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Black Swan : Natalie Portman's Oscar Moment? Natalie Portman in film essay, Black Swan. Natalie Portman, apparent soon-to-be Oscar winner, the Washington Post headline blared, with only a hint of drollery. Lse Dissertation. Evidently Natalie Portman already has this year's Academy Award for compare and contrast essay best actress all sewn up, wrote Jan Chaney in senior engineer, the Post 's Celebritology 2.0 column. At least the media buzz coming out of the compare and contrast film essay Venice Film Festival #151; where her Black Swan just premiered #151; is making it sound that way. In fact, most of the synthesist reissue early reviews, while enthusiastic about film, Darren Aronofsky's psychological thriller and Portman's performance as a ballerina who must face down demons when given the senior software engineer letter lead role in Swan Lake , stopped short of and contrast film essay, Oscar predictions. Lse Dissertation. The Times of London's Kevin Maher came closest: Portman is compare essay astounding . Synthesist Reissue. Awards are sure to follow. And Contrast Film Essay. I've also heard from folks at thesis statements, Venice who think Black Swan is compare a junky horror show and Portman way too strident. Me, I'm of lse dissertation, two minds about a movie that wants to be a nail-ripping thriller and and contrast film a statement on an artist's unholy communion with her role.
It's reminiscent of thesis statements on forensic, older, better movies: the late-'40s backstage dramas A Double Life (Ronald Colman plays Othello and compare becomes fatally jealous of lse dissertation week, his actress ex-wife) and film essay the classic ballet melodrama The Red Shoes ; and of films about about, tender, troubled psyches #151; I won't say which ones #151; by compare essay Roman Polanski, Dario Argento, Brian De Palma, David Cronenberg and what mirror essay David Fincher. Black Swan also takes a view of women that might kindly be described as old-fashioned. (See pictures from and contrast essay Natalie Portman's career.) But opinion is almost beside the point here. Journalists know that sticking the magic word Oscar in a headline is a cheap, effective way of getting attention for essay on a man pope a film they like, and for themselves. No self-respecting critic would sink that low. Compare And Contrast Film. A side beneficiary of the heavy touting for senior software engineer resume cover Portman, by compare film the relative few who've seen the movie and the legions who haven't, is Venice. The world's oldest continuing film festival, now in thesis statements on forensic science, its 67th session, is also perhaps the least appreciated of the medium's major annual bashes. Critics from compare all over week, the world go to Cannes and compare Toronto, but Venice, coming just a week before the Canadian fest, gets ignored by music North American reviewers. So for and contrast film essay a decade, the received wisdom has been that the about Oscar season begins in Toronto. Yet in compare film essay, just the essay on a man pope past five years, such Academy favorites as Brokeback Mountain, The Queen, Michael Clayton, The Wrestler and film essay The Hurt Locker had their world premieres on the Lido, the music swank island that's a 12-min. vaporetto ride from St. Mark's Square.
This is surely the snuggest and compare and contrast film essay most congenial of the top film festivals, so if some of Portman's acclaim rubs off on Venice, that's fine. Harald Reissue. Two years ago, Aronofsky copped the festival's first prize, the compare and contrast essay Golden Lion, for The Wrestler , another study of an athlete-actor who tests himself brutally to stay in the game. At the essay Venice press conference, the director said he was struck by essay the similarities between wrestlers and dancers: They both have these performers who use their bodies in extremely physical ways. They punish themselves for essay on a man pope their art. Essay. Actors do too; if they don't, an ambitious director will.
As Aronofsky imposed a strict regimen on Mickey Rourke for his role as Randy The Ram Robinson, so did he prod Portman into research, six months of essay, exercise and grosskopf synthesist ballet training. Compare And Contrast Essay. Though she has a dance double for certain shots, Portman is physically plausible in harald grosskopf synthesist reissue, the role, both in her body's newly sinewy contours and in compare and contrast film, the glimpses we get of what i see in the mirror, her at compare, the ballet. Essay On A Man Pope. (See pictures of the and contrast glitz at senior software cover, 2008's Venice Film Festival.) Black Swan asks the 29-year-old star to compare and contrast film essay, do two things that haven't been much demanded of her: dance and harald grosskopf reissue act. Her strong, delicate beauty has dazzled Hollywood ever since she made a splash at 13 playing a gunman's adopted waif in and contrast film, The Professional , but her performances have been variable at best. Excellent in projects directed by harald grosskopf reissue Mike Nichols (a naive, volcanically lovelorn Nina in film essay, the 2001 Central Park production of software cover, The Seagull ; part of the quartet of compare film, broken lovers in the 2004 film Closer ), Portman can also look utterly stranded on screen #151; bereft of an thesis science, actor's most rudimentary tools #151; in, say, Amos Gitai's Free Zone or as George Lucas' lamentable Queen Padme. Compare And Contrast. Her turn in Black Swan , if it truly impresses American moviegoers, won't be the about sort that caps the film essay steady maturing of a gifted actress. It will have the shock of the i see in the new.
That helps explain the outbreak of rapture among some critics here, for Black Swan is, among other things, a document of Portman's obsessive dedication to give a performance beyond what is compare and contrast film essay expected of her #151; and, no less, Aronofsky's need to wring every raw feeling from senior software resume letter his leading lady. Compare And Contrast Film. That relationship is lse dissertation up on screen too: of a man trying to and contrast essay, get a brilliant performance out of a young woman by what i see in the dominating and manipulating her. Essay. In the Black Swan script by Andres Heinz and Mark Heyman, Nina (Portman) is a member of the corps at man pope, a prime New York ballet company. Film Essay. Thomas Leroy (the excellent Vincent Cassel), the company's Balanchine-like choreographer, is essay about music about to stage his own version of film essay, Swan Lake , which will emphasize a woman's tragic duality. One dancer is to incarnate both the pure White Swan and her evil, sensual twin, the Black Swan. Software Cover. Nina, sweet and driven, has the technique to and contrast essay, play both roles but the thesis temperament for only one. I just want to and contrast film, be perfect, she says, and lse dissertation week Thomas counters, Perfection is also about letting go. He gives her the part anyway, believing he can find the Black Swan within her.
He goads Nina (The only person standing in compare and contrast, your way is what i see mirror essay you) and essay insults her (You could be brilliant, but you're a coward). He tries arousing her with a kiss, and thesis statements science if that doesn't work (That was me seducing you, he says afterward, when it should have been the other way around) he'll give her a little homework assignment . Compare And Contrast. go home and science just touch yourself. (Nina's bedroom masturbation scene has caused some avid commentary on compare, the Internet.) And as she probes to both summon her own Black Swan and control it, she begins to suspect that she is cursed, haunted, pursued by someone or something. Harald Synthesist Reissue. When she is alone, lights suddenly flick out; menacing figures seep out of the compare and contrast shadows; she emerges from statements on forensic a bathroom stall to film essay, see the accusation WHORE scrawled on what mirror, the mirror. Getting a leading role is film a freaking nightmare. (See 10 questions with Natalie Portman.) Three suspects #151; all women, all dancers #151; quickly emerge: Nina's suffocating mother Erica (Barbara Hershey), with whom she lives, never got out of the music corps and film essay blames the lse dissertation week girl for the career I gave up to have you. Beth (Winona Ryder), the compare and contrast film essay company's longtime prima ballerina, has been consigned by Thomas to early retirement; she blames Nina for filching her position. Lily (Mila Kunis), fresh from San Francisco, lacks Nina's technique but has a passion Thomas responds to. Now No. Research. 1, Nina feels Lily's hot breath on and contrast, her neck as either her successor or her seducer. To put showbiz competition in All About Eve terms, every Margo Channing must have an Eve Harrington. Translation. Before she was cast as the compare film Swan Queen, Nina was the up-and-coming Eve; now she's Margo, the essay about uneasy star. Rivalry, envy, the bloom of maturity followed by the clock's tick of mortality #151; they all come with the and contrast film essay star on statements on forensic science, the door.
But would any woman try to drive another woman to compare, madness, or death, to research, achieve career satisfaction? To put it another way: Is Nina paranoid or persecuted? (It's possible to compare essay, be both.) There's a piquancy in seeing Portman, who succeeded Ryder in adorably intense elf roles, fill a similar function here, and about music there's also the compare and contrast film rare and harald synthesist pleasing spectacle of compare and contrast film essay, four Jewish actresses getting to emote like mad in week, the same movie. Gee, it's a real woman's movie, and and contrast film not one of those strenuous heart-warmers about female companionship and compromise. The young Aronofsky made three startling, status-quo-smashing movies: Pi, Requiem for a Dream and essay The Fountain . Whatever glory he won for and contrast essay The Wrestler , that film was lazy visually and clichéd in its telling. Black Swan is harald much more sophisticated, using The Wrestler 's stalking camera and grainy images but bringing sensational dexterity to compare and contrast film essay, the dance scenes. Harald Synthesist. As for compare film Portman's work, if not fully convincing, it's wondrously committed #151; yes, just the sort of sourcing research, daredevil achievement the compare film Academy loves to reward.
Still, I'd hold off on Oscar promises (except in headlines) until we see whether the last months of sourcing paper, 2010 bring us any great performances, not just great stunts.
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How To Fix DB4FW.DLL is Missing / Not Found Error Messages. WinThruster 2015 - Scan your PC for DB4FW.DLL registry errors. Compatible with Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista, XP and 2000. DB4FW.DLL is a type of DLL file associated with Resume Maker Career Edition developed by compare film, Individual Software Inc. for the Windows Operating System. The latest known version of research paper, DB4FW.DLL is 22.214.171.124, which was produced for Windows. This DLL file carries a popularity rating of compare and contrast, 1 stars and a security rating of UNKNOWN. DLL (dynamic link library) files such as DB4FW.DLL are small programs, similar to i see in the mirror essay, EXE (executable) files, which allow multiple software programs to compare and contrast essay, share the same functionality (eg. printing) . For example, let's say you are running Windows and editing a document in Microsoft Word. The DLL file that controls printing does not need to load unless it's function is needed - eg. you decide to print your document.
When you select Print, Microsoft Word calls the printer DLL file, and it is loaded into memory (RAM) at that time. If you want to print a document in another program, Adobe Acrobat for example, that same printer DLL file will be used as well. Because they are shared files, DLL files exist outside of the essay music, software application itself. Although this provides many benefits for compare and contrast film software developers, this separation also provides an opportunity for problems to occur. Quite simply, if Windows cannot properly load your DB4FW.DLL file , you will encounter an what in the mirror, error message. Please see Causes of compare and contrast, DB4FW.DLL Errors below for more information. DLL errors, such as those associated with DB4FW.DLL, most often occur during computer startup, program startup, or while trying to use a specific function in your program (eg. printing). The most common DB4FW.DLL errors that can appear on a Windows-based computer are: DB4FW.DLL not found. The file DB4FW.DLL is missing. DB4FW.DLL Access Violation.
Cannot register DB4FW.DLL. Cannot find C:WindowsSystem32DB4FW.DLL. Cannot start Resume Maker Career Edition. A required component is missing: DB4FW.DLL. Sourcing Research Paper! Please install Resume Maker Career Edition again. This application failed to start because DB4FW.DLL was not found. Re-installing the application may fix this problem. These DLL error messages can appear during program installation, while a DB4FW.DLL-related software program (eg. Film Essay! Resume Maker Career Edition) is running, during Windows startup or shutdown, or even during the week, installation of the Windows operating system. Keeping track of compare and contrast, when and where your DB4FW.DLL error occurs is man pope a critical piece of film, information in troubleshooting the problem. DLL Registry Fix.
Most DB4FW.DLL errors are related to missing or corrupt DB4FW.DLL files . Because DB4FW.DLL is an external file, it presents a great opportunity for something undesirable to occur. Improperly shutting down your PC or getting a virus infection could corrupt the DB4FW.DLL, which could lead to DLL errors. When your DB4FW.DLL file becomes corrupt, it cannot be loaded properly and will present an error message. Other times, DB4FW.DLL file errors could be related to lse dissertation, issues in the Windows registry . And Contrast Film! Broken DLL file references can prevent your DLL file from registering properly, giving you a DB4FW.DLL error. These broken registry keys can be as a result of a missing DLL file, moved DLL file, or an leftover DLL file reference in ma thesis studies, your Windows registry from an unsuccessful software installation or uninstallation. More specifically, these DB4FW.DLL errors can be caused by: Invalid or corrupt DB4FW.DLL registry entry. And Contrast Film! Virus or malware infection which has corrupted the DB4FW.DLL file. Thesis Statements! Individual Software Inc. And Contrast Film! hardware failure, such as a bad hard drive, which has corrupted the DB4FW.DLL file.
Another program overwrote the required version of DB4FW.DLL. Another program maliciously or mistakenly deleted the DB4FW.DLL file. Another program uninstalled the DB4FW.DLL file. Caution: We do not recommend downloading DB4FW.DLL from DLL download sites. Essay On A! These sites distribute DLL files that are unapproved by the official DB4FW.DLL file developer, and can often be bundled with virus-infected or other malicious files. Compare Essay! If you require a copy of statements science, DB4FW.DLL, it is recommended that you obtain it directly from Individual Software Inc.. Below is a list of troubleshooting steps to resolve your DB4FW.DLL problems. These troubleshooting steps get progressively more difficult and time consuming, so we strongly recommend attempting them in ascending order to avoid unnecessary time and compare and contrast film essay, effort. Please Note: Click the [ ] image to expand the statements on forensic science, troubleshooting instructions for compare each step below.
You can also click the [ ] image to statements, hide the instructions as you proceed through each step. Step 1: Manually Register DB4FW.DLL Using Microsoft Register Server. When you install software that uses the compare and contrast film essay, DB4FW.DLL dependency, the on forensic science, software should automatically register the file for and contrast essay you. In some cases your DLL file may not register properly, and as a result, will provide a DB4FW.DLL not registered error. Fortunately, you can use a built-in utility called Microsoft Register Server (regsvr32.exe) to re-register your DB4FW.DLL file. How to re-register DB4FW.DLL from an elevated command prompt ( Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, and essay man pope, 10 ):
Click the Start button. Type command in the search box. DO NOT hit ENTER yet! While holding CTRL-Shift on your keyboard, hit ENTER . Compare! You will be prompted with a permission dialog box. Click Yes . Type the following command: regsvr32 /u DB4FW.DLL . Hit ENTER . This will UN-REGISTER your file. Type the following command: regsvr32 /i DB4FW.DLL . Hit ENTER . This will RE-REGISTER your file. Close the command prompt window. Essay! Re-start the program associated with DB4FW.DLL error.
Step 2: Repair Invalid DB4FW.DLL Registry Entries. Sometimes DB4FW.DLL and other DLL system errors can be related to and contrast essay, problems in essay, the Windows registry. Several programs can share the same DB4FW.DLL file, but when these programs are uninstalled or changed, sometimes orphaned (invalid) DLL registry entries are left behind. Basically, what this means is that while the actual file path may have changed, its incorrect former location is still recorded in the Windows registry. When Windows tries looking up these incorrect file references (file locations on your PC), DB4FW.DLL errors can occur. In addition, malware infection may have corrupted the registry entries associated with Resume Maker Career Edition. Thus, these invalid DLL registry entries need to be repaired to fix the root of the problem. Manually editing the Windows registry to remove invalid DB4FW.DLL keys is not recommended unless you are PC service professional. Incorrectly editing your registry can stop your PC from and contrast film, functioning and create irreversible damage to your operating system.
In fact, one misplaced comma can prevent your PC from booting entirely! Because of in the mirror essay, this risk, we highly recommend using a trusted registry cleaner such as WinThruster (Developed by Microsoft Gold Certified Partner) to scan and repair any DB4FW.DLL-related registry problems. Using a registry cleaner automates the process of compare and contrast film, finding invalid registry entries, missing file references (like the one causing your DB4FW.DLL error), and broken links within the music, registry. A backup is automatically created before each scan, with the ability to undo any changes in compare and contrast film essay, a single click, protecting you against the possibility of thesis on forensic science, PC damage. The best part is that repairing registry errors can also dramatically improve system speed and performance. Caution: Unless you an advanced PC user, we DO NOT recommend editing the Windows registry manually. And Contrast Film Essay! Using Registry Editor incorrectly can cause serious problems that may require you to reinstall Windows.
We do not guarantee that problems resulting from the essay, incorrect use of Registry Editor can be solved. Use Registry Editor at your own risk. To manually repair your Windows registry, first you need to compare and contrast film, create a backup by on forensic science, exporting a portion of the registry related to DB4FW.DLL (eg. Resume Maker Career Edition): Click the compare essay, Start button. Type command in essay on a, the search box. DO NOT hit ENTER yet! While holding CTRL-Shift on your keyboard, hit ENTER . And Contrast Film Essay! You will be prompted with a permission dialog box. Click Yes . A black box will open with a blinking cursor.
Type regedit and hit ENTER . In the i see mirror essay, Registry Editor, select the compare essay, DB4FW.DLL-related key (eg. Resume Maker Career Edition) you want to back up. From the File menu, choose Export . Sourcing Paper! In the Save In list, select the folder where you want to film, save the sourcing research paper, Resume Maker Career Edition backup key. In the File Name box, type a name for your backup file, such as Resume Maker Career Edition Backup. In the Export Range box, be sure that Selected branch is and contrast selected. Click Save . The file is then saved with a .reg file extension . You now have a backup of sourcing research, your DB4FW.DLL-related registry entry. The next steps in manually editing your registry will not be discussed in film essay, this article due to the high risk of damaging your system. If you would like to learn more about manual registry editing, please see the links below. We do not claim any responsibility for the results of the actions taken from the content linked below - complete these tasks at your own risk. Step 3: Remove or Restore DB4FW.DLL from the Windows Recycle Bin.
This may seem like an obvious or ridiculous step, but it is very possible that your DB4FW.DLL might have been accidentally deleted. Essay! Therefore, it is essay worth checking your Recycle Bin to see if it's there. Simply double-click the what i see, Recycle Bin icon. In the upper right-hand corner, search for DB4FW.DLL . If DB4FW.DLL file appears in the search results, select it , and move it to the following directory : Windows 95/98/Me = C:WindowsSystem32 Windows NT/2000 = C:WindowsSystem32 Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, 10 = C:WindowsSystem32 64-bit Windows = C:WindowsSystem32 After moving your DB4FW.DLL file, restart your computer. Tip: If you are positive that you deleted the DB4FW.DLL file AND emptied the Recycle Bin, then you will need to use a file recovery program to restore the DB4FW.DLL file. Film! Click here to download a highly recommended file recovery program. Step 4: Conduct a Full Malware Scan of Your PC. There is a chance that your DB4FW.DLL error could be related to essay about music, a malware infection on your PC.
These malicious intruders can damage, corrupt, or even delete DLL-related files. Furthermore, there's a possibility that the DB4FW.DLL error you are experiencing is compare and contrast film related to thesis science, a component of the malicious program itself. Tip: If you do not already have a malware protection program installed, we highly recommend using Emsisoft Anti-Malware (download here). They offer a malware removal guarantee that is not offered by other security software. Step 5: Update Your PC Device Drivers.
DB4FW.DLL errors can be related to corrupt or outdated device drivers. Drivers can work one day, and suddenly stop working the film, next day, for a variety of reasons. The good news is that you can often update the device driver to fix the week, DLL problem. Finding the exact driver for your DB4FW.DLL-related hardware device can be extremely difficult, even directly on the Individual Software Inc. or related manufacturer's website. Even if you are experienced at finding, downloading, and manually updating drivers, the process can still be very time consuming and compare essay, extremely irritating.
Installing the wrong driver, or simply an incompatible version of the right driver, can make your problems even worse. Because of the sourcing research, time and complexity involved in compare film essay, updating drivers, we highly recommend using a driver update tool such as DriverDoc (Developed by Microsoft Gold Partner) to automate the process. DriverDoc updates all of your PC device drivers, not just those associated with your DLL error. DriverDoc's proprietary One-Click Update™ technology not only ensures that you have correct driver versions for your hardware, but it also creates a backup of i see mirror, your current drivers before making any changes. Maintaining a driver backup provides you with the and contrast film essay, security of knowing that you can rollback any driver to a previous version if necessary. With updated device drivers, you can finally unlock new hardware features and essay, improve the speed and performance of your PC. Please Note: Your DB4FW.DLL may not be related to hardware driver problems, but it's always a good idea to ensure all of your PC device drivers are up-to-date to maximize PC performance.
Step 6: Utilize Windows System Restore to compare and contrast film, Undo Recent System Changes. Windows System Restore allows you to ma thesis translation, go back in time with your PC to help fix your DB4FW.DLL problems. System Restore can return your PC's system files and programs back to compare, a time when everything was working fine. This can potentially help you avoid hours of troubleshooting headaches associated with DLL errors. Please Note: Using System Restore will not affect your documents, pictures, or other data. To use System Restore (Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, and 10) : Click the Start button. In the search box, type System Restore and hit ENTER . In the results, click System Restore . Enter any administrator passwords (if prompted). Follow the on forensic science, steps in the Wizard to film, choose a restore point. Sourcing Paper! Restore your computer. Step 7: Uninstall and Reinstall the compare and contrast, Resume Maker Career Edition Program Associated with DB4FW.DLL. If your DB4FW.DLL error is related to a specific program, reinstalling Resume Maker Career Edition-related software could be the answer.
Instructions for Windows 7 and Windows Vista : Open Programs and Features by clicking the Start button. Click Control Panel on the right side menu. Click Programs . Click Programs and Features . Locate DB4FW.DLL-associated program (eg. Resume Maker Career Edition) under the Name column. Click on the Resume Maker Career Edition-associated entry.
Click the Uninstall button on the top menu ribbon. Follow the on-screen directions to essay on a man pope, complete the uninstallation of your DB4FW.DLL-associated program. Instructions for and contrast Windows XP : Open Programs and statements, Features by compare, clicking the Start button. Click Control Panel . Click Add or Remove Programs . Locate DB4FW.DLL-associated program (eg. Resume Maker Career Edition) under the list of man pope, Currently Installed Programs . Essay! Click on week the Resume Maker Career Edition-associated entry.
Click the compare and contrast, Remove button on the right side. Follow the on-screen directions to statements, complete the uninstallation of compare and contrast film essay, your DB4FW.DLL-associated program. Instructions for Windows 8 : Hover the cursor in the bottom left of the screen to lse dissertation, produce the Start Menu image. Right-Click to bring up the compare film, Start Context Menu . Click Programs and what mirror, Features . Locate DB4FW.DLL-associated program (eg. Resume Maker Career Edition) under the Name column.
Click on the Resume Maker Career Edition-associated entry. Click the compare and contrast film essay, Uninstall/Change on the top menu ribbon. Follow the on-screen directions to essay man pope, complete the uninstallation of your DB4FW.DLL-associated program. After you have successfully uninstalled your DB4FW.DLL-associated program (eg. Resume Maker Career Edition), reinstall the compare film essay, program according to the Individual Software Inc. instructions.
Tip: If you are positive that your DLL error is related to a specific Individual Software Inc. program, uninstalling and reinstalling your DB4FW.DLL-related program will likely be the solution to your problem. Step 8: Run Windows System File Checker (sfc /scannow) System File Checker is about a vital tool included with Windows. It allows you to film essay, scan for file corruption and restore Windows system files such as DB4FW.DLL. If System File Checker finds a problem with DB4FW.DLL or other critical system file, it will attempt to replace the problematic files from DLL Cache (%WinDir%System32Dllcache). If the DB4FW.DLL file is not in the DLL Cache, or the DLL Cache is corrupted, you will be prompted to about music, insert the Windows installation disc to recover the original files. To run System File Checker ( Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, and 10 ): Click the Start button. Type command in the search box.
DO NOT hit ENTER yet! While holding CTRL-Shift on your keyboard, hit ENTER . You will be prompted with a permission dialog box. Click Yes . A black box will open with a blinking cursor. Type sfc /scannow and hit ENTER . Compare Film Essay! System File Checker will begin scanning for DB4FW.DLL and other system file problems (be patient - the science, system scan may take a while). Follow the on-screen commands. Step 9: Install All Available Windows Updates. Microsoft is constantly updating and improving Windows system files that could be associated with DB4FW.DLL. Sometimes resolving your DLL problems may be as simple as updating Windows with the latest Service Pack or other patch that Microsoft releases on an ongoing basis.
To check for Windows Updates (Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, and 10) : Click the film, Start button. Type update into the search box and hit ENTER . The Windows Update dialog box will appear. If updates are available, click the Install Updates button. Step 10: Perform a Clean Installation of essay, Windows. Caution: We must emphasize that reinstalling Windows will be a very time-consuming and compare film essay, advanced task to lse dissertation, resolve DB4FW.DLL problems. Compare And Contrast Film! To avoid data loss, you must be sure that you have backed-up all of your important documents, pictures, software installers, and other personal data before beginning the process. Essay About! If you are not currently backing up your data, you need to do so immediately (download a highly-recommended backup solution) to compare and contrast film, protect yourself from permanent data loss.
This step is your final option in essay music, trying to resolve your DB4FW.DLL issue. Reinstalling Windows will erase everything from film, your hard drive, allowing you to start again with a fresh system. Paper! Furthermore, a clean install of Windows will also quickly clean out any and all junk that has accumulated over the normal usage of your computer. Please Note: If DB4FW.DLL errors still persist after a clean install of Windows, your DLL problem MUST be hardware related. If that is the case, then it is likely you will need to replace the film, associated hardware causing the DB4FW.DLL error. DB4FW.DLL error messages can occur in any of the following Microsoft Windows operating systems: Are You Still Experiencing DB4FW.DLL Issues? Please reach out to us anytime on social media for music more help: About The Author: Jay Geater is the President and essay, CEO of Solvusoft Corporation, a global software company focused on sourcing paper providing innovative utility software. He is a lifelong computer geek and loves everything related to computers, software, and and contrast, new technology. Browse DLL Files in sourcing research, Alphabetical Order:
Solvusoft Corporation 2011-2017. All Rights Reserved. Solvusoft: Microsoft Gold Certified Company. Recognized for best-in-class capabilities as an ISV (Independent Software Vendor) Solvusoft is recognized by Microsoft as a leading Independent Software Vendor, achieving the highest level of compare and contrast essay, completence and excellence in software development. Solvusoft's close relationship with Microsoft as a Gold Certified Partner enables us to provide best-in-class software solutions that are optimized for lse dissertation performance on film essay Windows operating systems.
How is the essay, Gold Competency Level Attained? To achieve a Gold competency level, Solvusoft goes through extensive independent analysis that looks for, amongst other qualities, a high level of software expertise, a successful customer service track record, and top-tier customer value. As a Gold Certified Independent Software Vendor (ISV), Solvusoft is able to provide the compare and contrast, highest level of customer satisfaction through delivering top-level software and service solutions, which have been subject to a rigourous and ma thesis studies, continually-audited approval process by Microsoft.
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Analysis of Pepsi-cola Co. Essay Sample. Introduction of Pepsi-Cola. PepsiCo, Inc. is currently one of the essay most successful consumer products company in the world with annual revenues exceeding $30 billion and has more than 480,000 employees. Music? PepsiCo, Inc. Essay? began as a successor to a company incorporated in translation studies, 1931, known as Loft Inc. Once known as Pepsi-Cola, the company expanded its business and adopted its current name, PepsiCo, after a merger with Frito-Lay in 1965.
This merger dramatically increased PepsiCo#8217;s market potential and set the foundation for compare, the company#8217;s tremendous growth. Today, Pepsi-Cola Company is a major division of PepsiCo#8217;s corporate structure. Pepsi-Cola Company now produces and markets a wide range of beverages to lse dissertation week retail, restaurants and food services in more than 191 countries and territories around the world and brings in compare film essay, annual revenue of $10 billion. There are 200 plants in the US and Canada, as well as, 530 plants throughout the rest of the world, that produces Pepsi-Cola#8217;s beverages. Since the sourcing paper creation of Pepsi-Cola in 1898, Pepsi-Cola Company has introduced 13 beverages that wear the Pepsi-Cola trademark.
Five of Pepsi-Cola#8217;s brand names: Pepsi, Diet Pepsi, Mountain Dew, 7 UP, and Mirinda, each brings in annual revenue in consumer sales of $1 billion. In 1992, a partnership between Thomas J. Compare Film Essay? Lipton and Pepsi was formed. This partnership produces, markets, and thesis on forensic, distributes Lipton Brew, Lipton Brisk and Lipton Fountain Ice-Tea. And in 1993, Pepsi Max a low calorie cola was created and introduced only for the international markets. Pepsi Max is now produced in compare film essay, over 40 countries and is the third largest-selling cola brand outside the US. PepsiCo is continuing to expand and introduce new alternative beverages in the market.
There are four alternative beverages that are currently being tested in on a, our market today. Mazagran, a cold sparkling coffee based beverage, Aquafina, a bottled water, and a low fat milk shake called Smooth Moos. The latest beverage was launched on May 22, 1996 in compare film essay, Philadelphia. Translation? Pepsi-Kona, a new cola, is compare and contrast film essay, a combination of the Pepsi-Cola flavor and sourcing research paper, the Kona blend of compare film, coffee. PepsiCo#8217;s products are recognized and are most respected all around the music globe. PepsiCo has attained a leadership position as being the film world leader in soft drink bottling. The corporations increasing success has been based on high standards of performance, marketing strategies, competitiveness, determination, commitment, and the personal and professional integrity of their people, products and business practices. The Industry analysis based on environment scanning, how a company penetrates the market, market development and international opportunities, all this external environment will affect the company#8217;s penetration and growth.
Marketers must understand how that environment is changing when assessing the best opportunities for their organization. 1. environment scanning. The marketing environment is made up of thesis on forensic, a microenvironment and a macroenvironment. The microenvironment consists of the actors close to the company that affect its ability to and contrast serve its customers the company, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customer markets, competitors, and publics. Week? The macroenvironment consists of the compare larger societal forces that affect the microenvironment demographic, economic, technological, political, cultural and social forces. We look first at company#8217;s macroenvironment. The soft-drink battleground has now turned toward new overseas markets.
While once the United States, Australia, Japan, and ma thesis, Western Europe were the compare film dominant soft-drink markets, the growth has slowed down dramatically, but they are still important markets Pepsi. However, Eastern Europe, Mexico, China, Saudi Arabia, and India have become the new #8220;hot spots.#8221; Pepsi are forming joint bottling ventures in these nations and in other areas where they see growth potential. As we have seen, international marketing can be very complex. Many issues have to be resolved before a company can even consider entering uncharted foreign waters. Demography is the study of in the mirror essay, human populations in terms of size, density, location, age, gender, race, occupation, and other statistics. After Pepsi analyses this environment, they chose the largest segment of the U.S. Compare And Contrast Essay? population is aging (the baby boomers).
Economic environment consists of factors that affect consumer purchasing power and spending patterns. Pepsi identified the on a next generation look at ethnic products so they Target the each specific market with products and advertising designed around their wants. Technological environment forces that create new technologies, creating new product and market opportunities. Pepsi-Cola was founded in and contrast essay, 1898 by a pharmacist who created a special beverage. This soft drink a unique mixture of kola nut extract, vanilla and rare oils. Recently Pepsi innovated new products are one calorie soft drinks (Pepsi ONE) lighter colored soft drinks (Sierra Mist) Green product-smart spot and Lipton, Pepsi must keep on innovated new products to attract new generation. Political environment consists of laws, government agencies, and pressure groups that influence or limit various organizations and individuals in a given society.
One major problem though was John Leonard taking serious a television commercial that jokingly offered a military jet as a prize for 1 billion Pepsi points. Thesis Statements On Forensic Science? So Leonard rounded up five investors to purchase enough points to and contrast essay acquire the jet. Pepsi is now involve in a legal battle over this matter, even though the lse dissertation week Pentagon has stated it is not possible to buy one of the jets. In America the company should careful to understand the law. Cultural and social environment is made up of institutions and other forces that affect a society#8217;s basic values, perceptions, preferences and behaviors.
American culture for the new generation is people want health and ethnic things, so Pepsi provide going on this stage. 1.2.1 Company analysis. Marketers must understand the capabilities of the compare essay company, marketing managers must also work closely with other company departments such as top management, finance, research and development, purchasing, operations, and accounting. All these interrelated groups form the internal environment. Currently PepsiCo competes in on a man pope, the soft drink segment of the and contrast film global beverage market. While PepsiCo#8217;s soft drinks can obviously compete as a stand-alone product, it can also complement any snack or meal. PepsiCo#8217;s culture is informal and entrepreneurial. Their people are empowered to make the decisions necessary to grow the translation business. They seek to achieve outstanding results through innovation, long tern partnerships, and and contrast film, an open work environment that respects the individual and promotes personal and professional growth. 126.96.36.199 Company mission.
The company#8217;s mission is important to achieving company provide superior customer value and satisfaction. PepsiCo#8217;s overall mission is to increase the value of our shareholders#8217; investments through sales growth, investments and financial activities. PepsiCo believes their success depends upon the quality and value of their products by providing a safe, wholesome, economically efficient and a healthy environment for their customers; and by providing a fair return to their investors while maintaining the thesis statements on forensic highest standards of integrity. Unlike small companies, Pepsi have a lot of franchisees and investors, so the company mission not only compare essay satisfy customers, but also care about investors. In other ways Pepsi recognize the social responsibility is sourcing paper, important for the whole international society. Nowadays people care the environment and recycle products, so Pepsi issues providing safe, wholesome and and contrast film, healthy environment. 188.8.131.52 Company SWOT analysis. A SWOT analysis, which identifies and lists the company#8217;s strengths and weaknesses as well as opportunities and threats, can assist the sourcing research paper manager in focusing on a strategy that capitalizes on strengths and takes advantage of compare and contrast film, opportunities, while avoiding threats and essay music, possibly redressing some weaknesses. Compare? The following table 1 shows the internal and external factors affecting the sourcing research market opportunities for PepsiCo. Compare And Contrast Essay? This SWOT analysis also shows PepsiCo#8217;s internal strengths such as their experienced management team, a competitive product line, a global marketing realm, and the continuous efforts by research paper their research and development to research trends in the industry and to be creative in compare and contrast, exploiting those trends.
Some possible opportunities noted in the SWOT analysis are the growing markets for specialized ethnic foods and healthier food products. Thesis On Forensic Science? Another opportunity is that the income of consumers is compare, high enabling them to be less price sensitive, and convenience is becoming evermore important not only to essay on a man pope the United States but to many countries around the world. Although PepsiCo has much strength, a few weaknesses lie in the fact that the company is and contrast, so large and could possibly lose focus or have internal conflict problems. A few of the threats PepsiCo must stay aware of are the ease of studies, replicability of its product line, the almost pure competition in pricing for its products, and the quickness of technological advances causing existing products to be no longer the most advanced. Table 1: PepsiCo.
SWOT analysis. Internal Factors Strengths Weaknesses. Management Experienced, broad base of compare and contrast, interests and knowledge Large size may lead to conflicting interests. Product Line Unique, tastes good, competitive price, and sourcing, convenient New one calorie products have no existing customer base, generic brands can make similar drinks cheaper. Marketing Diverse, and global awareness May lose focus, may not be segmented enough. Personnel International, diverse positions Possible conflicts due to compare and contrast essay so many people, possible trouble staying focused. Man Pope? Finance High sales revenue, high sale growth, large capital base High expenses, may have trouble balancing cash-flows of such a large operation. Manufacturing Low costs and essay, liabilities due to outsourcing of bottling Lose control and quality standards. Research Development Continuous efforts to research trends an reinforce creativity May concentrate too much on existing products, intrapreneuralship may not be welcomed. External Factors Opportunities Threats.
Consumer/Social Huge market in the healthy products and growing market for specialized foods for research paper, ethnic groups More expensive products than Coke, such a high price may limit lower income families from buying a Pepsi product. Compare And Contrast Film Essay? Competitive Distinctive name, product and packaging in with regards to its markets Not entirely patentable, constant replicability by competitors. Technological Internet promotion such as banner ads and keywords can increase their sales, and more computerized manufacturing and ordering processes can increase their efficiency Computer breakdowns, viruses and hackers can reduce efficiency, and must constantly update products or other competitors will be more advanced. Economic Consumer income is high, more tend to eat out, convenience is important to U.S. Essay On A? Very elastic demand, almost pure competition. Legal/Regulatory High U.S.
Food Drug Administration standards eliminate overnight competitors. 184.108.40.206 Company suppliers. Suppliers form an important link in the company#8217;s overall customer value delivery system. They provide the resources needed by the company to produce its goods and services. Supplier problems can seriously affect marketing. At present PepsiCo, Inc. operates with over 116,000 talented and innovative employees. The steadily increasing business with minority and women-owned firms has improved their company#8217;s supplier base. It has also helped to strengthen the and contrast essay suppliers#8217; firms. 1.2.2 Competitor analysis.
Pepsi#8217;s primary competitors is Coca-cola, Coke has been winning the overall battle, but Pepsi does have its victories. Internationally Coke#8217;s market share increased to 49.2% a year compared to Pepsi#8217;s rate, flat at 15.7%. Coke sold $12.7 billion worth of products internationally, while Pepsi#8217;s totaled $3.2 billion. From this Coke pockets $.30 for every dollar, compared to Pepsi of less than $.07 per translation studies dollar. And Contrast Film? In Russia, Coke has overtaken Pepsi, which has a huge market size of 150 million. Pepsi had a ten year lead on Coke but all is lost as Coke opened its twelfth plant in Russia in 1996, which is staffed by what essay locals trained in Coke#8217;s bottling university in Moscow. Film? Despite Coke#8217;s sponsorship of the man pope Olympics, Pepsi has had victories in the domestic market. Consider that Pepsi has been chosen as the exclusive soda for Radio City Music Hall#8217;s Christmas Spectacular, as well as other shows. Pepsi also sponsors the Great Western Forum, where the Los Angeles Lakers play and they sponsor the Seattle Mariners.
Pepsi has cast off Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, and Kentucky Fried Chicken in an attempt to create a focused company to and contrast beat Coke. This will allow Pepsi to now battle for fountain rights in places such as Burger King, Wendy#8217;s, and McDonalds. This is not an easy task, though, considering Coke is three times Pepsi#8217;s size in fountain sales and has ten times more salespeople. Also, Coca-Cola#8217;s Sprite has knocked Diet Pepsi out as the fourth largest US soft drink to number seven. Currently Coke, Pepsi, and Diet Coke rank as the top three.
There are other soft drinks in the market; the soft drink market represents $4,798,000,000 in annual sales. Essay? The products fall into four main groups: colas, lemon-lime-flavored drinks, diet drinks, and other drinks shown as table 2. Table 2: Comparison of soft drink. Type PepsiCo Products Competing Products. Cola Pepsi Cocacola. Lemon-lime Mountain Dew. And Contrast Film Essay? Diet Diet Pepsi.
Diet Caffeine Free Pepsi. Diet Caffeine Free Coke. Wild Cherry Pepsi Dr. Pepper. PepsiCo#8217;s current retail prices range depending on the convenience of the location in which they are located and depending on the size of the soft drink container. On average, a 12 ounce can is between $0.25 $0.99, a 20 ounce plastic bottle is between $0.50 and $1.29, and a 2 liter plastic bottle is between $0.50 and $1.95. The major disadvantages regarding the competitive structure of the market lies in paper, the fact that there are so many other competitors and options such as water, coffee and juice to compete for the same consumer.
1.2.3 Core Competency and Sustainable Competitive Advantage. Core competency is a unique set of lasting capabilities that a company develops in key operational areas that allow it to and contrast film essay vault past competitors. Competitive advantage the aggregation of on forensic, factors that sets a business apart from its competitors and gives it a unique image in essay, the market. In terms of core competency, PepsiCo seeks to music achieve a unique ability to: (1) Provide a distinctive, high-quality one-calorie soft drink and to compare film provide a high-quality citrus soft drink using Pepsi Company#8217;s distinct ingredients to lse dissertation week appeal and to excite contemporary tastes for these products and. (2) Deliver these soft drinks to the customer using effective manufacturing and distribution systems that maintain PepsiCo#8217;s quality standards. To translate these core competencies into compare a sustainable competitive advantage, Pepsi Co. will work closely with key suppliers and distributors to build the relationships and alliances necessary to satisfy the lse dissertation week high taste standards of our customers. Within the soft drink industry, a major trend to capitalize on is healthier soft drinks. The market for healthy soft drinks is huge and growing among American and and contrast film, international consumers alike. Along with a large market, many opportunities have arisen due to recent technological advances. New research has brought to Pepsi a lower calorie sweetener than aspartame allowing for an even healthier diet drink.
Also technology on the Internet has revolutionized the sourcing paper promotional process. By using banner ads and keyword ads, Pepsi Co. Compare Film Essay? can reach a higher number of audiences and yet and the same time have more specific and essay man pope, targeted segments. A final factor that is providing an compare and contrast essay, ideal situation to introduce a new product is in the, that consumers are tending to eat out compare and contrast essay, more often due to the fact that economically, income is high. This will help to increase the company sales of beverages to restaurants. All of these positive industry factors combined create an exemplary context in which to launch new healthy soft drink products. Segment the market. One of the most important principles of marketing involves identifying, and understanding, the needs of particular groups of customers.
This concept is called segmentation. How the lse dissertation week Pepsi segment the market, and essay, analyze the customer? What#8217;s Pepsi target market? 1 Marketing and Product Objectives. PepsiCo#8217;s marketing intent is to take advantage of essay, its brand potential while. building a base from which revenues can be generated. These are detailed in the three focus areas below: Current markets expand brand and compare, flavor, increase customer awareness through promotion, coupons and in what i see, store displays. Compare Film Essay? New markets healthier soft drink market and target ethnic groups. New products one calorie soft drinks (Pepsi ONE) lighter colored soft drinks (Sierra Mist) Green product-smart spot and Lipton. Paper? Initially these new products will be introduced on and contrast film college campuses as test markets then will be distributed nationally within 2 months and distributed globally within 2 years.
2 Customer analysis. Customer analysis needs to know customer needs; customer (user) needs refer to the needs the product type is able to sourcing paper satisfy for film, the customer. PepsiCo has an extremely large customer base due to the wide spread popularity of soft drinks. It is therefore necessary to segment the market and look at what i see mirror essay particular trends in the soft drink market. There are two key trends in the soft drink market, which are the growing demand for healthier soft drinks and the mostly untapped market of targeting ethnic groups with specific products regarding their interests, shown as following table. Table 3: Trends in the soft drink market. Information Healthier Drinks Ethnic Marketed Drinks. How to grow this segment Need to attract men and a younger audience without excluding females Target the each specific market with products and advertising designed around their wants (ex. Research has shown that African Americans in general prefer lighter colored soft drinks such as Mellow Yellow (99%) and Slice (73%)) Who is the main target market The younger generation is the prime target for healthier soft drinks, a key reason for this is film essay, that many younger consumers do not drink coffee but prefer drinks such as Pepsi or Mountain Dew to give them a boost African Americans (who represent 1 of 7 soft drink customers) and Hispanic Americans (who#8217;s population is growing and consists of what essay, one of the largest growing markets) How to market these products Show how they benefit the customer, give full nutritional information Keep the and contrast essay advertising relevant, but don#8217;t try to hard. Factors leading to the rise of this trend Less consumption of alcohol: 4 out of sourcing research paper, 10 people do not drink alcoholic beverages, even drinkers do not drink all the time (ex. And Contrast? Designated drivers, pregnant women, those who cut down for health reasons) Marketing research has shown that not all American#8217;s prefer the same soft drinks, the population growth of minorities in America has created a growth in their related market size.
3 Target market. For PepsiCo every individual in the international market with a middle class status can be considered a potential consumer. Though, in order to what mirror target specific markets, PepsiCo divides the target market into the following market segments: Consumers under the age of 18: This is when PepsiCo is marketing to compare film essay a younger generation. These potential customers still live at home with parents. They rely heavily on parents to purchase the product for them.
In this segment, PepsiCo is trying to capture brand awareness. Consumers between the ages of 18 to 24: PepsiCo is still marketing to a younger generation, but these customers are either in college, moving away from home, and/or starting new jobs. Statements On Forensic Science? In this segment, Pepsi Co. is trying to capture brand awareness and loyalty. Consumers between the ages of compare and contrast essay, 25 to thesis statements 34: PepsiCo is compare film essay, marketing to customers who are established in their job market and who are starting families. In this segment, loyalty has already been established. Consumers between the ages of 35 to 49: PepsiCo is thesis on forensic, marketing to customers, who are an established market, one in which brand loyalty has already been sustained. These customers are loyal customers and are routine Pepsi drinkers. Consumers age 50 and up: Again, this is a market in which customers are established, and brand loyalty has been sustained. These customers are loyal customers, and only drink Pepsi products. Previously customers concentrating on health had to settle for a less appealing taste to uphold their diet.
Now the new one calorie drink that Pepsi offers (Pepsi ONE) brings a great taste but is healthier than other diet drinks because it is only one calorie. The name Pepsi ONE also helps to film give the product positioning because the consumers can immediately relate the lse dissertation name to and contrast film the benefits of the product one-calorie. Finally, the color of the product package helps position the product. Regular colas are usually a bold color, while diet colas are often white and diet caffeine free colas are usually gold. Pepsi One is in a silver can which tells consumers that the product is still a diet drink, but a different diet drink. Sierra Mist, a new lemon-lime flavored soda, has no caffeine and sourcing research, has been described by consumers as fresher, cleaner and less syrupy sweet than other sodas like it. Sierra Mist is to and contrast be positioned as a new age soda with marketing, packaging and advertising concentrating on its refreshing taste. Marketing mix analysis. From above analysis we know that PepsiCo is one of the world#8217;s largest food and thesis, beverage companies with annual revenues of and contrast film essay, $29 billion. Sourcing Research Paper? Its principal businesses include: Frito-Lay snacks; Pepsi-Cola beverages; Gatorade sports drinks; Quaker foods and Tropicana juices.
Its portfolio includes 16 brands that each generates $1 billion or more in film, annual retail sales. About Music? PepsiCo brands are available in nearly 200 countries and territories. Why Pepsi has strongest sale growth every year? Doing possess high market share in many countries around world? The major reason of success is having the comprehensive marketing campaign, establishing effective market mix strategy that company put various controllable factors: the product, price, promotion, and place together to compare and contrast essay satisfy its target customer. Ma Thesis Translation Studies? Bellowing the explanations of and contrast essay, market mix is using by PepsiCo. 1 Product strategy. Product strategy means the research paper need-satisfying offering of company to customer. Is it the compare essay product really keep customer satisfied provided by thesis statements on forensic PepsiCo? Below is analysis about products of PepsiCo. 1.1 Health green product.
Owing to compare and contrast film PepsiCo constantly have been building good relationship with the essay music government #8212; the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Academy of Sciences. The new product developed by PepsiCo was recommended by compare film essay government, and keep close eyes on market status, understanding what the products customer really need. There are some new products following recommended by government, and customer really need. 1.1.1 One calorie soft drinks Pepsi ONE. A one calorie cola flavored soft drink with the essay on a man pope same taste of regular Pepsi but only one calorie. 1.1.2 Lighter colored soft drinks Sierra Mist. A lemon lime flavored soft drink with a fresher, cleaner, less syrupy sweet and essay, less harsh taste that competing lemon lime soft drinks. 1.1.3 Green product-smart spot. A symbol launched in August 2004 designed to help consumers identify food and beverage choices that contribute to healthier.
1.1.4 Lipton original, new Lipton iced tea, and Lipton bag teas. Above products contain the ma thesis studies antioxidants that scientific research has shown that antioxidants in teas, fruits, and vegetables are an important part of a healthy diet. 1.2 Soft drink#8212; Individual product strategy. Individual product is a particular item with in a product line. Compare? It is usually differentiated by brand. For example, Pepsi lemon, Pepsi cool, Pepsi fair, Tropicana, and Pure Tropics juices, and green tea, which was distinguish by different brand, size, taste, product line. 1.3 Different weights. Different products is sold in 20-oz and 1.5-liter and statements on forensic, 2-liter plastic bottles, as well as 16.9-oz 6-packs and 12-packs, 1.4 Multiplybrands with different taste. Delivers vary taste with the health benefits of antioxidants.
Such as, Pepsi lemon, Pepsi cool, and the new product#8212;#8212;Lipton Iced Tea is available in film essay, four flavors: Lemon, Diet with Lemon, Green Tea with Citrus and Diet Green Tea with Citrus. Lipton Brisk, 1.5 Providing convenience products. Convenience products are products that consumer need, but they are unwilling to essay man pope spend much shopping time or effort, PepsiCo offer great convenience for its customer when they buy it. For example the compare shop 7-11, fair price, KFC, and lse dissertation, so on. 1.6 Quality assurance. Quality assurance refers to the ability of product to satisfy customers really need and compare and contrast film essay, requirement. In terms of studies, product quality, PepsiCo pay more particular attention to compare film it.
Each product received the essay about high esteem according US stand, and the new product-smart spot also received acceptance by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Academy of Sciences. Such quality assurance let its customer feel safe and health when they consumed. 1.7 Successful branding strategy. Branding strategy refers to company use of name, term, symbol, or combination of these to identify a product in competitive market. One of successful factors of PepsiCo is main care about branding strategy.
PepsiCo combine the term and symbol. The symbol that is round cycle with red, blue, and white color, which symbol of activity, living, and young. The term is compare essay, PepsiCo that is a shortcut, easy to pronunciation, memory, and identify Pepsi brand for customers from broad range of brands in ma thesis studies, food and beverage industry. Brand of PepsiCo allow people to be association with some green and health products, with enjoying the culture of America, and with friendly relation between different countries. 1.8 Packaging strategy. Packaging is reference to provide convenient to user or store and compare essay, prevent product spoilage or damage. PepsiCo provides same packaging in domestic market and overseas market. By using plastic bottle or tan with bright colures, various size and weight. Giving the safe feeling when consumers drink.
Easy to identify and promotes the on a brand at compare and contrast the point of purchase and in use for consumer. Easy and convenient to carry, handle from one point to essay about another point for customers, wholesales, retails. The packaging is and contrast essay, not pollution environment, and it is recycle material. 1.9 Product improvement and new product development strategy. PepsiCo is what i see in the essay, one of pioneers of new product, regular innovated new products to and contrast replace the obsolete one, to on a man pope attractive various buyers.
For example, recently, PepsiCo innovated two kinds of new product-the Lipton original iced tea and new Lipton iced tea to essay keep customers satisfied. Generally speaking, the product strategy PepsiCo is essay on a, adopting that is quite effective. When customer consumed PepsiCo, simultaneous they enjoy something beyond the product, such as, service, culture, feeling, Customers get high buying value. Therefore in this case PepsiCo maintains its sale growth every year. Compare? The whole product strategy is idea strategy.
2 Price strategic. What is price? It is research, charged for compare and contrast film, something of value. What I See Mirror? The price is one of the four major variables marketing manager controls. Price poison is directly affected both the sale value and company profit. 2.1 Adopting sales oriented. Such strategy refers to seek some level of unit sales, dollar sales, or market share, without referring to profit. And Contrast? PepsiCo adopt sales oriented strategy, to taking great market share, increasing the thesis on forensic science sale growth, establishing flexible price strategy according to compare different region of different countries, weights, size, packaging, For example, market consumer price is from$4.0 to 5.0 per tan, in Singapore, the finally consumption price is $1.00 per bottle with 8.5.FL.OZ.(250mil).In China. Essay About Music? The new product is also under reasonable price. The characteristic of sale oriented is providing low price as possible to compare and contrast film market to increase sale value and market share. But it doesn#8217;t mean company makes profit.
Market research says that 81% of soda drinkers think that it should cost $1.00 for a single 12oz serving of soda. Sourcing Research Paper? Pepsi is priced slightly higher than its main competitor Coca-Cola but is till in line with the majority of the industry#8217;s prices. Pricing mainly depends on compare and contrast the location where the soft drink is lse dissertation, purchased, as shown in the following table. Table 4: Price listing. Location Purchased Convenience Store or Gas Station Vending Machine Fountain drink or Restaurant Warehouse or club Store Super Market or Retail Store.
12 oz. Serving $0.69 $0.50 $0.80 (depending on convenience of film, location) $0.30 $0.90 $0.30 $0.50. 2.2 Recommending strategy-status quo oriented. The idea price strategy is the status quo oriented. This oriented should earn more profits by keeping your price not change, just change another area, for example, the promotion strategy, to meet extremely competition in market, and Should have high return on on forensic science new products investment. 3 Promotion strategy. Promotion strategy is referring to essay communication information between sellers and potential buyers or others in the channel in order to influence attitudes and behavior. The effective promotion strategy makes big contribution to success of PepsiCo.
There are some explanations in detail below following: 3.1 Using internet- website of company. Pepsi as possible cooperate with world wild web, establishing the different website, for example, www.pepsico.com. www.pepsiword.com.www.lipton.com,and so on. To communication with million of consumers around word. By this way, PepsiCo should be able to ma thesis studies obtain various market information. Compare And Contrast? 3.2 Multiply way to Advertisement.
Taking advantage of multimedia, for instance, the TV program. On A Man Pope? News paper. By using that programs should push the brand familiar to people, for having high market share and sale value. Compare Essay? 3.3 PepsiCo -activity sponsor. PepsiCo is activity to involve many sponsor events, and as possible cooperate with some companies that have well prestigious. By this way main increase the i see in the imaging of company, enhancing the brand into people. Creating the concept of top brand to consumers. 3.3.1 Sponsor sport events.
PepsiCo is and contrast essay, activity as one sponsor around the word. It often involved some sport events, for instance, World cup, Euro cup, Olympic. 3.3.2 Involved some social events. Studies? For example, the overwhelming and tragic devastation caused by tsunamis in Southeast Asia defies imagination. And Contrast Film? PepsiCo make humanitarian aid. Product donations #8212; especially Aquafina #8212; where fresh water is in critical demand. Cash donations, and a generous donation. PepsiCo International worked with its local partners together to support emergency food canteens and water purification systems in translation, Banda Aceh. 3.3.3 Cooperated with famous company Toyota.
Toyota. prsti New York, October 21, 2004 The National Minority Supplier Development Council (NMSDC) presented PepsiCo and Toyota Motor Manufacturing North America, with its prestigious #8220;Corporation of the Year#8221; Award on and contrast essay October 20th at about its Conference in Washington, D.C., in recognition of both companies#8217; exemplary achievements in the area of minority business development. 3.3.4 Many programs in support of education. Working together, PepsiCo and America on the Move® have launched Balance First®, lesson plans that teach children the compare film concept of energy balance. The Balance First lesson plans have reached 2.5 million elementary school children to date. 3.4 Be guider of potential customer. Owing some people doesn#8217;t know what kinds of food contain health elements within, and lse dissertation, how many calories should be intake. Compare Film? Under such situation PepsiCo to be one guider for its potential customer, let people to consumption of essential nutrients like fiber and potassium and recommend people increase their intake of whole grains, fruits and vegetables.
Giving some conscious. From above promotion strategy shown that PepsiCo main use the website, multimedia, and sponsor some events. The multimedia and website is sourcing, most effective and fast transporter. The sponsor program that should boost company prestigious, and improving the compare and contrast film essay company imagine in extremely competitor market. Paper? 4 Place strategy. The place strategy is making the right goods and services available in the right quantities and at the right locations, when customers want them.
Right product, reasonable price, PepsiCo already had, how about the place strategy? PepsiCo main adopts alternative distribution channels to sale its products in film essay, market, direct and indirect method. 4.1 Distribution channel. Pepsi-Cola are distributed through PepsiCo distribution centers. The distributor delivers it to the grocery retailers, vending companies, restaurants, and warehouse/club stores. The distribution segments can be broken down into the following: Convenience Stores and music, Gas Stations: 12% of the market. Vending Companies: 11% of the market. Restaurants: 20% of the market. Warehouse/Club Stores: 6% of the market. Super Markets and Retail Stores: 51% of the market. Essay? In order to produce sales to increase, we plan to mass distribute Pepsi ONE and about, Sierra Mist to the Virginia Tech campus.
Here we will place the soft drinks in vending machines, campus-dining halls, education facilities, and at various athletic events. We strongly believe that this will create brand awareness and customer loyalty with the age group of 18 to 24. 4.2 Using internet, e commerce. Pepsi also major depend on compare film by using internet and e-commerce. This way is paper, very effective and film essay, quickly boost product into market, and will fast enforce company reputation and brand, let million of essay on a man pope, people around word to know PepsiCo, creating many business chances. Generally speaking, the essay successful factors of PepsiCo main come from two elements.
One reason is providing product and service really satisfy its consumers#8217; requirements, and ma thesis translation studies, fulfill the company goal. Another reason is also totally accomplishes the whole economic, technological, environmental, and social objectives. Pepsi has built a reputation around the world as a major player in the soft drink market as well as the leader in the snack food industry. This has been done by creating a wholesome environment for their customers all the while maintaining its integrity. Currently they are facing stiff competition from Coca-Cola, but with their various marketing ventures, Pepsi is poised to give Coke a definite battle in the future as to which cola consumers want. PepsiCo#8217;s success is the result of superior products, high standards of compare and contrast, performance, distinctive competitive strategies and the high integrity of their people. Their overriding objective is to increase the value of their shareholders#8217; investment through integrated operating, investing and financing activities. Their strategy is to concentrate their resources on growing their businesses, both through internal growth and carefully selected acquisitions. Their strategy is lse dissertation, continually fine-tuned to address the compare film essay opportunities and risks of the global marketplace. The corporation#8217;s success reflects their continuing commitment to growth and a focus on those businesses where they can drive their own growth and create opportunities.
I. Dates of meetings: 27 Feb 2005. List of essay on a man pope, attendance at film meetings: Lijiao, Wang Chongjun, Zhao Yanan. Topics discussed at meetings: Industry analysis, market environment, Action to be taken: Study from book and doing research then type in the computer. Division of sourcing paper, work among group members: Lijiao-typing, Wang Chongjun give Ideas, Zhao Yanan doing research. Problems encountered and resolved: Discussion not consistent for each of member, trying to fine a proper way to combine all ideas. II.
Dates of meetings: 5 Mar 2005. List of attendance at meeting: Lijiao, Wang Chongjun, Zhao Yanan. Topics discussed at meeting: Market segmentation. Action to be taken: Study from book and doing research then type in compare, the computer. Division of work among group members: Lijiao-typing, Wang Chongjun give Ideas, Zhao Yanan doing research. Problems encountered and resolved: Pepsi doing international business, don#8217;t know focus which country, select America and China both are familiar for us. III. Dates of meetings: 9 Mar 2005. List of attendance at meeting: Lijiao, Wang Chongjun, Zhao Yanan. Topics discussed at week meeting: Marketing mix. Action to be taken: Study from book and doing research then type in the computer.
Division of work among group members: Lijiao-typing, Wang Chongjun give Ideas, Zhao Yanan doing research. Conclusion: Each member has different thinking and ideas, after discussed and doing research, we memorize more definition and understanding marketing plan process. Alejandrino J. Ferreria (2004), Entrepreneur#8217;s helpline, Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. And Contrast Film Essay? Burton, Carrol Wall (2002), Quantitative methods for business economics, 2nd edn, Pearson Education Limited, England. Essay On A? David A. Compare? Kirby (2003), Entrepreneurship, McGraw-Hill Education, UK. Hisrich D., Peters P. Shepherd A. (2005), Entrepreneurship, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York.
Kotler Armstrong (2004), Principles of marketing, 10th edn, Pearson Education International, New Jersey. Quester, Mcguiggan, Perreault Mccarthy (2004), Marketing, 4th edn, McGrw-Hill, Australia. Zimmerer Scarborough (2002), Essentials of entrepreneurship and small. business management, 3rd edn, Pearson Education International, New Jersey. www.pepsico.com Login date: 18/2/2005. www.pepsiword.com Login date: 18/2/2005. www.prnewswire.com Login date: 18/2/2005. http://www.greenvillepepsi.com/frames2/caleb.htm Login date: 25/2/2005. http://www.angelfire.com/tn/traderz/pepsi.html Login date: 25/2/2005. http://www.angelfire.com/ga/struitt/pepsi.html Login date: 25/2/2005. Essay Man Pope? http://www.sodamuseum.bigstep.com/generic.jhtml?pid=3 Login date: 25/2/2005. Film Essay? The strait time newspaper, published on sourcing paper 17/2/2005. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Analysis of Pepsi-cola Co. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.
Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Analysis of Pepsi-cola Co. 1. Compare And Contrast Film? Promotion: Coke has many different and unique ways that they promote their brand that makes their company so successful. They have taken promotion to a whole new level by#8230; Marketing Mix Of Pepsi-Cola. Marketing Mix Of Pepsi-Cola Todays PepsiCo, Inc. Statements On Forensic Science? was found in and contrast essay, 1965 through the merger of Pepsi Co and Frito-Lay, the world?¦s largest manufacturer and distributor of snack chips. In 1998,#8230; Marketing Strategy in Action Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola is one of the best known names in the world. The positive attitudes and beliefs keep millions of sourcing research, consumers buying the compare and contrast essay product over and have helped the company establish#8230; The Coca-Cola Company. Since its establishment in lse dissertation week, 1882, The Coca-Cola Company has grown into the large multinational company it is today.
The Coca-Cola Company has used several methods of advertising throughout the years#8230; Coca Cola: An introduction and brief analyis of its strategic position. Coca cola is a most valuable brand, worth a staggering $69.9 billion. It#8217;s also arguably the most ubiquitous brand in the world with its products advertised distributed from Cameroon to#8230; Coke #038; Pepsi Learn to film Compete in India. 1. The political environment in India has proven to be critical to week company performance for both PepsiCo and Coca- Cola India. What specific aspects of the political environment have played#8230;
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essay on ww1 and ww2 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on film military operations was revolutionary.
Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. What In The Essay? They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of and contrast film essay competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries.
Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on science 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening.
Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on and contrast film 6 August. Essay? France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of compare and contrast essay these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of what in the mirror imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to compare film, Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an essay man pope, attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.
Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and film their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of i see in the essay their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the compare, threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. Research? The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and compare and contrast only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. Essay On A? The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the compare and contrast film essay, Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of ma thesis studies German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.
The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of compare and contrast film their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in thesis on forensic the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Compare And Contrast Film? Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and on a man pope waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the compare, Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in thesis statements pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino.
Bulgaria invaded Serbia on and contrast essay 7 October 1915 and music sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and and contrast essay decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by thesis on forensic science, two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to and contrast essay, keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in man pope the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war.
Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. Compare And Contrast Essay? The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Thesis Statements Science? They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of compare film essay Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the essay on a, greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the compare film, British into thesis statements on forensic science, conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in compare essay the Middle East. Essay Man Pope? Most important of compare and contrast all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of about music Europe and compare film essay the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of essay European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the compare essay, war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and essay field fortifications.
Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. Compare And Contrast? The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic.
The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Lse Dissertation Week? Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and compare film essay British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.
It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of lse dissertation week German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. And Contrast Essay? Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the essay on a, second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from and contrast essay, November 1914 until March 1918. What In The Essay? It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to and contrast film, evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory.
During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and ma thesis more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in and contrast film essay the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by man pope, the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.
Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of film essay Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at thesis on forensic great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the essay, war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. On A Man Pope? This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and compare and contrast later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done.
By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and week man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of compare film Amiens, on on a 8 August, the compare and contrast film essay, British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Sourcing Research? Here the distances involved were very great.
Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. Film? German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of research paper 1916. Film Essay? By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of essay man pope Poland, Lithuania, and Courland.
Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. Film Essay? They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions.
By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and ma thesis translation desperate for compare essay peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in week the west in and contrast film essay the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the what i see in the mirror essay, war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.
The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of and contrast essay Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. Essay? In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the compare and contrast film essay, Austrian armies in two at lse dissertation Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into compare film essay, surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of essay servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. And Contrast Film Essay? It struggled to have any influence on the war.
The Germans mocked it and science declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and compare and contrast film British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by essay about, the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in compare and contrast April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from on forensic science, their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. And Contrast Film? The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.
Only after the sourcing research, appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of compare and contrast essay British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the music, war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in compare and contrast film essay Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to thesis statements science, British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the compare film, world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.
The British generally had the better of thesis statements science these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and compare film essay Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the essay, only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the film, expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. Essay About? German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. Compare And Contrast Film? The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an about music, important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.
Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in compare film essay peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the essay, military means inflated the and contrast film, political ends. Thesis? Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of and contrast season.
War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of research paper international law and in defence of the rights of compare and contrast small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of what i see in the mirror essay Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the compare essay, murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.
No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to week, these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. And Contrast Film Essay? Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental.
In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of studies their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to compare and contrast film, fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the essay music, German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to film essay, achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of essay on a its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen.
The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of compare film a war on two fronts, against music, France in the west and and contrast essay Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to research, this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.
The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Compare Film? Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the thesis statements on forensic science, first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in film fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by i see in the, the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state.
It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the compare film, movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the about, sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. Compare And Contrast Film Essay? The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the i see in the, German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to compare essay, embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. Essay On A Man Pope? The first of and contrast film these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.
The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and lse dissertation indecision. Compare Essay? The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to essay about, develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.
The Austrians depended on and contrast film essay German military and research economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power.
They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. Compare And Contrast? The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and man pope they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and compare and contrast film essay suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.
British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and lse dissertation week much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of and contrast essay food and week credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war.
During 1914 and compare and contrast essay 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of ma thesis men in the attempt to compare film, evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. Week? French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. Compare? If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. Thesis On Forensic Science? For the film essay, British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to about, the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to.
The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.
Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. Essay? The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources.
Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to lse dissertation, defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an film, overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the ma thesis translation, field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.
They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. Compare And Contrast Film Essay? It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed.
By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. About Music? The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for compare and contrast film making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to week, take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.
Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from compare and contrast film, December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to lse dissertation, use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to compare film, keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by sourcing research paper, fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on and contrast film Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.
Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and translation December 1916 they determined to and contrast film essay, stretch the translation, German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the and contrast, power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and on forensic British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the compare and contrast essay, German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by lse dissertation, a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and compare essay control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance.
Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of on a man pope boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of film impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of lse dissertation economic, social, and political change. Europe in and contrast film essay 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. Paper? The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority.
This allowed them to compare film, demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Translation? Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on compare and contrast film the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and on a man pope larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by compare and contrast essay, the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'.
But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of statements on forensic science it were not. The experience of the and contrast, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Ma Thesis Translation? Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by compare and contrast film, generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to what i see in the essay, the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to compare essay, say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by on forensic science, the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.
The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in compare and contrast film essay the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to studies, be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to film, survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.
Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on sourcing paper their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on and contrast the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of what i see essay flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Essay? Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to essay about music, wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Compare Film Essay? Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and man pope concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Film? Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the essay, cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to compare and contrast, which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of essay 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the essay, Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to on forensic, a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. Compare And Contrast Film Essay? In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ma thesis studies ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.
Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. Essay? The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.
The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to thesis on forensic science, disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the compare and contrast essay, supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to what i see in the mirror, survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to and contrast essay, inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of lse dissertation week resistance and and contrast film advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and ma thesis translation studies British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the film, momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.
The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of essay France and Great Britain (and eventually the film, United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Statements? Some of the and contrast film essay, demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and on a man pope more men for the factories.
Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of and contrast their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and paper a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the and contrast, old.
The British and sourcing paper French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. Film Essay? In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). Thesis Science? The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of and contrast production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment.
In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of lse dissertation week their industrial capacity was in German hands. Compare Film? Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in research paper Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.
Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. And Contrast Essay? But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918.
The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for essay on a the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in compare film the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. Paper? They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states.
Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the compare and contrast film essay, pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by on a, inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to compare essay, be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. Sourcing? This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924.
The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in film imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by essay music, the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the and contrast essay, war ended.
In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. Thesis Statements? They were also forced to compare and contrast essay, accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the essay man pope, demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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essay printing press Fascinating facts about the invention of and contrast film, the. 888 The Diamond Sutra, a Buddhist scripture, was the first dated example of block printing. 1041 Bi Sheng in essay on a, China invented movable clay type. 1423 Europeans use xylography (art of essay, engraving on wood, block printing) to produce books. 1430 Gutenberg moved from his native town of Mainz to essay on a Strasburg. 1436 Gutenberg begins work on compare and contrast, his printing press. 1437 Gutenberg was sued for in the mirror, breach of and contrast, promise of marriage by a young lady of Strasburg.
1440 Gutenberg completed his wooden press which used movable metal type. 1440 Laurens Janszoon Koster (Coster) is credited, by some, with inventing movable metal type. 1444 Gutenberg returns to Mainz and sets up a printing shop. 1446 Gutenberg prints the on a man pope Poem of the Last Judgment 1448 Gutenberg prints the Calendar for compare essay, 1448 1450 Gutenberg' formed a partnership with the wealthy Johann Fust. 1450 Gutenberg begins work on a Bible, the first is 40 lines per page.
1452 Gutenberg begins printing the 42-line Bible in two volumes. 1454 Gutenberg prints indulgences (notes sold to Christians by research paper, the Pope, pardoning their sins) 1455 First block-printed Bible, the and contrast film essay Biblia Pauperum, published in Germany. 1455 Gutenberg completed work on what is estimated to be 200 copies of the translation studies Bible. 1455 Gutenberg was effectively bankrupt. Investor Johann Faust gains control of print business. 1457 First known color printing, a Psalter (a collection of Psalms for devotional use) by Faust.
1460 Gutenberg reestablished himself in the printing business with the compare essay aid of Conrad Humery. 1461 Albrecht Pfister printed the first illustrated book Edelstein which featured a number of ma thesis translation, woodcuts. 1465 Gutenberg is appointed to the court of Archbishop Adolf of Nassau. 1476 Two hundred woodcuts were used in a edition of Aesop's Fables. 1476 First use of copper engravings instead of woodcuts for illustration. 1476 William Caxton sets up his printing press in Westminster, England.
1499 Printing had become established in compare and contrast essay, more than 2500 cities around Europe. 1499 An estimated 15 million books have been press printed, representing thirty thousand book titles. CAPs: Johannes Gutenberg, Johann Gutenberg, Bi Sheng, Laurens Janszoon Koster, Johann Faust, Peter Schoffer, Albrecht Pfister, Conrad Humery, Archbishop Adolf of Nassau, William Caxton, Gutenberg Bible, 42-line Bible, Mazarin Bible, Diamond Sutra, Poem of the lse dissertation week Last Judgment, Calendar for 1448, Psalter, Aesop's Fables, SIPs: printing press, movable type, xylography, metal type, indulgences, typography, letterpress printing, invention, history, inventor of, history of, who invented, invention of, fascinating facts. In the mid-15th century Johannes Gutenberg invented a mechanical way of making books. This was the first example of film, mass book production. Before the invention of printing, multiple copies of a manuscript had to be made by hand, a laborious task that could take many years.
Later books were produced by and for ma thesis translation studies, the Church using the process of wood engraving. This required the craftsman to cut away the background, leaving the area to be printed raised. This process applied to both text and illustrations and was extremely time-consuming. Compare Film? When a page was complete, often comprising a number of sourcing, blocks joined together, it would be inked and a sheet of compare essay, paper was then pressed over it for an imprint. The susceptibility of wood to the elements gave such blocks a limited lifespan . The earliest dated specimens of printing by Gutenberg are papal indulgences (notes given to Christians by the Pope, pardoning their sins) issued in Mainz in what essay, 1454. In 1455, Gutenberg demonstrated the power of the printing press by and contrast film, selling copies of essay, a two-volume Bible for a price that was the equivalent of approximately three years' wages for compare and contrast essay, an average clerk, but it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible that could take a single monk 20 years to transcribe. About 1457 Gutenberg also parted with his earliest-constructed founts of type, which he had made for the 40-line Bible,.Long before this Bible was printed the type had been used in sourcing, an edition of the and contrast essay Poem of the Last Judgment, and in the Calendar for 1448, in editions of Donatus, and various other printed works. Most of this type fell into lse dissertation week the possession of Albrecht Pfister in Bamberg.1460. Gutenberg's invention spread rapidly after his death in 1468.. It met in and contrast film, general with a ready, and an enthusiastic reception in the centers of culture. Statements On Forensic Science? The names of compare and contrast essay, more than 1000 printers, mostly of essay on a, German origin, have come down to us from the fifteenth century.
In Italy we find well over 100 German printers, in France 30, in Spain 26. Many of the earliest printers outside of Germany had learned their art in compare and contrast film, Mainz, where they were known as goldsmiths. Among those who were undeniably pupils of Gutenberg, and who probably were also assistants in the Gutenberg-Fust printing house were (besides Schoffer), Numeister, Keffer, and Ruppel; Mentel in Strasburg (before 1460), Pfister in Bamberg (1461), Sweynheim in Subiaco and Rome (1464), and music Johann von Speyer in Venice (1469). William Caxton learned the printing trade in Europe and set up his press in Westminster, England. 1476 Many early printing types were calligraphic - they imitated handwriting. Caxton used and and contrast film was famed for his Black Letter type which imitated the writing of the music Haarlem monks. Artistically, he was perhaps the finest printer of his day although, as a man of politics and letters, he was an amateur. While the Gutenberg press was much more efficient than manual copying, the Industrial Revolution and the introduction of the steam powered rotary press allowed thousands of copies of a page in a single day. Mass production of printed works flourished after the transition to rolled paper, as continuous feed allowed the film essay presses to run at a much faster pace. Gutenberg's invention did not make him rich, but it laid the foundation for the commercial mass production of books.
The success of printing meant that books soon became cheaper, and ever wider parts of the population could afford them. More than ever before, it enabled people to follow debates and research take part in discussions of compare essay, matters that concerned them. Studies? As a consequence, the printed book also led to more stringent attempts at censorship. This was a sign that it was felt by those in authority to and contrast essay be dangerous and challenging to their position. Gutenberg's Movable Metal Type.
In the Far East, movable type and printing presses were known but did not replace printing from individually carved wooden blocks, from movable clay type, processes much more efficient than hand copying. The use of movable type in printing was invented in 1041 AD by Bi Sheng in China. What I See? Since there are thousands of Chinese characters, the benefit of the technique is not as obvious as in film, European languages. His aim, technically and sthetically so extremely difficult, was the mechanical reproduction of the characters used in the manuscripts, i.e. the week hand lettered books of the and contrast time. The works printed by Gutenberg plainly prove that the types used in them were made by a casting process where the letter-patterns were cut on statements on forensic, small steel rods termed patrices, and the dies thus made were impressed on some soft metal, such as copper, producing the and contrast film matrices, which were cast in the mold in lse dissertation, such a manner as to form the face and body of the type at one operation. Gutenberg's Printing Press. The spread of literacy and compare and contrast essay the development of universities meant that by the 15th century, despite an assembly line approach to the production of i see, books, supply was no longer able to meet demand. As a result there was widespread interest in finding an alternative means of compare and contrast essay, producing books.Before books could be mass produced, several developments were necessary.
by Bill Yenne, Morton, Dr. Grosser (Editor) / Paperback - 112 pages (1983) / Bluewood Books. This book contains inventions from all around the world from microchips to fire. This is a really good book if you are going to do research on inventions. by Travis Brown / Paperback - 224 pages / Scarecrow Press (September 1, 2000) Eighty stories of America's first inventions. Each includes a sketch of the invention, a profile of the inventor and a glimpse of how the invention has found its way into American culture. by Abbott Payson Usher / Paperback: 450 pages / Dover Pub.; Rev. ed edition (1988) This completely revised and updated classic explores the lse dissertation importance of technological innovation in the cultural and economic history of the essay West.
Specific topics include invention of the printing, press. by John H. Lienhard / Paperback: 272 pages / Oxford University Press, USA (December 4, 2003) Based on lse dissertation week, episodes from Lienhard's widely broadcast public radio series, this intriguing set of essays begins with a simple premise: more than we often care to admit, our lives are shaped by compare and contrast film essay, our machines. Fleshing out this proposition, Lienhard ransacks 2,000 years of scientific and technological history, cobbling together a quirky biography of the strange being he calls homo technologicus. Sven P. Birkerts / Paperback / Fawcett Books -1985. Birkerts, a renowned critic, examines the practice of reading with an eye to what the future will bring. Joann Johnson Burch / Paperback - 64 pages / Carolrhoda Books - 1992. This interesting book about Gutenberg's struggles to complete and perfect his printing. process gives a vivid picture of life in the Middle Ages. by Michael Pollard, Anna Sproule / Library Binding: 64 pages / Blackbirch Press; (February, 2001)
This book is straightforward and translation studies easy to read. The cover is attractive and the pictures along with the easy to read text provide information that sustains the reader's attention. Information can be correlated with the social studies curriculum. This book would be a great resource for elementary and compare film middle school students. On Forensic Science? A welcome addition to most library collections. by Elizabeth L. Essay? Eisenstein / Paperback: 832 pages / Cambridge University Press; (1980)
The work is sourcing research, a full-scale historical treatment of the compare and contrast advent of printing and its importance as an agent of change. Professor Eisenstein begins by examining the general implications of the shift from sourcing research paper script to print, and goes on to examine its part in three of the major movements of early modern times - the Renaissance, the Reformation, and compare the rise of modern science. by James E. Thorpe / Hardcover - 48 pages 2nd edition (1997) / H E Huntington Library Art. The Huntington Library holds one of the three vellum copies of the Gutenberg Bible in the United States. Details the early history of printing and how the Gutenberg Bible was printed. by Lucien Febvre, Henri-Jean Martin, David Gerard / Paperback: 378 pages / Verso; (Reprint.1997) Yet the emergence of the book was a process of immense historical importance and heralded the dawning of the epoch of modernity.
Leonard Everett Fisher / Library Binding - 28 pages / Simon Schuster - 1993. Fisher's biography of Johann Gutenberg, the i see in the creator of movable type and the printer of the Gutenberg Bible, is marked by careful research, clear writing, and striking illustrations. DVD / Color, Full Screen, NTSC / 25 minutes / On Air Video, Inc. ( 2004 ) / Less than $15.00. The art of block printing is centuries old, and is still popular with today’s artists and and contrast film essay craftspeople. In this video program you will learn the statements science art and film techniques of creating and producing your very own block prints. This clear and informative program addresses the various all aspects of block printing. His name is associated with innovation, activity and courage. Sourcing? His idea is the foundation stone of modern civilization. Johannes Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg created the basis of modern communication with his invention of printing with mobile letters.
In spite of Gutenberg's efforts to keep his technique a secret, the printing press spread rapidly. Before 1500 some 2500 European cities had acquired presses. The printing press had developed from the wine press in the Rhine Valley. It was there in 1440 that Johannes Gutenberg (c.1397-1468) began using the printing press in conjunction with a series of blocks each bearing a single letter on its face. When Johannes Gutenberg began building his press in essay, 1436, he was unlikely to have realized that he was giving birth to an art form which would take center stage in the social and lse dissertation industrial revolutions which followed. Article by Pierre De La Mare for Dot Print. Detail on the Gutenberg bible. Henne Gnsfleisch zur Laden, commonly called Gutenberg. The invention of Gutenberg should be classed with the greatest events in the history of the world. The spread of literacy and compare and contrast the development of universities meant that by the 15th century, the supply was no longer able to meet demand. As a result there was widespread interest in finding an alternative means of thesis on forensic science, producing books.
Article by Sue Wood, Charles Sturt University, Australia. Mass production of printed works flourished after the transition to rolled paper, as continuous feed allowed the presses to compare film essay run at a much faster pace. Five hundred years ago, the statements new presses had spread like brushfire through Europe. The people had suddenly come into compare essay possession of some fifteen million new books. Scholars argue about the number. It could've been as few as eight million or as many as twenty four million. Essay Music? But the output of compare and contrast film essay, new books had been staggering by any reasonable estimate. And those books reflected some thirty thousand titles. Article by John H. Lienhard.
It took the telephone 75 years and on forensic television 13 years to compare and contrast essay acquire 50 million users. It has taken the Internet five years. Today, more than 500 million people around the world are connected to the Internet. Its development is a historical prime mover like the alphabet and the printing press. This site is hosted and supported by the University of what i see mirror, Minnesota. There are some provocative parallels between the communications changes enabled by networked computers and those enabled by the printing press in its early days. Article by James A. Compare Film Essay? Dewar. Fine Literature Digitally Re-Published. With over 16,000 free books in the catalog, Project Gutenberg is the largest single collection of sourcing research, free electronic books, or eBooks. The project is compare and contrast essay, powered by ideas, ideals, and by translation studies, idealism.
It is not powered by financial or political power, it is powered totally by and contrast, volunteers. IDP is a ground-breaking international collaboration based at the British Library to make information and images of more than 100,000 manuscripts, paintings, textiles and artifacts from Dunhuang and research other Silk Road sites freely available on the Internet. Gutenberg College consists of an undergraduate liberal arts program and two auxiliary institutes, McKenzie Study Center and Art Project. Compare? Together these three programs constitute a single educational institution in thesis science, which each plays an integral role. The invention in Europe circa 1440 of the wondrous art of printing with moveable type by Laurens Janszoon Koster, an innovation which came a dozen-odd years before Gutenberg printed his acclaimed 42-line Bible.
You can visit this site for it's visual expertise alone. The pages are presented in film, the style of a book printed in studies, the 15th century. On this site you will find the and contrast essay British Library’s two copies of Johannes Gutenberg’s Bible, the first real book to sourcing research be printed using the and contrast film essay technique of statements on forensic, printing which Gutenberg invented in the 15th Century. In our time, thanks to the talent and industry of those from the Rhine, books have emerged in lavish numbers. A book that once would've belonged only to the rich -- nay, to a king -- can now be seen under a modest roof. . There is and contrast, nothing nowadays that our children . fail to know. - Sebastian Brant, written about the sourcing research printing press just after 1500. The printing press which led to a considerable acceleration of the method so far used of taking an essay impression by rubbing, was a screw press with The basic idea of Gutenberg's invention was the lse dissertation week splitting up of the text into individual components such as lower and upper case letters, punctuation marks, ligatures and abbreviations, based upon the tradition of medieval scribes. These individual components were cast in any quantity as type in reverse, then put together to form words, lines and pages. T. In less than 50 years after the invention of the and contrast printing press, fifteen million books had been flung into a world where previously scholars would travel miles to visit a library stocked with twenty hand-written volumes. And those books reflected some thirty thousand titles. Books produced in this period, between the first work of essay man pope, Johannes Gutenberg in 1450 and the year 1500, are collectively referred to as incunabula.
Gutenberg changed plans at least three times while printing the film essay Bible The Bible that Gutenberg printed was a Latin translation from about about 380 AD There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany -- one of the more famous being a work by Thorvaldsen, in and contrast essay, Mainz, home to the Gutenberg Museum. Note: We discovered as many spellings with Johann as we did with Johannes. We went with a Google search that produced four times more Johannes Gutenberg's than Johann. Tim Berners-Lee's invention has revolutionized the translation world like nothing before. The invention of the Internet, should be classed with the greatest events of the 20th Century.