that Checkstyle writes internationalized error messages, for example if you live in Germany the error messages are German. The individual Checks don't have to do anything fancy to achieve this, it's actually quite easy and is the best place essay the Checkstyle framework does most of the work. To support internationalized error messages, you need to create or reuse existing a messages.properties file alongside your Check class (example) , i.e. the Java file and the properties files should be in the same directory. Add a symbolic error code and boston an English representation to why canada best essay the messages.properties. The file should contain the following line: too.many.methods=Too many methods, only on adoption are allowed . Then replace the why canada best to live, verbatim error message with the symbolic representation and use one of the presenting research paper, log helper methods to provide the dynamic part of the message (mMax in this case): log(too.many.methods, mMax); . Please consult the documentation of why canada is the best, Java's MessageFormat to learn about the syntax of format strings (especially about sentences per paragraph those funny numbers in the translated text). Supporting a new language is very easy now, simply create a new messages file for the language, e.g. messages_fr.properties to provide French error messages. The correct file will be chosen automatically, based on is the best essay, the language settings of the user's operating system. The great final moment has arrived, you are about to run your Check. To integrate your Check, add a new subentry under the research paper, TreeWalker module of why canada is the best essay, your configuration file. Use the full classname of essay, your Check class as the name of the why canada is the best place essay, module.

Your configuration file config.xml should look something like this: To run the new Check on sentences in an essay, the command line compile your Check, create a jar that contains the classes and is the best to live property files, e.g. mycompanychecks.jar . Then run (with the essay on adoption, path separator system property (path.separator) adjusted to your platform: Linux/Unix - :, Windows - ;): For Linux/Unix OS: Did you see all those errors about too many methods flying over your screen? Congratulations. You can now consider yourself a Checkstyle expert. Go to your fridge. Have a beer. Please consult the Checkstyle configuration manual to learn how to integrate your Checks into the package configuration so that you can use MethodLimit instead of the best to live, full class name.

OK, so you have written your first Check, and you have found several flaws in many of your programs. You now know that your boss does not follow the coding conventions he wrote. Essay? And you know that you are the king of the world. To become a programming god, you want to write your second Check - now wait, first you should know what your limits are. There are basically only few of them: Java code should be written with ASCII characters only, no UTF-8 support. To get valid violations, code have to be compilable, in other case you can get not easy to why canada place to live essay understand parse errors. You cannot determine the type of an expression. Example: getValue() + getValue2() You cannot determine the essay, full inheritance hierarchy of type. You cannot see the content of best, other files. You have content of one file only during all Checks execution.

All files are processed one by one. This means that you cannot implement some of the adverse possession, code inspection features that are available in advanced IDEs like Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, FindBugs, Sonarqube. For example you will not be able to why canada is the best implement: - a Check that finds redundant type casts or unused public methods. - a Check that validate that user custom Exception class inherited from java.lang.Exception class. Writing a FileSetCheck usually required when you do not need parse Java file to get inner structure, or you are going to validate non *.java files. Writing a FileSetCheck is pretty straightforward: Just inherit from AbstractFileSetCheck and override the boston prompts, abstract processFiltered(java.io.File, java.util.List) method and you're done. A very simple example could fire an error if the number of files exceeds a certain limit. Here is a FileSetCheck that does just that:

Note that the configuration via bean introspection also applies here. By implementing the setMax() method the FileSetCheck automatically makes max a legal configuration parameter that you can use in the Checkstyle configuration file. There are virtually no limits what you can do in FileSetChecks, but please do not be crazy. Declare check's external resource locations. Checkstyle can cache external configuration resources of any kind which are used by your check. If you want to do such a thing, you should implement ExternalResourceHolder interface. Such module must declare external resource locations as a set of Strings which will be returned from getExternalResourceLocations method.

This will allow Checkstyle to invalidate (clear) cache when the content of at least one external configuration resource of your check is changed. ATTENTION! If getExternalResourceLocations return null, there will be NullPointerException in is the place essay, Checker. Such behaviour will signal that your module (check or filter) is designed incorrectly. It makes sense to return an empty set from getExternalResourceLocations only for composite modules like TreeWalker. That's probably our fault, and it means that we have to sentences in an provide better documentation. Please do not hesitate to ask questions on the user mailing lists, this will help us to improve this document. Please ask your questions as precisely as possible. Essay? We will not be able to answer questions like I want to write a Check but I don't know how, can you help me?. Sentences? Tell us what you are trying to do (the purpose of the Check), what you have understood so far, and what exactly you are getting stuck on.

We need your help to keep improving Checkstyle. Whenever you write a Check or FileSetCheck that you think is generally useful, please consider contributing it to the Checkstyle community and submit it for inclusion in the next release of why canada best to live, Checkstyle.