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Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and homeowrk essays, Radium. Marie and Pierre Curie's pioneering research was again brought to mind when on essay on how i see myself, April 20 1995, their bodies were taken from their place of burial at Sceaux, just outside Paris, and in a solemn ceremony were laid to homeowrk essays rest under the mighty dome of the Panthéon. Marie Curie thus became the first woman to be accorded this mark of honour on her own merit. One woman, Sophie Berthelot, admittedly already rested there but in essay, the capacity of wife of the essays chemist Marcelin Berthelot (1827-1907). It was François Mitterrand who, before ending his fourteen-year-long presidency, took this initiative, as he said in scholarship, order to finally respect the equality of women and men before the law and in reality (pour respecter enfin . l'égalité des femmes et des hommes dans le droit comme dans les faits). In point of fact - as the press pointed out - this initiative was symbolic three times over. Marie Curie was a woman, she was an immigrant and she had to a high degree helped increase the prestige of France in the scientific world. At the end of the 19th century, a number of discoveries were made in physics which paved the way for the breakthrough of modern physics and led to the revolutionary technical development that is continually changing our daily lives. Around 1886, Heinrich Hertz demonstrated experimentally the existence of radio waves. It is said that Hertz only homeowrk, smiled incredulously when anyone predicted that his waves would one day be sent round the earth.
Hertz died in 1894 at the early age of means me essay 37. In September 1895, Guglielmo Marconi sent the first radio signal over a distance of essays 1.5 km. In 1901 he spanned the Atlantic. Mba In Essay? Hertz did not live long enough to homeowrk experience the dissertations registry far-reaching positive effects of his great discovery, nor of course did he have to see it abused in bad television programs. It is hard to homeowrk essays predict the consequences of new discoveries in physics. On November 8, 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen at the University of Würzburg, discovered a new kind of radiation which he called X-rays. It could in time be identified as the short-wave, high frequency counterpart of Hertz's waves. The ability of the radiation to pass through opaque material that was impenetrable to ordinary light, naturally created a great sensation. Röntgen himself wrote to a friend that initially, he told no one except his wife about what he was doing.
People would say, Röntgen is out of his mind. A Friend Essay? On January 1, 1896, he mailed his first announcement of the essays discovery to his colleagues. . und nun ging der Teufel los (and now the Devil was let loose) he wrote. His discovery very soon made an impact on practical medicine. In physics it led to a chain of new and sensational findings. Essays? When Henri Becquerel was exposing salts of uranium to sunlight to study whether the new radiation could have a connection with luminescence, he found out by homeowrk essays, chance - thanks to on how i see future a few days of cloudy weather - that another new type of radiation was being spontaneously emanated without the salts of uranium having to be illuminated - a radiation that could pass through metal foil and darken a photographic plate. Homeowrk Essays? The two researchers who were to play a major role in the continued study of this new radiation were Marie and Pierre Curie. Marie Sklodowska, as she was called before marriage, was born in Warsaw in 1867. Both her parents were teachers who believed deeply in the importance of education.
Marie had her first lessons in physics and chemistry from her father. She had a brilliant aptitude for study and a great thirst for knowledge; however, advanced study was not possible for women in short on a visit book fair, Poland. Marie dreamed of homeowrk being able to study at the Sorbonne in Paris, but this was beyond the means of her family. To solve the problem, Marie and her elder sister, Bronya, came to an arrangement: Marie should go to work as a governess and on how myself in the future, help her sister with the money she managed to save so that Bronya could study medicine at the Sorbonne. When Bronya had taken her degree she, in her turn, would contribute to the cost of Marie's studies. So it was not until she was 24 that Marie came to Paris to study mathematics and physics. Bronya was now married to a doctor of homeowrk Polish origin, and essay, it was at Bronya's urgent invitation to come and live with them that Marie took the step of leaving for Paris. By then she had been away from her studies for six years, nor had she had any training in understanding rapidly spoken French.
But her keen interest in homeowrk, studying and essays ocean, her joy at being at the Sorbonne with all its opportunities helped her surmount all difficulties. To save herself a two-hours journey, she rented a little attic in the Quartier Latin. Homeowrk Essays? There the cold was so intense that at night she had to pile on everything she had in the way of michigan clothing so as to be able to homeowrk essays sleep. Marketing? But as compensation for all her privations she had total freedom to be able to homeowrk devote herself wholly to interview essay her studies. Homeowrk? It was like a new world opened to me, the world of science, which I was at last permitted to mba in marketing know in all liberty, she writes. And it was France's leading mathematicians and physicists whom she was able to homeowrk go to hear, people with names we now encounter in short to a, the history of science: Marcel Brillouin, Paul Painlevé, Gabriel Lippmann, and Paul Appell. After two years, when she took her degree in physics in 1893, she headed the essays list of candidates and, in the following year, she came second in a degree in mathematics. After three years she had brilliantly passed examinations in physics and mathematics. Her goal was to essays ocean take a teacher's diploma and then to essays return to short visit to a book fair Poland. Marie Sklodowska, before she left for Paris. Now, however, there occurred an event that was to be of decisive importance in her life.
She met Pierre Curie. He was 35 years, eight years older, and essays, an internationally known physicist, but an outsider in means me essay, the French scientific community - a serious idealist and dreamer whose greatest wish was to be able to devote his life to scientific work. Homeowrk Essays? He was completely indifferent to outward distinctions and a career. He earned a living as the head of dissertations a laboratory at the School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry where engineers were trained and he lived for his research into crystals and into the magnetic properties of bodies at different temperatures. He had not attended one of the French elite schools but had been taught by his father, who was a physician, and by a private teacher. He passed his baccalaureat at homeowrk the early age of registry 16 and at 21, with his brother Jacques, he had discovered piezoelectricity, which means that a difference in electrical potential is seen when mechanical stresses are applied on certain crystals, including quartz.
Such crystals are now used in microphones, electronic apparatus and clocks. Marie, too, was an idealist; though outwardly shy and retiring, she was in reality energetic and single-minded. Pierre and Marie immediately discovered an intellectual affinity, which was very soon transformed into deeper feelings. In July 1895, they were married at the town hall at Sceaux, where Pierre's parents lived. They were given money as a wedding present which they used to buy a bicycle for each of them, and long, sometimes adventurous, cycle rides became their way of homeowrk relaxing. Their life was otherwise quietly monotonous, a life filled with work and study. Persuaded by a friend, his father and by Marie, Pierre submitted his doctoral thesis in 1895. It concerned various types of magnetism, and contained a presentation of the essays connection between temperature and magnetism that is mba in marketing now known as Curie's Law. In 1896, Marie passed her teacher's diploma, coming first in homeowrk, her group.
Their daughter Irène was born in September 1897. Pierre had managed to arrange that Marie should be allowed to work in the school's laboratory, and in mba in marketing, 1897, she concluded a number of investigations into the magnetic properties of steel on behalf of an industrial association. Deciding after a time to go on doing research, Marie looked around for a subject for a doctoral thesis. Becquerel's discovery had not aroused very much attention. When, just a day or so after his discovery, he informed the Monday meeting of l'Académie des Sciences , his colleagues listened politely, then went on essays, to the next item on the agenda. It was Röntgen's discovery and interview a friend essay, the possibilities it provided that were the focus of the interest and enthusiasm of researchers. Becquerel himself made certain important observations, for instance that gases through which the homeowrk rays passed become able to registry michigan conduct electricity, but he was soon to leave this field. Marie decided to make a systematic investigation of the mysterious uranium rays. She had an excellent aid at her disposal - an electrometer for the measurement of weak electrical currents, which was constructed by Pierre and his brother, and was based on the piezoelectric effect. Results were not long in coming. Homeowrk Essays? Just after a few days, Marie discovered that thorium gives off the same rays as uranium.
Her continued systematic studies of the various chemical compounds gave the surprising result that the strength of the radiation did not depend on the compound that was being studied. It depended only on essay in the future, the amount of essays uranium or thorium. Descriptive Essays? Chemical compounds of the same element generally have very different chemical and physical properties: one uranium compound is a dark powder, another is essays a transparent yellow crystal, but what was decisive for the radiation they gave off was only the interview a friend amount of homeowrk essays uranium they contained. Marie drew the conclusion that the ability to radiate did not depend on the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule, it must be linked to the interior of the atom itself. This discovery was absolutely revolutionary. From a conceptual point of view it is scholarship her most important contribution to the development of physics. She now went through the whole periodic system. Her findings were that only uranium and thorium gave off this radiation. Marie's next idea, seemingly simple but brilliant, was to study the natural ores that contain uranium and thorium.
She obtained samples from geological museums and homeowrk, found that of these ores, pitchblende was four to five times more active than was motivated by the amount of uranium. It was her hypothesis that a new element that was considerably more active than uranium was present in small amounts in the ore. Marie and Pierre - A Fruitful Collaboration. Fascinating new vistas were opening up. Pierre gave up his research into crystals and symmetry in nature which he was deeply involved in and joined Marie in her project. They found that the strong activity came with the fractions containing bismuth or barium.
When Marie continued her analysis of the bismuth fractions, she found that every time she managed to take away an amount of bismuth, a residue with greater activity was left. At the end of June 1898, they had a substance that was about 300 times more strongly active than uranium. In the short visit book fair work they published in July 1898, they write, We thus believe that the homeowrk essays substance that we have extracted from pitchblende contains a metal never known before, akin to bismuth in its analytic properties. If the existence of this new metal is essay on how i see myself future confirmed, we suggest that it should be called polonium after the essays name of the country of dissertations michigan origin of one of us. It was also in this work that they used the term radioactivity for the first time.
After another few months of work, the homeowrk Curies informed the l'Académie des Sciences , on December 26, 1898, that they had demonstrated strong grounds for having come upon dissertations michigan an additional very active substance that behaved chemically almost like pure barium. They suggested the name of essays radium for the new element. In order to be certain of showing that it was a matter of new elements, the interview essay Curies would have to produce them in demonstrable amounts, determine their atomic weight and preferably isolate them. To do so, the Curies would need tons of the costly pitchblende. However, it was known that at the Joachimsthal mine in Bohemia large slag-heaps had been left in the surrounding forests. Marie considered that radium ought to be left in homeowrk, the residue. A sample was sent to them from Bohemia and the slag was found to be even more active than the original mineral. Essays Ocean? Several tons of pitchblende was later put at their disposal through the good offices of the Austrian Academy of homeowrk essays Sciences. It was now that there began the heroic epoque in their life that has become legendary. At this stage they needed more room, and the principal of the school where Pierre worked once again came to their aid.
They could use a large shed which was not occupied. There the essay visit to a book fair very laborious work of separation and analysis began. Homeowrk Essays? Marie carried out the chemical separations, Pierre undertook the measurements after each successive step. Physically it was heavy work for Marie. She processed 20 kilos of scholarship means raw material at a time. First of all she had to clear away pine needles and any perceptible debris, then she had to undertake the work of separation. Sometimes I had to spend a whole day stirring a boiling mass with a heavy iron rod nearly as big as myself.
I would be broken with fatigue at day's end, she writes. In a preface to essays Pierre Curie's collected works, Marie describes the shed as having a bituminous floor, and descriptive essays ocean, a glass roof which provided incomplete protection against the rain, and where it was like a hothouse in the summer, draughty and cold in homeowrk, the winter; yet it was in that shed that they spent the best and essay, happiest years of essays their lives. There they could devote themselves to work the livelong day. Sometimes they could not do their processing outdoors, so the noxious gases had to be let out through the open windows. The only furniture were old, worn pine tables where Marie worked with her costly radium fractions. Since they did not have any shelter in which to store their precious products the dissertations latter were arranged on essays, tables and boards.
Marie could remember the joy they felt when they came into essays the shed at night, seeing from all sides the feebly luminous silhouettes of the products of their work. The dangerous gases of which Marie speaks contained, among other things, radon - the radioactive gas which is a matter of concern to homeowrk essays us today since small amounts are emitted from dissertations certain kinds of building materials. Wilhelm Ostwald, the highly respected German chemist, who was one of the first to realize the importance of the Curies' research, traveled from Berlin to Paris to see how they worked. Neither Pierre nor Marie was at home. He wrote: At my earnest request, I was shown the essays laboratory where radium had been discovered shortly before . It was a cross between a stable and myself, a potato shed, and homeowrk, if I had not seen the worktable and items of chemical apparatus, I would have thought that I was been played a practical joke. Marie Presents Her Doctoral Thesis. At the interview essay same time as the Curies were engaged in their arduous work, each of them had their teaching duties. Homeowrk? From 1900 Marie had had a part-time teaching post at the École Normale Supérieur de Sèvres for descriptive ocean, girls. After thousands of crystallizations, Marie finally - from essays several tons of the original material - isolated one decigram of almost pure radium chloride and had determined radium's atomic weight as 225.
She presented the findings of this work in mba in marketing essay, her doctoral thesis on June 25, 1903. Of the three members of the examination committee, two were to homeowrk receive the me essay Nobel Prize a few years later: Lippmann, her former teacher, in homeowrk essays, 1908 for marketing essay, physics, and Moissan, in 1906 for chemistry. The committee expressed the homeowrk opinion that the findings represented the greatest scientific contribution ever made in a doctoral thesis. A little celebration in Marie's honour, was arranged in the evening by a research colleague, Paul Langevin. The guests included Jean Perrin, a prominent professor at the Sorbonne, and Ernest Rutherford, who was then working in dissertations registry, Canada but temporarily in Paris and anxious to essays meet Marie Curie. He had good reason. His study of the deflection of radiation in magnetic fields had not met with success until he had been sent a strongly radioactive preparation by the Curies. By that time he was already famous and was soon to be considered as the greatest experimental physicist of the day. It was a warmish evening and the group went out into essay fair the garden. Pierre had prepared an effective finale to the day. When they had all sat down, he drew from his waistcoat pocket a little tube, partly coated with zinc sulfide, which contained a quantity of radium salt in solution.
Suddenly the essays tube became luminous, lighting up the darkness, and the group stared at the display in wonder, quietly and solemnly. But in the light from the tube, Rutherford saw that Pierre's fingers were scarred and inflamed and that he was finding it hard to hold the tube. A week earlier Marie and Pierre had been invited to the Royal Institution in London where Pierre gave a lecture. Before the crowded auditorium he showed how radium rapidly affected photographic plates wrapped in paper, how the substance gave off heat; in the semi-darkness he demonstrated the spectacular light effect. He described the medical tests he had tried out on on a visit fair, himself. He had wrapped a sample of radium salts in homeowrk essays, a thin rubber covering and bound it to his arm for ten hours, then had studied the wound, which resembled a burn, day by means, day. After 52 days a permanent grey scar remained. In that connection Pierre mentioned the possibility of radium being able to be used in homeowrk essays, the treatment of descriptive ocean cancer. Essays? But Pierre's scarred hands shook so that once he happened to marketing essay spill a little of the costly preparation.
Fifty years afterwards the presence of radioactivity was discovered on the premises and homeowrk, certain surfaces had to be cleaned. In actual fact Pierre was ill. Dissertations? His legs shook so that at homeowrk essays times he found it hard to stand upright. He was in much pain. He consulted a doctor who diagnosed neurasthenia and prescribed strychnine. And the skin on Marie's fingers was cracked and scarred.
Both of them constantly suffered from fatigue. They evidently had no idea that radiation could have a detrimental effect on their general state of health. Pierre, who liked to descriptive essays say that radium had a million times stronger radioactivity than uranium, often carried a sample in his waistcoat pocket to show his friends. Marie liked to have a little radium salt by her bed that shone in the darkness. The papers they left behind them give off pronounced radioactivity. If today at homeowrk essays the Bibliothèque Nationale you want to consult the on how in the future three black notebooks in homeowrk essays, which their work from descriptive December 1897 and the three following years is recorded, you have to sign a certificate that you do so at your own risk. People will have to essays do this for a long time to come. In fact it takes 1,620 years before the me essay activity of radium is reduced to a half. Rutherford was just as unsuspecting in regard to essays the hazards as were the interview essay Curies. Homeowrk? When it turned out that one of his colleagues who had worked with radioactive substances for several months was able to scholarship means discharge an homeowrk, electroscope by mba in marketing essay, exhaling, Rutherford expressed his delight. This confirmed his theory of the existence of airborne emanations.
In view of the essays potential for the use of radium in medicine, factories began to be built in the USA for its large-scale production. The question came up of whether or not Marie and Pierre should apply for mba in essay, a patent for the production process. Essays? They were both against doing so. Pure research should be carried out for its own sake and descriptive essays ocean, must not become mixed up with industry's profit motive. Homeowrk? Researchers should be disinterested and registry, make their findings available to everyone. Marie and Pierre were generous in supplying their fellow researchers, Rutherford included, with the preparations they had so laboriously produced. They furnished industry with descriptions of the production process. In 1903, Marie and Pierre Curie were awarded half the Nobel Prize in Physics. The citation was, in recognition of the homeowrk extraordinary services they have rendered by i see future, their joint researches on homeowrk, the radiation phenomena discovered by dissertations michigan, Professor Henri Becquerel. Essays? Henri Becquerel was awarded the descriptive ocean other half for his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity. In a letter to the Swedish Academy of essays Sciences, Pierre explains that neither of them is able to come to Stockholm to descriptive ocean receive the prize.
They could not get away because of their teaching obligations. He adds, Mme Curie has been ill this summer and homeowrk, is not yet completely recovered. That was certainly true but his own health was no better. Not until June 1905 did they go to Stockholm, where Pierre gave a Nobel lecture. At the prize award ceremony, the president of the Swedish Academy referred in his speech to the old proverb: union gives strength. He went on to quote from the Book of Genesis, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. Although the Nobel Prize alleviated their financial worries, the Curies now suddenly found themselves the focus of the interest of the public and interview, the press. Their seemingly romantic story, their labours in intolerable conditions, the remarkable new element which could disintegrate and essays, give off heat from what was apparently an dissertations registry, inexhaustible source, all these things made the reports into fairy-tales.
At the center was Marie, a frail woman who with a gigantic wand had ground down tons of pitchblende in homeowrk, order to extract a tiny amount of a magical element. Descriptive Ocean? Even Le Figaro, otherwise a sensible newspaper, began with Once upon a time . They were pursued by journalists from the whole world - a situation they could not deal with. Marie wrote, The shattering of our voluntary isolation was a cause of real suffering for us and had all the effects of disaster. Pierre wrote in July 1905, A whole year has passed since I was able to do any work . evidently I have not found the way of defending us against frittering away our time, and yet it is very necessary. It is a question of life or death from the intellectual point of view. But as Elisabeth Crawford emphasizes in her book The Beginnings of the Nobel Institution , from the essays latter's viewpoint, the awarding of the 1903 Prize for Physics was masterly. Formerly, only the dissertations registry Prize for Literature and the Peace Prize had obtained wide press coverage; the Prizes for scientific subjects had been considered all too esoteric to be able to interest the essays general public. Scholarship? The commotion centered on the award of the Prize to the Curies, especially Marie Curie, aroused once and for all the curiosity of the press and the public.
The work of researchers was exciting, their findings fascinating. The health of both Marie and Pierre Curie gave rise to concern. Their friends tried to make them work less. All their symptoms were ascribed to the drafty shed and to overexertion. Their dearest wish was to have a new laboratory but no such laboratory was in prospect. When Paul Appell, the dean of the faculty of sciences, appealed to Pierre to essays let his name be put forward as a recipient for the prestigious Legion of Honor on July 14,1903, Pierre replied, . I do not feel the scholarship means me essay slightest need of being decorated, but I am in the greatest need of homeowrk essays a laboratory.
Although Pierre was given a chair at the Sorbonne in 1904 with the promise of a laboratory, as late as 1906 it had still not begun to be built. Pierre was given access to some rooms in a building used for marketing, study by young medical students. Pierre Curie never obtained a real laboratory. On April 19, 1906, Pierre Curie was run over by a horse-drawn wagon near the Pont Neuf in Paris and homeowrk, killed. Now Marie was left alone with two daughters, Irène aged 9 and Ève aged 2. Shock broke her down totally to begin with. But even now she could draw on the toughness and perseverance that were fundamental aspects of her character.
When she was offered a pension, she refused it: I am 38 and able to support myself, was her answer. She was appointed to succeed Pierre as the head of the laboratory, being undoubtedly most suitable, and to be responsible for marketing, his teaching duties. She thus became the first woman ever appointed to teach at the Sorbonne. Homeowrk Essays? After some months, in November 1906, she gave her first lecture. The large amphitheater was packed. Me Essay? As well as students, her audience included people from far and near, journalists and photographers were in attendance. Many people had expected something unusual to occur. Perhaps some manifestation of the historic occasion. When Marie entered, thin, pale and tense, she was met by an ovation. Homeowrk? However the expectations of something other than a clear and factual lecture on physics were not fulfilled.
But Marie's personality, her aura of simplicity and competence made a great impression. Irène was now 9 years old. Short On A Visit Book? Marie had definite ideas about the upbringing and education of children that she now wanted to put into practice. Her circle of friends consisted of a small group of homeowrk professors with children of school age. Marie organized a private school with the i see myself in the parents themselves acting as teachers. A group of some ten children were accordingly taught only by prominent professors: Jean Perrin, Paul Langevin, Édouard Chavannes, a professor of Chinese, Henri Mouton from the Pasteur Institute, a sculptor was engaged for modeling and homeowrk essays, drawing. Marie took the view that scientific subjects should be taught at an early age but not according to a too rigid curriculum.
It was important for children to be able to develop freely. Games and physical activities took up much of the time. Quite a lot of time was taken for travel, too, for the children had to visit book travel to the homes of their teachers, to Marie at Sceaux or to essays Langevin's lessons in one of the Paris suburbs. The little group became a kind of school for on how i see myself, the elite with a great emphasis on science. The children involved say that they have happy memories of that time. For Irène it was in those years that the foundation of her development into a researcher was laid. The educational experiment lasted two years. Subsequently the pupils had to prepare for their forthcoming baccalauréat exam and to follow the homeowrk traditional educational programs. In 1908 Marie, as the essay on a visit to a first woman ever, was appointed to become a professor at the Sorbonne.
She went on to produce several decigrams of very pure radium chloride before finally, in collaboration with André Debierne, she was able to isolate radium in metallic form. André Debierne, who began as a laboratory assistant, became her faithful collaborator until her death and then succeeded her as head of the laboratory. In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The citation by the Nobel Committee was, in recognition of essays her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element. Now that the scholarship archives have been made available to the public, it is possible to study in detail the events surrounding the awarding of the two Prizes, in 1903 and 1911. In a letter in 1903, several members of the l'Académie des Sciences , including Henri Poincaré and Gaston Darboux, had nominated Becquerel and Pierre Curie for the Prize in Physics.
Marie's name was not mentioned. This caused Gösta Mittag-Leffler, a professor of mathematics at Stockholm University College, to write to homeowrk essays Pierre Curie. That letter has never survived but Pierre Curie's answer, dated August 6, 1903, has been preserved. Short Essay Visit? He wrote, If it is essays true that one is seriously thinking about me (for the Prize), I very much wish to be considered together with Madame Curie with respect to our research on radioactive bodies. Drawing attention to the role she played in the discovery of radium and mba in marketing essay, polonium, he added, Do you not think that it would be more satisfying from the homeowrk essays artistic point of view, if we were to be associated in this manner? (plus joli d'un point de vue artistique). Some biographers have questioned whether Marie deserved the Prize for Chemistry in 1911. They have claimed that the discoveries of radium and polonium were part of the reason for the Prize in 1903, even though this was not stated explicitly. Marie was said to have been awarded the Prize again for means, the same discovery, the award possibly being an expression of sympathy for homeowrk, reasons that will be mentioned below. Actually, however, the citation for the Prize in 1903 was worded deliberately with a view to a future Prize in Chemistry. Registry Michigan? Chemists considered that the discovery and essays, isolation of radium was the greatest event in chemistry since the discovery of oxygen. That for the first time in history it could be shown that an element could be transmuted into another element, revolutionized chemistry and signified a new epoch.
Despite the second Nobel Prize and an invitation to the first Solvay Conference with the world's leading physicists, including Einstein, Poincaré and mba in marketing, Planck, 1911 became a dark year in Marie's life. Essays? In two smear campaigns she was to experience the inconstancy of the French press. The first was started on 16 November 1910, when, by an article in Le Figaro , it became known that she was willing to be nominated for election to l'Académie des Sciences . Examples of factors other than merit deciding an election did exist, but Marie herself and her eminent research colleagues seemed to have considered that with her exceptionally brilliant scientific merits, her election was self-evident. Essay I See Myself In The Future? Notwithstanding, it turned out that it was not merit that was decisive. The dark underlying currents of anti-Semitism, prejudice against women, xenophobia and even anti-science attitudes that existed in French society came welling up to the surface.
Normally the election was of no interest to the press. The most rabid paper was the ultra-nationalistic and anti-Semitic L'Action Française , which was led by Léon Daudet, the son of the writer Alphonse Daudet. Dreyfus had got redress for his wrongs in homeowrk essays, 1906 and had been decorated with the Legion of Honour, but in the eyes of the groups who had been against him during his trial, he was still guilty, was still the Jewish traitor. Mba In Marketing Essay? The pro-Dreyfus groups who had supported his cause were suspect and the scientists who were supporting Marie were among them. Homeowrk Essays? Jokes in scholarship me essay, bad taste alternated with outrageous accusations. It was said that in essays, her career, Pierre's research had given her a free ride. She came from Poland, though admittedly she was formally a Catholic but her name Sklodowska indicated that she might be of Jewish origin, and so on. A week before the election, an opposing candidate, Édouard Branly, was launched. The vote on January 23, 1911 was taken in the presence of journalists, photographers and hordes of the curious. The election took place in dissertations, a tumultuous atmosphere. In the first round Marie lost by one vote, in essays, the second by two.
In all, fifty-eight votes were cast. Mba In Essay? A Nobel Prize in 1903 and support from prominent researchers such as Jean Perrin, Henri Poincaré, Paul Appell and the permanent secretary of the Académie , Gaston Darboux, were not sufficient to make the Académie open its doors. Homeowrk? This event attracted international attention and descriptive, indignation. It deeply wounded both Marie and indeed Édouard Branly, too, himself a well-merited researcher. However, Marie's tribulations were not at an end. Homeowrk Essays? When, at the beginning of November 1911, Marie went to Belgium, being invited with the world's most eminent physicists to attend the first Solvay Conference, she received a message that a new campaign had started in the press. Now it was a matter of her private life and her relations with her colleague Paul Langevin, who had also been invited to the conference. He had had marital problems for several years and ocean, had moved from his suburban home to a small apartment in Paris.
Marie was depicted as the reason. Both were described in slanderous terms. The scandal developed dramatically. Marie stands up in her own defence and managed to force an apology from the newspaper Le Temps . The same day she received word from Stockholm that she had been awarded the homeowrk essays Nobel Prize in Chemistry. However, the very newspapers that made her a legend when she received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903, now completely ignored the fact that she had been awarded the means Prize in Chemistry or merely reported it in a few words on homeowrk essays, an inside page. The Langevin scandal escalated into a serious affair that shook the university world in Paris and the French government at the highest level. Madame Langevin was preparing legal action to a friend obtain custody of the four children. With a burglary in Langevin's apartment certain letters were stolen and homeowrk essays, delivered to the press. Léon Daudet made the whole thing into a new Dreyfus affair. Day after day Marie had to run the gauntlet in the newspapers: an alien, a Polish woman, a researcher supported by our French scientists, had come and stolen an honest French woman's husband.
Daudet quoted Fouquier-Tinville's notorious words that during the Revolution had sent the chemist Lavoisier to ocean the guillotine: The Republic does not need any scientists. Homeowrk Essays? Marie's friends immediately backed her up. Jean Perrin, Henri Poincaré and Émile Borel appealed to the publishers of the descriptive newspapers. Henri Poincaré's cousin, Raymond Poincaré, a senior lawyer who was to become President of essays France in a few years time, was engaged as advisor. Short Essay On A To A? But the scandal kept up its impetus with headlines on homeowrk, the first pages such as Madame Curie, can she still remain a professor at the Sorbonne? With her children Marie stayed at Sceaux where she was practically a prisoner in her own home. Her friends feared that she would collapse. The drama culminated on the morning of 23 November when extracts from the letters were published in descriptive ocean, the newspaper L'Oeuvre . Essays? There was no proof of the accusations made against Marie and the authenticity of the letters could be questioned but in the heated atmosphere there were few who thought clearly.
In her book Souvenirs et rencontres , Marguerite Borel gives a dramatic description of what happened. Émile Borel was extremely indignant and acted quickly. Marie had to be fetched from Sceaux and live with them until the short visit to a fair storm was over. Essays? Marguerite and André Debierne went out to Sceaux where they found a hostile and on a visit to a fair, angry crowd gathered outside Marie's home. Someone shouted, Go home to Poland. A stone hit the house.
Having managed to homeowrk persuade Marie to go with them, they guided her, holding Ève by the hand, through the crowd. On A To A Fair? Marie sat stiff and deathly pale throughout their journey. Marguerite wanted to take her hand, but did not venture to do so. On their return, Marie and Ève were installed in two rooms in the Borels' home. Henriette Perrin looks after Irène. But the homeowrk Borels' home was owned by the École Normale Supérieure and Émile Borel was called up to the Minister of interview a friend Education (Théodore Steeg, le ministre de l'Instruction publique) who informed him that he had no right to essays let Marie Curie stay in his home. It would cast a shadow on registry michigan, the École Normale . If Borel persisted in keeping his guest, he would be dismissed. Homeowrk Essays? So be it then, I shall persist, was Borel's answer. For Marguerite Borel's part, she had to endure a stormy battle with her father, Paul Appell, then dean of the faculty at the Sorbonne.
He was furious that the Borels have gotten mixed up in the matter. He revealed that with several other influential people he was planning an interview with Marie in order to request her to leave France: her situation in Paris was impossible. I have done everything for her, I have supported her candidature to the Académie , but I cannot hold back the dissertations flood now engulfing her. Marguerite replied, If you give in to that idiotic nationalist movement and insist that Marie should leave France, you will never see me any more. Appell, who was in the process of putting on his shoes, threw one of them to hit the door - but the interview with Marie did not take place. Langevin who had been repeatedly insulted, then felt forced to challenge Gustave Téry, the editor of the newspaper that printed the letters, to a duel.
Fighting a duel was a usual way of essays obtaining satisfaction in France at interview a friend essay that time, although scarcely in academic circles. Newspaper publishers who had come up against each other in homeowrk essays, this dispute had already fought duels. Swords were generally used and a duellist was usually content with inflicting a thorough scratch on essay on how in the, his opponent for homeowrk, the duel to be considered decided. But fatal accidents did in fact occur. Langevin found it hard to find seconds, but managed to persuade Paul Painlevé, a mathematician and later Prime Minister, and the director of the School of Physics and registry, Chemistry. Essays? The duel, with pistols at a distance of 25 meters, was to essay take place on the morning of November 25. Painlevé, not being used to the routines, surprised everyone present by beginning to count in homeowrk essays, a loud voice unusually quickly: one, two, three.
Téry did not raise his pistol. Langevin, who had first raised his, then lowered it. No shot was fired. The journalists wrote about the silence and about the pigeons quietly feeding on the field. In the midst of all its gravity, the interview a friend essay duel had turned into a farce. However, the publication of the letters and homeowrk essays, the duel were too much for on a to a fair, those responsible at the Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. Homeowrk? Marie received a letter from a member, Svante Arrhenius, in which he said that the duel had given the impression that the published correspondence had not been falsified. He asked her to cable that she would not be coming to the prize award ceremony and to write him a letter to the effect that she did not want to essay on a visit to a fair accept the Prize until the Langevin court proceedings had shown that the accusations against her were absolutely without foundation. Of those most closely affected, the person who remained level-headed despite the homeowrk enormous strain of the descriptive critical situation was in fact Marie herself. In a well-formulated and matter-of-fact reply, she pointed out that she had been awarded the essays Prize for her discovery of radium and polonium, and that she could not accept the principle that appreciation of the value of scientific work should be influenced by slander concerning a researcher's private life. On December 6, Langevin wrote a long letter to visit Svante Arrhenius, whom he had met previously.
He described the whole situation, explained what circles were behind the smear campaign. He appealed to the Nobel Committee not to let it be influenced by essays, a campaign which was fundamentally unjust. Nor, in fact, was it so influenced. Marie gathered all her strength and gave her Nobel lecture on December 11 in Stockholm. The lecture should be read in the light of what she had gone through. She made clear by her choice of words what were unequivocally her contributions in the collaboration with Pierre. She spoke of the field of research which I have called radioactivity and marketing, my hypothesis that radioactivity is an atomic property, but without detracting from homeowrk his contributions. She declared that she also regarded this Prize as a tribute to Pierre Curie. However, this enormous effort completely drained her of all her strength. She sank into a depressed state.
On December 29, she was taken to essay on how i see myself future a hospital whose location was kept secret for her protection. When she had recovered to some extent, she traveled to England, where a friend, the homeowrk essays physicist Hertha Ayrton, looked after her and saw that the press was kept away. A whole year passed before she could work as she had done before. In her book, Marguerite Borel quotes Jean Perrin's words, 'But for a friend essay, the five of us who stood up for Marie Curie against a whole world when a landslide of homeowrk essays filth engulfed her, Marie would have returned to Poland and essay i see myself in the future, we would have been marked by eternal shame.' The five were Jean and Henriette Perrin, Émile and Marguerite Borel and André Debierne. Legal proceedings were never taken. Homeowrk? Langevin and his wife reached a settlement on 9 December without Marie's name being mentioned. We shall never know with any certainty what was the nature of the visit relationship between Marie Curie and Paul Langevin. It is referred to by Paul Langevin's son, André Langevin, in his biography of his father, which was published in 1971. He writes, Is it not rather natural that friendship and mutual admiration several years after Pierre's death could develop step by step into a passion and a relationship?
It can be added as a footnote that Paul Langevin's grandson, Michel (now deceased), and Marie's granddaughter, Hélène, later married. Essays? Hélène Langevin-Joliot is a nuclear physicist and has made a close study of Marie and Pierre Curie's notebooks so as to obtain a picture of how their collaboration functioned. Marie had opened up a completely new field of essay i see in the future research: radioactivity. Various aspects of it were being studied all over the world. In Uppsala Daniel Strömholm, professor of chemistry, and The Svedberg, then associate professor, investigated the chemistry of the radioactive elements. In 1909 they were close to the discovery of isotopes. However it was the British physicist Frederick Soddy who in the following year, finally clarified the concept of isotopes. Marie's laboratory became the Mecca for radium research. Eva Ramstedt, who took a doctorate in physics in Uppsala in 1910, studied with Marie Curie in 1910-11 and was later associate professor in radiology at Stockholm University College in 1915-32. The Norwegian chemist Ellen Gleditsch worked with Marie Curie in 1907-1912.
When, in 1914, Marie was in the process of beginning to lead one of the departments in the Radium Institute established jointly by the University of homeowrk Paris and the Pasteur Institute, the First World War broke out. Marie placed her two daughters, Irène aged 17 and Ève aged 10, in safety in Brittany. Essays? She herself took a train to homeowrk essays Bordeaux, a train overloaded with people leaving Paris for a safer refuge. But Marie had a different reason for dissertations registry, her journey. Essays? She had with her a heavy, 20-kg lead container in which she had placed her valuable radium. Once in Bordeaux the a friend other passengers rushed away to their various destinations. She remained standing there with her heavy bag which she did not have the strength to carry without assistance. Some official finally helped her find a room where she slept with her heavy bag by her bed. The next day, having had the bag taken to homeowrk essays a bank vault, she took a train back to Paris. It was now crowded to bursting point with soldiers.
Throughout the war she was engaged intensively in equipping more than 20 vans that acted as mobile field hospitals and about 200 fixed installations with X-ray apparatus. Marie driving one of the radiology cars in 1917. Marie Sklodowska Curie Museum. She trained young women in short on a book fair, simple X-ray technology, she herself drove one of the vans and took an active part in locating metal splinters. Homeowrk Essays? Sometimes she found she had to give the doctors lessons in short essay on a to a book, elementary geometry. Irène, when 18, became involved, and in the primitive conditions both of them were exposed to large doses of radiation. After the Peace Treaty in 1918, her Radium Institute, which had been completed in 1914, could now be opened. It became France's most internationally celebrated research institute in homeowrk essays, the inter-war years. Even so, as her French biographer Françoise Giroud points out, the French state did not do much in the way of supporting her.
In the USA radium was manufactured industrially but at essay myself in the future a price which Marie could not afford. She had to homeowrk essays devote a lot of time to fund-raising for her Institute. She also became deeply involved when she had become a member of the Commission for Intellectual Cooperation of the mba in League of Nations and served as its vice-president for a time. She frequently took part in its meetings in Geneva, where she also met the Swedish delegate, Anna Wicksell. Marie regularly refused all those who wanted to interview her.
However, a prominent American female journalist, Marie Maloney, known as Missy, who for a long time had admired Marie, managed to meet her. This meeting became of great importance to them both. Marie told Missy that researchers in the USA had some 50 grams of radium at their disposal. And in France, then? asked Missy. My laboratory has scarcely more than one gram, was Marie's answer.
But you ought to have all the resources in the world to continue with your research. Someone must see to homeowrk that, Missy said. But who? was Marie's reply in a resigned tone. On A Book? The women of America, promised Missy. Missy, like Marie herself, had an enormous strength and strong inner stamina under a frail exterior.
She now arranged one of the homeowrk largest and most successful research-funding campaigns the world has seen. First of all she got the New York papers to promise not to print a word on the Langevin affair and - so as to feel safe - unbelievably enough managed to take over all their material on the Langevin affair. Due to the press, Marie became enormously popular in America, and everyone seemed to essay on how i see myself in the future want to meet her - the great Madame Curie. Homeowrk Essays? Missy had to struggle hard to get Marie to accept a program for her visit on a par with the campaign. Finally, she had to turn to Paul Appell, now the university chancellor, to persuade Marie. In spite of her diffidence and distaste for publicity, Marie agreed to go to i see myself America to homeowrk essays receive the gift - a single gram of mba in radium - from the hand of President Warren Harding. I understand that it will be of the greatest value for my Institute, she wrote to homeowrk essays Missy.
When all this became known in France, the short on a visit book paper Je sais tout arranged a gala performance at the Paris Opera. Homeowrk? It was attended by interview, the most prominent personalities in homeowrk, France, including Aristide Briand, then Foreign Minister, who was later, in 1926, to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. Jean Perrin made a speech about interview a friend, Marie's contribution and the promises for the future that her discoveries gave. The great Sarah Bernhardt read an Ode to Madame Curie with allusions to her as the sister of Prometheus. After being dragged through the mud ten years before, she had become a modern Jeanne d'Arc. Missy Maloney, Irène, Marie and homeowrk, Ève Curie in the USA. Photo kindly provided by William Brown Maloney Papers, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, USA. Missy had undertaken that everything would be arranged to cause Marie the least possible effort. In spite of this Marie had to interview a friend essay attend innumerable receptions and homeowrk, do a round of American universities. Scholarship Means Me Essay? Outwardly the trip was one great triumphal procession.
She became the recipient of some twenty distinctions in the form of honorary doctorates, medals and essays, membership in academies. Great crowds paid homage to her. Mba In? But for Marie herself, this was torment. Where possible, she had her two daughters represent her. Marie and Missy became close friends. The inexhaustible Missy organized further collections for one gram of radium for an institute which Marie had helped found in Warsaw.
Marie's second journey to America ended only a few days before the great stock exchange crash in essays, 1929. In the last ten years of her life, Marie had the joy of seeing her daughter Irène and her son-in-law Frédéric Joliot do successful research in the laboratory. She lived to see their discovery of artificial radioactivity, but not to hear that they had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for it in 1935. Marie Curie died of leukemia on July 4, 1934. It is worth mentioning that the new discoveries at the end of the nineteenth century became of importance also for the breakthrough of modern art. X-ray photography focused art on the invisible. The human body became dissolved in short on a to a book fair, a shimmering mist. Homeowrk Essays? Wassily Kandinsky, one of the pioneers of abstract painting, wrote about means, radioactivity in his autobiographical notes from 1901-13. Homeowrk? He claimed that in his soul the decay of the atom was synonymous with the decay of the whole world. The thickest walls had suddenly collapsed. Interview A Friend? Everything had become uncertain, unsteady and fluid.
He would not have been surprised if a stone had been pulverized in the air before him and become invisible. For the physicists of homeowrk Marie Curie's day, the new discoveries were no less revolutionary. Although admittedly the world did not decay, what nevertheless did was the interview classical, deterministic view of the world. Radioactive decay, that heat is given off from an invisible and apparently inexhaustible source, that radioactive elements are transformed into new elements just as in homeowrk, the ancient dreams of alchemists of the possibility of making gold, all these things contravened the most entrenched principles of classical physics. For radioactivity to be understood, the development of short essay on a visit fair quantum mechanics was required. Homeowrk Essays? But it should be noted that the birth of essay on a quantum mechanics was not initiated by the study of homeowrk radioactivity but by Max Planck's study of radiation from a black body in 1900. It was an old field that was not the object of the same interest and publicity as the new spectacular discoveries. It was not until 1928, more than a quarter of a century later, that the type of mba in radioactivity that is essays called alpha-decay obtained its theoretical explanation. It is an example of the essays ocean tunnel effect in essays, quantum mechanics.
Much has changed in the conditions under which researchers work since Marie and Pierre Curie worked in a drafty shed and refused to consider taking out a patent as being incompatible with their view of the essay on how myself in the role of researchers; a patent would nevertheless have facilitated their research and essays, spared their health. But in ocean, one respect, the situation remains unchanged. Nature holds on just as hard to its really profound secrets, and it is just as difficult to predict where the answers to homeowrk essays fundamental questions are to be found. Appell, Paul (1855-1930), mathematician. Arrhenius, Svante (1859-1927), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903. Ayrton, Hertha (1854-1923), English physicist. Becquerel, Henri (1852-1908), Nobel Prize in Physics 1903. Borel, Émile (1871-1956), mathematician.
Borel, Marguerite, author, married to Émile Borel. Branly, Édouard (1844-1940), physicist. Briand, Aristide (1862-1932), eminent French statesman, Nobel Peace Prize 1926. Brillouin, Marcel (1854-1948), theoretical physicist. Darboux, Gaston (1842-1917), mathematician. Daudet, Léon (1867-1942), editor of essay on a visit to a L'Action Française. Debierne, André (1874-1949), Marie Curie's colleague for many years.
Einstein, Albert (1879-1955), Nobel Prize in homeowrk, Physics 1921. Giroud, Françoise (1916- ), author, former minister. Gleditsch, Ellen (1879-1968), chemist. Hertz, Heinrich (1857-1894), physicist. Langevin, Paul (1872-1946), physicist. Lippmann, Gabriel (1845-1921), Nobel Prize in Physics 1908. Marconi, Guglielmo (1874-1937), Nobel Prize in Physics 1909. Mittag-Leffler, Gösta (1846-1927), mathematician. Moissan, Henri (1852-1907), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906.
Ostwald, Wilhelm (1853-1932), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909. Painlevé, Paul (1863-1933), mathematician. Perrin, Jean (1870-1942) Nobel Prize in Physics 1926. Planck, Max (1858-1947), Nobel Prize in Physics 1918. Poincaré, Henri (1854-1912), mathematician, philosopher. Poincaré, Raymond (1860-1934), lawyer (president 1913-1920) Ramstedt, Eva (1879-1974), physicist. Rutherford, Ernest (1871-1937), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908. Soddy, Frederick (1877-1956), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921.
Strömholm, Daniel (1871-1961), chemist, professor at Uppsala University. Svedberg, The (1884-1971), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926. Bensuade-Vincent, Bernadette, Marie Curie, femme de science et de légende , Reveu du Palais de la découverte, Vol. 16. Marketing Essay? n 157 avril 1988, 15-30. Muzeum Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej. (Polskie Towarzystwo Chemiczne) 00-227 Warsawa, ul. Freta 16. tel: 48-22-31 80 92. fax: 48-22-31 13 04. Contact person: Malgorzata Sobieszczak-Marciniak.
* Originally delivered as a lecture at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden, on February 28, 1996. Translation from Swedish to English by homeowrk essays, Nancy Marshall-Lundén. First published 1 December 1996. MLA style: Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium. Nobelprize.org.
Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 3 Oct 2017. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/themes/physics/curie/ On 27 November 1895 Alfred Nobel signed his last will in Paris. Try to save some patients and learn about human blood types!
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essay on persona Home » Articles » An introduction to personas and how to homeowrk essays, create them. Before embarking on any intranet or website design project, it is important to understand the needs of your users. It is then possible to identify the features and functionality that will make the intranet or website a success, and how the design can support users with different goals and levels of skill. There are many ways to visit book fair, identify the needs of users, such as usability testing, interviewing users, discussions with business stakeholders, and conducting surveys. Homeowrk Essays. However one technique that has grown in popularity and acceptance is the use of personas: the development of archetypal users to descriptive essays, direct the vision and design of a web solution. This article explains what personas are, benefits of using personas, answers to homeowrk, common objections about personas, and practical steps towards creating them.
It is meant as an introduction to personas, and provides enough information to start creating your own. If you want to essay, know more, there are lots of resources available, particularly the work of Alan Cooper and colleagues at Cooper Interaction Design. Homeowrk. Alan is credited with having created the first persona for software development purposes back in the early 1980s. Personas act as stand-ins for to a fair, real users. Personas are archetypal users of an intranet or website that represent the needs of larger groups of homeowrk, users, in scholarship means, terms of their goals and personal characteristics. They act as ‘stand-ins’ for real users and help guide decisions about functionality and design.
Personas identify the user motivations, expectations and goals responsible for driving online behaviour, and bring users to life by homeowrk essays giving them names, personalities and often a photo. Although personas are fictitious, they are based on knowledge of real users. Some form of user research is conducted before they are written to ensure they represent end users rather than the opinion of the person writing the personas. Below is a sample persona for short essay to a fair, an intranet project. This persona describes Bob, a 52 year old mechanic that works for a road service company. From Bob’s persona you can start to get a feel for his goals when using the homeowrk new intranet.
He wants to avoid feeling stupid, would like to retain his status as a mentor to his younger colleagues, whilst seeing the potential of the intranet to means, make him more informed when interacting with customers. Bob is 52 years old and works as a mechanic with an organisation offering road service to customers when their car breaks down. He has worked in homeowrk essays, the job for the past 12 years and knows it well. Descriptive Essays Ocean. Many of the younger mechanics ask Bob for advice when they meet up in the depot as he always knows the answer to tricky mechanical problems. Bob likes sharing his knowledge with the younger guys, as it makes him feel a valued part of the team. Bob works rolling day and night shifts and spends his shifts attending breakdowns and lockouts (when customers lock their keys in the car). About 20% of the homeowrk jobs he attends are complex and he occasionally needs to refer to his standard issue manuals. Bob tries to avoid using the manuals in front of a friend essay, customers as he thinks it gives the impression he doesn’t know what he’s doing. Bob has seen many changes over the years with the company and homeowrk, has tried his best to interview essay, move with the times. However he found it a bit daunting when a new computer was installed in homeowrk, his van several years ago, and now he has heard rumours that the computer is going to be upgraded to one with a bigger screen that’s meant to be faster and better. Bob’s been told that he will be able to access the intranet on the new computer.
He has heard about the intranet and essays ocean, saw once in an early version on his manager’s computer. He wonders if he will be able to find out want’s going on in the company more easily, especially as customers’ seem to know more about the latest company news than he does when he turns up at a job. This can be embarrassing and has been a source of frustration for Bob throughout his time with the essays company. Bob wonders if he will be able to cope with the dissertations registry michigan new computer system. He doesn’t mind asking his grandchildren for help when he wants to send an email to his brother overseas, but asking the guys at work for help is essays another story. Personas enable intranet and website teams to stand in their users’ shoes. They focus the design effort on supporting user goals, rather than being driven by the ideas of team members or senior executives. Introducing personas into your intranet or website project will bring a number of benefits: users’ goals and needs become a common point of focus for the team the team can concentrate on designing for a manageable set of personas knowing that they represent the registry needs of many users they are relatively quick to develop and essays, replace the dissertations registry need to canvass the whole user community and spend months gathering user requirements they help avoid the trap of building what users ask for homeowrk, rather than what they will actually use design efforts can be prioritised based on the personas disagreements over descriptive design decisions can be sorted out by referring back to the personas designs can be constantly evaluated against the personas, reducing the frequency of large and expensive usability tests. Although personas have many benefits, they alone will not ensure the success of homeowrk, your intranet or website.
The goals of the i see in the future business must also be considered, because if the website or intranet does not meet business needs, then the solution is homeowrk essays not a viable one. For example, an marketing, intranet may aim to reduce organisational costs and increase staff efficiency, while an ecommerce website aims to make sales. Personas also support rather than replace other user-centred design activities. There is still a need to conduct task analysis to understand the detailed tasks your intranet or website is to accommodate. There is still value in usability testing the essays site, and many user-centred design activities are conducted to gather input into the personas, such as user interviewing and observation. Roadblocks to introducing personas.
Introducing personas for dissertations registry michigan, the first time is homeowrk essays not always a smooth ride. You may come across any one of these objections. Personas are no different from market segments. Market segmentation is an invaluable tool for identifying the groups of people most likely to use a website and why. However market segmentation is not designed to provide insight into how the website needs to descriptive essays ocean, work and how it is best designed.
Market segmentation might identify that 37% of homeowrk essays, women aged 25-35 want to book their next holiday online, and that competitive prices and access to interview a friend essay, quality accommodation will affect their purchasing decision. A persona, on the other hand, would show that Sally aged 27 wants to book her next holiday online, but is essays concerned that the accommodation she chooses won’t look the same as the brochure, that they won’t be close to interview essay, restaurants and homeowrk, bars, and that her online booking might not be accepted when she arrives. Sally also wants to scholarship means me essay, be assured that she can cancel her booking 60 days prior to her departure date without penalty. Market segmentation is a great input into persona development and can help identify the types of users to profile. However it rarely provides the richness required to write personas. A good article on the difference between market segmentation and homeowrk essays, persona development is Reconciling market segments and personas by Elaine Brechin from Cooper Interaction Design. Personas have no place in the serious world of IT. Personas make some people feel uncomfortable. Talking about hypothetical users with real names and means, personalities can be too much for homeowrk essays, some, and the storytelling nature of interview essay, personas just does not fit with some organisational or team cultures. In this case you don’t need to homeowrk, abandon personas, instead you can write then in a less threatening way.
Here are a few tips: Initially eliminate or minimise the amount of personal details about a persona, including the photo. You can introduce these later on if people start to essays, warm to essays, the concept. Give the persona a title rather than a name. For example, Bob’s persona introduced at the beginning of the article could be referred to as the ‘expert mechanic’ persona. Write the persona as a list of bullet points rather than a narrative.
Keep the bullet points to short statements about the user’s goals, behaviours, likes and dislikes. An example of how Bob’s persona can be modified is shown below. Although this does not have the richness of the essay narrative persona, it still does the job of focusing the team on essays the needs of the user. Shares technical tips with younger, less experienced mechanicsLikesBeing seen as the expert and on how i see in the, sharing technical tips with less experienced mechanicsDislikesBeing unable to find out homeowrk, what is happening in the company before customers do. Learning new technology and the potential of interview a friend, looking stupid in front of colleagues. Using technical manuals in front of customers for more complex jobsGoalsStay informed about the homeowrk essays company. Dont look stupid. Retain status of expert. How can a small set of personas represent the user population. When explaining for the first time that an intranet or website can be designed around only a handful of personas, some people will look at you with disbelief. How can two, three, four or even five user profiles encapsulate the requirements of the entire user community?
Traditionally user-centred design involved researching the needs of as many users as possible and collecting all of essay myself future, their requirements. This resulted in a long list of homeowrk essays, needs with no sense of priority. This lack of direction typically translated into designs that tried to serve all users but ended up serving no user particularly well. For example, you may have interviewed 50 people around the organisation about their intranet needs. You have compiled a list of requested content and some ideas about the functionality users’ desire, such as a phone book linked to the organisation chart and the ability to check how much annual leave they have left.
You also know that the scholarship means call centre users need access to homeowrk, a range of information very quickly if their call response times are not to be adversely affected. Marketing. Finally, you’ve realised that the remote sales teams will be getting a new network in homeowrk essays, the next few months and will finally be able to on a visit book, access the intranet. What do you do with all these needs? Do you design the intranet so it meets the needs of the homeowrk essays call centre staff? After all, they are the ones with the strictest productivity requirements. If you do this, how will the sales staff get to the information they need when they are face-to-face with customers? And, what about head office staff, such as the technical team that accesses only a small amount of distinct content? Personas cut through this confusion. They allow you to mba in marketing essay, identify discrete sets of users and create typical users to represent each group.
Design for the personas and the users with similar goals and needs will also be satisfied. Design for a discrete set of personas and satisfy all users with similar goals. By defining primary and secondary personas you can also work out who to homeowrk essays, design for first and whether you need to design more than one user interface. The needs of a primary persona will not be met if you design for descriptive essays, someone else, whereas others are likely to be satisfied with the primary persona’s interface. For example, if you design for the call centre staff, the homeowrk essays remote sales staff and the head office technical team might also be satisfied. However if you design just for on how myself future, the head office technical team, the call centre and sales staff are unlikely to be happy. The call centre staff persona is a primary persona, whereas the head office technical team is a secondary persona. The secondary persona is happy with the primary persona’s interface with a few specific additional needs. So, in this case, you would begin designing for the call centre staff persona. This is a lot easier than facing a 10 or 20 page list of user requirements.
Interview real users and homeowrk essays, business people that interact with users. The purpose of the research is to identify trends or patterns in user behaviours, expectations and motivations to form the basis of the interview personas. One of the best ways to gather this data is to interview real users. Homeowrk Essays. This is usually achievable when designing intranets but becomes harder when you need access to essay on a to a book, users of a public website. If you have access to users, decide who to interview by listing the homeowrk groups of people that might use the intranet or website. If you are doing a redesign project, think of current users as well as potential users. Trends are usually seen after talking to around 10 or so users, however you may need to speak to more if there are a lot users with vastly different needs. Once you hear the same thing over and over again, it’s time to stop.
If you really can’t get access to users then attempt a combination of the essay on how myself in the future following research methods. Try not to rely on a single method, rather use at least two avenues of research. Homeowrk Essays. Also, if you interview users, consider supplementing the interviews with one of the research methods below. This will produce richer data and can verify your interview findings: Interview business stakeholders that interact frequently with users.
These people have had hundreds if not thousands of descriptive ocean, interactions with end users and are already conscious of homeowrk essays, users’ behavioural patterns. Respect the wealth of knowledge your business stakeholders hold and ocean, get them involved early on in the persona research. This helps to build their buy in to the persona technique. Review market research and essays, interview your organisation’s market research specialists. Ocean. Once again these people have frequent interaction with end users and are trained to pick up patterns in attitudes and essays, behaviours. They may not have created personas before, but if you ask the right questions you’ll gather useful information to add to your research data. Survey users and business stakeholders using quantitative methods. This is a good way to gather large amounts of demographic data and to identify trends in skill levels and tasks performed. However it cannot replace direct interaction and observation with interview subjects as there is no way to tap into the users’ subconscious beliefs and attitudes. If you are designing a web site, talk to friends and family that are users of the current website or potential users of the new website.
Chat to people over dinner parties or at essay on how in the future the pub. This is not rigorous research, but some research is homeowrk better than none. Conduct interviews in the user’s environment. Now that you have decided on your research methods, carry out the research. If conducting interviews, plan to spend about one hour per interview. If this is scholarship means not possible, 30 minutes will still uncover behavioural trends, but the personas may not end up as detailed as you might like. Interviews with users are best conducted in the environment in which they will use the intranet or website.
This provides the opportunity to observe what users do as opposed to what they say they do. Stay away from asking opinions about the design of the essays intranet or website, or asking users what they want. Rather gather information about the areas listed in michigan, the table below. The table lists slightly different areas of investigation for intranets and essays, websites. Job responsibilities and what a typical day looks like. Tasks that take the longest, are the most critical or are performed most often. Major frustrations with the job and the organisation.
What the person likes best about essay their job. What teams or people within the organisation the person interacts with most. Skill levels relating to the job as well as technology. How time poor or rich the person is. Goals, attitudes, beliefs (conscious and subconscious) What a typical day looks like. Common questions or tasks in relation to the website’s domain. Major frustrations when trying to achieve goals related to the website’s domain. For example, if it is a travel website, what frustrates the person most about researching and booking travel (online and offline)
What the person likes best about the website’s domain. Essays. For example, what does the essay in the interviewee like best about travel. Who does the person interact with most when completing tasks. Homeowrk. For example, does the person rely on the travel agent for interview, advice or do they like to make their own travel decisions. Skill levels relating to tasks as well as technology. How time poor or rich the person is. Goals, attitudes, beliefs (conscious and homeowrk essays, subconscious) Prepare a list of interview questions, however, remain open to visit fair, an alternative path of questioning if it leads to essays, uncovering user attitudes and behaviours.
Also, don’t ask questions like ‘What are your goals when using the intranet/website?’. You will need to infer the goals from on how in the future questions like ‘What things frustrate you the most?’, ‘What makes a good working day?’, and homeowrk, ‘What will help you. to do your job better?’ Examples of questions relevant for intranet projects can be found in our article Stakeholder interviews as simple knowledge mapping. Practice active listening, adopt open body language and make appropriate eye contact. Most of michigan, all respect the opinions the user is providing. They are talking about their world, and this is the world they bring with them when using your website or intranet. Your respect will build trust and openness, and this is when the true motivations, attitudes and beliefs of the user are revealed.
Stay tuned to what the user is not saying – take notice of homeowrk, body language and tone of short book fair, voice. Analyse research data and identify persona set. Review all the research data and look for patterns in attitudes and behaviours. For example, if you interviewed people about travel, you might find patterns like users who are price driven as opposed to quality driven, users who travel frequently as opposed to infrequently, and users who prefer to research their holiday rather than asking others for suggestions. For an intranet project, users who need to access information under strict time pressures, users who spend a large amount of their time researching, and users who like to be seen as the homeowrk experts in the organisation. Whilst listing these patterns, you will begin to see clusters of attitudes and behaviours that make up different personas, such as the frequent traveller that is skilled in researching holidays and finding the best prices.
This persona is motivated by keeping the scholarship me essay cost of each holiday down so they can travel more in the future. The persona’s goal is to go on as many holidays as possible. Once you have defined these clusters of homeowrk essays, attitudes and marketing, behaviours, give each persona a brief description, such as ‘independent traveller’ or ‘bargain hunter’. There is no ideal number of personas, however try to keep the set small. Essays. Four or five personas work as effective design tools, whilst over ten personas may introduce the same confusion as a large user requirements document. Start writing the personas by adding details around the descriptive ocean behavioural traits. Select details from your research, such as working environment, frustrations, relationships with others, skill level, and some demographics. Give each persona a name and homeowrk, a photo, unless your organisational or team culture is better suited to the more generic personas, like Bob’s persona listed as a series of bullet points. Here are some tips to follow regardless of whether you write your personas as narrative or bullet points:
Keep your personas to means, one page, so they remain effective communication tools and can be referred to quickly during design discussions. Add personal details but don’t go overboard. Include goals for essays, each persona. This can include experience goals as well as end goals. A Friend Essay. In the case of Bob, the expert mechanic, an experience goal would be to ‘not look stupid’, whilst an end goal would be ‘remain informed about the company’. To find out more about writing goals, refer to the article: Perfecting your personas Identify the essays primary and essay i see in the future, secondary personas (explained earlier on in this article) to help direct design priorities. Once your personas are written, review them to ensure they have remained realistic and based on your research data. Check that you have a manageable number of essays, personas, and if two personas seem close in behaviours and goals, see if you can merge them into one persona.
Finally, to ensure you have a polished product, ask someone to review the personas for mba in marketing, accuracy in spelling and grammar. There are many and varied ways that personas can be used. This will depend upon the nature of your project and the needs of the design team. Here are some common ways to use personas: identify the features, functionality and homeowrk, content to develop for an intranet or website release, ensuring that value is delivered to users from essay i see myself future day one of the release determine whether one user interface will meet the goals of all users, or whether there needs to be two or more user interfaces developed communicate to senior executives the vision for the new intranet or website and how it will meet the needs of the staff or customer base make design decision about essays how a piece of functionality will work or about the creative design of the web solution guide the content development so that content supports the goals of the scholarship means users and homeowrk, answers their common questions focus additional user analysis activities, such as task analysis guide an a friend essay, expert usability review of the existing intranet or website develop scenarios for usability testing contribute to the marketing efforts for the intranet or website. Understanding the essays needs of users is one of the most critical success factors for a friend essay, any intranet or website project. Homeowrk. Understanding these needs in a rapid fashion has arisen as project timelines have shortened and the pressure has mounted to on a visit to a, deliver value early and often. Personas allow you to identify and communicate user needs efficiently and essays, effectively. By developing ‘stand in’ users, based on real user data, the essay myself design team can concentrate on designing for these archetypal users with the confidence that the essays needs of the broader user base will be meet. Personas are a useful tool to use throughout the project, from deciding upon the functionality to include in a release to evaluating the end product. Teamed up with other user-centred design tools and marketing essay, techniques, such as task analysis and usability testing, personas will place you in good stead to deliver a useful and usable solution.
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Gladys, Duchess of Marlborough: the aristocrat with attitude. By Hugo Vickers. 5:31PM GMT 07 Feb 2011. Murder, abduction from a convent, the destruction of her own legendary beauty, the Aesop#x2019;s Fable of wishing to marry a Duke, years of reclusive seclusion#x2026; All were combined in the long and turbulent life of Gladys Deacon. The story of the first marriage of homeowrk, Charles, 9th Duke of Marlborough, and essay on how future, Consuelo Vanderbilt in 1895 is well known. Deals were struck on homeowrk essays both sides. Descriptive Essays. Both were in love with others, but he needed the Vanderbilt millions to restore Blenheim Palace and homeowrk essays, her mother wanted a daughter as a Duchess. As a consequence the marriage was unhappy and ended in separation and, later, in divorce. It is generally recorded that both remarried #x2013; though the on a to a book, second marriages are less well known. Homeowrk. Consuelo married Jacques Balsan, an aviator and balloonist who profited from #x201c;rejuvenating#x201d; monkey gland injections to an alarming degree. Essay I See Myself In The. While in essays 1921, Charles married Gladys Deacon.
Gladys#x2019;s dramatic story might have been lost forever had I not stumbled on an intriguing reference to her when I was 16 and thumbing through the short essay on a to a, diaries of the Conservative MP Henry #x201c;Chips#x201d; Channon. Chips encountered her in a jeweller#x2019;s shop in Bond Street in 1943: #x201c;I saw an extraordinary marionette of a woman #x2013; or was it a man? It wore grey flannel trousers, a wide leather belt, masculine overcoat and a man#x2019;s brown felt hat, and had a really frightening appearance, but the hair was golden-dyed and long.#x201d; Chips continued to essays examine this #x201c;terrifying apparition#x201d; and then suddenly he recognised her #x2013; #x201c;Gladys Marlborough, once the world#x2019;s most beautiful woman, the toast of Paris, the love of means me essay, Proust, the belle amie of Anatole France#x201d;. He attempted to introduce himself: #x201c;She looked at me, stared vacantly with those famous eyes that once drove men insane with desire and essays, muttered: #x2018; Je n#x2019;ai jamais entendu ce nom-la#x2019; . Essay. She flung down a ruby clip she was examining and bolted from the shop.#x201d;
This description instilled in me a fascination that never waned. I wanted to know what happened to her #x2013; particularly as there was no indication that she had died. But she seemed to essays have disappeared from the face of the earth. A visit to Blenheim in interview a friend essay 1968, endless questions asked to homeowrk anyone who might know, and finally a visit to her last address in Chacombe in 1975 provided little to essay on how i see in the go on. The publican in the village horrified me by homeowrk saying: #x201c;She#x2019;s been gone a long time.#x201d; He did not think she was dead, however, but in a hospital #x201c;up Northampton way#x201d;. This was at least a clue and St Andrew#x2019;s Hospital, a well-known psychiatric hospital, seemed the most likely place. I telephoned them, was asked to put my request in writing and soon found myself bombarded with letters from lawyers and a nephew in interview a friend essay Lausanne.
By this time I had made the extremely arrogant decision to write her biography. The nephew warned me to do my homework before visiting her. Homeowrk Essays. #x201c;She#x2019;s as cute as a cat,#x201d; he said. #x201c;She#x2019;ll look right through you.#x201d; So I read about Proust, Rodin, Monet and Anatole France, and the many others on whom she had had an effect. Proust wrote of her: #x201c;I never saw a girl with such beauty, such magnificent intelligence, such goodness and charm.#x201d; I discovered she had been evicted from Blenheim by essay the 9th Duke, that on a visit to the palace in 1901 the Crown Prince of Prussia had fallen madly in love with her and essays, given her a ring that the Kaiser had forced her to return. Interview Essay. I heard rumours of a bizarre operation in which she had injected paraffin wax into her nose to create the homeowrk, perfect Grecian profile, and essay on how i see in the, how the wax had slipped, destroying her legendary beauty. Then there was the essays, dramatic incident in which her father had shot her mother#x2019;s lover dead in a hotel room in Cannes in 1892. And as for the later life, the life after her encounter with Chips Channon, she had become a most eccentric recluse, disappearing into a house at Chacombe, near Banbury, and eventually locking the doors against interview a friend the world.
Her nephew told me how he managed to homeowrk visit her and, as the evening came and darkness descended, she turned on no lights. She watched him getting increasingly terrified. In 1975, the ocean, Duchess was 94. There was no time to lose. Essays. I was given a letter of authority to visit her by a lawyer, who looked at me in astonishment, wondering why I would want to go near her.
I was only 23 and had never been near a psycho-geriatric ward. I confess I was deeply scared, my nerves made no calmer by interview a vivid nightmare in which the essays, old and the young Gladys Deacon curiously merged into one #x2013; as, in a way, they did. Arriving at the hospital, Mrs Newton, the chief nursing officer, conducted me down a seemingly endless succession of essay i see myself future, corridors, past the doors of the unseen members of well-known families. Homeowrk. Doors were unlocked, relocked until we eventually arrived at O#x2019;Connell Ward. The Duchess was in essay on how myself in the future the green room, with sweeping views over the beautiful park. The room was deserted but for a figure asleep in a chair with her feet up and a white linen cloth over her head. Homeowrk Essays. #x201c;Duchess, you#x2019;ve got a visitor,#x201d;Mrs Newton said. She stirred.
I knelt down beside her and gradually she lifted the cloth. First I saw a distorted jaw due partly to the wax injections of the early 1900s and not helped by short essay visit fair old age. Then the cloth came higher and finally I found myself looking straight into homeowrk essays those famous blue eyes. They were just as strong and beautiful as had been described by the great writers of the age. She looked at essay me. #x201c;Later, later, later,#x201d; she said, dropping the homeowrk, cloth. She returned to sleep. That first encounter was not encouraging, but things got better #x2013; gradually. On a subsequent visit, I found her surrounded by nursing staff. Gladys looked at pictures and joked about them. At the end of that key meeting, she said to me: #x201c;Thank you very much. You#x2019;ve given me a better laugh than I#x2019;ve had since I came here.#x201d;
She invited me to have a cup of tea and we began the slow process of making friends. She was all but stone deaf, but with good eyesight. Marketing Essay. Every question I asked her was written on a piece of paper in large black capital letters. These she read and when it suited her, she answered. I visited her 65 times over a period of more than two years. I loved going to talk to essays Gladys; she changed the course of i see future, my life. Her extraordinary story unfolded, glimpses revealed in conversation but mostly found in archives across the homeowrk, world.
She gave me clues. She told me that Rodin was #x201c;of a very lascivious nature #x2013; you know, hands all over essay on how i see myself you#x201d;, adding #x201c;of course I never knew him#x201d;. So off I would go to the Rodin Museum in Paris, where I would find her letters to him. The contrast was stark. Her family urged me to try to find out where she was educated. She would not be pressed on this until one day she announced: #x201c;I was a miracle. Differential Calculus was too low for me!#x201d; The door opened and a nurse brought some tea in. #x201c;Getting any sense out of her, are you?#x201d; she asked. I was merely trying to keep up. She had been born in Paris in 1881, to the kind of homeowrk, family that Henry James wrote about; indeed, James knew her father. Interview Essay. Edward Parker Deacon came from Boston, where to this day stands Deacon House. The Deacons had married well.
Gladys#x2019;s grandmother, Sarah Ann Parker, was well connected, but sadly went mad. It was from her that an unstable streak entered the homeowrk essays, family. Gladys#x2019;s mother, Florence, was the daughter of Rear-Admiral Charles H Baldwin. He was a somewhat peppery figure who, when sent to represent the United States at the Coronation of Tsar Alexander III in 1883, refused to attend because he was not given a good enough seat. The Deacons had four beautiful daughters and a son who died as a little boy. They lived in Paris and travelled about Europe.
Florence moved in an interesting set, with friends such as Bernard Berenson, Rodin and Count Robert de Montesquiou. But the marriage was not happy and she took a lover called Emile Abeille. Deacon pursued the couple through Europe and tracked them down to the Hotel Splendide at Cannes in February 1892. Discovering Abeille#x2019;s presence, Deacon took a loaded gun, insisted on interview a friend entering his wife#x2019;s room and fired three shots at Abeille as he cowered behind the essays, sofa. Deacon gave himself up and was jailed. Abeille lingered on marketing essay through the night and died in the morning. Gladys was sent back to school at the Convent de l#x2019;Assomption at homeowrk essays Auteuil.
After her father#x2019;s release from prison, he made his way there to take custody of her, only to find she had been abducted by her mother. A court case followed. But after the divorce in 1893, Deacon was given custody of his three older children and he promptly took them to the US, where Gladys remained for the next three years. During this time, William James saw Deacon and reported to his brother, Henry, how vain Deacon was, how he clearly considered his #x201c;conjugal exploit#x201d; gave him #x201c;a distinction for on how i see him in the eyes of fashionable New Yorkers#x201d; and how shocked he was #x201c;by the homeowrk, way he talked about it before his little daughter#x201d;. Dissertations Registry. Deacon eventually lost his reason and was put away in essays the McLean Hospital in Belmont, near Boston, where he died in 1901. In 1896 Gladys and her sisters returned to France to live with their mother. Her education over, she began to blaze through Europe like a brilliant meteor of beauty, intelligence and wit, taking princely and ducal scalps along the essay visit book, way.
Legion were those who fell in essays love with Gladys: Prince Roffredo Caetani; Bernard Berenson and his wife; the Duke of Marlborough and possibly Consuelo, too, the Dukes of Camastra, Norfolk, Newcastle and Connaught; RC Trevelyan; Gabriele d#x2019;Annunzio; Anatole France; and Lord Brooke (later Warwick). But she was set on a friend a marriage to homeowrk essays the Duke of Marlborough and eventually, in 1921, having known him for more than 20 years, she followed Consuelo to Blenheim Palace. Now Blenheim is mounting an exhibition paying tribute to Gladys#x2019;s life there: the mba in, creation of the lower terraces on the west side, leading down to the lake, with the two sphinxes that bear her features, and the curious eyes painted in the portico. To the palace she lured figures like Jacob Epstein and Lytton Strachey. But she found herself a lone intellectual caught among county figures. Rodin had given her a little statue. It stood in one of the state rooms but nobody ever asked her about it. Then the Duke became a Roman Catholic and soon afterwards the marriage descended into a state of internecine warfare. One evening Gladys placed a revolver on the dining room table. #x201c;What#x2019;s that for?#x201d; asked one of the dinner guests.
#x201c;Oh I don#x2019;t know,#x201d; Gladys replied. #x201c;I might just shoot Marlborough!#x201d; Not surprisingly he took fright, left her alone at the palace for nearly two years and then evicted her #x2013; first from Blenheim and then from the London house in Carlton House Terrace. Courageous to the last, Gladys stood on the steps at Blenheim and photographed the vans taking her possessions away. The Duke died in essays 1934, before they were divorced, and Gladys settled with her dogs in a friend essay north Oxfordshire, eventually at the Grange Farm at Chacombe. Homeowrk. She began by filling it with her treasures: the Rodin statue, her portrait by Boldini, her fabulous collection of books.
But as time wore on, she retreated from the world, becoming a total recluse. Her only link to the outside world was her kind Polish helper, Andrei Kwiatkowsky, to me essay whom she would lower the key to her door from an upper window. In 1962, she was forcibly removed to St Andrew#x2019;s; she died in 1977. My conversations with Gladys over the two years I saw her were never less than stimulating. She opened avenues of homeowrk essays, possibility that had previously been closed to me. When my book came out in 1979, Cecil Beaton read it and invited me to be his biographer #x2013; in on how in the a sense a gift from Gladys.
It was the essays, first time it occurred to me that I might not be a failure in life. She often told me that young people needed someone to breathe life into them and make them think in essay on how i see in the future a different way. That is certainly what Gladys did for me. #x2018;Gladys Deacon #x2013; An Eccentric Duchess#x2019; is at Blenheim Palace from February 12 until March 25; www.blenheimpalace.com. In Art Features. Artists and their studios: in pictures. Read more Art news here.
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